Science.gov

Sample records for advanced life-support systems

  1. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  2. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  3. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  4. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA’s Habitability Architecture Team.

  5. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  6. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  7. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  8. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  9. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  10. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  11. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  12. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  13. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  14. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  15. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility.

    PubMed

    Henninger, D L; Tri, T O; Packham, N J

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  16. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  17. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  18. Advanced Life Support Systems: Opportunities for Technology Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, B.; Henninger, D.; Ming, D.; Verostko, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's future missions to explore the solar system will be of long-duration possibly lasting years at a time. Human life support systems will have to operate with very high reliability for these long periods with essentially no resupply from Earth. Such life support systems will make extensive use of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes for recycling air and water, processing wastes, and producing food. Development of regenerative life support systems will be a pivotal capability for NASA's future human missions. A fully functional closed loop human life support system currently does not exist and thus represents a major technical challenge for space exploration. Technologies where all life support consumables are recycled have many potential terrestrial applications as well. Potential applications include providing human habitation in hostile environments such as the polar regions or the desert in such a way as to minimize energy expenditures and to minimize negative impacts on those often ecologically-sensitive areas. Other potential applications include production of food and ornamental crops without damaging the environment from fertilizers that contaminate water supplies; removal of trace gas contaminants from tightly sealed, energy-efficient buildings (the so-called sick building syndrome); and even the potential of gaining insight into the dynamics of the Earth's biosphere such that we can better manage our global environment. Two specific advanced life support technologies being developed by NASA, with potential terrestrial application, are the zeoponic plant growth system and the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System (HRWRS). The potential applications for these candidate dual use technologies are quite different as are the mechanisms for transfer. In the case of zeoponics, a variety of commercial applications has been suggested which represent potentially lucrative markets. Also, the patented nature of this product offers

  19. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  20. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  1. Measuring the Resilience of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the central importance of crew safety in designing and operating a life support system, the metric commonly used to evaluate alternative Advanced Life Support (ALS) technologies does not currently provide explicit techniques for measuring safety. The resilience of a system, or the system s ability to meet performance requirements and recover from component-level faults, is fundamentally a dynamic property. This paper motivates the use of computer models as a tool to understand and improve system resilience throughout the design process. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data can then be used to test alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system s ability to recover from component-level faults. A novel approach to measuring system resilience using a Markov chain model of performance data is also developed. Results emphasize that resilience depends on the complex interaction of faults, controls, and system dynamics, rather than on simple fault probabilities.

  2. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  3. Minimum Control Requirements for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulange, Richard; Jones, Harry; Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Advanced control technologies are not necessary for the safe, reliable and continuous operation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. ALS systems can and are adequately controlled by simple, reliable, low-level methodologies and algorithms. The automation provided by advanced control technologies is claimed to decrease system mass and necessary crew time by reducing buffer size and minimizing crew involvement. In truth, these approaches increase control system complexity without clearly demonstrating an increase in reliability across the ALS system. Unless these systems are as reliable as the hardware they control, there is no savings to be had. A baseline ALS system is presented with the minimal control system required for its continuous safe reliable operation. This baseline control system uses simple algorithms and scheduling methodologies and relies on human intervention only in the event of failure of the redundant backup equipment. This ALS system architecture is designed for reliable operation, with minimal components and minimal control system complexity. The fundamental design precept followed is "If it isn't there, it can't fail".

  4. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  5. Applying Technology Ranking and Systems Engineering in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    According to the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program Plan, the Systems Modeling and Analysis Project (SMAP) has two important tasks: 1) prioritizing investments in ALS Research and Technology Development (R&TD), and 2) guiding the evolution of ALS systems. Investments could be prioritized simply by independently ranking different technologies, but we should also consider a technology's impact on system design. Guiding future ALS systems will require SMAP to consider many aspects of systems engineering. R&TD investments can be prioritized using familiar methods for ranking technology. The first step is gathering data on technology performance, safety, readiness level, and cost. Then the technologies are ranked using metrics or by decision analysis using net present economic value. The R&TD portfolio can be optimized to provide the maximum expected payoff in the face of uncertain future events. But more is needed. The optimum ALS system can not be designed simply by selecting the best technology for each predefined subsystem. Incorporating a new technology, such as food plants, can change the specifications of other subsystems, such as air regeneration. Systems must be designed top-down starting from system objectives, not bottom-up from selected technologies. The familiar top-down systems engineering process includes defining mission objectives, mission design, system specification, technology analysis, preliminary design, and detail design. Technology selection is only one part of systems analysis and engineering, and it is strongly related to the subsystem definitions. ALS systems should be designed using top-down systems engineering. R&TD technology selection should consider how the technology affects ALS system design. Technology ranking is useful but it is only a small part of systems engineering.

  6. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  7. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  8. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  9. Process control integration requirements for advanced life support systems applicable to manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.

  10. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  11. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  12. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  13. Advanced life support systems in lunar and Martian environments utilizing a higher plant based engineering paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a higher-plant-based engineering paradigm for advanced life support in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) on the surface of the moon or Mars, called the CELSS Breadboard Project, designed at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Such a higher-plant-based system would use the plants for a direct food source, gas exchange, water reclamation, and plant residuals in a complex biological resource recovery scheme. The CELSS Breadboard Project utilizes a 'breadboard' approach of developing independent systems that are evaluated autonomously and are later interconnected. Such a scheme will enable evaluation of life support system methodologies tested for their efficiency in a life support system for habitats on the moon or Mars.

  14. Adopting Industry Standards for Control Systems Within Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, James Scott; Boulanger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives a description of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) standards for process control and outlines the experiences at JSC with using these standards to interface with I/O hardware from three independent vendors. The I/O hardware was integrated with a commercially available SCADA/HMI software package to make up the control and monitoring system for the Environmental Systems Test Stand (ESTS). OPC standards were utilized for communicating with I/O hardware and the software was used for implementing monitoring, PC-based distributed control, and redundant data storage over an Ethernet physical layer using an embedded din-rail mounted PC.

  15. Advanced Life Support Equivalent System Mass Guidelines Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Fisher, John W.; Jones, Harry W.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Hogan, John A.; Joshi, Jitendri, A.; Vaccari, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which provides guidelines for performing an Equivalent System Mass (ESM) evaluation for trade study purposes. The document: 1) Defines ESM; 2) Explains how to calculate ESM; 3) Discusses interpretation of ESM results. The document is designed to provide detailed instructive material for researchers who are performing ESM evaluations for the first time.

  16. System Design Techniques for Reducing the Power Requirements of Advanced life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory; Levri, Julie; Pawlowski, Chris; Crawford, Sekou; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The high power requirement associated with overall operation of regenerative life support systems is a critical Z:p technological challenge. Optimization of individual processors alone will not be sufficient to produce an optimized system. System studies must be used in order to improve the overall efficiency of life support systems. Current research efforts at NASA Ames Research Center are aimed at developing approaches for reducing system power and energy usage in advanced life support systems. System energy integration and energy reuse techniques are being applied to advanced life support, in addition to advanced control methods for efficient distribution of power and thermal resources. An overview of current results of this work will be presented. The development of integrated system designs that reuse waste heat from sources such as crop lighting and solid waste processing systems will reduce overall power and cooling requirements. Using an energy integration technique known as Pinch analysis, system heat exchange designs are being developed that match hot and cold streams according to specific design principles. For various designs, the potential savings for power, heating and cooling are being identified and quantified. The use of state-of-the-art control methods for distribution of resources, such as system cooling water or electrical power, will also reduce overall power and cooling requirements. Control algorithms are being developed which dynamically adjust the use of system resources by the various subsystems and components in order to achieve an overall goal, such as smoothing of power usage and/or heat rejection profiles, while maintaining adequate reserves of food, water, oxygen, and other consumables, and preventing excessive build-up of waste materials. Reductions in the peak loading of the power and thermal systems will lead to lower overall requirements. Computer simulation models are being used to test various control system designs.

  17. Oxygen Penalty for Waste Oxidation in an Advanced Life Support System: A Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Fisher, John

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation is one of a number of technologies that are being considered for waste management and resource recovery from waste materials generated on board space missions. Oxidation processes are a very effective and efficient means of clean and complete conversion of waste materials to sterile products. However, because oxidation uses oxygen there is an "oxygen penalty" associated either with resupply of oxygen or with recycling oxygen from some other source. This paper is a systems approach to the issue of oxygen penalty in life support systems and presents findings on the oxygen penalty associated with an integrated oxidation-Sabatier-Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for waste management in an Advanced Life Support System. The findings reveal that such an integrated system can be operated to form a variety of useful products without a significant oxygen penalty.

  18. Hollow fiber membranes for advanced life support systems. [permeable capillaries for medical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing. Breadboard hardware has been manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the three hollow fiber membrane assemblies applicable to use aboard future spacecraft have been characterized.

  19. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  20. Dynamic Modeling of Off-Nominal Operation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    System failures, off-nominal operation, or unexpected interruptions in processing capability can cause unanticipated instabilities in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, even long after they are repaired. Much current modeling assumes ALS systems are static and linear, but ALS systems are actually dynamic and nonlinear, especially when failures and off nominal operation are considered. Modeling and simulation provide a way to study the stability and time behavior of nonlinear dynamic ALS systems under changed system configurations or operational scenarios. The dynamic behavior of a nonlinear system can be fully explored only by computer simulation over the full range of inputs and initial conditions. Previous simulations of BIO-Plex in SIMULINK, a toolbox of Matlab, were extended to model the off-nominal operation and long-term dynamics of partially closed physical/chemical and bioregenerative life support systems. System nonlinearity has many interesting potential consequences. Different equilibrium points may be reached for different initial conditions. The system stability can depend on the exact system inputs and initial conditions. The system may oscillate or even in rare cases behave chaotically. Temporary internal hardware failures or external perturbations in ALS systems can lead to dynamic instability and total ALS system failure. Appropriate control techniques can restore reliable operation and minimize the effects of dynamic instabilities due to anomalies or perturbations in a life support system.

  1. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  2. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  3. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  4. Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

  5. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as an integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gòdia, F.; Albiol, J.; Pérez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montràs, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  7. The Melissa Pilot Plant Facility as an Integration Test-bed for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, C.

    The MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory provides the site where the different advances around the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project coordinated and fostered by the European Space Agency, as well as other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated. During its first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re- designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of MELISSA as life support system, and to use this facility as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological systems. This includes the testing the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the loop, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. This new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. The presentation will summarize the present status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  8. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project. Phase 1: Application evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to advanced automation primarily due to the comparatively large reaction times of its subsystem processes. This allows longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to detect or prevent faults. The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation Project is to reduce the flight and ground manpower needed to support the initial and evolutionary ECLS system. The approach is to search out and make apparent those processes in the baseline system which are in need of more automatic control and fault detection strategies, to influence the ECLSS design by suggesting software hooks and hardware scars which will allow easy adaptation to advanced algorithms, and to develop complex software prototypes which fit into the ECLSS software architecture and will be shown in an ECLSS hardware testbed to increase the autonomy of the system. Covered here are the preliminary investigation and evaluation process, aimed at searching the ECLSS for candidate functions for automation and providing a software hooks and hardware scars analysis. This analysis shows changes needed in the baselined system for easy accommodation of knowledge-based or other complex implementations which, when integrated in flight or ground sustaining engineering architectures, will produce a more autonomous and fault tolerant Environmental Control and Life Support System.

  9. Clarifying Objectives and Results of Equivalent System Mass Analyses for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Drysdale, Alan E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the analytical decisions that an investigator must make during the course of a life support system trade study. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is often applied to evaluate trade study options in the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. ESM can be used to identify which of several options that meet all requirements are most likely to have lowest cost. It can also be used to identify which of the many interacting parts of a life support system have the greatest impact and sensitivity to assumptions. This paper summarizes recommendations made in the newly developed ALS ESM Guidelines Document and expands on some of the issues relating to trade studies that involve ESM. In particular, the following three points are expounded: 1) The importance of objectives: Analysis objectives drive the approach to any trade study, including identification of assumptions, selection of characteristics to compare in the analysis, and the most appropriate techniques for reflecting those characteristics. 2) The importance of results inferprefafion: The accuracy desired in the results depends upon the analysis objectives, whereas the realized accuracy is determined by the data quality and degree of detail in analysis methods. 3) The importance of analysis documentation: Documentation of assumptions and data modifications is critical for effective peer evaluation of any trade study. ESM results are analysis-specific and should always be reported in context, rather than as solitary values. For this reason, results reporting should be done with adequate rigor to allow for verification by other researchers.

  10. A preliminary analysis of advanced life support systems for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Nishioka, Kenji

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the key parameters of the manned mission to Mars and presents some top-level requirements, issues, and constraints associated with a manned Mars mission that impact the life support system (LSS). Results are presented of a preliminary analysis for advanced LSSs based on physical/chemical reclamation processes, using as a baseline for the analysis the mission profile of a Split-Sprint class mission for an arrival date at Mars in the year 2009. Special attention is given to the potential cost savings as measured by reducing Mars spacecraft mass in LEO.

  11. Progress in the Development of Direct Osmotic Concentration Wastewater Recovery Process for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cath, Tzahi Y.; Adams, Dean V.; Childress, Amy; Gormly, Sherwin; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Direct osmotic concentration (DOC) has been identified as a high potential technology for recycling of wastewater to drinking water in advanced life support (ALS) systems. As a result the DOC process has been selected for a NASA Rapid Technology Development Team (RTDT) effort. The existing prototype system has been developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3. The current project focuses on advancing the development of this technology from TRL 3 to TRL 6 (appropriate for human rated testing). A new prototype of a DOC system is been designed and fabricated that addresses the deficiencies encountered during the testing of the original system and allowing the new prototype to achieve TRL 6. Background information is provided about the technologies investigated and their capabilities, results from preliminary tests, and the milestones plan and activities for the RTDT program intended to develop a second generation prototype of the DOC system.

  12. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  13. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

  14. Online fault adaptive control for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahed, Sherif; Wu, Jian; Biswas, Gautam; Ramirez, John; Manders, Eric-J

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a controller scheme for efficient resource management in Advanced Life Support Systems. In the proposed approach, a switching hybrid system model is used to represent the dynamics of the system components and their interactions. The operational specifications for the controller are represented by utility functions, and the corresponding resource management problem is formulated as a safety control problem. The controller is designed as a limited-horizon online supervisory controller that performs a limited forward search on the state-space of the system at each time step, and uses the utility functions to decide on the best action. The feasibility and accuracy of the online algorithm can be assessed at design time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme by running a set of experiments on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) subsystem of the Water Recovery System (WRS).

  15. Using explanatory crop models to develop simple tools for Advanced Life Support system studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavazzoni, J.

    2004-01-01

    System-level analyses for Advanced Life Support require mathematical models for various processes, such as for biomass production and waste management, which would ideally be integrated into overall system models. Explanatory models (also referred to as mechanistic or process models) would provide the basis for a more robust system model, as these would be based on an understanding of specific processes. However, implementing such models at the system level may not always be practicable because of their complexity. For the area of biomass production, explanatory models were used to generate parameters and multivariable polynomial equations for basic models that are suitable for estimating the direction and magnitude of daily changes in canopy gas-exchange, harvest index, and production scheduling for both nominal and off-nominal growing conditions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Simulation Study Comparing Incineration and Composting in a Mars-Based Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John; Kang, Sukwon; Cavazzoni, Jim; Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare incineration and composting in a Mars-based advanced life support (ALS) system. The variables explored include waste pre-processing requirements, reactor sizing and buffer capacities. The study incorporates detailed mathematical models of biomass production and waste processing into an existing dynamic ALS system model. The ALS system and incineration models (written in MATLAB/SIMULINK(c)) were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The composting process is modeled using first order kinetics, with different degradation rates for individual waste components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, cellulose and lignin). The biomass waste streams are generated using modified "Eneray Cascade" crop models, which use light- and dark-cycle temperatures, irradiance, photoperiod, [CO2], planting density, and relative humidity as model inputs. The study also includes an evaluation of equivalent system mass (ESM).

  17. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  18. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Oxygen Regulator Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt R.; Watts, Carly

    2011-01-01

    The advanced spacesuit portable life support system (PLSS) oxygen regulators represent an evolutionary approach to regulator development. Several technology development prototypes have been produced that borrow much of the mechanical regulator design from the well proven Shuttle/ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Secondary Oxygen Regulator, but incorporate a motor-settable pressure set-point feature that facilitates significantly greater operational flexibility. For example, this technology would enable EVA to begin at a higher suit pressure, which would reduce pre-breathe time, and then slowly step down to a lower pressure to increase suit mobility for the duration of the EVA. Comprehensive testing of the prototypes was performed on the component level as well as part of the PLSS 1.0 system level testing. Results from these tests characterize individual prototype performance and demonstrate successful operation during multiple nominal and contingency EVA modes

  19. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  20. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  1. Development Status of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael; Kaehms, Bob; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. The core functionality of OPIS will launch in October of 2005. This paper presents the current OPIS development status. OPIS core functionality involves a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIS) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(R)) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. Upon launch, OPIS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPIS to obtain.

  2. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) advanced automation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.; Carnes, Ray

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) Advanced Automation Project is to influence the design of the initial and evolutionary Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) ECLSS toward a man-made closed environment in which minimal flight and ground manpower is needed. Another objective includes capturing ECLSS design and development knowledge future missions. Our approach has been to (1) analyze the SSFP ECLSS, (2) envision as our goal a fully automated evolutionary environmental control system - an augmentation of the baseline, and (3) document the advanced software systems, hooks, and scars which will be necessary to achieve this goal. From this analysis, prototype software is being developed, and will be tested using air and water recovery simulations and hardware subsystems. In addition, the advanced software is being designed, developed, and tested using automation software management plan and lifecycle tools. Automated knowledge acquisition, engineering, verification and testing tools are being used to develop the software. In this way, we can capture ECLSS development knowledge for future use develop more robust and complex software, provide feedback to the knowledge based system tool community, and ensure proper visibility of our efforts.

  3. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  4. Developing an Advanced Life Support System for the Flexible Path into Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit, such as a permanent lunar base, an asteroid rendezvous, or exploring Mars, will use recycling life support systems to preclude supplying large amounts of metabolic consumables. The International Space Station (ISS) life support design provides a historic guiding basis for future systems, but both its system architecture and the subsystem technologies should be reconsidered. Different technologies for the functional subsystems have been investigated and some past alternates appear better for flexible path destinations beyond low Earth orbit. There is a need to develop more capable technologies that provide lower mass, increased closure, and higher reliability. A major objective of redesigning the life support system for the flexible path is achieving the maintainability and ultra-reliability necessary for deep space operations.

  5. Development Approach of the Advanced Life Support On-line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Hogan, John A.; Morrow, Rich; Ho, Michael C.; Kaehms, Bob; Cavazzoni, Jim; Brodbeck, Christina A.; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program has recently accelerated an effort to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for research project and technology development data centralization and sharing. There has been significant advancement in the On-line Project Information System (OPIS) over the past year (Hogan et al, 2004). This paper presents the resultant OPIS development approach. OPIS is being built as an application framework consisting of an uderlying Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP (LAMP) stack, and supporting class libraries that provides database abstraction and automatic code generation, simplifying the ongoing development and maintenance process. Such a development approach allows for quick adaptation to serve multiple Programs, although initial deployment is for an ALS module. OPIS core functionality will involve a Web-based annual solicitation of project and technology data directly from ALS Principal Investigators (PIs) through customized data collection forms. Data provided by PIs will be reviewed by a Technical Task Monitor (TTM) before posting the information to OPIS for ALS Community viewing via the Web. Such Annual Reports will be permanent, citable references within OPIS. OPlS core functionality will also include Project Home Sites, which will allow PIS to provide updated technology information to the Community in between Annual Report updates. All data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database, created in MySQL(Reistered Trademark) and located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Upon launch, OPlS can be utilized by Managers to identify research and technology development (R&TD) gaps and to assess task performance. Analysts can employ OPlS to obtain the current, comprehensive, accurate information about advanced technologies that is required to perform trade studies of various life support system options. ALS researchers and technology developers can use OPlS to achieve an improved understanding of the NASA

  6. Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative Metrics for Evaluating the Resilence of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ann Maria; Dearden, Richard; Levri, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of the crew is a key performance requirement of a life support system. However, a number of conceptual and practical difficulties arise when devising metrics to concretely measure the ability of a life support system to maintain critical functions in the presence of anticipated and unanticipated faults. Resilience is a dynamic property of a life support system that depends on the complex interactions between faults, controls and system hardware. We review some of the approaches to understanding the robustness or resilience of complex systems being developed in diverse fields such as ecology, software engineering and cell biology and discuss their applicability to regenerative life support systems. We also consider how approaches to measuring resilience vary depending on system design choices such as the definition and choice of the nominal operating regime. Finally, we explore data collection and implementation issues such as the key differences between the instantaneous or conditional and average or overall measures of resilience. Extensive simulation of a hybrid computational model of a water revitalization subsystem (WRS) with probabilistic, component-level faults provides data about off-nominal behavior of the system. The data are used to consider alternative measures of resilience as predictors of the system's ability to recover from component-level faults.

  8. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  9. Advanced Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: Air and Water Regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions will require regenerative life support techniques. Past manned missions used nonregenerative expendables, except for a molecular sieve based carbon dioxide removal system aboard Skylab. The resupply penalties associated with expendables becomes prohibitive as crew size and mission duration increase. The Space Station scheduled to be operational in the 1990's is based on a crew of four to sixteen and a resupply period of 90 days or greater. It will be the first major spacecraft to employ regenerable techniques for life support. The techniques to be used in the requirements for the space station are addressed.

  10. An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hogan, John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    OTIS is an on-line communication platform designed for smooth flow of technology information between advanced life support (ALS) technology developers, researchers, system analysts, and managers. With pathways for efficient transfer of information, several improvements in the ALS Program will result. With OTIS, it will be possible to provide programmatic information for technology developers and researchers, technical information for analysts, and managerial decision support. OTIS is a platform that enables the effective research, development, and delivery of complex systems for life support. An electronic data collection form has been developed for the solid waste element, drafted by the Solid Waste Working Group. Forms for other elements (air revitalization, water recovery, food processing, biomass production and thermal control) will also be developed, based on lessons learned from the development of the solid waste form. All forms will be developed by consultation with other working groups, comprised of experts in the area of interest. Forms will be converted to an on-line data collection interface that technology developers will use to transfer information into OTIS. Funded technology developers will log in to OTIS annually to complete the element- specific forms for their technology. The type and amount of information requested expands as the technology readiness level (TRL) increases. The completed forms will feed into a regularly updated and maintained database that will store technology information and allow for database searching. To ensure confidentiality of proprietary information, security permissions will be customized for each user. Principal investigators of a project will be able to designate certain data as proprietary and only technical monitors of a task, ALS Management, and the principal investigator will have the ability to view this information. The typical OTIS user will be able to read all non-proprietary information about all projects

  11. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  12. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  13. Plant Growth Experiments in Zeoponic Substrates: Applications for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J. E.; Henderson, K. E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Barta, D. J.; Galindo, C.; Henninger, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    A zeoponic plant-growth system is defined as the cultivation of plants in artificial soils, which have zeolites as a major component (Allen and Ming, 1995). Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that have the ability to exchange constituent cations without major change of the mineral structure. Recently, zeoponic systems developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) slowly release some (Allen et at., 1995) or all of the essential plant-growth nutrients (Ming et at., 1995). These systems have NH4- and K-exchanged clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) and either natural or synthetic apatite (a calcium phosphate mineral). For the natural apatite system, Ca and P were made available to the plant by the dissolution of apatite. Potassium and NH4-N were made available by ion-exchange reactions involving Ca(2+) from apatite dissolution and K(+) and NH4(+) on zeolitic exchange sites. In addition to NH4-N, K, Ca, and P, the synthetic apatite system also supplied Mg, S, and other micronutrients during dissolution (Figure 1). The overall objective of this research task is to develop zeoponic substrates wherein all plant growth nutrients are supplied by the plant growth medium for several growth seasons with only the addition of water. The substrate is being developed for plant growth in Advanced Life Support (ALS) testbeds (i.e., BioPLEX) and microgravity plant growth experiments. Zeoponic substrates have been used for plant growth experiments on two Space Shuttle flight experiments (STS-60; STS-63; Morrow et aI., 1995). These substrates may be ideally suited for plant growth experiments on the International Space Station and applications in ALS testbeds. However, there are several issues that need to be resolved before zeoponics will be the choice substrate for plant growth experiments in space. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on recent research directed toward the refinement of zeoponic plant growth substrates.

  14. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  15. An On-Line Technology Information System (OTIS) for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Boulanger, Richard; Hoganm John A.; Rodriquez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    An On-line Technology Information System (OTIS) is currently being developed for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. This paper describes the preliminary development of OTIS, which is a system designed to provide centralized collection and organization of technology information. The lack of thorough, reliable and easily understood technology information is a major obstacle in effective assessment of technology development progress, trade studies, metric calculations, and technology selection for integrated testing. OTIS will provide a formalized, well-organized protocol to communicate thorough, accurate, current and relevant technology information between the hands-on technology developer and the ALS Community. The need for this type of information transfer system within the Solid Waste Management (SWM) element was recently identified and addressed. A SWM Technology Information Form (TIF) was developed specifically for collecting detailed technology information in the area of SWM. In the TIF, information is requested from SWM technology developers, based upon the Technology Readiness Level (TRL). Basic information is requested for low-TRL technologies, and more detailed information is requested as the TRL of the technology increases. A comparable form is also being developed for the wastewater processing element. In the future, similar forms will also be developed for the ALS elements of air revitalization, food processing, biomass production and thermal control. These ALS element-specific forms will be implemented in OTIS via a web-accessible interface,with the data stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQLTM) located on a secure server at NASA Ames Research Center. With OTIS, ALS element leads and managers will be able to carry out informed research and development investment, thereby promoting technology through the TRL scale. OTIS will also allow analysts to make accurate evaluations of technology options. Additionally, the range

  16. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed R&TD investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, Controls and Systems Analysis). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  17. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System (OPIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriquez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Amcs Research Center (ARC) tu develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(Trademark) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an R&TD status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed research and technology development investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, and Control). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  18. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  19. Bioregenerative technologies for waste processing and resource recovery in advanced space life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for producing oxygen, water, and food in space will require an interactive facility to process and return wastes as resources to the system. This paper examines the bioregenerative techologies for waste processing and resource recovery considered for a CELSS Resource Recovery system. The components of this system consist of a series of biological reactors to treat the liquid and solid material fractions, in which the aerobic and anaerobic reactors are combined in a block called the Combined Reactor Equipment (CORE) block. The CORE block accepts the human wastes, kitchen wastes, inedible refractory plant materials, grey waters from the CELLS system, and aquaculture solids and processes these materials in either aerobic or anaerobic reactors depending on the desired product and the rates required by the integrated system.

  20. Proposed Schematics for an Advanced Development Lunar Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda; Barnes, Bruce; Leavitt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of the NASA space suit is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the PLSS to provide a basis for current and future PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. The various modes of operations for the PLSS are also presented. A comparison of the proposed PLSS to the Apollo and Shuttle PLSS designs is presented, highlighting several anticipated improvements over the historical PLSS architectures.

  1. Advanced Life Support Technologies and Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Improving the efficiency of the recovery of water from spacecraft solid and liquid wastes is possible through use of emerging technologies such as the heat melt compactor and brine dewatering systems. Another significant consumable is that of food. Food production systems based on higher plants may not only contribute significantly to the diet, but also contribute to atmosphere revitalization, water purification and waste utilization. Bioreactors may be potentially utilized for wastewater and solid waste management. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  2. Systems Engineering and Integration for Advanced Life Support System and HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamarani, Ali K.

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) discipline has revolutionized the way engineers and managers think about solving issues related to design of complex systems: With continued development of state-of-the-art technologies, systems are becoming more complex and therefore, a systematic approach is essential to control and manage their integrated design and development. This complexity is driven from integration issues. In this case, subsystems must interact with one another in order to achieve integration objectives, and also achieve the overall system's required performance. Systems engineering process addresses these issues at multiple levels. It is a technology and management process dedicated to controlling all aspects of system life cycle to assure integration at all levels. The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project serves as the systems engineering and integration function for the Human Support Technology (HST) program. AIM provides means for integrated test facilities and personnel for performance trade studies, analyses, integrated models, test results, and validated requirements of the integration of HST. The goal of AIM is to address systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. It will use an incremental systems integration approach to yield technologies, baselines for further development, and possible breakthrough concepts in the areas of technological and organizational interfaces, total information flow, system wide controls, technical synergism, mission operations protocols and procedures, and human-machine interfaces.

  3. Bioregenerative food system cost based on optimized menus for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Geoffrey C R.; Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean B.; Dixon, Mike A.; Lasseur, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Optimized menus for a bioregenerative life support system have been developed based on measures of crop productivity, food item acceptability, menu diversity, and nutritional requirements of crew. Crop-specific biomass requirements were calculated from menu recipe demands while accounting for food processing and preparation losses. Under the assumption of staggered planting, the optimized menu demanded a total crop production area of 453 m2 for six crew. Cost of the bioregenerative food system is estimated at 439 kg per menu cycle or 7.3 kg ESM crew-1 day-1, including agricultural waste processing costs. On average, about 60% (263.6 kg ESM) of the food system cost is tied up in equipment, 26% (114.2 kg ESM) in labor, and 14% (61.5 kg ESM) in power and cooling. This number is high compared to the STS and ISS (nonregenerative) systems but reductions in ESM may be achieved through intensive crop productivity improvements, reductions in equipment masses associated with crop production, and planning of production, processing, and preparation to minimize the requirement for crew labor.

  4. Metabolic Flux Analysis -application in plant metabolic modelling for advanced life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Hezard, Pauline; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Plants have an important role in providing food and fresh oxygen for humans in a closed environment during long duration missions to Mars or Moon. Also, plants play an important role for recycling water. Thus, plant modelling (crop composition, yield prediction and the responses to its environment within the closed loop) gets much attention in the development of closed ecological life support systems. In order to achieve this, metabolic flux computation methods accounting for reactions stoichiometry and chemical energy conservation obtained from metabolic pathways description of different plant parts are required. The basic ideas of metabolic modelling and their application to various plant parts will be discussed. Metabolic systems consist of a set of metabolites and reactions that consume or produce them. The metabolic pathways within a metabolic network for each plant part or sub level are characterised and the metabolic fluxes, defined as the amount of converted metabolite per unit time and per unit mass of tissue (or per plant part), can be calculated. MBA (Metabolic flux analysis) which is a constraint based approach is effective at calculating flux distributions through bio-chemical networks. This methodology can be applied to several plants' growth situations. In terms of space appli-cations, it is shown how this approach could bring valuable tools for assessing and quantifying the effects of the environment of a close system on growth rate and conversion yields.

  5. The Life Support Database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  6. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  7. NASA Advanced Life Support Technology Testing and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2010, NASA's advanced life support research and development was carried out primarily under the Exploration Life Support Project of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2011, the Exploration Life Support Project was merged with other projects covering Fire Prevention/Suppression, Radiation Protection, Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control, and Thermal Control Systems. This consolidated project was called Life Support and Habitation Systems, which was managed under the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2012, NASA re-organized major directorates within the agency, which eliminated the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and created the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Life support research and development is currently conducted within the Office of the Chief Technologist, under the Next Generation Life Support Project, and within the Human Exploration Operation Missions Directorate under several Advanced Exploration System projects. These Advanced Exploration Systems projects include various themes of life support technology testing, including atmospheric management, water management, logistics and waste management, and habitation systems. Food crop testing is currently conducted as part of the Deep Space Habitation (DSH) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This testing is focused on growing salad crops that could supplement the crew's diet during near term missions.

  8. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  9. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  10. Shuttle/ISS EMU Failure History and the Impact on Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the Shuttle/ISS EMU Program exceeds 35 years in duration and is still supporting the needs of the International Space Station (ISS), a critical benefit of such a long running program with thorough documentation of system and component failures is the ability to study and learn from those failures when considering the design of the next generation space suit. Study of the subject failure history leads to changes in the Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) schematic, selected component technologies, as well as the planned manner of ground testing. This paper reviews the Shuttle/ISS EMU failure history and discusses the implications to the AEMU PLSS.

  11. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  12. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  13. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  14. Power Management for Space Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Space power systems include the power source, storage, and management subsystems. In current crewed spacecraft, solar cells are the power source, batteries provide storage, and the crew performs any required load scheduling. For future crewed planetary surface systems using Advanced Life Support, we assume that plants will be grown to produce much of the crew's food and that nuclear power will be employed. Battery storage is much more costly than nuclear power capacity and so is not likely to be used. We investigate the scheduling of power demands by the crew or automatic control, to reduce the peak power load and the required generating capacity. The peak to average power ratio is a good measure of power use efficiency. We can easily schedule power demands to reduce the peak power from its maximum, but simple scheduling approaches may not find the lowest possible peak to average power ratio. An initial power scheduling example was simple enough for a human to solve, but a more complex example with many intermittent load demands required automatic scheduling. Excess power is a free resource and can be used even for minor benefits.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Models in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate analysis, ALS systems are often assumed to be linear and time invariant, but they usually have important nonlinear and dynamic aspects. Nonlinear dynamic behavior can be caused by time varying inputs, changes in system parameters, nonlinear system functions, closed loop feedback delays, and limits on buffer storage or processing rates. Dynamic models are usually cataloged according to the number of state variables. The simplest dynamic models are linear, using only integration, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of the state variables. A general linear model with only two state variables can produce all the possible dynamic behavior of linear systems with many state variables, including stability, oscillation, or exponential growth and decay. Linear systems can be described using mathematical analysis. Nonlinear dynamics can be fully explored only by computer simulations of models. Unexpected behavior is produced by simple models having only two or three state variables with simple mathematical relations between them. Closed loop feedback delays are a major source of system instability. Exceeding limits on buffer storage or processing rates forces systems to change operating mode. Different equilibrium points may be reached from different initial conditions. Instead of one stable equilibrium point, the system may have several equilibrium points, oscillate at different frequencies, or even behave chaotically, depending on the system inputs and initial conditions. The frequency spectrum of an output oscillation may contain harmonics and the sums and differences of input frequencies, but it may also contain a stable limit cycle oscillation not related to input frequencies. We must investigate the nonlinear dynamic aspects of advanced life support systems to understand and counter undesirable behavior.

  16. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  17. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Wilkes, Robert; Kuehnel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the Generation 4 Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (Gen4 SWME). The SWME offers several advantages when compared with prior crewmember cooling technologies, including the ability to reject heat at increased atmospheric pressures, reduced loop infrastructure, and higher tolerance to fouling. Like its predecessors, Gen4 SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Test results from the backup cooling system which is based on a similar design and the subject of a companion paper, suggested that further volume reductions could be achieved through fiber density optimization. Testing was performed with four fiber bundle configurations ranging from 35,850 fibers to 41,180 fibers. The optimal configuration reduced the Gen4 SWME envelope volume by 15% from that of Gen3 while dramatically increasing the performance margin of the system. A rectangular block design was chosen over the Gen3 cylindrical design, for packaging configurations within the AEMU PLSS envelope. Several important innovations were made in the redesign of the backpressure valve which is used to control evaporation. A twin-port pivot concept was selected from among three low profile valve designs for superior robustness, control and packaging. The backpressure valve motor, the thermal control valve, delta pressure sensors and temperature sensors were incorporated into the manifold endcaps, also for packaging considerations. Flight-like materials including a titanium housing were used for all components. Performance testing

  18. Bioregenerative life-support systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C A

    1994-11-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  19. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  20. Sensor Needs for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Sensors and feedback systems are critical to life support flight systems and life support systems research. New sensor capabilities can allow for new system architectures to be considered, and can facilitate dramatic improvements in system performance. This paper will describe three opportunities for biosensor researchers to develop sensors that will enable life support system improvements. The first opportunity relates to measuring physical, chemical, and biological parameters in the Space Station Water Processing System. Measuring pH, iodine, total organic carbon, microbiological activity, total dissolved solids, or conductivity with a safe, effective, stable, reliable microsensor could benefit the water processing system considerably. Of special interest is a sensor which can monitor biological contamination rapidly. The second opportunity relates to sensing microbiological contamination and water condensation on the surface of large inflatable structures. It is the goal of large inflatable structures used for habitation to take advantage of the large surface area of the structure and reject waste heat passively through the walls of the structure. Too much heat rejection leads to a cold spot with water condensation, and eventually microbiological contamination. A distributed sensor system that can measure temperature, humidity, and microbiological contamination across a large surface would benefit designers of large inflatable habitable structures. The third opportunity relates to sensing microbial bioreactors used for waste water processing and reuse. Microbiological bioreactors offer considerable advantages in weight and power compared to adsorption bed based systems when used for long periods of time. Managing and controlling bioreactors is greatly helped if distributed microsensors measured the biological populations continuously in many locations within the bioreactor. Nitrifying bacteria are of special interest to bioreactor designers, and any sensors that

  1. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  2. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  3. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  4. Life support systems for Mars transit.

    PubMed

    MacElroy, R D; Kliss, M; Straight, C

    1992-01-01

    has an operating life support system on Mir that can apparently evolve, and the United States is currently planning the one for Space Station Freedom that will use partial regeneration. It is essential to develop concepts now for life support systems on an advanced Space Station, the lunar outpost (to be launched in about 2004) and the lunar base. Such concepts will build on current technology and capabilities. But because of the variety of different technologies that can be developed, and the potential for coordinating the functions of very diverse sub-systems within the same life support system, the possibility of developing an efficient, reliable mixed process system is high. It is likely that a life support system for Mars transit and base will use a composite of physical, chemical, and biological processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potentially useful structural elements of a life support system for use on a Mars trip, and to identify the features that, at this time, appear to be most appropriate for inclusion in the system.

  5. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  6. Evaluation of advanced component concepts for an integrated environmental control/life support, resistojet control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbach, C. R.; Arthur, P. D.; Page, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Flow restricting devices were studied for their suitability as liquid water propellant flow limiters for the biowaste resistojet. Flow limiting during the start-up transient is required to prevent thrustor instabilities and icing which could result in heater failure in the electrical resistance heated thrustor (resistojet). The study was directed toward simple devices which would function passively (i.e., without power except from the propellant flow itself), and would offer high reliability and simplicity. In addition to the flow limiting devices, a thermal pumping system was studied to determine whether CO2, desorbed from molecular sieves could be pumped thermally in a space station application. The thermal pump is considered a possible replacement for mechanical pumps. It involves a cyclic, constant volume cryopumping system which employs space radiators to achieve the cryotemperatures. The frozen CO2 would be vaporized periodically, using a waste heat loop, to attain sufficient pressure to transfer a large portion of the trapped CO2 to storage tanks.

  7. Develop Recovery Systems for Separations of Salts from Process Streams for use in Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Guillermo

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were the development of a four-compartment electrolytic cell using high selective membranes to remove nitrate from crop residue leachate and convert it to nitric acid, and the development of an six compartment electrodialysis cell to remove selectively sodium from urine wastes. The recovery of both plant inedible biomass and human wastes nutrients to sustain a biomass production system are important aspects in the development of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) to provide the basic human needs required for life support during long term space missions. A four-compartment electrolytic cell has been proposed to remove selectively nitrate from crop residue and to convert it to nitric acid, which is actually used in the NASA-KSC Controlled Ecological Life Support System to control the pH of the aerobic bioreactors and biomass production chamber. Human activities in a closed system require large amount of air, water and minerals to sustain life and also generate wastes. Before using human wastes as nutrients, these must be treated to reduce organic content and to remove some minerals which have adverse effects on plant growth. Of all the minerals present in human urine, sodium chloride (NACl) is the only one that can not be used as nutrient for most plants. Human activities also requires sodium chloride as part of the diet. Therefore, technology to remove and recover sodium chloride from wastes is highly desirable. A six-compartment electrodialysis cell using high selective membranes has been proposed to remove and recover NaCl from human urine.

  8. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  9. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  10. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  11. Human life support for advanced space exploration.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopf, S H

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  12. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  13. ['Advanced trauma life support' in Netherlands].

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B

    2000-10-28

    Introduction of the principles of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in the management of accident victims has been in progress in the Netherlands since 1995. The main ATLS principles are that the aid giver treats the most dangerous disorder first and does no further damage. After assessment and, if necessary, treatment of the airways, the respiration, the circulation and any craniocerebral injury, an exploratory examination is carried out. Physicians receive theoretical and practical instructions in this form of management during an intensive two-day course, counselled by a coordinating organization in the USA. Most of those attending are interns in general surgery, traumatology and orthopaedics, gatekeeper doctors of emergency rooms and army medical officers. The standardized way of thinking improves the communication and understanding between the various disciplines involved in trauma care, in part because there exist comparable programmes for ambulance care and emergency care. Other measures improving the quality of trauma care are regionalization of the trauma care, medical helicopter teams and evaluation of the effects of ATLS as an operating procedure.

  14. Comparison of metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonesifer, Greg T.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.; Hart, Joan M.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-oxide absorbents (MOAs) have a demonstrated capability for removal of both metabolic CO2 and H2O from breathing atmospheres, simplifying portable life support system (PLSS) design and affording reversible operation for regeneration. Attention is presently given to the comparative performance levels obtained by silver-oxide-based and silver/zinc-oxide-based systems, which also proved to be longer-lasting than the silver oxide-absorber system. The silver/zinc system is found to substantially simplify the ventilation loop of a prospective Space Station Freedom PLSS.

  15. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  16. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  17. A survey of life support system automation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory K.

    1993-01-01

    The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

  18. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  19. Far Forward Life Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    device to a replaceable NBC filter (c) IV fluids infusion pump with functional display and alarm (d) User interface for inputs from external devices... input settings, power, alarm resets, and sensor calibrations (e) Pulse oximeter sensor for monitoring oxygen saturation in blood stream 14 (f...monitoring (i) Controller to sensor interface (j) Data acquisition and recording system that will: 1. accept user inputs on patient identification

  20. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  1. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Wignarajah, K.

    2002-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controlled pore size, high surface area, ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and their effectiveness also as catalyst support materials for toxic gas conversion. We present results and findings from a preliminary study on the effectiveness of metal impregnated single walled nanotubes as catalyst/catalyst support materials for toxic gas contaminate control. The study included the purification of single walled nanotubes, the catalyst impregnation of the purified nanotubes, the experimental characterization of the surface properties of purified single walled nanotubes and the characterization of physisorption and chemisorption of uptake molecules.

  2. Metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Joan M.; Borghese, Joseph B.; Chang, Craig H.; Stonesifer, Greg T.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of Allied Signal metal oxide based absorbents demonstrated that these absorbents offer a unique capability to regeneratively remove both metabolic carbon dioxide and water vapor from breathing air; previously, metal oxides were considered only for the removal of CO2. The concurrent removal of CO2 and H2O vapor can simplify the astronaut Portable Life Support System (PLSS) by combining the CO2 and humidity control functions into one regenerative component. The use of metal oxide absorbents for removal of both CO2 ad H2O vapor in the PLSS is the focus of an ongoing program. The full scale Metal Oxide Carbon dioxide and Humidity Remover (MOCHR) and regeneration unit is described.

  3. Characterization of metal oxide absorbents for regenerative carbon dioxide and water vapor removal for advanced portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, Timothy P.; Nacheff-Benedict, Maurena S.; Chang, Craig H.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Characterization of the performance of a silver-oxide-based absorbent in terms of its ability to remove both gaseous CO2 and water vapor in an astronaut portable life support systems (PLSS) is discussed. Attention is focused on regeneration of the absorbent from the carbonite state of the oxide state, preconditioning of the absorbent using a humidified gas stream, and absorption breakthrough testing. Based on the results of bench-scale experiments, a test plan is carried out to further characterize the silver-oxide-based absorbent on a larger scale; it calls for examination of the absorbent in both an adiabatic packed bed and a near-isothermal cooled bed configuration. It is demonstrated that the tested absorbent can be utilized in a way that removes substantial amounts of CO2 and water vapor during an 8-hour extravehicular activity mission, and that applying the absorbent to PLSS applications can simplify the ventilation loop.

  4. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cinke, Martin; Li, Jing; Chen, Bin; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance; Meyyappan, Meyya; Partridge, Harry; Clark, Kimberlee

    2003-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Highly purified metal-impregnated carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake gaseous species based both on the nanotube s controlled pore size, high surface area, and ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and on the nanotube s effectiveness as a catalyst support material for toxic contaminants removal. We present results on the purification of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and efforts at metal impregnation of the SWCNT's.

  5. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  6. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Sean; Duncan, Keith; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena; Neal, Luke; Sanchez, Jose; Paul, Heather L.; Wachsman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied. However, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight for life support if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida devel- oped novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer elec- trolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth ox- ide (ESB) for NASA's future exploration of Mars. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. The strategy discussed here for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer com- bined with a COG cell so that CO2 is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen without carbon buildup on the COG cell and subsequent deactivation.

  7. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  8. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  9. New Directions for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS), an element of Human Systems Research and Technology s (HSRT) Life Support and Habitation Program (LSH), has been NASA s primary sponsor of life support research and technology development for the agency. Over its history, ALS sponsored tasks across a diverse set of institutions, including field centers, colleges and universities, industry, and governmental laboratories, resulting in numerous publications and scientific articles, patents and new technologies, as well as education and training for primary, secondary and graduate students, including minority serving institutions. Prior to the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) announced on January 14th, 2004 by the President, ALS had been focused on research and technology development for long duration exploration missions, emphasizing closed-loop regenerative systems, including both biological and physicochemical. Taking a robust and flexible approach, ALS focused on capabilities to enable visits to multiple potential destinations beyond low Earth orbit. ALS developed requirements, reference missions, and assumptions upon which to structure and focus its development program. The VSE gave NASA a plan for steady human and robotic space exploration based on specific, achievable goals. Recently, the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) was chartered by NASA s Administrator to determine the best exploration architecture and strategy to implement the Vision. The study identified key technologies required to enable and significantly enhance the reference exploration missions and to prioritize near-term and far-term technology investments. This technology assessment resulted in a revised Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) technology investment plan. A set of new technology development projects were initiated as part of the plan s implementation, replacing tasks previously initiated under HSRT and its sister program, Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESRT). The

  10. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  11. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  12. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  13. Ham Tries Out His Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Ham tries out his combination couch and life support system in preparation for his flight in Mercury Redstone-2 (MR-2). The couch is plugged into the circuit that normally would supply the astronaut's full pressure suit. The MR-2 flight was one in a series of flights that led to the manned orbital flights of NASA's Project Mercury program.

  14. Application of NASA's advanced life support technologies in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge in the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. This project addresses treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water, and production of food in remote communities of Alaska. The project focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, care for the environment, and economic opportunity through technology transfer. The challenge is to implement the technologies in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. NASA goals are technology selection, system design and methods development of regenerative life support systems for planetary and Lunar bases and other space exploration missions. The ALSEE project will provide similar advanced technologies to address the multiple problems facing the remote communities of Alaska and provide an extreme environment testbed for future space applications. These technologies have never been assembled for this purpose. They offer an integrated approach to solving pressing problems in remote communities.

  15. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, D. A.; Nakamura, T.; Sadler, P.; Cuello, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  16. Evaluation of two fiber optic-based solar collection and distribution systems for advanced space life support.

    PubMed

    Jack, D A; Nakamura, T; Sadler, P; Cuello, J L

    2002-01-01

    Growing plants in an enclosed controlled environment is crucial in developing bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS) for space applications. The major challenge currently facing a BLSS is the extensive use of highly energy-intensive electric light sources, which leads to substantial energy wastes through heat dissipations by these lamps. An alternative lighting strategy is the use of a solar irradiance collection, transmission, and distribution system (SICTDS). Two types of fiber optic-based SICTDS, a Fresnel-lens Himawari and a parabolic-mirror optical waveguide (OW) lighting system, were evaluated. The overall efficiency for the OW SICTDS of 40.5% exceeded by 75% that for the Himawari of 23.2%. The spectral distributions of the light delivered by the Himawari and the OW SICTDS were almost identical and had practically no difference from that of terrestrial solar radiation. The ratios of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to total emitted radiation (k) of 0.39 +/- 0.02 for the Himawari and 0.41 +/- 0.04 for the OW SICTDS were statistically indistinguishable, were not significantly different from that of 0.042 +/- 0.01 for terrestrial solar radiation, and were comparable to that of 0.35 for a high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamp. The coefficients of variation (CV) of 0.34 and 0.39 for PPF distributions, both at 50 mm X 50 mm square grid arrays, corresponding to the Himawari and the OW SICTDS, respectively, were comparable with each other but were both significantly greater than the CV of 0.08 corresponding to the HPS lamp. The average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the solar chamber with either the Himawari or the OW SICTDS showed no statistical difference from the average fresh weight or dry weight of lettuce grown in the reference chamber with the HPS lamp. The results of this study suggest that an SICTDS could help reduce the electric power demand in a BLSS.

  17. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  18. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  20. 1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  1. Far-forward life support system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenstrand, Douglas S.; Smith, Dexter G.; Cutchis, Protagoras N.

    2001-08-01

    The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) is intended for US Army use in far forward, battlefield situations. The primary patient population is young, otherwise healthy, adult males. The FFLSS must provide stabilizing medical care in the far forward environment. The device must be easily operated, highly mobile, compact and rugged, and provide automated, definitive support for a minimum of one hour. This project design, fabricated and tested a prototype FFLSS.

  2. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems facing researchers in the design of a life support system is to construct it so that it will be capable of regulating waste materials and gases, while at the same time supporting the inhabitants with adequate food and oxygen. The basis of any gaseous life supporting cycle is autotrophs (plants that photosynthesize). The major problem is to get the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the animals to be equivalent to the assimilatory quotient (AQ) of the plants. A technique is being developed to control the gas exchange. The goal is to determine the feasibility of manipulating the plant's AQ by altering the plants environment in order to eliminate the mismatch between the plant's AQ and the animal's RQ.

  3. Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan E.; Maxwell, Sabrina; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.

  4. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  5. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  8. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  9. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  10. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  11. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  12. Advanced trauma life support training: How useful it is?

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-01-01

    We have tried in a recently published systematic review (World J of Surg 2014; 38: 322-329) to study the educational value of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) courses and whether they improve survival of multiple trauma patients. This Frontier article summarizes what we have learned and reflects on future perspectives in this important area. Our recently published systematic review has shown that ATLS training is very useful from an educational point view. It significantly increased knowledge, and improved practical skills and the critical decision making process in managing multiple trauma patients. These positive changes were evident in a wide range of learners including undergraduate medical students and postgraduate residents from different subspecialties. In contrast, clear evidence that ATLS training reduces trauma death is lacking. It is obvious that it is almost impossible to perform randomized controlled trials to study the effect of ATLS courses on trauma mortality. Studying factors predicting trauma mortality is a very complex issue. Accordingly, trauma mortality does not depend solely on ATLS training but on other important factors, like presence of well-developed trauma systems including advanced pre-hospital care. We think that the way to answer whether ATLS training improves survival is to perform large prospective cohort studies of high quality data and use advanced statistical modelling. PMID:26855889

  13. Life support systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamponnet, C.

    Future Lunar missions envision three successive scenarios: (i) robotic preparatory missions, (ii) Lunar outpost (man-tended), and (iii) a permanently inhabited Lunar base. As soon as man appears as a key element (i.e. the second and third scenario), development and building of adequate Life Support Systems (LSS) become mandatory. Life Support covers basically all the techniques that enable the crew of the Lunar outpost or base to survive in this hostile environment. The internal structures of these LSS are highly dependent upon the type of missions. Indeed, there are three non-exclusive ways to ensure the autonomy of man on the Moon: (i) provide all the required consumables (oxygen, water, food) at the start of the mission or replenish them during the mission, (ii) regenerate these consumables from waste during the mission, or (iii) use Lunar resources. Man-tended Lunar missions will require Shuttle-like or International Space Station-like types of LSS although continuosly inhabited Lunar bases will require an autonomous (i.e. totally regenerative) type of LSS. Therefore, first manned Lunar missions will use non-regenerative LSS. These LSS will progressively evolve towards a total regeneration of materials using in a first step purely physico-chemical technologies, then using more and more biologically-based technologies and relying more and more on Lunar resources. Moreover, first Lunar outposts and Lunar bases will serve as testbed for the development of the LSS of respectively the future Lunar bases and the future Mars (or other planetary) bases.

  14. A portable life support system for use in mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The portable life support system described in this paper represents a potential increase in the probability of survival for miners who are trapped underground by a fire or explosion. The habitability and life support capability of the prototype shelter have proved excellent. Development of survival chamber life support systems for wide use in coal mines is definitely within the capabilities of current technology.

  15. Creation of closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  16. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  17. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric: Fiscal Year 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2003. As such, the values herein are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. The Metric is one of several measures employed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). More specifically, the Metric is the ratio defined by the equivalent system mass (ESM) of a life support system for a specific mission using the ISS ECLSS technologies divided by the ESM for an equivalent life support system using the best ALS technologies. As defined, the Metric should increase in value as the ALS technologies become lighter, less power intensive, and require less volume. For Fiscal Year 2003, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 1.47 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.36 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  18. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  19. Space Station Freedom ECLSS: A step toward autonomous regenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to extensive automation primarily due to its comparatively long control system latencies. These allow longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to prevent and diagnose faults. The regenerative nature of the Space Station Freedom ECLSS will contribute closed loop complexities never before encountered in life support systems. A study to determine ECLSS automation approaches has been completed. The ECLSS baseline software and system processes could be augmented with more advanced fault management and regenerative control systems for a more autonomous evolutionary system, as well as serving as a firm foundation for future regenerative life support systems. Emerging advanced software technology and tools can be successfully applied to fault management, but a fully automated life support system will require research and development of regenerative control systems and models. The baseline Environmental Control and Life Support System utilizes ground tests in development of batch chemical and microbial control processes. Long duration regenerative life support systems will require more active chemical and microbial feedback control systems which, in turn, will require advancements in regenerative life support models and tools. These models can be verified using ground and on orbit life support test and operational data, and used in the engineering analysis of proposed intelligent instrumentation feedback and flexible process control technologies for future autonomous regenerative life support systems, including the evolutionary Space Station Freedom ECLSS.

  20. Cardiac advanced life support-surgical guideline: overview and implementation.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest in the immediate postoperative recovery period in a patient who underwent cardiac surgery is typically related to reversible causes-tamponade, bleeding, ventricular arrhythmias, or heart blocks associated with conduction problems. When treated promptly, 17% to 79% of patients who experience cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery survive to discharge. The Cardiac Advanced Life Support-Surgical (CALS-S) guideline provides a standardized algorithm approach to resuscitation of patients who experience cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to discuss the CALS-S guideline and how to implement it.

  1. Technology transfer in the NASA Ames Advanced Life Support Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Kathleen; Schlater, Nelson; Bilardo, Vincent; Masson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a representative set of technology transfer activities which are currently underway in the Advanced Life Support Division of the Ames Research Center. Five specific NASA-funded research or technology development projects are synopsized that are resulting in transfer of technology in one or more of four main 'arenas:' (1) intra-NASA, (2) intra-Federal, (3) NASA - aerospace industry, and (4) aerospace industry - broader economy. Each project is summarized as a case history, specific issues are identified, and recommendations are formulated based on the lessons learned as a result of each project.

  2. Pharmacotherapy Considerations for the Management of Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    PubMed

    Beavers, Craig J; Pandya, Komal A

    2016-03-01

    Health care providers should be aware of the pharmacotherapy considerations in the American Heart Association's guidelines for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Current evidence does not suggest a reduction in mortality with ACLS medications; however, these medications can improve return of spontaneous circulation. Proper agent selection and dosing are imperative to maximize benefit and minimize harm. The latest guideline update included major changes to the ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia and pulseless electrical activity/asystole algorithms, which providers should adopt. It is critical that providers be prepared for post-code management. Health care professionals should remain abreast of changing evidence and guidelines.

  3. Performance of advanced trauma life support procedures in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L 3rd; Muller, Matthew S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical operations on the International Space Station will emphasize the stabilization and transport of critically injured personnel and so will need to be capable of advanced trauma life support (ATLS). METHODS: We evaluated the ATLS invasive procedures in the microgravity environment of parabolic flight using a porcine animal model. Included in the procedures evaluated were artificial ventilation, intravenous infusion, laceration closure, tracheostomy, Foley catheter drainage, chest tube insertion, peritoneal lavage, and the use of telemedicine methods for procedural direction. RESULTS: Artificial ventilation was performed and appeared to be unaltered from the 1-G environment. Intravenous infusion, laceration closure, percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, and Foley catheter drainage were achieved without difficulty. Chest tube insertion and drainage were performed with no more difficulty than in the 1-G environment due to the ability to restrain patient, operator and supplies. A Heimlich valve and Sorenson drainage system were both used to provide for chest tube drainage collection with minimal equipment, without the risk of atmospheric contamination, and with the capability to auto-transfuse blood drained from a hemothorax. The use of telemedicine in chest tube insertion was demonstrated to be useful and feasible. Peritoneal lavage using a percutaneous technique, although requiring less training to perform, was found to be dangerous in weightlessness due to the additional pressure of the bowel on the anterior abdominal wall creating a high risk of bowel perforation. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of ATLS procedures in microgravity appears to be feasible with the exception of diagnostic peritoneal lavage. Minor modifications to equipment and techniques are required in microgravity to effect surgical drainage in the presence of altered fluid dynamics, to prevent atmospheric contamination, and to provide for the restraint requirements. A parabolic

  4. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  5. Results of the Workshop on Two-Phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics: Issues in Power, Propulsion, and Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Rame, Enrique; Kassemi, Mohammad; Singh, Bhim; Motil, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The Two-phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics Workshop was held on May 15, 2003 in Cleveland, Ohio to define a coherent scientific research plan and roadmap that addresses the multiphase fluid problems associated with NASA s technology development program. The workshop participants, from academia, industry and government, prioritized various multiphase issues and generated a research plan and roadmap to resolve them. This report presents a prioritization of the various multiphase flow and fluid stability phenomena related primarily to power, propulsion, fluid and thermal management and advanced life support; and a plan to address these issues in a logical and timely fashion using analysis, ground-based and space-flight experiments.

  6. FY04 Advanced Life Support Architecture and Technology Studies: Mid-Year Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Duffield, Bruce; Hanford, Tony; Jeng, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Long-Term Objective: Identify optimal advanced life support system designs that meet existing and projected requirements for future human spaceflight missions. a) Include failure-tolerance, reliability, and safe-haven requirements. b) Compare designs based on multiple criteria including equivalent system mass (ESM), technology readiness level (TRL), simplicity, commonality, etc. c) Develop and evaluate new, more optimal, architecture concepts and technology applications.

  7. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, s. R.; Duncan, K. L.; Hagelin-Weaver, H. E.; Neal, L.; Paul, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of CO2 using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and has been studied. Conventional COGs use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes and operate at temperatures greater than 700 C (1, 2). Operating at a lower temperature has the advantage of reducing the mass of the ancillary components such as insulation. Moreover, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida developed ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) for NASA s future exploration of Mars (3). The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal is an issue. This strategy for CO2 removal in advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that the CO2 is reduced completely to solid carbon and oxygen. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature, a thin, bilayer electrolyte was employed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, a catalytic carbon deposition layer was designed and the cathode utilized materials shown to be coke resistant. Third, a composite anode was used consisting of bismuth ruthenate (BRO) and ESB that has been shown to have high performance (4). The inset of figure 1 shows the conceptual design of the tubular COG and the rest of the figure shows schematically the test apparatus. Figure 2 shows the microstructure of a COG tube prior to testing. During testing, current is applied across the cell and initially CuO is reduced to copper metal by electrochemical pumping. Then the oxygen source becomes the CO/CO2. This presentation

  8. Survival test of submersible life support systems.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, L A; Ackles, K N; Cole, J D

    1977-04-01

    An experiment to validate predictions concerning submersible survivability was performed in December, 1975, by members of the Canadian Forces in the CF Submersible Lockout Vehicle SDL-1 in Halifax Harbour in water of 4 degrees C temperature at a depth of 40 ft. Data was collected relevant to the life support equipment to determine if it would operate for a simulated 6-h mission followed by a 24-h immobility period, at the end of which rescue was presumed to have occurred. Physiological data was collected from the submersible occupants in order to assess the degree of thermal stress experienced in this exercise. The experiment was terminated after a duration of approximately 25 h at 1 atm internal pressure due to exhaustion of two of the three on-board power supplies, causing the CO2 scrubbers to be inoperative and the CO2 content in the breathing gas to increase to toxic levels. Only two of the three submersible occupants experienced cold stress, one in the forward sphere and one in the aft sphere. At the end of 24 h, the core temperatures of both individuals had decreased by 0.5 degrees C and, during this time, skin temperatures, particularly of the extremities, had steadily and slowly decreased. Neither individual was hypothermic, but it was considered likely that after a 3-d exposure, at least two of the crew members would have had core temperatures of 35 degrees C or lower, assuming that CO2 poisoning had not occurred earlier.

  9. Lunar and Mars missions - Challenges for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a suite of scenarios is a prerequisite to the studies that will enable an informed decision by the United States on a program to meet the recently announced space policy goal to expand human presence beyond earth orbit. NASA's Office of Exploration is currently studying a range of initiative options that would extend the sphere of human activity in space to Mars and include permanent bases or outposts on the moon and on Mars. This paper describes the evolutionary lunar base and the Mars expedition scenarios in some detail so that an evaluation can be made from the point of view of human support and opportunities. Alternative approaches in the development of lunar outposts are outlined along with Mars expeditionary scenarios. Human environmental issues are discussed, including: closed loop life support systems; EVA systems; mobility systems; and medical support, physiological deconditioning, and psychological effects associated with long-duration missions.

  10. Portable Life Support System: PLSS 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation reviewed basic interfaces and considerations necessary for prototype suit hardware integration from an advanced spacesuit engineer perspective during the early design and test phases. The discussion included such topics such as the human interface, suit pass-throughs, keep-out zones, hardware form factors, subjective feedback from suit tests, and electricity in the suit.

  11. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  12. What do trainees think about advanced trauma life support (ATLS)?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.; Heal, J.; Evans, S.; Marriott, S.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) has become a desirable or even essential part of training for many surgeons and anaesthetists, but aspects of the ATLS course have attracted criticism. In the absence of published data on the views of trainees, this study sought their opinions in a structured questionnaire, which was completed by trainees in accident and emergency (A & E) (26), anaesthetic (82), general surgical (26), orthopaedic (42) and other (5) posts in different hospitals (response rate 66%). Of the trainees, 78% had done an ATLS course and, of these, 83% considered ATLS a 'major advantage' or 'essential' for practising their proposed specialty--100% for A & E, 94% for orthopaedics, 92% for general surgery, and 75% for anaesthetics. ATLS was considered a major curriculum vitae (CV) advantage by 94%, 85%, 50%, and 45%, respectively. Over 90% had positive attitudes towards ATLS, and 74% selected 'genuine improvement of management of trauma patients' as the most important reason for doing the course: 93% thought ATLS saved lives. Of the respondents, 83% thought that all existing consultants dealing with trauma patients should have done the course, and 41% thought it offered major advantages to doctors not involved in trauma. Funding problems for ATLS courses had been experienced by 14% trainees. This survey has shown that most trainees view ATLS positively. They believe that it provides genuine practical benefit for patients, and very few regard ATLS primarily as a career advantage or mandate. PMID:10932661

  13. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  14. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor); Thompson, Brad G. (Editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (Editor); Volk, Tyler (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  15. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  16. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  17. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  18. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  19. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  20. Regenerative life support systems--why do we need them?

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1994-11-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  1. Life support systems research at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The bioregenerative life support systems research at Johnson Space Center focuses on the use of lunar regolith as a plant growth medium. Current dissolution experiments are being conducted to ascertain the response of lunar regolith to various solvents and weathering environments. The transformation of lunar minerals into minerals such as zeolites which would be more conducive to plant growth is also investigated. A study is currently underway to examine the ability of zeolite/apatite mixtures to provide N, P, and K through dissolution and ion exchange. The development and characterization of simulated lunar regolith for preliminary experimentation are also discussed. The life support systems technology used on the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle missions is reviewed and current research on regenerative life support systems technology for potential use in Space Station Freedom is discussed.

  2. Regenerative life support systems - why do we need them?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As missions durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  3. Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

  4. Advanced life support in lunar and Mars missions.

    PubMed

    1989-10-01

    Strategies being considered for further exploration of space are presented. Scenarios are being examined by NASA's Office of Exploration to reach the goal of permanent facilities on other planets. Near-term requirements, as well as life support, technology, and human factors are being identified and studied to enable long term self-sufficiency in space. The article also examines medical and psychological issues to be addressed.

  5. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Food Supply for Long Term Space Missions Using Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruthirds, John E.

    2003-01-01

    A habitat for long duration missions which utilizes Advanced Life Support (ALS), the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), is currently being built at JSC. In this system all consumables will be recycled and reused. In support of this effort, a menu is being planned utilizing ALS crops that will meet nutritional and psychological requirements. The need exists in the food system to identify specific physical quantities that define life support systems from an analysis and modeling perspective. Once these quantities are defined, they need to be fed into a mathematical model that takes into consideration other systems in the BIO-Plex. This model, if successful, will be used to understand the impacts of changes in the food system on the other systems and vice versa. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been used to describe systems and subsystems, including the food system options, in terms of the single parameter, mass. There is concern that this approach might not adequately address the important issues of food quality and psychological impact on crew morale of a supply of fiesh food items. In fact, the mass of food can also depend on the quality of the food. This summer faculty fellow project will involve creating an appropriate mathematical model for the food plan developed by the Food Processing System for BIO-Plex. The desired outcome of this work will be a quantitative model that can be applied to the various options of supplying food on long-term space missions.

  7. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an Adjunct to Pre-hospital Advanced Trauma Life Support.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Most commercial diving operations and naval operations have 24/7, on-site availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to perform routine surface decompression or immediate treatment of arterial gas embolism or decompression sickness. Availability and prompt use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the field for treatment of divers with dysbaric conditions has demonstrated its efficacy in acute, co-morbid conditions such as acute exsanguination, blast injury, crush injury, and cardiopulmonary arrest affecting those same divers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy applied in these cases has demonstrated its utility to augment the efficacy of conventional, pre-hospital advanced cardiac life support and advanced trauma life support. Case studies gleaned from actual experience with the diving industry illustrate the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in these conditions. The unexpectedly favorable results have been replicated by controlled laboratory animal studies. The deck decompression or saturation multiplace chambers used by offshore diving operations can easily and quickly be converted for use as medical field resuscitative units. Lightweight and mobile hyperbaric chambers can be outfitted for use in ambulances or helicopters to address civilian street injury or military "far-forward" injury. These transport chambers are compact in design to be efficient transport stretchers designed to hold both the patient and the medical support clinician. It is hoped that hyperbaric oxygen therapy will gain an increasing role as an adjunct to pre-hospital advanced cardiac life support and advanced trauma life support resuscitative efforts as a low-cost, high-yield intervention. In this regard HBO as applied to ATLS/ACLS in civilian and military medical systems may be a productive, disruptive new application of technology.

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  9. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  10. [Environmental control and life support system of spacecraft].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xue-fu; Fu, Lan; Deng, Yi-bing

    2003-01-01

    Environment control and life support system is a very complicated and important subsystem of manned spacecraft. It is a key technology must be broken through for the realization of manned space flight. Its functions, technical requirements and main technology were reviewed in this paper. Its test verification was also discussed.

  11. Students’ satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching

    PubMed Central

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Mohta, Medha; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreet; Shankar, Neelima

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students’ satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1st-year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students’ satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students’ satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students’ satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t-test. Results: Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students. PMID:27942055

  12. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  13. Ultrasonic Applications for Space Based Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Amos Steve

    The extreme reduction of gravitational acceleration forces in space-born environments allows the behavior of fluids to be dominated by forces normally masked by gravity. This altered behavior presents challenges and opportunities in the design of systems expected to operate in space. The dependence of life support systems on such fluid interactions to accomplish various processes can not be overlooked. For example, phase separation is one of the major fluid handling difficulties routinely faced in space technology, including life support systems. A vigorous manned space program demands the recycling of life support materials. Ultrasound is investigated as a potential technology to specifically address these problems. Earthbound applications for ultrasound are quite varied, which leads the investigation toward a multipurpose operational component of life support systems. Investigations have shown that the acoustic intensity gradients generated by ultrasound can be effectively used for multiphasic fluid pumping, fluid mixing, gas transfer across membranes, and cleaving complex biological compounds into smaller biologically digestible units. Investigations suggest that in addition to pumping fluids, acoustic gradients can further accelerate gas-liquid phase separations. The physical arrangement, geometries, and limits of such uses are suggested by the tests done here. The critical parameters of sound frequencies and amplitudes are highlighted with regard to the noted applications. The capacity to perform many functions in microgravity is a particular asset further enhanced by the simplicity and compactness of such hardware. These characteristics will trade favorably in terms of the mass and volume committed to an ultrasonic system compared to conventional technologies. These Earthbound investigations have illuminated the potential of ultrasonic physics and technology for space life support applications. They provide directions for future testing of such hardware under

  14. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  15. Diverse Redundant Systems for Reliable Space Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable life support systems are required for deep space missions. The probability of a fatal life support failure should be less than one in a thousand in a multi-year mission. It is far too expensive to develop a single system with such high reliability. Using three redundant units would require only that each have a failure probability of one in ten over the mission. Since the system development cost is inverse to the failure probability, this would cut cost by a factor of one hundred. Using replaceable subsystems instead of full systems would further cut cost. Using full sets of replaceable components improves reliability more than using complete systems as spares, since a set of components could repair many different failures instead of just one. Replaceable components would require more tools, space, and planning than full systems or replaceable subsystems. However, identical system redundancy cannot be relied on in practice. Common cause failures can disable all the identical redundant systems. Typical levels of common cause failures will defeat redundancy greater than two. Diverse redundant systems are required for reliable space life support. Three, four, or five diverse redundant systems could be needed for sufficient reliability. One system with lower level repair could be substituted for two diverse systems to save cost.

  16. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: An Advanced Life Support Testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, Christian L.; Bubenheim, David L.; Bates, Maynard E.; Flynn, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) represents a logical solution to the multiple objectives of both the NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAAP will result in direct transfer of proven technologies and systems, proven under the most rigorous of conditions, to the NSF and to society at large. This project goes beyond, as it must, the generally accepted scope of CELSS and life support systems including the issues of power generation, human dynamics, community systems, and training. CAAP provides a vivid and starkly realistic testbed of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) and life support systems and methods. CAAP will also be critical in the development and validation of performance parameters for future advanced life support systems.

  17. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Research and Development Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of a workshop designed to provide a base for initiating a program of research and development of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are summarized. Included are an evaluation of a ground based manned demonstration as a milestone in CELSS development, and a discussion of development requirements for a successful ground based CELSS demonstration. Research recommendations are presented concerning the following topics: nutrition and food processing, food production, waste processing, systems engineering and modelling, and ecology-systems safety.

  18. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  19. A closed life-support system for space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. At center left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. On the left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  2. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  3. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  4. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the development Water Processor located in two racks in the ECLSS test area at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Actual waste water, simulating Space Station waste, is generated and processed through the hardware to evaluate the performance of technologies in the flight Water Processor design.

  5. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study: rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Spaite, D W; Lyver, M B; Munkley, D P; Field, B J; Dagnone, E; Maloney, J P; Jones, G R; Luinstra, L G; Jermyn, B D; Ward, R; DeMaio, V J

    1998-08-01

    The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study represents the largest prehospital study yet conducted, worldwide. This study will involve more than 25,000 cardiac arrest, trauma, and critically ill patients over an 8-year period. The study will evaluate the incremental benefit of rapid defibrillation and prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support measures for cardiac arrest survival and the benefit of Advanced Life Support for patients with traumatic injuries and other critically ill prehospital patients. This article describes the OPALS study with regard to the rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

  6. Space Shuttle life support systems - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.; Guy, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program has two independent life support systems. One provides the basic environmental control for the Orbiter cabin while the second enables the crewmen to function outside the spacecraft for extravehicular operation. Although both of these systems were developed and fabricated under contract to NASA, all system-level testing was conducted at the Johnson Space Center. The paper will discuss the results of this testing which, in part, includes: (1) certification of the Orbiter cabin atmospheric pressure and composition control system at three operational pressures (8 psia, 9 psia and 14.7 psia); (2) certification of the Orbiter atmospheric revitalization system at 9 psia and 14.7 psia; (3) manrating of the Orbiter airlock at 14.7 psia, 9 psia and vacuum; and (4) certification of the space suit/life support system in the airlock and at deep space thermal/vacuum conditions. In addition, pertinent flight information from the on-orbit performance of the Shuttle life support systems will be presented.

  7. Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

    1991-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

  8. Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

  9. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  10. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  11. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  12. Advanced life support control/monitor instrumentation concepts for flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlhausen, M. J.; Fell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Development of regenerative Environmental Control/Life Support Systems requires instrumentation characteristics which evolve with successive development phases. As the development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. This program was directed toward instrumentation designs which incorporate features compatible with anticipated flight requirements. The first task consisted of the design, fabrication and test of a Performance Diagnostic Unit. In interfacing with a subsystem's instrumentation, the Performance Diagnostic Unit is capable of determining faulty operation and components within a subsystem, perform on-line diagnostics of what maintenance is needed and accept historical status on subsystem performance as such information is retained in the memory of a subsystem's computerized controller. The second focus was development and demonstration of analog signal conditioning concepts which reduce the weight, power, volume, cost and maintenance and improve the reliability of this key assembly of advanced life support instrumentation. The approach was to develop a generic set of signal conditioning elements or cards which can be configured to fit various subsystems. Four generic sensor signal conditioning cards were identified as being required to handle more than 90 percent of the sensors encountered in life support systems. Under company funding, these were detail designed, built and successfully tested.

  13. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  14. Brief report: designing life support systems for space habitats.

    PubMed

    Wieland, P

    1994-01-01

    Permanent human presence in space beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is now technically feasible. To achieve this goal several requirements must be met, which can be summarized as: technologies, facilities, organization, vision, and will. This paper describes a recently published NASA Reference Publication, "Designing for Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems" that addresses how to achieve the goal of permanent human presence in space, specifically, how to design and develop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for space habitats. This includes the technologies that perform the required functions, the facilities where the systems will be developed, and the organization necessary to perform the numerous tasks efficiently.

  15. Method and apparatus for bio-regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A life support system is disclosed for human habitation (cabin) which has a bioregenerative capability through the use of a plant habitat (greenhouse) whereby oxygen-rich air from the greenhouse is processed and used in the cabin and carbon dioxide-rich air from the cabin is used in the greenhouse. Moisture from the air of both cabin and greenhouse is processed and reused in both. Wash water from the cabin is processed and reused in the cabin as hygiene water, and urine from the cabin is processed and used in the greenhouse. Spent water from the greenhouse is processed and reused in the greenhouse. Portions of the processing cycles are separated between cabin and greenhouse in order to reduce to a minimum cross contamination of the two habitat systems. Other portions of the processing cycles are common to both cabin and greenhouse. The use of bioregenerative techniques permits a substantial reduction of the total consumables used by the life support system.

  16. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A program was defined which consists of extended ground-based manned tests of regenerative life support systems. The tests are to evaluate prototypes of advanced life support systems under operational, integrated conditions, thus providing data for the design of efficient environmental control and life support systems for use in long-duration space missions. The requirements are defined for test operations to provide a simulation of an orbiting space laboratory. The features of Phase A and B programs are described. These tests use proven backup equipment to ensure successful evaluation of the advanced subsystems. A pre-tests all-systems checkout period is provided to minimize equipment problems during extended testing and to familiarize all crew and operating staff members with test equipment and procedures.

  17. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  18. Life Support Systems for a New Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2012-01-01

    A life support system concept has been developed for a new NASA lunar lander concept. The ground rules and assumptions driving the design of this vehicle are different from the Constellation Altair vehicle, and have led to a different design solution. For example, this concept assumes that the lander vehicle arrives in lunar orbit independently of the crew. It loiters in lunar orbit for months before rendezvousing with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), resulting in the use of solar power for this new lander, rather than fuel cells that provided product water to the life support system in the Altair vehicle. Without the need to perform a single Lunar Orbit Insertion burn for both the lander and the MPCV, the modules do not have to be centered in the same way, so the new lander has a smaller ascent module than Altair and a large habitat rather than a small airlock. This new lander utilizes suitport technology to perform EVAs from the habitat, which leads to significantly different requirements for the pressure control system. This paper describes the major trades and resulting concept design for the life support system of a new lunar lander concept. I

  19. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  20. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  1. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Use of Higher Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, T. W.; Alford, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two workshops concerning the use of higher plants in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) are summarized. Criteria for plant selection were identified from these categories: food production, nutrition, oxygen production and carbon dioxide utilization, water recycling, waste recycling, and other morphological and physiological considerations. Types of plant species suitable for use in CELSS, growing procedures, and research priorities were recommended. Also included are productivity values for selected plant species.

  2. Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and

  3. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  4. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DallBauman, L. A.; Finn, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  5. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    PubMed

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  6. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Regenerative Life Support Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of topics related to the extended support of humans in space are covered. Overviews of research conducted in Japan, Europe, and the U.S. are presented. The methods and technologies required to recycle materials, especially respiratory gases, within a closed system are examined. Also presented are issues related to plant and algal productivity, efficiency, and processing methods. Computer simulation of closed systems, discussions of radiation effects on systems stability, and modeling of a computer bioregenerative system are also covered.

  8. Melissa: The European project of closed life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Ch.; Paillé, C.; Lamaze, B.; Rebeyre, P.; Rodriguez, A.; Ordonez, L.; Marty, F.

    The MELISSA Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative project was initiated in 1989 It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions e g a lunar base or a mission to Mars The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA It involves several independent organisations University of Ghent EPAS SCK VITO B University of Clermont Ferrand SHERPA F University Autonoma of Barcelona E University of Guelph CND It is co-funded by ESA the MELISSA partners the Belgian DWTC the Spanish CIRIT and CICYT and the Canadian CRESTech CSA authorities The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food water and oxygen from organic waste inedible biomass CO 2 faeces urea Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem MELISSA process comprises 5 compartments from the anoxygenic fermenter up to the photosynthetic one algae and higher plants The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy During the past 15 years of research and development a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop This approach starts from the selection of processes their characterisation and mathematical modelling the validation of the control strategy up to the

  9. Space station environmental control and life support systems conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Powell, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the establishment of a permanent manned Space Station requires the development of a comprehensive approach which combines new technologies and existing spacecraft subsystem capabilities into an optimum design. The present paper is concerned with studies which were conducted in connection with the development of the regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the Space Station. Attention is given to the current state of the ECLSS subsystems and system level analytical selection and group studies related to the integrated system conceptual design.

  10. Progress in regenerative life support systems for a lunar laboratory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecoraro, J. N.; Morris, F. K.

    1972-01-01

    Research and development work for application of Environmental and Thermal Control/Life Support System (ETC/LSS) on a lunar base mission is reviewed, covering lunar mission requirements and constraints, a Lunar Base ETC/LSS reliability assessment, food regeneration, the water and waste system, the atmosphere regeneration subsystem, and atmosphere contaminant control. The establishment of detailed system design criteria for the Lunar Surface Base LSS is considered to be premature at this phase of the project. Some recommendations are given instead for guidance in further R & D efforts.

  11. Software For Design Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1991-01-01

    Design Assistant Workstation (DAWN) computer program is prototype of expert software system for analysis and design of regenerative, physical/chemical life-support systems that revitalize air, reclaim water, produce food, and treat waste. Incorporates both conventional software for quantitative mathematical modeling of physical, chemical, and biological processes and expert system offering user stored knowledge about materials and processes. Constructs task tree as it leads user through simulated process, offers alternatives, and indicates where alternative not feasible. Also enables user to jump from one design level to another.

  12. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: CELSS '89 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics discussed at NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) workshop concerned the production of edible biomass. Specific areas of interest ranged from the efficiency of plant growth, to the conversion of inedible plant material to edible food, to the use of plant culture techniques. Models of plant growth and whole CELSS systems are included. The use of algae to supplement and improve dietary requirements is addressed. Flight experimentation is covered in topics ranging from a Salad Machine for use on the Space Station Freedom to conceptual designs for a lunar base CELSS.

  13. Environmental control/life support system for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Dahlhausen, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The functional, operational, and design load requirements for the Environmental Control/Life Support System (ECLSS) are described. The ECLSS is divided into two groups: (1) an atmosphere management group and (2) a water and waste management group. The interaction between the ECLSS and the Space Station Habitability System is examined. The cruciform baseline station design, the delta and big T module configuration, and the reference Space Station configuration are evaluated in terms of ECLSS requirements. The distribution of ECLSS equipment in a reference Space Station configuration is studied as a function of initial operating conditions and growth orbit capabilities. The benefits of water electrolysis as a Space Station utility are considered.

  14. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  15. Carbon recycling in materially closed ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenhuber, D. C.; Folsome, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results of studies are presented of materially closed energetically open microbial ecosystems or 'closed ecosystems'. These are natural marine ecosystems that have been sealed in glass containers to prevent material exchange with the environment but allow energy to pass freely through them. They represent model life support systems for the future human habitation of space. The results are discussed analytically and indicate that these ecosystems, when subjected to a constant energy flux, seem to be reliable and self-sufficient systems for recycling of biologically produced carbon compounds.

  16. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rumel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space-based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. Here the biochemical stoichiometry is developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady-state system with wheat as the sole food source.

  17. Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming

    Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

  18. A modular BLSS simulation model. [Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The coordination of material flows in earth's biosphere is largely made possible by the buffering effect of huge material reservoirs. Without similarly-sized buffers, a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life-support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processor or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations of this sort will help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version of this model could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  19. Development of Life Support System Technologies for Human Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    With the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle planned to be completed in 2009, Exploration Life Support (ELS), a technology development project under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Exploration Technology Development Program, is focusing its efforts on needs for human lunar missions. The ELS Project s goal is to develop and mature a suite of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies for potential use on human spacecraft under development in support of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. ELS technology development is directed at three major vehicle projects within NASA s Constellation Program (CxP): the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems, including habitats and pressurized rovers. The ELS Project includes four technical elements: Atmosphere Revitalization Systems, Water Recovery Systems, Waste Management Systems and Habitation Engineering, and two cross cutting elements, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis, and Validation and Testing. This paper will provide an overview of the ELS Project, connectivity with its customers and an update to content within its technology development portfolio with focus on human lunar missions.

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the fifth generation Urine Processor Development Hardware. The Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) is a part of the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS. It uses a chase change process called vapor compression distillation technology to remove contaminants from urine. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

  2. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which utilizes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) technology. The VCD is used for integrated testing of the entire Water Recovery System (WRS) and development testing of the Urine Processor Assembly. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  3. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  4. Approaches to resource recovery in controlled ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1994-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams in a space habitat is essential to minimize the resupply burden and achieve self sufficiency. The ultimate goal of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is to achieve the greatest practical level of mass recycle and provide self sufficiency and safety for humans. Several mission scenarios leading to the ultimate application could employ CELSS component technologies or subsystems with initial emphasis on recycle of the largest mass components of the waste stream. Candidate physical/chemical and biological processes for resource recovery from liquid and solid waste streams are discussed and the current fundamental recovery potentials are estimated.

  5. Life support system definition study for long duration planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, T.; Meyer, P.; Reysa, R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mission planners life support systems (LSS) guidebook for providing data on the impact of various LSS on mission parameters such as mass, power, and volume is discussed. The factors utilized to define LSS case study mission drivers, and driver and mission impact parameter definitions are described. An example of a guidebook table for a specific set of LSS drivers is provided. Four approaches for physical/chemical closed-loop LSS are examined. A preliminary LSS guidebook for a lunar base is presented.

  6. Human in the Loop Integrated Life Support Systems Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Marmolejo, Jose A.; Seaman, Calvin H.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. This necessitates provisioning the crew with all the things they will need to sustain themselves while carrying out mission objectives. Systems engineering and integration is critical to the point where extensive integrated testing of life support systems on the ground is required to identify and mitigate risks. Ground test facilities (human-rated altitude chambers) at the Johnson Space Center are being readied to integrate all the systems for a mission along with a human test crew. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere capable of 14.7 to 8 psi total pressure and 21 to 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, and water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth-Moon L2 or L1, the moon, Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed for research and technology development as well as later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) phases of an approved program. Testing will evolve to be carried out at the mission level fly the mission on the ground . Mission testing will also serve to inform the public and provide the opportunity for active participation by international, industrial and academic partners.

  7. Melissa: The European project of a closed life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe

    The MELISSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support Alternative) project was initiated in 1989. It is intended as a tool to gain understanding of closed life support, as well as the development of the technology for a future life support system for long term manned space missions, e.g. a lunar base or a mission to Mars. The collaboration was established through a Memorandum of Understanding and is managed by ESA. It involves several independent organisations: Ghent University, EPAS, SCK, VITO (B), University of Clermont-Ferrand, SHERPA (F), University Autonoma of Barcelona (E), University of Guelph (CND). It is co-funded by ESA, the MELISSA partners, the Belgian, the Spanish and the Canadian authorities. The driving element of MELISSA is the production of food, water and oxygen from organic waste (inedible biomass, CO2, faeces, urea). Inspired by the principle of an "aquatic" ecosystem, MELISSA process comprises several sub-processes, called compartments, from the anoxygenic fermentor up to the photosynthetic units (i.e. algae and higher plants). The choice of this compartmentalised structure is required by the very high level of safety requirements and justified by the need of an engineering approach and to build deterministic control strategy. During the past 19 years of research and development, a very progressive approach has been developed to understand and control the MELISSA loop. This approach starts from the selection of processes, their characterisation and mathematical modelling, the validation of the control strategy, up to the demonstration on Earth, at pilot scale. The project is organised in 5 phases: Basic Research and Development, Preliminary flight experiment, Ground and space demonstration, Terrestrial transfer, Education and communication.

  8. Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..

  9. Feasibility of vibration monitoring of small rotating machines for the environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) of the NASA advanced space craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, G. Martin; Black, Mike; Hovenga, Mike; Mcclure, Paul; Miller, Patrice

    1988-01-01

    The application of vibration monitoring to the rotating machinery typical of ECLSS components in advanced NASA spacecraft was studied. It is found that the weighted summation of the accelerometer power spectrum is the most successful detection scheme for a majority of problem types. Other detection schemes studied included high-frequency demodulation, cepstrum, clustering, and amplitude processing.

  10. Advanced Life Support Food Subsystem Salad Crop Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Stevens, Irene; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Lane, Helen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to look towards longer duration space flights, the importance of fresh foods and varied menu choices increases. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity). The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. Microgravity imposes significant limitations on the ability of the crew to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. Salad crops will be available for the planetary mission. Supplementing the transit food system with salad crops is also being considered. These crops will include carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, radish, spinach, chard, cabbage, and onion. The crops will be incorporated in the menu along with the prepackaged food. The fresh tasting salad crops will provide variety, texture, and color in the menu. This variety should provide increased psychological benefit. Preliminary studies on spinach, tomatoes, and bok choy have been completed. Sensory and analytical tests, including color and moisture were conducted on the chamber grown crops and compared to store bought spinach, tomatoes, and bok choy. Preliminary studies of the appropriate serving sizes and number of servings per week have also been conducted.

  11. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  12. Methods for the development of a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Michelle; Gomez, Shawn; Voorhees, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a rudimentary approach to designing a life support system based on the utilization of plants and animals. The biggest stumbling block in the initial phases of developing a bioregenerative life support system is encountered in collecting and consolidating the data. If a database existed for the systems engineer so that he or she may have accurate data and a better understanding of biological systems in engineering terms, then the design process would be simplified. Also addressed is a means of evaluating the subsystems chosen. These subsystems are unified into a common metric, kilograms of mass, and normalized in relation to the throughput of a few basic elements. The initial integration of these subsystems is based on input/output masses and eventually balanced to a point of operation within the inherent performance ranges of the organisms chosen. At this point, it becomes necessary to go beyond the simplifying assumptions of simple mass relationships and further define for each organism the processes used to manipulate the throughput matter. Mainly considered here is the fact that these organisms perform input/output functions on differing timescales, thus establishing the need for buffer volumes or appropriate subsystem phasing. At each point in a systematic design it is necessary to disturb the system and discern its sensitivity to the disturbance. This can be done either through the introduction of a catastrophic failure or by applying a small perturbation to the system. One example is increasing the crew size. Here the wide range of performance characteristics once again shows that biological systems have an inherent advantage in responding to systemic perturbations. Since the design of any space-based system depends on mass, power, and volume requirements, each subsystem must be evaluated in these terms.

  13. Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of recyclable resources in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water and oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection / suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  14. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  15. Report on Advanced Life Support Activities at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant studies at Kennedy Space Center last year focused on selecting cultivars of lettuce, tomato, and pepper for further testing as crops for near-term space flight applications. Other testing continued with lettuce, onion, and radish plants grown at different combinations of light (PPF), temperature, and CO2 concentration. In addition, comparisons of mixed versus mono culture approaches for vegetable production were studied. Water processing testing focused on the development and testing of a rotating membrane bioreactor to increase oxygen diffusion levels for reducing total organic carbon levels and promoting nitrification. Other testing continued to study composting testing for food wastes (NRA grant) and the use of supplemental green light with red/blue LED lighting systems for plant production (NRC fellowship).

  16. Evaluation of Fieldbus and OPC for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Richard P.; Cardinale, Paul; Bradley, Matthew; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    FOUNDATION(Tm) Fieldbus and OP(TM) (OLE(TM)for Process Control) technologies were integrated into an existing control system for a crop growth chamber at NASA Ames Research Center. FOUNDATION(TM) Fieldbus is a digital, bi-directional, multi-drop, serial communications network which functions essentially as a LAN for sensors. FOUNDATION(TM) Fieldbus is heterarchical, with publishers and subscribers of data performing complex control functions at low levels without centralized control and its associated overhead. OPC(TM) is a set of interfaces which replace proprietary drivers with a transparent means of exchanging data between the fieldbus and applications. The objectives were: (1) to integrate FOUNDATION(TM) Fieldbus into existing ALS hardware and determine its overall effectiveness and reliability and, (2) to quantify any savings produced by using fieldbus and OPC technologies. We encountered several problems with the FOUNDATION(TM) Fieldbus hardware chosen. Our hardware exposed 100 data for each channel of the fieldbus. The fieldbus configurator software used to program the fieldbus was simply not adequate. The fieldbus was also not inherently reliable. It lost its settings twice during our tests for unknown reasons. OPC also had issues. It did not function at all as supplied, requiring substitution of some of its components with those from other vendors. It would stop working after a fixed period of time. Certain database calls eventually lock the machine. Overall, we would not recommend FOUNDATION(TM) Fieldbus: it was too difficult to implement with little overall added value. It also seems unlikely that FOUNDATION(TM) Fieldbus will gain sufficient penetration into the laboratory instrument market to ever be cost effective for the ALS community. OPC had good reliability and performance once a stable installation was achieved. It allowed a rapid change to an alternative software strategy when our first strategy failed. It is a cost effective solution to

  17. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed.

  18. Preliminary study of the space adaptation of the MELiSSA life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.; Duatis, Jordi; Podhajsky, Sandra; Guirado, Víctor; Poughon, Laurent

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an European Space Agency (ESA) project focused on the development of a closed regenerative life support system to aid the development of technologies for future life support systems for long term manned planetary missions, e.g. a lunar base or missions to Mars. In order to understand the potential evolution of the MELiSSA concept towards its future use in the referred manned planetary mission context the MELiSSA Space Adaptation (MSA) activity has been undertaken. MSA's main objective is to model the different MELiSSA compartments using EcosimPro R , a specialized simulation tool for life support applications, in order to define a preliminary MELiSSA implementation for service in a man-tended lunar base scenario, with a four-member crew rotating in six-month increments, and performing the basic LSS functions of air revitalization, food production, and waste and water recycling. The MELiSSA EcosimPro R Model features a dedicated library for the different MELiSSA elements (bioreactors, greenhouse, crew, interconnecting elements, etc.). It is used to dimension the MELiSSA system in terms of major parameters like mass, volume and energy needs, evaluate the accuracy of the results and define the strategy for a progressive loop closure from the initial required performance (approx.100 The MELiSSA configuration(s) obtained through the EcosimPro R simulation are further analysed using the Advanced Life Support System Evaluation (ALISSE) metric, relying on mass, energy, efficiency, human risk, system reliability and crew time, for trade-off and optimization of results. The outcome of the MSA activity is, thus, a potential Life Support System architecture description, based on combined MELiSSA and other physico-chemical technologies, defining its expected performance, associated operational conditions and logistic needs.

  19. Subsystem Details for the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    This document provides values at the assembly level for the subsystems described in the Fiscal Year 2004 Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric (Hanford, 2004). Hanford (2004) summarizes the subordinate computational values for the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development (ALS R&TD) Metric at the subsystem level, while this manuscript provides a summary at the assembly level. Hanford (2004) lists mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime for each mission examined by the ALS R&TD Metric according to the nominal organization for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) elements. The values in the tables below, Table 2.1 through Table 2.8, list the assemblies, using the organization and names within the Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) for each ALS element. These tables specifically detail mass, volume, power, cooling, and crewtime. Additionally, mass and volume are designated in terms of values associated with initial hardware and resupplied hardware just as they are within ALSSAT. The overall subsystem values are listed on the line following each subsystem entry. These values are consistent with those reported in Hanford (2004) for each listed mission. Any deviations between these values and those in Hanford (2004) arise from differences in when individual numerical values are rounded within each report, and therefore the resulting minor differences should not concern even a careful reader. Hanford (2004) u es the uni ts kW(sub e) and kW(sub th) for power and cooling, respectively, while the nomenclature below uses W(sub e) and W(sub th), which is consistent with the native units within ALSSAT. The assemblies, as specified within ALSSAT, are listed in bold below their respective subsystems. When recognizable assembly components are not listed within ALSSAT, a summary of the assembly is provided on the same line as the entry for the assembly. Assemblies with one or more recognizable components are further

  20. [Development and Hosting of a Perioperative Advanced Life Support Training Course for Anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Haba, Masanori; Ueshima, Hironobu; Okada, Daisuke; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Participation in the American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support provider course is a prerequisite for taking the anesthesiology specialist examination in Japan. The course teaches fundamental resuscitation methods for different types of cardiac arrest. However, crisis in the perioperative period can result from airway trouble, central venous catheter displacement, or massive hemorrhage. We report our experience of holding a problem- and learning-based perioperative advanced life support training course, Advanced Life Support for Operation (ALS-OP). Main contents of the course included circulation management, airway management central venous catheters, and pain clinic-related complications. ALS-OP simulation training may be beneficial for educating anesthesiologist and promoting perioperative patient safety.

  1. Control and modeling of a CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Babcock, P. S.; Nadel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Research topics that arise from the conceptualization of control for closed life support systems which are life support systems in which all or most of the mass is recycled are discussed. Modeling and control of uncertain and poorly defined systems, resource allocation in closed life support systems, and control structures or systems with delay and closure are emphasized.

  2. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  3. Sweet potato in a vegetarian menu plan for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Sweet potato has been selected as one of the crops for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program. Sweet potato primarily provides carbohydrate--an important energy source, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid to a space diet. This study focuses on menus incorporating two sets of sweet potato recipes developed at Tuskegee University. One set includes recipes for 10 vegetarian products containing fom 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis (pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels) that have been formulated, subjected to sensory evaluation, and determined to be acceptable. These recipes and the other set of recipes, not tested organoleptically, were substituted in a 10-day vegetarian menu plan developed by the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) Kennedy Space Center Biomass Processing Technical Panel. At least one recipe containing sweet potato was included in each meal. An analysis of the nutritional quality of this menu compared to the original AIBS menu found improved beta-carotene content (p<0.05). All other nutrients, except vitamin B6, and calories were equal and in some instances greater than those listed for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems RDA. These results suggest that sweet potato products can be used successfully in menus developed for space with the added benefit of increased nutrient value and dietary variety.

  4. Environmental control and life support system: Analysis of STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The capability of the orbiter environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) to support vehicle cooling requirements in the event of cabin pressure reduction to 9 psia was evaluated, using the Orbiter versions of the shuttle environmental consumbles usage requirement evaluation (SECURE) program, and using heat load input data developed by the spacecraft electrical power simulator (SEPS) program. The SECURE model used in the analysis, the timeline and ECLSS configuration used in formulating the analysis, and the results of the analysis are presented. The conclusion which may be drawn drom these results. is summarized. There are no significant thermal problems with the proposed mission. There are, however, several procedures which could be optimized for better performance: setting the cabin HX air bypass and the interchanger water bypass to the zero flow position is of questionable efficacy; the cabin air pressure monitoring procedure should be re-evaluated; and the degree of equipment power down specified for this analysis and no problems were noted.

  5. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  6. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  7. Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) flight experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, M.; Macelroy, R.; Borchers, B.; Farrance, M.; Nelson, T.; Blackwell, C.; Yendler, B.; Tremor, J.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA CELSS program has the goal of developing life support systems for humans in space based on the use of higher plants. The program has supported research at universities with a primary focus of increasing the productivity of candidate crops plants. To understand the effects of the space environment on plant productivity, the CELSS Test Facility (CTF) has been conceived as an instrument that will permit the evaluation of plant productivity on Space Station Freedom. The CTF will maintain specific environmental conditions and collect data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation over the growth period of several crop plants grown sequentially from seed to harvest. The science requirements for the CTF will be described, as will current design concepts and specific technology requirements for operation in micro-gravity.

  8. Hydrogen detection study. [for environmental control/life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; Powell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effectiveness was assessed of a hydrogen (H2) detection concept for regenerative environmental control life support systems (EC/LSS). The concept evaluated was that utilized for the electrochemical depolarized concentrator (EDC) design, constructed, and tested for the EC/LSS space station prototype program. The EDC contains combustible gas detectors (CGDs) which were evaluated with H2. The CGDs were evaluated for linearity, position sensitivity, reproducibility, ambient effects, repeatability, speed of response, recovery time, and interchangeability. The effectiveness of CGDs located within the EDC for sensing H2 leaks at various line replaceable units in the subsystem was determined. The effects of H2 leak rate, H2 concentration of leaking gas and air currents in the vicinity of the EDC were determined. Proposed improvements for the H2 detection concept were documented and alternative H2 detection approaches were identified and analyzed.

  9. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-11-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground-based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 1011 Colony Forming Units (CFU) g-1, 105 CFU ml-1, 105 CFU ml-1, and 600 CFU m-3, respectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 105 CFU g-1 in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU ml-1 in thespent nutrient medium, 110 CFU ml-1 in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU m-3 in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  10. A gas flow indicator for portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, R. L., III; Schroeder, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    A three-part program was conducted to develop a gas flow indicator (GFI) to monitor ventilation flow in a portable life support system. The first program phase identified concepts which could potentially meet the GFI requirements. In the second phase, a working breadboard GFI, based on the concept of a pressure sensing diaphragm-aneroid assembly connected to a venturi, was constructed and tested. Extensive testing of the breadboard GFI indicated that the design would meet all NASA requirements including eliminating problems experienced with the ventilation flow sensor used in the Apollo program. In the third program phase, an optimized GFI was designed by utilizing test data obtained on the breadboard unit. A prototype unit was constructed using prototype materials and fabrication techniques, and performance tests indicated that the prototype GFI met or exceeded all requirements.

  11. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Bruce, R J; Mishra, S K; Barta, D J; Pierson, D L

    1994-11-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground-based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(11) Colony Forming Units (CFU) g-1 10(5) CFU ml-1, 10(5) CFU ml-1, and 600 CFU m-3, respectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(5) CFU g-1 in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU ml-1 in the spent nutrient medium, 110 CFU ml-1 in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU m-3 in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  12. Use of Martian resources in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Macelroy, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Possibile crew life support systems for Mars are reviewed, focusing on ways to use Martian resources as life support materials. A system for bioregenerative life support using photosynthetic organisms, known as the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), is examined. The possible use of higher plants or algae to produce oxygen on Mars is investigated. The specific requirements for a CELSS on Mars are considered. The exploitation of water, respiratory gases, and mineral nutrients on Mars is discussed.

  13. NASA's Plans for Developing Life Support and Environmental Monitoring and Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, B. Michael; Jan, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    Life Support and Monitoring have recently been reworked in response to the Vision for Space Exploration. The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project has replaced the former Advanced Life Support Element of the Human Systems Research and Technology Office. Major differences between the two efforts include: the separation of thermal systems into a new stand alone thermal project, deferral of all work in the plant biological systems, relocation of food systems to another organization, an addition of a new project called habitation systems, and overall reduction in the number of technology options due to lower funding. The Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control (AEMC) Element is retaining its name but changing its focus. The work planned in the ELS and AEMC projects is organized around the three major phases of the Exploration Program. The first phase is the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The ELS and AEMC projects will develop hardware for this short duration orbital and trans-lunar vehicle. The second phase is sortie landings on the moon. Life support hardware for lunar surface access vehicles including upgrades of the CEV equipment and technologies which could not be pursued in the first phase due to limited time and budget will be developed. Monitoring needs will address lunar dust issues, not applicable to orbital needs. The ELS and AEMC equipment is of short duration, but has different environmental considerations. The third phase will be a longer duration lunar outpost. This will consist of a new set of hardware developments better suited for long duration life support and associated monitoring needs on the lunar surface. The presentation will show the planned activities and technologies that are expected to be developed by the ELS and AEMC projects for these program phases.

  14. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  15. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  16. Atmospheric Monitoring Strategy for Ground Testing of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feighery, John; Cavenall, Ivan; Knight, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and current state of atmospheric monitoring on the International Space Station to provide context from which we can imagine a more advanced and integrated system. The unique environmental hazards of human space flight are identified and categorized into groups, taking into consideration the time required for the hazard to become a threat to human health or performance. The key functions of a comprehensive monitoring strategy for a closed ecological life support system are derived from past experience and a survey of currently available technologies for monitoring air quality. Finally, a system architecture is developed incorporating the lessons learned from ISS and other analogous closed life support systems. The paper concludes by presenting recommendations on how to proceed with requirements definition and conceptual design of an air monitoring system for exploration missions.

  17. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  18. Earth life support for aquatic organisms, system and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, B.; Dünne, M.; Slenzka, K.

    The importance of the research on Bioregenerative Life Support has increased dramatically in the last decade not only with regard to possible space flight application but also as a way to obtain a better understanding of our Earth's ecology. A major goal was to reach long-term stability of artificial model systems. Preliminary data are presented on the development of an improved aquatic system, currently dedicated for ground-based research. Closed aquatic ecosystems require reliability of the key parameters of pH, O 2 and CO 2 concentration and stability of sensors for monitoring. Besides the integration of an artificial lung (holofiber system and air pump with valves, allowing controlled oxygen uptake of air), in parallel to the oxygen producing water plants. Our new approach is to implement opto-chemical sensors, for such environmental monitoring. One major advantage of the new sensor technique is their better long-term reliability as compared to the electrochemical sensors. Our experiment with the new sensor technique has demonstrated satisfactory performance in closed aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Lunar Portable Life Support System Heat Rejection Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Sompayrac,Robert G.; Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    Performing extravehicular activity (EVA) at various locations of the lunar surface presents thermal challenges that exceed those experienced in space flight to date. The lunar Portable Life Support System (PLSS) cooling unit must maintain thermal conditions within the space suit and reject heat loads generated by the crewmember and the PLSS equipment. The amount of cooling required varies based on the lunar location and terrain due to the heat transferred between the suit and its surroundings. A study has been completed which investigated the resources required to provide cooling under various lunar conditions, assuming three different thermal technology categories: 1. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) 2. Subcooled Phase Change Material (SPCM) 3. Radiators with and without heat pumps Results from the study are presented that show mass and power impacts on the cooling system as a function of the location and terrain on the lunar surface. Resources (cooling equipment mass and consumables) are greater at the equator and inside sunlit craters due to the additional heat loads on the cooling system. While radiator and SPCM technologies require minimal consumables, they come with carry-weight penalties and have limitations. A wider investigation is recommended to determine if these penalties and limitations are offset by the savings in consumables.

  20. Commercial Crew Development Environmental Control and Life Support System Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) Project was a short term Project that was managed within the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office (C3PO) to help develop and demonstrate a small number of key human spaceflight capabilities in support of moving towards a possible commercial crew transportation system to low earth orbit (LEO). It was intended to foster entrepreneurial activities with a few selected companies. The other purpose of the Project was to try to reduce some of the possible risk with a commercial crew transportation system to LEO. The entrepreneurial activities were encouraged with these few selected companies by NASA providing only part of the total funding to complete specific tasks that were jointly agreed to by NASA and the company. These joint agreements were documented in a Space Act Agreement (SAA) that was signed by NASA and the company. This paper will provide an overview of the CCDev Project and it will also discuss in detail the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) tasks that were performed under CCDev.

  1. Intelligent Planning and Scheduling for Controlled Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, V. Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Planning in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) requires special look ahead capabilities due to the complex and long-term dynamic behavior of biological systems. This project characterizes the behavior of CELSS, identifies the requirements of intelligent planning systems for CELSS, proposes the decomposition of the planning task into short-term and long-term planning, and studies the crop scheduling problem as an initial approach to long-term planning. CELSS is studied in the realm of Chaos. The amount of biomass in the system is modeled using a bounded quadratic iterator. The results suggests that closed ecological systems can exhibit periodic behavior when imposed external or artificial control. The main characteristics of CELSS from the planning and scheduling perspective are discussed and requirements for planning systems are given. Crop scheduling problem is identified as an important component of the required long-term lookahead capabilities of a CELSS planner. The main characteristics of crop scheduling are described and a model is proposed to represent the problem. A surrogate measure of the probability of survival is developed. The measure reflects the absolute deviation of the vital reservoir levels from their nominal values. The solution space is generated using a probability distribution which captures both knowledge about the system and the current state of affairs at each decision epoch. This probability distribution is used in the context of an evolution paradigm. The concepts developed serve as the basis for the development of a simple crop scheduling tool which is used to demonstrate its usefulness in the design and operation of CELSS.

  2. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  3. On the assessment of biological life support system operation range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, Sergey

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) can be used in long-term space missions only if well-thought-out assessment of the allowable operating range is obtained. The range has to account both permissible working parameters of BLSS and the critical level of perturbations of BLSS stationary state. Direct approach to outlining the range by statistical treatment of experimental data on BLSS destruction seems to be not applicable due to ethical, economical, and saving time reasons. Mathematical model is the unique tool for the generalization of experimental data and the extrapolation of the revealed regularities beyond empirical experience. The problem is that the quality of extrapolation depends on the adequacy of corresponding model verification, but good verification requires wide range of experimental data for fitting, which is not achievable for manned experimental BLSS. Possible way to improve the extrapolation quality of inevitably poorly verified models of manned BLSS is to extrapolate general tendency obtained from unmanned LSS theoretical-experiment investigations. Possibilities and limitations of such approach are discussed.

  4. Cost-efficiency assessment of Advanced Life Support (ALS) courses based on the comparison of advanced simulators with conventional manikins

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Penas-Penas, Mónica; Sánchez-Santos, Luís; Cegarra-García, Maria; Barreiro-Díaz, Maria Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Background Simulation is an essential tool in modern medical education. The object of this study was to assess, in cost-effective measures, the introduction of new generation simulators in an adult life support (ALS) education program. Methods Two hundred fifty primary care physicians and nurses were admitted to ten ALS courses (25 students per course). Students were distributed at random in two groups (125 each). Group A candidates were trained and tested with standard ALS manikins and Group B ones with new generation emergency and life support integrated simulator systems. Results In group A, 98 (78%) candidates passed the course, compared with 110 (88%) in group B (p < 0.01). The total cost of conventional courses was €7689 per course and the cost of the advanced simulator courses was €29034 per course (p < 0.001). Cost per passed student was €392 in group A and €1320 in group B (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although ALS advanced simulator systems may slightly increase the rate of students who pass the course, the cost-effectiveness of ALS courses with standard manikins is clearly superior. PMID:17953771

  5. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  6. Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex): NASA's Next Human-Rated Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.

    1999-01-01

    As a key component in its ground test bed capability, NASA's Advanced Life Support Program has been developing a large-scale advanced life support test facility capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. This facility-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces such as Mars or the Moon-is called the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex) and is currently under development at the Johnson Space Center. This test bed is comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment which are outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by the BIO-Plex and the planned development strategy for the facility.

  7. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  8. Robotics in a controlled, ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.; Krom, Kimberly J.

    1993-01-01

    Controlled, Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) that utilize plants to provide food, water and oxygen could consume considerable amounts of labor unless crop production, recovery and processing are automated. Robotic manipulators equipped with special end-effectors and programmed to perform the sensing and materials handling tasks would minimize the amount of astronaut labor required. The Human Rated Test Facility (HRTF) planned for Johnson Space Center could discover and demonstrate techniques of crop production which can be reliably integrated with machinery to minimize labor requirements. Before the physical components (shelves, lighting fixtures, etc.) can be selected, a systems analysis must be performed to determine which alternative processes should be followed and how the materials handling tasks should be automated. Given that the current procedures used to grow crops in a CELSS may not be the best methods to automate, then what are the alternatives? How may plants be grown, harvested, processed for food, and the inedible components recycled? What commercial technologies current exist? What research efforts are underway to develop new technologies which might satisfy the need for automation in a CELSS? The answers to these questions should prove enlightening and provide some of the information necessary to perform the systems analysis. The planting, culturing, gathering, threshing and separation, food processing, and recovery of inedible portions of wheat were studied. The basic biological and materials handling processes of each task are defined and discussed. Current practices at Johnson Space Center and other NASA centers are described and compared to common production practices in the plant production industry. Technologies currently being researched which might be applicable are identified and illustrated. Finally, based on this knowledge, several scenarios are proposed for automating the tasks for wheat.

  9. Lunar base extension program and closed loop life support systems.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Ohya, H

    1991-01-01

    Much of papers describing the Lunar Base Construction have been already published. Lunar Base has been considered to be one of the very useful facilities to conduct the excellent scientific program in near future and also to develop the lunar resources such as 3He and oxygen in order to expand the human activities in space. The scale of lunar base and the construction methods to be adopted should be determined based upon the utilization program to be conducted after the initiation of outpost habitation. In order to construct lunar base, it needs to transport lunar base elements such as habitat modules, experiment modules and so on having 20-30 tons weight and to install, connect and activate on lunar surface. The development of transportation system such as OTV enabling to transport over 30 ton payload weight from earth to moon seems to be very difficult in near future, and it seems reasonable to transport three elements per year as described in many papers already published. Therefore, the initial habitat outpost would not have enough volume to produce foods and has to have ECLS system similar to that of space station already going to be developed. After 2-3 years from the initiation of habitation, the addition of food production facilities could be started to expand the habitability of lunar base and finally the complete closed loop life support system could be installed after spending 6-7 years. This paper describes ECLS technologies to be used in the initial habitat outpost and design philosophy of the closed loop technologies to be utilized in the final stage.

  10. Lunar base extension program and closed loop life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji; Ohya, Haruhiko

    Much of papers describing the Lunar Base Construction have been already published. Lunar Base has been considered to be one of the very useful facilities to conduct the excellent scientific program in near future and also to develop the lunar resources such as 3He and oxygen in order to expand the human activities in space. The scale of lunar base and the construction methods to be adopted should be determined based upon the utilization program to be conducted after the initiation of outpost habitation. In order to construct lunar base, it needs to transport lunar base elements such as habitat modules, experiment modules and so on having 20-30 tons weight and to install, connect and activate on lunar surface. The development of transportation system such as OTV enabling to transport over 30 ton payload weight from earth to moon seems to be very difficult in near future, and it seems reasonable to transport three elements per year as described in many papers already published. /1/. Therefore, the initial habitat outpost would not have enough volume to produce foods and has to have ECLS system similar to that of space station already going to be developed. After 2-3 years from the initiation of habitation, the addition of food production facilities could be started to expand the habitability of lunar base and finally the complete closed loop life support system could be installed after spending 6-7 years. This paper describes ECLS technologies to be used in the initial habitat outpost and design philosophy of the closed loop technologies to be utilized in the final stage.

  11. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  12. Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Technologies Case Studies: Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal and Direct Osmotic Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Design for microgravity has traditionally not been well integrated early on into the development of advanced life support (ALS) technologies. NASA currently has a many ALS technologies that are currently being developed to high technology readiness levels but have not been formally evaluated for microgravity compatibility. Two examples of such technologies are the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Technology and the Direct Osmotic Concentration Technology. This presentation will cover the design of theses two systems and will identify potential microgravity issues.

  13. Initial assessments of life support technology evolution and advanced sensor requirements, volume 2, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary issues studied were how the transition from a physical/chemical (P/C) to hybrid to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) could be achieved, what sensors and monitors are needed for a P/C -CELSS hybrid system, and how a CELSS could be automated and what controls would be needed to do so.

  14. Bioregenerative Life Support System Research as part of the DLR EDEN Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul; Poulet, Lucie; Zeidler, Conrad

    In 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems launched a research initiative called EDEN - Evolution and Design of Environmentally-closed Nutrition-Sources. The research initiative focuses on bioregenerative life support systems, especially greenhouse modules, and technologies for future crewed vehicles. The EDEN initiative comprises several projects with respect to space research, ground testing and spin-offs. In 2014, EDEN’s new laboratory officially opened. This new biological cleanroom laboratory comprises several plant growth chambers incorporating a number of novel controlled environment agriculture technologies. This laboratory will be the nucleus for a variety of plant cultivation experiments within closed environments. The utilized technologies are being advanced using the pull of space technology and include such items as stacked growth systems, PAR-specific LEDs, intracanopy lighting, aeroponic nutrient delivery systems and ion-selective nutrient sensors. The driver of maximizing biomass output per unit volume and energy has much application in future bioregenerative life support systems but can also provide benefit terrestrially. The EDEN laboratory also includes several specially constructed chambers for advancing models addressing the interaction between bioregenerative and physical-chemical life support systems. The EDEN team is presently developing designs for containerized greenhouse modules. One module is planned for deployment to the German Antarctic Station, Neumayer III. The shipping container based system will provide supplementation to the overwintering crew’s diet, provide psychological benefit while at the same time advancing the technology and operational readiness of harsh environment plant production systems. In addition to hardware development, the EDEN team has participated in several early phase designs such as for the ESA Greenhouse Module for Space System and for large-scale vertical farming. These studies often utilize the

  15. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of

  16. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  17. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  18. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  19. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. I - System approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1989-01-01

    The importance of mission-driven system definition and assessment for extraterrestrial human life support is examined. The tricotyledon theory for system engineering is applied to the physiochemical life support system of the Pathfinder project. The rationale and methodology for adopting the systems approach is discussed. The assessment of the system during technology development is considered.

  20. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  1. [Prospect of the Advanced Life Support Program Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center in USA].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Ai, W D

    2001-04-01

    The Breadboard Project at Kennedy Space Center in NASA of USA was focused on the development of the bioregenerative life support components, crop plants for water, air, and food production and bioreactors for recycling of wastes. The keystone of the Breadboard Project was the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), which was supported by 15 environmentally controlled chambers and several laboratory facilities holding a total area of 2150 m2. In supporting the Advanced Life Support Program (ALS Program), the Project utilizes these facilities for large-scale testing of components and development of required technologies for human-rated test-beds at Johnson Space Center in NASA, in order to enable a Lunar and a Mars mission finally.

  2. The Space Exploration Initiative: a challenge to advanced life support technologies: keynote presentation.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W

    1991-10-01

    President Bush has enunciated an unparalleled, open-ended commitment to human exploration of space called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). At the heart of the SEI is permanent human presence beyond Earth orbit, which implies a new emphasis on life science research and life support system technology. Proposed bioregenerative systems for planetary surface bases will require carefully designed waste processing elements whose development will lead to streamlined and efficient and efficient systems for applications on Earth.

  3. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  4. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  5. Continued Development of Compact Multi-gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesús; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda; Quinn, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to Near-Infrared-based gas sensor systems for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. This paper presents the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  6. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) System Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation begins with a recap on a previous lecture on the ECLSS subsystems, and the various types (i.e., Non-regenerative vs Regenerative, open loop vs closed loop, and physical-chemical vs bioregenerative) It also recaps the Equivalent system mass (ESM) metric. The presentation continues with a review of the ECLSS of the various NASA manned space exploration programs from Mercury, to the current planned Altair lunar landing, and Lunar base operations. There is also a team project to establish the ESM of two conceptualized missions.

  7. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Crew § 460.11 Environmental control and life support systems. (a) An operator must provide atmospheric... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  8. Advanced Trauma Life Support. ABCDE from a radiological point of view.

    PubMed

    Kool, Digna R; Blickman, Johan G

    2007-07-01

    Accidents are the primary cause of death in patients aged 45 years or younger. In many countries, Advanced Trauma Life Support(R) (ATLS) is the foundation on which trauma care is based. We will summarize the principles and the radiological aspects of the ATLS, and we will discuss discrepancies with day to day practice and the radiological literature. Because the ATLS is neither thorough nor up-to-date concerning several parts of radiology in trauma, it should not be adopted without serious attention to defining the indications and limitations pertaining to diagnostic imaging.

  9. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  10. Instrumentation for controlling and monitoring environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced Instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (EC/LSS) have been developed at Life Systems, Inc. The difference in specific EC/LSS instrumentation requirements and hardware during the transition from exploratory development to flight production stages are discussed. Details of prior control and monitor instrumentation designs are reviewed and an advanced design presented. The latter features a minicomputer-based approach having the flexibility to meet process hardware test programs and the capability to be refined to include the control dynamics and fault diagnostics needed in future flight systems where long duration, reliable operation requires in-flight hardware maintenance. The emphasis is on lower EC/LSS hardware life cycle costs by simplicity in instrumentation and using it to save crew time during flight operation.

  11. Use of Bioregenerative Technologies for Advanced Life Support: Some Considerations for BIO-Plex and Related Testbeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    A review of bioregenerative life support concepts is provided as a guide for developing ground-based testbeds for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program. Key among these concepts are the use of controlled environment plant culture for the production of food, oxygen, and clean water, and the use of bacterial bioreactors for degrading wastes and recycling nutrients. Candidate crops and specific bioreactor approaches are discussed based on experiences from the. Kennedy Space Center Advanced Life Support Breadboard Project, and a review of related literature is provided.

  12. Environmental Control and Life Support System Reliability for Long-Duration Missions Beyond Lower Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Nelson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has highlighted reliability as critical to future human space exploration, particularly in the area of environmental controls and life support systems. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects have been encouraged to pursue higher reliability components and systems as part of technology development plans. However, no consensus has been reached on what is meant by improving on reliability, or on how to assess reliability within the AES projects. This became apparent when trying to assess reliability as one of several figures of merit for a regenerable water architecture trade study. In the spring of 2013, the AES Water Recovery Project hosted a series of events at Johnson Space Center with the intended goal of establishing a common language and understanding of NASA's reliability goals, and equipping the projects with acceptable means of assessing the respective systems. This campaign included an educational series in which experts from across the agency and academia provided information on terminology, tools, and techniques associated with evaluating and designing for system reliability. The campaign culminated in a workshop that included members of the Environmental Control and Life Support System and AES communities. The goal of this workshop was to develop a consensus on what reliability means to AES and identify methods for assessing low- to mid-technology readiness level technologies for reliability. This paper details the results of that workshop.

  13. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  14. Integration of lessons from recent research for "Earth to Mars" life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Development of reliable and robust strategies for long-term life support for mbox planetary exploration needs to be built on real-time experimentation to verify and improve system components Also critical is the incorporation of a range of viable options to handle potential short-term life system imbalances This paper revisits some of the conceptual framework for a Mars base prototype previously advanced Mars on Earth in the light of three years of experimentation by the authors in the Laboratory Biosphere further investigation of system alternatives and the advent of other innovative engineering and agri-ecosystem approaches Several experiments with candidate space agriculture crops have demonstrated the higher productivity possible with elevated light levels and improved environmental controls For example crops of sweet potatoes exceeded original Mars base prototype projections by 83 ultradwarf Apogee wheat by 27 pinto bean by 240 and cowpeas slightly exceeded anticipated dry bean yield These production levels although they may be increased with further optimization of lighting regimes environmental parameters crop density etc offer evidence that a soil-based system can be as productive as the hydroponic systems which have dominated space life support scenarios and research Soil also offers several distinct advantages the capability to be created using in-situ space resources reducing reliance on consumables and imported resources and more easily recycling and

  15. Continued Development of Compact Multi-Gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Phillips, Straun; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Miniature optic gas sensors (MOGS) based on luminescent materials have shown great potential as alternatives to NIR-based gas sensor systems for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The unique capability of MOGS for carbon dioxide and oxygen monitoring under wet conditions has been reported, as has the fast recovery of MOGS humidity sensors after long periods of being wet. Lower volume and power requirements are also potential advantages of MOGS over both traditional and advanced Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) gas sensors, which have shown so far longer life than luminescent sensors. In this paper we present the most recent results in the development and analytical validation of a compact multi-gas sensor unit based on luminescent sensors for the PLSS. Results of extensive testing are presented, including studies conducted at Intelligent Optical Systems laboratories, a United Technology Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS) laboratory, and a Johnson Space Center laboratory. The potential of this sensor technology for gas monitoring in PLSSs and other life support systems and the advantages and limitations found through detailed sensor validation are discussed.

  16. Advanced cardiac life support refresher course using standardized objective-based Mega Code testing.

    PubMed

    Kaye, W; Mancini, M E; Rallis, S F

    1987-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that those whose daily work requires knowledge and skills in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) not only be trained in ACLS, but also be given a refresher training at least every 2 yr. However, AMA offers no recommended course for retraining; no systematic studies of retraining have been conducted on which to base these recommendations. In this paper we review and present our recommendation for a standardized approach to refresher training. Using the goals and objectives of the ACLS training program as evaluation criteria, we tested with the Mega Code a sample population who had previously been trained in ACLS. The results revealed deficiencies in ACLS knowledge and skills in the areas of assessment, defibrillation, drug therapy, and determining the cause of an abnormal blood gas value. We combined this information with our knowledge of other deficiencies identified during actual resuscitation attempts and other basic life-support and ACLS teaching experiences. We then designed a refresher course which was consistent with the overall goals and objectives of the ACLS training program, but which placed emphasis on the deficiencies identified in the pretesting. We taught our newly designed refresher course in three sessions, which included basic life support, endotracheal intubation, arrhythmia recognition and therapeutic modalities, defibrillation, and Mega Code practice. In a fourth session, using Mega Code testing, we evaluated knowledge and skill learning immediately after training. We similarly tested retention 2 to 4 months later. Performance immediately after refresher training showed improvement in all areas where performance had been weak.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Design of biomass management systems and components for closed loop life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the EGM 4000/1 Design class was to investigate a Biomass Management System (BMS) and design, fabricate, and test components for biomass management in a closed-loop life support system (CLLSS). The designs explored were to contribute to the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) at Kennedy Space Center. Designs included a sectored plant growth unit, a container and transfer mechanism, and an air curtain system for fugitive particle control. The work performed by the class members is summarized.

  18. Space shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1973-01-01

    The study of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system is summarized. Design approaches, system descriptions, maintenance requirements, testing requirements, instrumentation, and ground support equipment requirements are discussed.

  19. Astronaut Russell Schweickart suits up for test of life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart suits up to participate in an altitude verification test of the Apollo Portable Life Support System flight unit in Crew Systems Division's 8-ft. altitude chamber in Building 7, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC).

  20. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  1. Concurrent CO2 Control and O2 Generation for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Duncan, Keith L.; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E.; Bishop, Sean R.; Wachsman, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied, however, conventional devices using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Operating at such high temperatures increases system mass compared to lower temperature systems because of increased energy overhead to get the COG up to operating temperature and the need for heavier insulation and/or heat exchangers to reduce the COG oxygen (O2) output temperature for comfortable inhalation. Recently, the University of Florida developed novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth for NASA's future exploration of Mars. To reduce landed mass and operation expenditures during the mission, in-situ resource utilization was proposed using these COGs to obtain both lifesupporting oxygen and oxidant/propellant fuel, by converting CO2 from the Mars atmosphere. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal was an issue. The strategy proposed for CO2 removal for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that it is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen. Hence, a three-phased approach was used for the development of a viable low weight COG for CO2 removal. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature a high oxide ion conductivity electrolyte was developed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, novel cathodes and a removable catalytic carbon deposition layer were designed. Third, to improve efficiency, a pre-stage for CO2 absorption was used to concentrate CO2 from the exhalate before sending it to the COG. These subsystems were then

  2. New concepts for the avoidance or utilisation of methane in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenn, Franz

    2011-08-01

    Due to high resupply costs, especially for long-duration stays in space habitats beyond low earth orbit, future manned space missions will require life support systems (LSS) with a high degree of regenerativity. Possible ways to overcome the waste of resources and to save on resupply mass are therefore of major interest for the development of next generation environmental control and life support systems. The advanced closed-loop system (ACLS) for air revitalization, which is currently being developed by the European Space Agency, will be able to recover the oxygen from exhaled carbon dioxide by use of a Sabatier reactor (see Fig. 1). However, the employed process generates methane as a side product. Current plans envisage it to be vented over board, but the resulting loss would necessitate the resupply of hydrogen. In order to prevent this waste of methane, there are three options: The LSS could be altered to not produce any methane at all, the methane could be cracked into its constituents and reused, or methane itself could be put to use as a resource. Different approaches were examined, and ideas for a Bosch-Boudouard reactor (no methane production) as well as the design study of a pyrolysis thruster (methane cracking and partial use for propulsion) are presented in this paper.

  3. Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

    2010-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  4. Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  5. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  6. Multi-Agent Diagnosis and Control of an Air Revitalization System for Life Support in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Kowing, Jeffrey; Nieten, Joseph; Graham, Jeffrey s.; Schreckenghost, Debra; Bonasso, Pete; Fleming, Land D.; MacMahon, Matt; Thronesbery, Carroll

    2000-01-01

    An architecture of interoperating agents has been developed to provide control and fault management for advanced life support systems in space. In this adjustable autonomy architecture, software agents coordinate with human agents and provide support in novel fault management situations. This architecture combines the Livingstone model-based mode identification and reconfiguration (MIR) system with the 3T architecture for autonomous flexible command and control. The MIR software agent performs model-based state identification and diagnosis. MIR identifies novel recovery configurations and the set of commands required for the recovery. The AZT procedural executive and the human operator use the diagnoses and recovery recommendations, and provide command sequencing. User interface extensions have been developed to support human monitoring of both AZT and MIR data and activities. This architecture has been demonstrated performing control and fault management for an oxygen production system for air revitalization in space. The software operates in a dynamic simulation testbed.

  7. Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, 1979-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S.; Powers, Janet V.

    1990-01-01

    Publications of research sponsored by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program from 1979 to 1989 are listed. The CELSS Program encompasses research and technology with the goal of developing an autonomous bioregenerative life support system that continually recycles the solid, liquid, and gaseous materials essential for human life. The bibliography is divided into four major subject areas: food production, nutritional requirements, waste management, and systems management and control.

  8. An approach to the mathematical modelling of a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to the design of a computer based model of a closed ecological life-support system suitable for use in extraterrestrial habitats is presented. The model is based on elemental mass balance and contains representations of the metabolic activities of biological components. The model can be used as a tool in evaluating preliminary designs for closed regenerative life support systems and as a method for predicting the behavior of such systems.

  9. Modeling the growth dynamics of four candidate crops for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The production of food for human life support for advanced space missions will require the management of many different crops. The research to design these food production capabilities along with the waste management to recycle human metabolic wastes and inedible plant components are parts of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Since complete operating CELSS were not yet built, a useful adjunct to the research developing the various pieces of a CELSS are system simulation models that can examine what is currently known about the possible assembly of subsystems into a full CELSS. The growth dynamics of four crops (wheat, soybeans, potatoes, and lettuce) are examined for their general similarities and differences within the context of their important effects upon the dynamics of the gases, liquids, and solids in the CELSS. Data for the four crops currently under active research in the CELSS program using high-production hydroponics are presented. Two differential equations are developed and applied to the general characteristics of each crop growth pattern. Model parameters are determined by closely approximating each crop's data.

  10. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  11. Thermal, mass, and power interactions for lunar base life support and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell L.; Rohatgi, Naresh; Voecks, Gerald; Prokopiius, Aul

    1993-01-01

    A model has been developed for quantitative examination of the integrated operation of the lunar base power system, employing regenerative fuel cell technology, which would lead to incorporation into a lunar base life support system. The model employs methods developed for technology and system trade studies of the Life Support System configuration for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This paper describes the power system and its influence on life support while comparing various technologies, including pressurized gas storage and cryogenic storage, and different operation conditions. Based on preliminary assumptions, the mass, power, and thermal requirement estimates are made at the level of major components. The relative mass contribution and energy requirements of the components in various configurations are presented. The described intractions between power and life support include direct influence, such as water and oxygen storage, and indirect influence, through reliability and maintenance considerations.

  12. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mohorn, Phillip L.; Haney, Jason S.; Phillips, Cynthia M.; Lu, Z. Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated. PMID:27899836

  13. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  14. Outcomes of Basic Versus Advanced Life Support for Out-of-Hospital Medical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Prachi; Jena, Anupam B.; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most Medicare patients seeking emergency medical transport are treated by ambulance providers trained in advanced life support (ALS). Evidence supporting the superiority of ALS over basic life support (BLS) is limited, but some studies suggest ALS may harm patients. Objective To compare outcomes after ALS and BLS in out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Design Observational study with adjustment for propensity score weights and instrumental variable analyses based on county-level variations in ALS use. Setting Traditional Medicare. Patients 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties between 2006 and 2011 with major trauma, stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or respiratory failure. Measurements Neurologic functioning and survival to 30 days, 90 days, 1 year, and 2 years. Results Except in cases of AMI, patients showed superior unadjusted outcomes with BLS despite being older and having more comorbidities. In propensity score analyses, survival to 90 days among patients with trauma, stroke, and respiratory failure was higher with BLS than ALS (6.1 percentage points [95% CI, 5.4 to 6.8 percentage points] for trauma; 7.0 percentage points [CI, 6.2 to 7.7 percentage points] for stroke; and 3.7 percentage points [CI, 2.5 to 4.8 percentage points] for respiratory failure). Patients with AMI did not exhibit differences in survival at 30 days but had better survival at 90 days with ALS (1.0 percentage point [CI, 0.1 to 1.9 percentage points]). Neurologic functioning favored BLS for all diagnoses. Results from instrumental variable analyses were broadly consistent with propensity score analyses for trauma and stroke, showed no survival differences between BLS and ALS for respiratory failure, and showed better survival at all time points with BLS than ALS for patients with AMI. Limitation Only Medicare beneficiaries from nonrural counties were studied. Conclusion Advanced life support is associated with substantially higher mortality

  15. Composition and analysis of a model waste for a CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    A model waste based on a modest vegetarian diet is given, including composition and elemental analysis. Its use is recommended for evaluation of candidate waste treatment processes for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS).

  16. Biological systems for human life support: Review of the research in the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepelev, Y. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Various models of biological human life support systems are surveyed. Biological structures, dimensions, and functional parameters of man-chlorella-microorganism models are described. Significant observations and the results obtained from these models are reported.

  17. Application of Guided Inquiry System Technique (GIST) to Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aroeste, H.

    1982-01-01

    Guided Inquiry System Technique, a global approach to problem solving, was applied to the subject of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Nutrition, food processing, and the use of higher plants in a CELSS were considered by a panel of experts. Specific ideas and recommendations gleaned from discussions with panel members are presented.

  18. Compliance to advanced trauma life support protocols in adult trauma patients in the acute setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols provide a common approach for trauma resuscitations. This was a quality review assessing compliance with ATLS protocols at a Level I trauma center; specifically whether the presence or absence of a trauma team leader (TTL) influenced adherence. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on adult major trauma patients with acute injuries over a one-year period in a Level I Canadian trauma center. Data were collected from the Alberta Trauma Registry, and adherence to ATLS protocols was determined by chart review. Results The study identified 508 patients with a mean Injury Severity Score of 24.5 (SD 10.7), mean age 39.7 (SD 17.6), 73.8% were male and 91.9% were involved in blunt trauma. The overall compliance rate was 81.8% for primary survey and 75% for secondary survey. The TTL group compared to non-TTL group was more likely to complete the primary survey (90.9% vs. 81.8%, p = 0.003), and the secondary survey (100% vs. 75%, p = 0.004). The TTL group was more likely than the non-TTL group to complete the following tasks: insertion of two large bore IVs (68.2% vs. 57.7%, p = 0.014), digital rectal exam (64.6% vs. 54.7%, p = 0.023), and head to toe exam (77% vs. 67.1%, p = 0.013). Mean times from emergency department arrival to diagnostic imaging were also significantly shorter in the TTL group compared to the non-TTL group, including times to pelvis xray (mean 68min vs. 107min, p = 0.007), CT chest (mean 133min vs. 172min, p = 0.005), and CT abdomen and pelvis (mean 136min vs. 173min, p = 0.013). Readmission rates were not significantly different between the TTL and non-TTL groups (3.5% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.642). Conclusions While many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of trauma systems on outcomes, few have explored the direct influence of the TTL on ATLS compliance. This study demonstrated that TTL involvement during resuscitations was associated with improved

  19. Summary of Current and Future MSFC International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Minton-Summers, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of current work accomplished under technical task agreement (TTA) by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) regarding the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as future planning activities in support of the International Space Station (ISS). Current activities include ECLSS computer model development, component design and development, subsystem integrated system testing, life testing, and government furnished equipment delivered to the ISS program. A long range plan for the MSFC ECLSS test facility is described whereby the current facility would be upgraded to support integrated station ECLSS operations. ECLSS technology development efforts proposed to be performed under the Advanced Engineering Technology Development (AETD) program are also discussed.

  20. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.; Vogel, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energy-efficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  1. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  2. Safety Analysis for Naval Liquid Oxygen Life Support System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    6 2 Inter-tank piping arrangement for the liquid oxygen storage system ......... ................ 9 3 Oxygen flow control...that all explosions in LOX systems actually take place in the gaseous phase because: (a) The rapid " boil -off" rate of LOX forms an oxygen-rich...could be opened admitting GOX to the distribution system . When vaporization of LOX due to thermal in-leak is insufficient to provide the required flow

  3. Treatment of CELSS and PCELSS waste to produce nutrients for plant growth. [Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems and Partially Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.; Meissner, H.; Karel, M.; Carden, J.; Lewis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The research program entitled 'Development of a Prototype Experiment for Treating CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) and PCELSS (Partially Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) Wastes to Produce Nutrients for Plant Growth' consists of two phases: (1) the development of the neccessary facilities, chemical methodologies and models for meaningful experimentation, and (2) the application of what methods and devices are developed to the interfacing of waste oxidation with plant growth. Homogeneous samples of freeze-dried human feces and urine have been prepared to ensure comparability of test results between CELSS waste treatment research groups. A model of PCELSS food processing wastes has been developed, and an automated gas chromatographic system to analyze oxidizer effluents was designed and brought to operational status. Attention is given the component configuration of the wet oxidation system used by the studies.

  4. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: CELSS 1985 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Martello, N. V. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics related to closed ecological systems are discussed. Space habitats, vegetative growth, photosynthesis, recycling, culture techniques, waste utilization bioreactors and controlled atmospheres on space stations are among the topics covered.

  5. Guiding the development of a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The workshop is reported which was held to establish guidelines for future development of ecological support systems, and to develop a group of researchers who understand the interdisciplinary requirements of the overall program.

  6. Portable Life Support System 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.

  7. Power systems for production, construction, life support, and operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1988-01-01

    As one looks to man's future in space it becomes obvious that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the exploration, colonization, and exploitation of space. Activities envisioned include interplanetary travel and LEO to GEO transport using electric propulsion, earth and lunar observatories, advance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system technologies being pursued by NASA to fulfill these future needs are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made by technology advancements will be discussed. Mission requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and Martian) will be treated, and data for power systems ranging from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be represented. In addition the space power technologies being initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be discussed.

  8. Power systems for production, construction, life support and operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1988-01-01

    As one looks to man's future in space it becomes obvious that unprecedented amounts of power are required for the exploration, colonization, and exploitation of space. Activities envisioned include interplanetary travel and LEO to GEO transport using electric propulsion, Earth and lunar observatories, advance space stations, free-flying manufacturing platforms, communications platforms, and eventually evolutionary lunar and Mars bases. These latter bases would start as camps with modest power requirements (kWes) and evolve to large bases as manufacturing, food production, and life support materials are developed from lunar raw materials. These latter activities require very robust power supplies (MWes). The advanced power system technologies being pursued by NASA to fulfill these future needs are described. Technologies discussed will include nuclear, photovoltaic, and solar dynamic space power systems, including energy storage, power conditioning, power transmission, and thermal management. The state-of-the-art and gains to be made by technology advancements will be discussed. Mission requirements for a variety of applications (LEO, GEO, lunar, and Martian) will be treated, and data for power systems ranging from a few kilowatts to megawatt power systems will be represented. In addition the space power technologies being initiated under NASA's new Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and Space Leadership Planning Group Activities will be discussed.

  9. Modern biofuel cells for waste recycling in life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, L.; Bockris, J. OM.

    1989-01-01

    Innovative ways of treating urea in waste water reprocessing for long duration space exploration are being considered. Urea is very stable and therefore there are few effective ways for its decomposition. The feasibility of the use of the enzyme urease is to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide is discussed, including a methodology, potential problems, the capabilities and advantages of such a system.

  10. Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being developed for installation on Space Station Freedom (SSF) in August 1999. It is designed to conduct experiments that will determine the effects of microgravity on the productivity of higher (crop) plants. The CTF will occupy two standard SSF racks and will accommodate approximately one square meter of growing area and a canopy height of 80 cm. The growth volume will be isolated from the external environment, allowing stringent control of environmental conditions. Temperature, humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and light levels will all be closely controlled to prescribed set points and monitored. This level of environmental control is needed to prevent stress and allow accurate assessment of microgravity effect (10-3 to 10-6 x g). Photosynthetic rates and respiration rates, calculated through continuous recording of gas concentrations, transpiration, and total and edible biomass produced will be measured. Toxic byproducts will be monitored and scrubbed. Transpiration water will be collected within the chamber and recycled into the nutrient solution. A wide variety of crop plants, e.g., wheat, soy beans, lettuce, potatoes, can be accommodated and various nutrient delivery systems and light delivery systems will be available. In the course of its development, the CTF will exploit fully, and contribute importantly, to the state-of-art in closed system technology and plant physiology.

  11. On the Performance Potential of Bioelectrochemical Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansell, J. Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An area of growing multi-disciplinary research and revolutionary development for bio-processing on Earth is bioelectrochemical systems. These systems exploit the capability of many microorganisms to act as biocatalysts, enhancing the performance of electrochemical processes which convert low-value materials into valuable products. Many varieties of such processes hold potential value for space exploration as means to recycle metabolic waste and other undesirable materials or insitu resources into oxygen, water, and other valuable substances. However, the wide range of possible reactants, products, configurations, and operating parameters, along with the early stage of development and application on the ground necessitate thorough consideration of which, if any, possibilities could outperform existing technologies and should thus receive investment for space applications. In turn, the decision depends on the theoretical and practical limits of performance and the value of the reactant-product conversions within spaceflight scenarios, and should, to the greatest extent possible, be examined from the perspective of a fully designed, integrated system, rather than as an isolated unit lacking critical components like valves and pumps. Herein, we select a series of possible reactant-product conversions, develop concept process flow diagrams for each, and estimate theoretical and (where sufficient literature data allows) practical performance limitations of each. The objective was to estimate the costs, benefits, and risks of each concept in order to aid strategic decisions in the early-phase technology development effort.

  12. Evaporative Cooling and Dehumidification Garment for Portable Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an innovative thermal and humidity control system for future space suits. The system comprises an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) and a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR). The ECDG absorbs heat and water vapor from inside the suit pressure garment, while the LCAR rejects heat to space without venting water vapor. The ECDG is built from thin, flexible patches with coversheets made of non-porous, water-permeable membranes that -enclose arrays of vapor flow passages. Water vapor from inside the spacesuit diffuses across the water permeable membranes, enters the vapor flow channels, and then flows to the LCAR, thus dehumidifying the internal volume of the space suit pressure garment. Additional water evaporation inside the ECDG provides cooling for sensible heat loads. -The heat released from condensation and absorption in the LCAR is rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. We have assembled lightweight and flexible ECDG pouches from prototypical materials and measured their performance in a series of separate effects tests under well-controlled, prototypical conditions. Sweating hot plate tests at typical space suit pressures show that ECDG pouches can absorb over 60 W/ft of latent heat and 20 W/ft of sensible heat from the pressure garment environment. These results are in good agreement with the predictions of our analysis models.

  13. Engineering concepts for food processing in bioregenerative life support systems.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J B

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned missions, such as Mars exploration, will require development of new and cost-effective food production and delivery systems. Requirements for both carry-on preserved food and food processed from on-board crops exceed the capabilities of existing food processing and preservation technologies. For the transit phase, new food products, preservation methods, and processing technologies for ground-based food processing are required. The bioregenerative surface phase requires methods for processing of in situ-grown crops, treatment of food wastes, preparation of daily meals, and design of nutritious and appealing plant-based menus, all within severe cost and labor constraints. In design of the food supply for a long-term mission, the designers must select and apply both the packaged food and in situ processing technologies most appropriate for the specific mission requirements. This study aims to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different food system strategies in the context of different types of mission, and to point out the most important areas for future technology development.

  14. Integration of lessons from recent research for “Earth to Mars” life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    Development of reliable and robust strategies for long-term life support for planetary exploration must be built from real-time experimentation to verify and improve system components. Also critical is incorporating a range of viable options to handle potential short-term life system imbalances. This paper revisits some of the conceptual framework for a Mars base prototype which has been developed by the authors along with others previously advanced ("Mars on Earth ®") in the light of three years of experimentation in the Laboratory Biosphere, further investigation of system alternatives and the advent of other innovative engineering and agri-ecosystem approaches. Several experiments with candidate space agriculture crops have demonstrated the higher productivity possible with elevated light levels and improved environmental controls. For example, crops of sweet potatoes exceeded original Mars base prototype projections by an average of 46% (53% for best crop) ultradwarf (Apogee) wheat by 9% (23% for best crop), pinto bean by 13% (31% for best crop). These production levels, although they may be increased with further optimization of lighting regimes, environmental parameters, crop density etc. offer evidence that a soil-based system can be as productive as the hydroponic systems which have dominated space life support scenarios and research. But soil also offers distinct advantages: the capability to be created on the Moon or Mars using in situ space resources, reduces long-term reliance on consumables and imported resources, and more readily recycling and incorporating crew and crop waste products. In addition, a living soil contains a complex microbial ecosystem which helps prevent the buildup of trace gases or compounds, and thus assist with air and water purification. The atmospheric dynamics of these crops were studied in the Laboratory Biosphere adding to the database necessary for managing the mixed stands of crops essential for supplying a nutritionally

  15. Adaptability test of lettuce to soil-like substrate in bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yan; Liu, Professor Hong; Wenting, Fu

    Plant cultivation using soil-like substrate (SLS) is considered to be a feasible option for building up matter for biological turnover in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) by many researchers. The characteristics of SLS are different from those of true soil therefore it is very important to study the adaptability of candidate crop to SLS in BLSS. This study was carried out in three successive steps to test the adaptability of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to rice straw SLS in BLSS of China. First, six Chinese specific lettuce cultivars which were selected for Chinese advanced life support system were planted into the same rice straw SLS, which was to determine the more suitable plant cultivar to do the next experiment. The results showed that Sharp Leaf lettuce and Red lettuce were more suitable for SLS than other cultivars. Second, the possibility of increasing the crop yield on the SLS was conducted by changing the soil depth and plant density. Sharp Leaf lettuce and Red lettuce were used into this experiment in order to obtain the highest yield under the smallest soil volume and weight at the same light intensity. Crop edible biomass, crop nutrition content and photosynthetic characteristics were estimated during the experiment. Red lettuce obtained higher biomass and photosynthesis capacity. Lastly, the stability of planting system of lettuce and SLS was evaluated in the closed controlled system. Red lettuce would be the test plant. In this experiment different age lettuce groups would be planted together and gas exchange would be measured. In all of these experiments soil physical and chemical characteristics were also be measured which will be the basal data for further research.

  16. Controlled environment life support system: Growth studies with potatoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted to maximize the productivity of potatoes grown under controlled environmental conditions are discussed. A variety of parameters is examined which affect potato growth, specifically, photoperiod, light intensity, temperature, nitrogen nutrition, carbon dioxide concentration and culture techniques. These experiments were conducted using five different cultivars, Russet Burbank, Norchip, Superior, Kennebec and Norland. To achieve high productivity, three specific objectives were explored: (1) to develop effective cultural procedures, (2) to determine the most effective photoperiod and (3) to develop a mist culture system. It is felt that the productivity obtained in this study is below the maximum that can be obtained. High irradiance levels coupled with tuber-promoting conditions such as cooler temperatures, increased CO2 levels and lowered nitrogen concentrations should allow increases in tuber production. Tuberization appears to be accelerated by short daylengths although final yields are not increased. Mist culture techniques have not yet produced fully developed tubers. The use of supporting media and alteration of the nitrogen content of the mist solution are being explored as a way to allow tubers to develop to maturity.

  17. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  18. A prototype closed aquaculture system for controlled ecological life support applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Bauer, C. F.; Koller, M. S.; Sager, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Aquaculture has been proposed as a possible component of a life support system for extended duration space exploration. Atmospheric and hydrologic closure of an aquaculture system are necessary for this application and information on mass flows through such a system is important to integrating it as part of life support. A closed aquaculture system has been constructed and an extensive computer monitoring and control system and sampling protocol developed to provide this information. Preliminary tests indicate that the system has a negligible leak rate and can provide oxygen and carbon dioxide mass flow information.

  19. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  20. Techniques for optimal crop selection in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Ann; Finn, Cory; Dunsky, Betsy

    1992-01-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) utilizes a plant's natural ability to regenerate air and water while being grown as a food source in a closed life support system. Current plant research is directed toward obtaining quantitative empirical data on the regenerative ability of each species of plant and the system volume and power requirements. Two techniques were adapted to optimize crop species selection while at the same time minimizing the system volume and power requirements. Each allows the level of life support supplied by the plants to be selected, as well as other system parameters. The first technique uses decision analysis in the form of a spreadsheet. The second method, which is used as a comparison with and validation of the first, utilizes standard design optimization techniques. Simple models of plant processes are used in the development of these methods.

  1. Techniques for optimal crop selection in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Ann; Finn, Cory; Dunsky, Betsy

    1993-01-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) utilizes a plant's natural ability to regenerate air and water while being grown as a food source in a closed life support system. Current plant research is directed toward obtaining quantitative empirical data on the regenerative ability of each species of plant and the system volume and power requirements. Two techniques were adapted to optimize crop species selection while at the same time minimizing the system volume and power requirements. Each allows the level of life support supplied by the plants to be selected, as well as other system parameters. The first technique uses decision analysis in the form of a spreadsheet. The second method, which is used as a comparison with and validation of the first, utilizes standard design optimization techniques. Simple models of plant processes are used in the development of these methods.

  2. Advanced cardiac life support instruction: do we know tomorrow what we know today?

    PubMed

    Settles, Julie; Jeffries, Pamela R; Smith, Terri M; Meyers, Jennifer S

    2011-06-01

    This study compared two instructional and evaluation methods for teaching advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) to health care professionals who were taking the ACLS course for the first time. Outcomes of the instruction were measured on completion of the course and at 3 months and 6 months postinstruction to identify differences in participants' knowledge retention, skills competency, and self-efficacy in performing ACLS. In addition, satisfaction with the teaching method was evaluated. The two methods of teaching and evaluating competencies for ACLS were (1) traditional classroom instruction plus practice and evaluation with monitors (low-fidelity simulation); and (2) classroom instruction plus practice with high-fidelity patient simulators. Participants in the study were 148 health care professionals or health care students who were novices in ACLS preparation. Participants were recruited from a large Midwest school of nursing and school of medicine, a Midwest physicians' assistant program, and a not-for-profit hospital. The findings showed no significant differences in ACLS knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, or learner satisfaction immediately after instruction or at 3 to 9 months posttraining. Retention of ACLS knowledge and skills competency over time was low in both groups; recommendations and interventions are discussed based on the study results.

  3. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  4. Bioregenerative life support systems for long-term space habitation: a conceptual approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, E.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1996-01-01

    Life support systems represent one of the most critical aspects of human space exploration. Future long-term missions such as the establishment of human-tended Lunar and Martian bases require closed life support systems. A conceptual approach to an Engineered Closed/Controlled EcoSystem incorporating bioregenerative capabilities by integrating humans, plants, and waste management processes is presented. The integration of physical/chemical and biological waste treatment processes is suitable for supporting plant growth through hydroponics and materially closing the human and plant metabolic loops. This conceptual design separates wastes into individual loops for treatment according to the specific metabolic needs of humans and plants. The means through which an integrated Engineered Closed/Controlled EcoSystem meets the life support objectives of long-term space habitation are summarized.

  5. Space station environmental control and life support systems test bed program - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrend, Albert F.

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to intensify activities for development of the Space Station, decisions must be made concerning the technical state of the art that will be baselined for the initial Space Station system. These decisions are important because significant potential exists for enhancing system performance and for reducing life-cycle costs. However, intelligent decisions cannot be made without an adequate assessment of new and ready technologies, i.e., technologies which are sufficiently mature to allow predevelopment demonstrations to prove their application feasibility and to quantify the risk associated with their development. Therefore, the NASA has implemented a technology development program which includes the establishment of generic test bed capabilities in which these new technologies and approaches can be tested at the prototype level. One major Space Station subsystem discipline in which this program has been implemented is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Previous manned space programs such as Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle have relied heavily on consumables to provide environmental control and life support services. However, with the advent of a long-duration Space Station, consumables must be reduced within technological limits to minimize Space Station resupply penalties and operational costs. The use of advanced environmental control and life support approaches involving regenerative processes offers the best solution for significant consumables reduction while also providing system evolutionary growth capability. Consequently, the demonstration of these "new technologies" as viable options for inclusion in the baseline that will be available to support a Space Station initial operational capability in the early 1990's becomes of paramount importance. The mechanism by which the maturity of these new regenerative life support technologies will be demonstrated is the Space

  6. Design and test status for life support applications of SPE oxygen generation systems. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.; Erickson, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced six-man rated oxygen generation system has been fabricated and tested as part of a NASA/JSC technology development program for a long lived, manned spacecraft life support system. Details of the design and tests results are presented. The system is based on the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology and its nominal operating conditions are 2760 kN/sq m (400 psia) and 355 K (180 F) with an electrolysis module current density capability up to 350 mA/sq cm (326 ASF). The system is centered on a 13-cell SPE water electrolysis module having a single cell active area of 214 sq cm (33 sq in) and it incorporates instrumentation and controls for single pushbutton automatic startup/shutdown, component fault detection and isolation, and self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. The system has been tested in both the orbital cyclic and continuous mode of operation. Various parametric tests have been completed to define the system capability for potential application in spacecraft environmental systems.

  7. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) utilizing Man-Tended Capability (MTC) hardware onboard Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.; Barratt, M.; Lloyd, C.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the time and distance involved in returning a patient from space to a definitive medical care facility, the capability for Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) exists onboard Space Station Freedom. Methods: In order to evaluate the effectiveness of terrestrial ACLS protocols in microgravity, a medical team conducted simulations during parabolic flights onboard the KC-135 aircraft. The hardware planned for use during the MTC phase of the space station was utilized to increase the fidelity of the scenario and to evaluate the prototype equipment. Based on initial KC-135 testing of CPR and ACLS, changes were made to the ventricular fibrillation algorithm in order to accommodate the space environment. Other constraints to delivery of ACLS onboard the space station include crew size, minimum training, crew deconditioning, and limited supplies and equipment. Results: The delivery of ACLS in microgravity is hindered by the environment, but should be adequate. Factors specific to microgravity were identified for inclusion in the protocol including immediate restraint of the patient and early intubation to insure airway. External cardiac compressions of adequate force and frequency were administered using various methods. The more significant limiting factors appear to be crew training, crew size, and limited supplies. Conclusions: Although ACLS is possible in the microgravity environment, future evaluations are necessary to further refine the protocols. Proper patient and medical officer restraint is crucial prior to advanced procedures. Also emphasis should be placed on early intubation for airway management and drug administration. Preliminary results and further testing will be utilized in the design of medical hardware, determination of crew training, and medical operations for space station and beyond.

  8. Environmental control and life support system selection for the first Lunar outpost habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The planning for and feasibility study of an early human return mission to the lunar surface has been undertaken. The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) Mission philosophy is to use existing or near-term technology to achieve a human landing on the lunar surface in the year 2000. To support the crew the lunar habitat for the FLO mission incorporates an environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) design which meets the mission requirements and balances fixed mass and consumable mass. This tradeoff becomes one of regenerable life support systems versus open-loop systems.

  9. Implementing supercritical water oxidation technology in a lunar base environmental control/life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer Sedej, M.

    1985-01-01

    A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.

  10. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  11. University role in astronaut life support systems: Portable thermal control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ephrath, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    One of the most vital life support systems is that used to provide the astronaut with an adequate thermal environment. State-of-the-art techniques are reviewed for collecting and rejecting excess heat loads from the suited astronaut. Emphasis is placed on problem areas which exist and which may be suitable topics for university research. Areas covered include thermal control requirements and restrictions, methods of heat absorption and rejection or storage, and comparison between existing methods and possible future techniques.

  12. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anchondo, Ian; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Westheimer, David; Vogel, Matt R.

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design. This advanced PLSS is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data, define set-points, evaluate control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out in 2013 and 2014 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the

  13. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2005 - 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2005 and February 2006. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2003-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2003 and March 2004. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  15. Designing For Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2005-01-01

    Human exploration and utilization of space requires habitats to provide appropriate conditions for working and living. These conditions are provided by environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) that ensure appropriate atmosphere composition, pressure, and temperature; manage and distribute water, process waste matter, provide fire detection and suppression; and other functions as necessary. The tables in appendix I of NASA RP 1324 "Designing for Human Presence in Space" summarize the life support functions and processes used onboard U.S. and U.S.S.R/Russian space habitats. These tables have been updated to include information on thermal control methods and to provide additional information on the ECLS systems.

  16. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  18. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2006 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2006 and February 2007. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  20. [Research and development of technique of regenerative environmental control and life support system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang-han; Fu, Lan; Han, Yong-qiang; Li, Jun-rong

    2003-01-01

    Environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) is a critical subsystem of manned spacecraft that has the most typical characteristics of manned space flight. It is an indispensable safeguard for the life of astronaut in space. This article reviewed the main techniques and developments of oxygen and water closed loop recycling in regenerative environmental control and life support system. Through comparing and analyzing the current state of its space application as well as the strong and weak points of different technique routes, the directions of research and development of oxygen and water recycling technique for space station are proposed.

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  3. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  4. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  5. Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Reliable Deep Space Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.

  6. A requirement for reduced pressure and modified atmosphere composition in lunar and martian biological life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Mike; Stasiak, Michael; Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Lawson, Jamie

    The Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility at the PlaceTypeUniversity of Place- NameGuelph (country-regionplaceCanada) represents an extensive collection of variable pressure plant growth chambers devoted to the study of biological systems including plants and microbes, in life support roles for space exploration. To simplify engineering requirements for plant growth structures on the Moon or Mars, lower pressures are required in order to reduce mass and decrease atmospheric leakage. Few facilities exist that can provide low pressure plant growth capabilities coupled with complete control over temperature, vapour pressure deficit (humidity), gas composition, nutrient delivery, and pressure. The Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility maintains five canopy-scale hypobaric plant growth chambers with capabilities ideally suited for low pressure advanced life support research. System performance evaluations during low pressure experiments on radish (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) have demonstrated temperature control of +/- 0.5 ° C, vapour pressure deficit control of +/- 0.5 mb, CO2 injection control of +/- 20 ` ımol mol-1 , and leakage rates of less than 1% per day. Keywords: hypobaric, plant growth chamber, advanced life support, controlled environment, low pressure, atmospheric control

  7. Monitoring of space station life support systems with miniature mass spectrometry and artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Wong, Carla M.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of quadrupole ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy with artificial intelligence is a promising approach for monitoring the performance of the life support systems in the space station. Such an analytical system can provide the selectivity, sensitivity, speed, small size, and decision making intelligence to detect, identify, and quantify trace toxic compounds which may accumulate in the space station habitat.

  8. Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Program 1984-86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Publications of research sponsored by the NASA CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) Program are listed, along with publications of interest to the Program. The bibliography is divided into the three major divisions of CELSS research: (1) Food Production; (2) Waste Management; and (3) Systems Management and Control. This bibliography is an update of NASA CR-3911 and includes references from 1984 through 1986.

  9. Development of fiber optic sensor for fluid flow of astronauts’ life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachneva, E. A.; Murashkina, T. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a fiber optic sensor consumption (volume, speed) of liquids in life-support systems of astronauts, as well as offers a simple method and apparatus for reproducing the parameters of fluid flow needed in research, yustiovke and adjusting the optical sensor system.

  10. Can course format influence the performance of students in an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) program?

    PubMed

    Garrido, F D; Romano, M M D; Schmidt, A; Pazin-Filho, A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) is a problem-based course that employs simulation techniques to teach the standard management techniques of cardiovascular emergencies. Its structure is periodically revised according to new versions of the American Heart Association guidelines. Since it was introduced in Brazil in 1996, the ACLS has been through two conceptual and structural changes. Detailed documented reports on the effect of these changes on student performance are limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conceptual and structural changes of the course on student ACLS performance at a Brazilian training center. This was a retrospective study of 3266 students divided into two groups according to the teaching model: Model 1 (N = 1181; 1999-2003) and Model 2 (N = 2085; 2003-2007). Model 2 increased practical skill activities to 75% of the total versus 60% in Model 1. Furthermore, the teaching material provided to the students before the course was more objective than that used for Model 1. Scores greater than 85% in the theoretical evaluation and approval in the evaluation of practice by the instructor were considered to be a positive outcome. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (specialty, residency, study time, opportunity to enhance practical skills during the course and location where the course was given). Compared to Model 1, Model 2 presented odds ratios (OR) indicating better performance in the theoretical (OR = 1.34; 95%CI = 1.10-1.64), practical (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 0.90-1.57), and combined (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.13-1.68) outcomes. Increasing the time devoted to practical skills did not improve the performance of ACLS students.

  11. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  12. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Sensors for the Constellation Space Suit Life Support System for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial

  13. Implementation of biological elements in life support systems: rationale and development milestones.

    PubMed

    Tamponnet, C; Kratschmann, C; Hurtl, H; Sacher, R; Ramdi, H; Lievremont, M

    1993-05-01

    To ensure the complete autonomy of man in space, biological life support technologies must be developed. A survey of today's knowledge in biotechnology has been performed and technologies suited to long-duration manned missions in space have been identified. Regardless of whether they are to be used in a space vehicle or at a lunar or planetary base, most of those technologies require development times of 20 to 30 years. It is therefore essential to start development now to ensure that the life support system is ready when development of Moon or Mars bases begins.

  14. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design which is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data to define set-points for control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out from 3/20/13 - 3/15/14 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the completion of PIA

  15. Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path program.

  16. Parametric Analysis of Life Support Systems for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Bagdigian, Bob M.

    2010-01-01

    Having adopted a flexible path approach to space exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is in a process of evaluating future targets for space exploration. In order to maintain the welfare of a crew during future missions, a suite of life support technology is responsible for oxygen and water generation, carbon dioxide control, the removal of trace concentrations of organic contaminants, processing and recovery of water, and the storage and reclamation of solid waste. For each particular life support subsystem, a variety competing technologies either exist or are under aggressive development efforts. Each individual technology has strengths and weaknesses with regard to launch mass, power and cooling requirements, volume of hardware and consumables, and crew time requirements for operation. However, from a system level perspective, the favorability of each life support architecture is better assessed when the sub-system technologies are analyzed in aggregate. In order to evaluate each specific life support system architecture, the measure of equivalent system mass (ESM) was employed to benchmark system favorability. Moreover, the results discussed herein will be from the context of loop-closure with respect to the air, water, and waste sub-systems. Specifically, closure relates to the amount of consumables mass that crosses the boundary of the vehicle over the lifetime of a mission. As will be demonstrated in this manuscript, the optimal level of loop closure is heavily dependent upon mission requirements such as duration and the level of extra- vehicular activity (EVA) performed. Sub-system level trades were also considered as a function of mission duration to assess when increased loop closure is practical. Although many additional factors will likely merit consideration in designing life support systems for future missions, the ESM results described herein provide a context for future architecture design decisions toward a flexible path

  17. Space Station Environment Control and Life Support System Pressure Control Pump Assembly Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. Gregory

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Modeling and Analysis of the Space Station Environment Control and Life Support System Pressure Control Pump Assembly (PCPA). The contents include: 1) Integrated PCPA/Manifold Analyses; 2) Manifold Performance Analysis; 3) PCPA Motor Heat Leak Study; and 4) Future Plans. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  19. Gas exchange in NASA's biomass production chamber - A preprototype closed human life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the NASA biomass production chamber for monitoring and evaluating gas exchange rates are examined. Special emphasis is given to results with wheat and soybeans. The potential of the chamber as a preprototype of a closed human life support system is considered.

  20. Preparation and analysis of standardized waste samples for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, J. L.; Browner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation and analysis of standardized waste samples for controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are considered. Analysis of samples from wet oxidation experiments, the development of ion chromatographic techniques utilizing conventional high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment, and an investigation of techniques for interfacing an ion chromatograph (IC) with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES) are discussed.

  1. Mineral separation and recycle in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    The background of the mineral nutrition needs of plants are examined along with the applicability of mineral control and separation to a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Steps that may be taken in a program to analytically define and experimentally test key mineral control concepts in the nutritional and waste processing loops of a CELSS are delineated.

  2. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry...

  3. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry...

  4. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry...

  5. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Crew § 460.11 Environmental control and life support systems. (a) An operator must provide atmospheric... or flight crew must monitor and control the following atmospheric conditions in the inhabited areas... revitalization; (2) Pressure, temperature and humidity; (3) Contaminants that include particulates and...

  6. Gaseous Monitoring for the Integrated Life Support System at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, E. E.; Wilson, Thomas O.

    1967-01-01

    The Integrated Life Support System was conceived to study the problems of integrating regenerative equipment designed to operate in a negligible gravitational field. It is the first to fully integrate the three major contributors to atmospheric contamination: man, machine, and materials.

  7. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R. O.; Ollinger, O.; Venables, A.; Fernandez, E.

    1982-01-01

    Studies with algal cultures which relate to closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) are discussed. A description of a constant cell density apparatus for continuous culture of algae is included. Excretion of algal by-products, and nitrogen utilization and excretion are discussed.

  8. Space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for the design and operation of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basic optimization program, (2) off design performance, (3) radiator/evaporator expendable usage, (4) component weights, and (5) computer program operating procedures.

  9. Microalgae as part of the autotrophic component of life support systems for future planetary bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita

    Research and development of human life support systems incorporating biospheric components performed in the USSR and Russia for over 50 years resulted in a well- structured and rational step-by-step approach to this area of activities. The development of biological life support systems (BLSS) was based on the theory of biocenology advanced by V.N. Sukachev, according to which organic matter turnover is a result of combined activities of plants, animals and microorganisms. Hence, a BLSS with its semi-closed matter turnover needs to incorporate all the components of natural ecosystems, i.e., plants (photoautotrophic organisms), animals, including humans, and microorganisms (heterotrophic organisms). The photoautotrophic component of the BLSS designed to support humans should meet a number of specific requirements, the most important of which are: - high productivity - stability of functional parameters within their normal fluctuation ranges - compatibility with other system components to preclude additional load on them - minimum of un-utilizable compounds in the material balance of the component. The photosynthetic component may consist of lower and higher plants, which may function separately or jointly. In either case, microalgae will play a key role, as they do on Earth, in the production of organic compounds and oxygen as well as in the support of BLSS reliability. The construction of a planetary base begins with the assembly of major engineering facilities whereas the construction of a BLSS starts after the assembly is complete and the base interior is fully separated from the outside environment. At early stages of base operation the autotrophic component of the system will consist of algae alone, which will provide photosynthetic regeneration of air and water. At later stages the autotrophic component will progress from lower to higher plants; when the greenhouses reach adequate sizes, higher plants will occupy the major portion of the autotrophic component

  10. Preliminary design study of a regenerative life support system information management and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The instrumentation requirements for a regenerative life support systems were studied to provide the earliest possible indication of a malfunction that will permit degradation of the environment. Four categories of parameters were investigated: environmental parameters that directly and immediately influence the health and safety of the cabin crew; subsystems' inputs to the cabin that directly maintain the cabin environmental parameters; indications for maintenance or repair; and parameters useful as diagnostic indicators. A data averager concept is introduced which provides a moving average of parameter values that is not influenced by spurious changes, and is convenient for detecting parameter rates of change. A system is included to provide alarms at preselected parameter levels.

  11. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  12. Incorporation of Modified Basic and Advanced Life Support in the Pharmacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masoud, A. N.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Offered as an independent, elective, one-credit course available to second-year pharmacy students, a life support course has been taught at the University of Nebraska Medical Center by instructors certified by the American Heart Association. Course structure and materials, student response, and course evaluation are discussed. (LBH)

  13. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  14. Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) phase 3 simplified integrated test trace contaminant control subsystem performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.

  15. A lunar base reference mission for the phased implementation of bioregenerative life support system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmer, Laura N.; Drews, Michael E.; Lineaweaver, Sean K.; Shipley, Derek E.; Hoehn, A.

    1991-01-01

    Previous design efforts of a cost effective and reliable regenerative life support system (RLSS) provided the foundation for the characterization of organisms or 'biological processors' in engineering terms and a methodology was developed for their integration into an engineered ecological LSS in order to minimize the mass flow imbalances between consumers and producers. These techniques for the design and the evaluation of bioregenerative LSS have now been integrated into a lunar base reference mission, emphasizing the phased implementation of components of such a BLSS. In parallel, a designers handbook was compiled from knowledge and experience gained during past design projects to aid in the design and planning of future space missions requiring advanced RLSS technologies. The lunar base reference mission addresses in particular the phased implementation and integration of BLS parts and includes the resulting infrastructure burdens and needs such as mass, power, volume, and structural requirements of the LSS. Also, operational aspects such as manpower requirements and the possible need and application of 'robotics' were addressed.

  16. THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL APPROACH TO MAXIMIZE WASTE RECOVERY IN A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-11-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures that include carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam (H2O) co-electrolysis process is one of the reduction options that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for energy storage and resource recovery in a life support system. In the first model, products from the INL co-electrolysis process are combined to produce methanol fuel. In the second co-electrolysis, products are separated with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. In both models the fuels are burned with added oxygen to produce H2O and CO2, the original reactants. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than pressure swing adsorption, PSA, because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  17. Mathematical Analysis of a Novel Approach to Maximize Waste Recovery in a Life Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. McKellar; Rick A. Wood; Carl M. Stoots; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna

    2011-02-01

    NASA has been evaluating closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. Two process models were developed to evaluate novel approaches for waster recovery in a life support system. The first is a model INL co-electrolysis process combined with a methanol production process. The second is the INL co-electrolysis process combined with a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process. For both processes, the overall power increases as the syngas ratio, H2/CO, increases because more water is needed to produce more hydrogen at a set CO2 incoming flow rate. The power for the methanol cases is less than the PSA because heat is available from the methanol reactor to preheat the water and carbon dioxide entering the co-electrolysis process.

  18. STS-1 environmental control and life support system. Consumables and thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS)/thermal systems analysis for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) was performed using the shuttle environmental consumables usage requirements evaluation (SECURE) computer program. This program employs a nodal technique utilizing the Fortran Environmental Analysis Routines (FEAR). The output parameters evaluated were consumable quantities, fluid temperatures, heat transfer and rejection, and cabin atmospheric pressure. Analysis of these indicated that adequate margins exist for the nonpropulsive consumables and related thermal environment.

  19. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. The embodiment design of the heat rejection system for the portable life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Francois, Jason; Laughlin, Julia; Phillips, Lee; Carrion, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) provides a suitable environment for the astronaut in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), and the heat rejection system controls the thermal conditions in the space suit. The current PLSS sublimates water to the space environment; therefore, the system loses mass. Since additional supplies of fluid must be available on the Space Shuttle, NASA desires a closed heat rejecting system. This document presents the embodiment design for a radiative plate heat rejection system without mass transfer to the space environment. This project will transform the concept variant into a design complete with material selection, dimensions of the system, layouts of the heat rejection system, suggestions for manufacturing, and financial viability.

  1. An expert system/ion trap mass spectrometry approach for life support systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Wong, Carla M.; Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Yates, Nathan A.; Story, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop sensor and control system technology to monitor air quality for life support have resulted in the development and preliminary testing of a concept based on expert systems and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). An ITMS instrument provides the capability to identify and quantitate a large number of suspected contaminants at trace levels through the use of a variety of multidimensional experiments. An expert system provides specialized knowledge for control, analysis, and decision making. The system is intended for real-time, on-line, autonomous monitoring of air quality. The key characteristics of the system, performance data and analytical capabilities of the ITMS instrument, the design and operation of the expert system, and results from preliminary testing of the system for trace contaminant monitoring are described.

  2. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  3. Publications of the NASA CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.; Solberg, J. L.; Wallace, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Publications on research sponsored by the NASA CELSS (controlled ecological life support systems) Program are listed. The bibliography is divided into four areas: (1) human requirements; (2) food production; (3) waste management; and (4) system management and control. The 210 references cover the period from the inception of the CELSS Program (1979) to the present, as well as some earlier publications during the development of the CELSS Program.

  4. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  5. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  6. Mass-energy metabolic characteristics of algae. [for spacecraft life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, I. V.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical analysis is given for the mass energy characteristics of photosynthesizing algae. An engineering-biological approach to this allows for a detailed analysis of the characteristics for a broad spectrum of environmental situations in which such algae are used as a component of a life support system. Models of such systems are constructed and are employed to demonstrate actual and hypothetical situations. Computers are employed for this purpose.

  7. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-12-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  8. Nutrition and food technology for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Mabel, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Food technology requirements and a nutritional strategy for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) to provide adequate food in an acceptable form in future space missions are discussed. The establishment of nutritional requirements, dietary goals, and a food service system to deliver acceptable foods in a safe and healthy form and the development of research goals and priorities were the main objectives of the study.

  9. Research planning criteria for regenerative life-support systems applicable to space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, J.; Cooper, W.; Deal, P.; Harlan, A.; Karel, M.; Modell, M.; Moe, P.; Phillips, J.; Putnam, D.; Quattrone, P.

    1979-01-01

    The second phase of analyses that were conducted by the Life Support Systems Group of the 1977 NASA Ames Summer Study is described. This phase of analyses included a preliminary review of relevant areas of technology that can contribute to the development of closed life-support systems for space habitats, the identification of research options in these areas of technology, and the development of guidelines for an effective research program. The areas of technology that were studied included: (1) nutrition, diet, and food processing; (2) higher plant agriculture; (3) animal agriculture; (4) waste conversion and resource recovery; and (5) system stability and safety. Results of these analyses, including recommended research options and criteria for establishing research priorities among these many options, are discussed.

  10. Publications of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program 1989-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Janet V.

    1994-01-01

    Publications of research sponsored by the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program are listed. The CELSS program encompasses research and technology with the goal of developing an autonomous bioregenerative life support system, which is based upon the integration of biological and physical/chemical processes, that will produce nutritious and palatable food, potable and hygienic water, and a breathable atmosphere by recycling metabolic and other wastes. This research and technology development is being performed in the areas of biomass production/food processing, waste management, and systems management and control. The bibliography follows these divisions. Principal investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by an asterisk. Publications are identified by a record number corresponding with their entry in the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database, maintained at the George Washington University.

  11. Life support systems analysis and technical trades for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/JPL life support systems analysis (LISSA) software tool was used to perform life support system analysis and technology trades for a Lunar Outpost. The life support system was modeled using a chemical process simulation program on a steady-state, one-person, daily basis. Inputs to the LiSSA model include metabolic balance load data, hygiene load data, technology selection, process operational assumptions and mission parameter assumptions. A baseline set of technologies has been used against which comparisons have been made by running twenty-two cases with technology substitutions. System, subsystem, and technology weights and powers are compared for a crew of 4 and missions of 90 and 600 days. By assigning a weight value to power, equivalent system weights are compared. Several less-developed technologies show potential advantages over the baseline. Solid waste treatment technologies show weight and power disadvantages but one could have benefits associated with the reduction of hazardous wastes and very long missions. Technology development towards reducing the weight of resupplies and lighter materials of construction was recommended. It was also recommended that as technologies are funded for development, contractors should be required to generate and report data useful for quantitative technology comparisons.

  12. Development of a complex experimental system for controlled ecological life support technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Feng, H.; Ai, W.; Qin, L.; Deng, Y.

    A complex experimental system for controlled ecological life support technique can be used as a test platform for plant-man integrated experiments and material close-loop experiments of the controlled ecological life support system CELSS Based on lots of plan investigation plan design and drawing design the system was built through the steps of processing installation and joined debugging The system contains a volume of about 40 0m 3 its interior atmospheric parameters such as temperature relative humidity oxygen concentration carbon dioxide concentration total pressure lighting intensity photoperiod water content in the growing-matrix and ethylene concentration are all monitored and controlled automatically and effectively Its growing system consists of two rows of racks along its left-and-right sides separately and each of which holds two up-and-down layers eight growing beds hold a total area of about 8 4m 2 and their vertical distance can be adjusted automatically and independently lighting sources consist of both red and blue light-emitting diodes Successful development of the test platform will necessarily create an essential condition for next large-scale integrated study of controlled ecological life support technique

  13. Design of a controlled ecological life support system - Regenerative technologies are necessary for implementation in a lunar base CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1992-01-01

    Issues involved in designing a life support system for a new era of space exploration are outlined. A conceptual design is described for a controlled ecological life support system developed for a lunar base. In situ resource utilization for such a system is examined.

  14. Problems associated with the utilization of algae in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, M. M.; Karel, M.; Radmer, R.

    1984-01-01

    A workshop was conducted to identify the potential problems associated with the use of microalgae in biorregenerative life support systems, and to identify algae rlated research issues that must be addressed through space flight experimentation. Major questions to be resolved relate to the choice of algal species for inclusion in a bioregenerative life support system, their long term behavior in the space environment, and the nature of the techniques required for the continuous growth of algae on the scale required. Consideration was given to the problems associated with the conversion of algal biomass into edible components. Specific concerns were addressed and alternative transformation processes identified and compared. The workshop identified the following major areas to be addressed by space flight experimentation: (1) long term culture stability, (2) optimal design of algal growth reactors, and (3) post growth harvesting and processing in the space environment.

  15. Environmental control and life support - Partially closed system will save big money

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Although the NASA space station has not yet been completely defined, realistic estimates may be made of the environmental control and life support system requirements entailed by a crew of eight, a resupply interval of 90 days, an initial launch which includes expendables for the first resupply interval, 7.86 lb/day of water per person, etc. An appraisal of these requirements is presented which strongly suggests the utility of a partially closed life support system. Such a scheme would give the crew high quality water to drink, and recycle nonpotable water from hand washing, bathing, clothes and dish washing, and urinal flushing. The excess recovery process water is electrolyzed to provide metabolic and leakage oxygen. The crew would drink electrolysis water and atmospheric humidity control moisture-derived water.

  16. Reduced Pressure Atmosphere Impacts on Life Support and Internal Thermal Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2006-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate atmosphere for a spacecraft and mission is a complicated problem. NASA has previously used atmospheres from Earth normal composition and pressure to pure oxygen at low pressures. Future exploration missions will likely strike a compromise somewhere between the two, trying to balance operation impacts on EVA, safety concerns for flammability and health risks, life science and physiology questions, and other issues. Life support systems and internal thermal control systems are areas that will have to respond to changes in the atmospheric composition and pressure away from the Earthlike conditions currently used on the International Space Station. This paper examines life support and internal thermal control technologies currently in use or in development to find what impacts in design, efficiency and performance, or feasibility might be expected. Understanding these changes should be helpful in producing better results during future trade studies or mission analyses.

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010 - 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  18. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2002-2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiliams, David E.; Lewis, John F.; Gentry, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between April 2002 and March 2003. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continued on the Phase 3 pressurized elements with Node 3 just completing its final design review so that it can proceed towards manufacturing and the continued manufacturing of the regenerative ECLS equipment that will be integrated into Node 3.

  19. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  20. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  1. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  2. Evaluation of engineering foods for closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    A nutritionally adequate and acceptable diet was evaluated and developed. A design for a multipurpose food plant is discussed. The types and amounts of foods needed to be regenerated in a partially closed ecological life support system (PCELSS) were proposed. All steps of food processes to be utilized in the multipurpose food plant of PCELSS were also considered. Equipment specifications, simplification of the proposed processes, and food waste treatment were analyzed.

  3. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  4. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  5. Chemical and microbiological experimentation for development of environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, G. A.; Wilson, M. E.; Cole, H. E.; Traweek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Microbiological techniques are under study with a view to the identification of viable microorganisms in liquid cultures, improve the identification of stressed organisms, and determine the biocidal activity of iodine and other chemicals on isolates from recycled water. A quality-assurance program has been implemented to validate data employed in making decisions concerning engineering and human health and safety. Analytical laboratory refinements will strongly aid the development of environmental control and life-support systems.

  6. A physicochemical environmental control/life support system for the Mars transit vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedej, Melaine M.

    1986-01-01

    The environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) must be small and maintenance free as possible to allow maximum mission flexibility. A physiocochemical ECLSS concept similar in many ways to several of the partially closed ECLSS concepts proposed for the space station is discussed. However, this concept elmininates several of the space station ECLSS subsystems and potentially eliminates the use of cryogenics and high-pressure gaseous storage.

  7. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System: Verification for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMA 1 and PMA 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and PMA 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and the detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for the PMAs.

  8. Aircrew/Groundcrew Life Support Systems Research. Volume 1: CLIN 0001 Research Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Barbara J. Stegmann, Dr. James T. Webb, and Ms. Janet F. Wiegman . The author cross-reference in Part D allows the reader to find the task report...following Technical Report. Krutz RW Jr, Nesthus TE, Scott WR, Webb JT, Noles CJ, Wiegman JF, Chavez RA, Eshaghian B. Aircrew life support systems...Beoch EL, Wiegman JF. Metabolic bases of +Gz-duration tolerance. 13th Annual Meeting of the IUPS Commission on Gravitational Physiology, Sept 1991, San

  9. Requirements for Planetary Outpost Life-Support Systems and the Possible Use of In Situ Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, John E.; Ming, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    If humans are ever to live and work on the Moon or Mars for extended periods of time, the operation of regenerative life-support systems at the planetary outposts will be a critical requirement. The substantial amount of materials consumed by humans and the inevitable waste products make open-loop life-support systems and resupply missions (as used in Space Shuttle and Mir operations) impractical and expensive. Natural resources found on the Moon and Mars could be used in conjunction with regenerative life support systems to further reduce the amount of material that would need to be delivered from Earth. There have been numerous studies and experiments conducted on the production of O from regolith materials on the Moon and from the atmosphere of Mars. One or several of these processes could undoubtedly be used to produce the O required by the crews at planetary outposts. Water is required in the greatest quantities, primarily for tasks such as personal hygiene and clothes washing, and it will be the most precious consumable. Again, several process have been described to produce water on the Moon using solar-wind implanted H and O, and if water ice can be found and mined at the lunar poles, another source of water may be available.

  10. Engineering stategies and implications of using higher plants for throttling gas and water exchange in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Corey, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering stategies for advanced life support systems to be used on Lunar and Mars bases involve a wide spectrum of approaches. These range from purely physical-chemical life support strategies to purely biological approaches. Within the context of biological based systems, a bioengineered system can be devised that would utilize the metabolic mechanisms of plants to control the rates of CO2 uptake and O2 evolution (photosynthesis) and water production (transpiration). Such a mechanism of external engineering control has become known as throttling. Research conducted at the John F. Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project has demonstrated the potential of throttling these fluxes by changing environmental parameters affecting the plant processes. Among the more effective environmental throttles are: light and CO2 concentration for controllingthe rate of photsynthesis and humidity and CO2 concentration for controlling transpiration. Such a bioengineered strategy implies control mechanisms that in the past have not been widely attributed to life support systems involving biological components and suggests a broad range of applications in advanced life support system design.

  11. Adsorption and Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Bauman, Liese; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water, as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water desirable. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. Adsorption processes are frequently good candidates for separation and purification in space by virtue of such characteristics as gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: carbon dioxide separation from cabin air, gas-phase trace contaminant control, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each application are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may have additional applications, such as control of greenhouse gas composition and purification of hydroponic solutions, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption

  12. End tidal CO2 monitoring in condition of constant ventilation: a useful guide during advanced cardiac life support.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, M; Andrlík, M; Necas, E

    2006-01-01

    Success of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) depends on several factors: character and severity of the primary insult, time interval between cardiac arrest and effective basic life support (BLS) and the ensuing ACLS, patient's general condition before the insult, environmental circumstances and efficacy of BLS and ACLS. From these factors, only the efficacy of ACLS is under control of emergency personnel. The end tidal partial pressure of CO2 (P(ET)CO2) has been shown to be an indicator of the efficiency of ACLS and a general prognostic marker. In this study P(ET)CO2 was monitored during out-of hospital ACLS in three cases of cardiac arrest of different aetiology. The aetiology included lung oedema, tension pneumothorax and high voltage electric injury. P(ET)CO2 served for adjustments of ACLS. In these three cases the predictive value of P(ET)CO2 monitoring corresponded to previously reported recommendations.

  13. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System Using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on MATLAB, V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) since 2004 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large, ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into twelve distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS Simulation and several different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied and the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system are determined. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to a achieve a very low CO2 concentration in the cabin atmosphere.

  14. Assessment of the Impacts of ACLS on the ISS Life Support System using Dynamic Simulations in V-HAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puetz, Daniel; Olthoff, Claas; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Closed Loop System (ACLS) is currently under development by Airbus Defense and Space and is slated for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. The addition of new hardware into an already complex system such as the ISS life support system (LSS) always poses operational risks. It is therefore important to understand the impacts ACLS will have on the existing systems to ensure smooth operations for the ISS. This analysis can be done by using dynamic computer simulations and one possible tool for such a simulation is Virtual Habitat (V-HAB). Based on Matlab (Registered Trademark) V-HAB has been under development at the Institute of Astronautics of the Technical University Munich (TUM) since 2006 and in the past has been successfully used to simulate the ISS life support systems. The existing V-HAB ISS simulation model treated the interior volume of the space station as one large ideally-stirred container. This model was improved to allow the calculation of the atmospheric composition inside the individual modules of the ISS by splitting it into ten distinct volumes. The virtual volumes are connected by a simulation of the inter-module ventilation flows. This allows for a combined simulation of the LSS hardware and the atmospheric composition aboard the ISS. A dynamic model of ACLS is added to the ISS simulation and different operating modes for both ACLS and the existing ISS life support systems are studied to determine the impacts of ACLS on the rest of the system. The results suggest that the US, Russian and ACLS CO2 systems can operate at the same time without impeding each other. Furthermore, based on the results of this analysis, the US and ACLS Sabatier systems can be operated in parallel as well to achieve the highest possible CO2 recycling together with a low CO2 concentration.

  15. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  16. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  17. The environmental control and life-support system for a lunar base: What drives its design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and briefly discuss some of the ground rules and mission scenario details that become drivers of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system design and of the logistics related to the design. This paper is written for mission planners and non-ECLS system engineers to inform them of the details that will be important to the ECLS engineer when the design phase is reached. In addition, examples illustrate the impact of some selected mission characteristics on the logistics associated with ECLS systems. The last section of this paper focuses on the ECLS system technology development sequence and highlights specific portions that need emphasis.

  18. The CELSS Antarctic Analog Project: an advanced life support testbed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Straight, C L; Bubenheim, D L; Bates, M E; Flynn, M T

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its fundamental objective is to develop, deploy and operate a testbed of NASA CELSS technologies and life support approaches at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, located at latitude 90 degrees S, longitude 0 degrees. The goal of NASA's CELSS Program is to develop technologies and systems that will allow spacefaring scientists and explorers to carry out long duration extraterrestrial missions, leading ultimately to permanent habitation of the Solar System, without total dependence on a costly resupply system. A CELSS would do this by providing regenerated life support materials (air, food and water) and by processing "waste" materials into useful resources. This will be accomplished using biological and physical/chemical techniques in a nearly closed environmental habitation system. CELSS technologies also have great implications for application to terrestrial systems with intrinsic transferability to society at large. The CELSS Program intends to provide opportunities for the transfer of these systems and technologies outside the US Space Program, to applications within the American economy as space technology spin-offs.

  19. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  20. An expert systems approach to automated fault management in a regenerative life support subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, J. T.; Lance, N., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes FIXER, a prototype expert system for automated fault management in a regenerative life support subsystem typical of Space Station applications. The development project provided an evaluation of the use of expert systems technology to enhance controller functions in space subsystems. The software development approach permitted evaluation of the effectiveness of direct involvement of the expert in design and development. The approach also permitted intensive observation of the knowledge and methods of the expert. This paper describes the development of the prototype expert system and presents results of the evaluation.

  1. A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

  2. Exergy Based Analysis for the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Kirk A.; Nelson, George J.; Mesmer, Bryan L.; Watson, Michael D.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    When optimizing the performance of complex systems, a logical area for concern is improving the efficiency of useful energy. The energy available for a system to perform work is defined as a system's energy content. Interactions between a system's subsystems and the surrounding environment can be accounted for by understanding various subsystem energy efficiencies. Energy balance of reactants and products, and enthalpies and entropies, can be used to represent a chemical process. Heat transfer energy represents heat loads, and flow energy represents system flows and filters. These elements allow for a system level energy balance. The energy balance equations are developed for the subsystems of the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The use of these equations with system information would allow for the calculation of the energy efficiency of the system, enabling comparisons of the ISS ECLS system to other systems as well as allows for an integrated systems analysis for system optimization.

  3. Compact Multi-Gas Monitor for Life Support Systems Control in Space: Evaluation Under Realistic Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Jesus; Chullen, Cinda; Mendoza, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space life support systems require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical gas components. A luminescence-based optical flow-through cell to monitor carbon dioxide, oxygen, and humidity has been developed and was demonstrated using bench top instrumentation under environmental conditions relevant to portable life support systems, including initially pure oxygen atmosphere, pressure range from 3.5 to 14.7 psi, temperature range from 50 F to 150 F, and humidity from dry to 100% RH and under liquid water saturation. This paper presents the first compact readout unit for these optical sensors, designed for the volume, power, and weight restrictions of a spacesuit portable Life support system and the analytical characterization of the optical sensors interrogated by the novel optoelectronic system. Trace gas contaminants in a space suit, originating from hardware and material off-gassing and crew member metabolism, are from many chemical families. The result is a gas mix much more complex than the pure oxygen fed into the spacesuit, which may interfere with gas sensor readings. The paper also presents an evaluation of optical sensor performance when exposed to the most significant trace gases reported to be found in spacesuits. The studies were conducted with the spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for those trace gases and the calculated 8-hr. concentrations resulting from having no trace contaminant control system in the ventilation loop. Finally, a profile of temperature, pressure, humidity, and gas composition for a typical EVA mission has been defined, and the performance of sensors operated repeatedly under simulated EVA mission conditions has been studied.

  4. Controlled ecological life support systems: Development of a plant growth module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Mel M.; Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    An effort was made to begin defining the scientific and technical requirements for the design and construction of a ground-based plant growth facility. In particular, science design criteria for the Plant Growth Module (PGM) of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) were determined in the following areas: (1) irradiation parameters and associated equipment affecting plant growth; (2) air flow; (3) planting, culture, and harvest techniques; (4) carbon dioxide; (5) temperature and relative humidity; (6) oxygen; (7) construction materials and access; (8) volatile compounds; (9) bacteria, sterilization, and filtration; (10) nutrient application systems; (11) nutrient monitoring; and (12) nutrient pH and conductivity.

  5. Technology demonstrator program for Space Station Environmental Control Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Alan M.; Platt, Gordon K.; Claunch, William C.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives and requirements of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Demonstration Program are discussed. The program consists of a comparative test and a 90-day manned system test to evaluate an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the comparative test phase, 14 types of subsystems which perform oxygen and water reclamation functions are to be examined in terms of performance maintenance/service requirements, reliability, and safety. The manned chamber testing phase involves a four person crew using a partial ECLSS for 90 days. The schedule for the program and the program hardware requirements are described.

  6. Lunar Surface Scenarios: Habitation and Life Support Systems for a Pressurized Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Hanford, Anthony; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Pressurized rovers will be a critical component of successful lunar exploration to enable safe investigation of sites distant from the outpost location. A pressurized rover is a complex system with the same functions as any other crewed vehicle. Designs for a pressurized rover need to take into account significant constraints, a multitude of tasks to be performed inside and out, and the complexity of life support systems to support the crew. In future studies, pressurized rovers should be given the same level of consideration as any other vehicle occupied by the crew.

  7. Integration, design, and construction of a CELSS breadboard facility for bioregenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R.; Knott, W.; Buchanan, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Design criteria for the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), preliminary operating procedures, and requirements for the future development of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) are discussed. CELSS, which uses a bioregenerative system, includes the following three major units: (1) a biomass production component to grow plants under controlled conditions; (2) food processing components to derive maximum edible content from all plant parts; and (3) waste management components to recover and recycle all solids, liquids, and gases necessary to support life. The current status of the CELSS breadboard facility is reviewed; a block diagram of a simplified version of CELSS and schematic diagrams of the BPS are included.

  8. A prototype computer-aided modelling tool for life-support system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisig, H. A.; Lee, Tae-Yeong; Little, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Based on the canonical decomposition of physical-chemical-biological systems, a prototype kernel has been developed to efficiently model alternative life-support systems. It supports (1) the work in an interdisciplinary group through an easy-to-use mostly graphical interface, (2) modularized object-oriented model representation, (3) reuse of models, (4) inheritance of structures from model object to model object, and (5) model data base. The kernel is implemented in Modula-II and presently operates on an IBM PC.

  9. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  10. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  11. Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

  12. Analysis of a spacecraft life support system for a Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Czupalla, M; Aponte, V; Chappell, S; Klaus, D

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a trade study conducted as part of the Fall 2002 semester Spacecraft Life Support System Design course (ASEN 5116) in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at the University of Colorado. It presents an analysis of current life support system technologies and a preliminary design of an integrated system for supporting humans during transit to and on the surface of the planet Mars. This effort was based on the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for the human exploration of Mars [NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM) for Mars, Addendum 3.0, from the world wide web: http://exploration.jsc.nasa.gov/marsref/contents.html.]. The integrated design was broken into four subsystems: Water Management, Atmosphere Management, Waste Processing, and Food Supply. The process started with the derivation of top-level requirements from the DRM. Additional system and subsystem level assumptions were added where clarification was needed. Candidate technologies were identified and characterized based on performance factors. Trade studies were then conducted for each subsystem. The resulting technologies were integrated into an overall design solution using mass flow relationships. The system level trade study yielded two different configurations--one for the transit to Mars and another for the surface habitat, which included in situ resource utilization. Equivalent System Mass analyses were used to compare each design against an open-loop (non-regenerable) baseline system.

  13. Comparison of gravisensing organs in different planktonic organisms - from evolution to life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschoon Ribeiro, Bernard; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Laforsch, Christian

    Bioregenerative life support systems are critical components for long-term human space travel, as they provide processes for establishing the components for basic consumable biomass production, and therefore saving costs for transport and technical equipment otherwise necessary. The high reproductive output and the essential role in aquatic foodwebs suggest especially aquatic zooplankton species to be suitable for such bioregenerative life support systems. Considering the broad range of gravity-perception systems - from sensilla based structures up to statocyst systems - there is still a considerable lack of knowledge for zooplankton species in both marine and freshwater species regarding this aspect. Hence, the purpose of the current project is to develop a highly representative comparison of gravity-perception systems in selected zooplankton organisms with special emphasis on their evolutionary history. In addition, sensitive windows for graviperception in ontogeny as well as thresholds of graviperception will be analysed in selected organisms. Moreover, ground based studies will be performed to investigate the effects of reduced gravity on life history of the selected zooplankton species. The outcome will not only foster the selection of zooplankton species for future live support systems. Furthermore, it will significantly increase knowledge on the evolution of graviperception in aquatic ecosystems where gravity is often the only reliable cue for orientation, and may therefore elucidate general gravity-related mechanisms valid for other organisms as well.

  14. Evaluation of the Microbial Population in the Multibiological Life Support System Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuming; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

    In order to develop and evaluate a ground-based bioregenerative life support system satisfying half of one crew member's requirement towards O2 , Multibiological Life Support System Exper-iments (MLSSE) have been conducted. The MLSSE involved humans participating in the gas exchange with the closed equipment simulating the future extraterrestrial life support systems, which included three phases. The Phase I test involved one person participating in the gas exchange with lettuce in plant chamber as the primary means of air revitalization for 3 months. The Phase II test involved one person participating in the gas exchange with lettuce in plant chamber and micoalgae in bioreactor as the means of air revitalization for 1 month. In the Phase III test, silkworm was introduced into animal chamber for 2 months based on Phase II. The microbial dynamics in the closed chambers were evaluated during the whole experiments. The surfaces, water, and air of closed equipment were sampled for microbial content during the whole experiments. In general, the numbers of microbes in the chambers slowly increased with length of occupation. Compared with Phase I, the numbers of microbes of Phase II ob-viously increased, however, the numbers of microbes of Phase III did not increase relative to Phase II. The types of microbes found on the surfaces and in the air in all the experimental phases were similar. The most common bacteria were Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., as well as Sphingomonas sp., with Pencillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. the most common fungi. A few opportunistic pathogens were also determined, but neither phase had levels of microbes that would be considered an occupational health threat.

  15. A bioreactor system for the nitrogen loop in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulmon, M. M.; Reardon, K. F.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1996-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration, the need to recycle waste into useful compounds rises dramatically. This problem can be addressed by the development of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) (i.e., Engineered Closed/ Controlled Eco-Systems (ECCES)), consisting of human and plant modules. One of the waste streams leaving the human module is urine. In addition to the reclamation of water from urine, recovery of the nitrogen is important because it is an esssential nutrient for the plant module. A 3-step biological process for the recycling of nitrogenous waste (urea) is proposed. A packed-bed bioreactor system for this purpose was modeled, and the issues of reaction step segregation, reactor type and volume, support particle size, and pressure drop were addressed. Based on minimization of volume, a bioreactor system consisting of a plug flow immobilized urease reactor, a completely mixed flow immobilized cell reactor to convert ammonia to nitrite, and a plug flow immobilized cell reactor to produce nitrate from nitrite is recommended. It is apparent that this 3-step bioprocess meets the requirements for space applications.

  16. A bioreactor system for the nitrogen loop in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulmon, M. M.; Reardon, K. F.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1996-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration, the need to recycle waste into useful compounds rises dramatically. This problem can be addressed by the development of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) (i.e., Engineered Closed/Controlled Eco-Systems (ECCES)), consisting of human and plant modules. One of the waste streams leaving the human module is urine. In addition to the reclamation of water from urine, recovery of the nitrogen is important because it is an essential nutrient for the plant module. A 3-step biological process for the recycling of nitrogenous waste (urea) is proposed. A packed-bed bioreactor system for this purpose was modeled, and the issues of reaction step segregation, reactor type and volume, support particle size, and pressure drop were addressed. Based on minimization of volume, a bioreactor system consisting of a plug flow immobilized urease reactor, a completely mixed flow immobilized cell reactor to convert ammonia to nitrite, and a plug flow immobilized cell reactor to produce nitrate from nitrite is recommended. It is apparent that this 3-step bioprocess meets the requirements for space applications.

  17. Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Maxwell M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary function of any life support system is to keep the crew alive by providing breathable air, potable water, edible food, and for disposal of waste. In a well-balanced or regenerative life support system, the various components are each using what is available and producing what is needed by other components so that there will always be enough chemicals in the form in which they are needed. Humans are not just users, but also one of the participating parts of the system. If a system could continuously recycle the original chemicals, this would make it virtually a Closed-loop Habitation (CH). Some difficulties in trying to create a miniature version of a CH are briefly discussed. In a miniature CH, a minimal structure must be provided and the difference must be made up by artificial parts such as physicochemical systems that perform the conversions that the Earth can achieve naturally. To study the interactions of these parts, a computer model was designed that simulates a miniature CH with emphasis on the air revitalization part. It is called the Closed-loop Habitation Air Revitalization Model (CHARM).

  18. Closed ecological life support system (CELSS) autonomy, reliability, and human factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, V.; Fowler, P.; Wheeler, R.; Johnson, S.

    A general model for closed material cycling in a CELSS is developed using a "minimal" theoretical (mathematical) approach. Along with more traditional inputs such as time of closure / mission length, consumable commodities stocks, system stoichiometry and others, the model also considers life support system (LSS) autonomy, reliability, and human factors aspects. The following conclusions were derived: 1) the presence of human crews will decrease the functional stability of the system; 2) the traditional functions of crews in a small LSS will have to change to where LSS maintenance is given the highest priority in terms of crew time; and 3) there are ranges in the theoretical space of system variables where stability varies depending on the interactions between the crew and the LSS. The model's findings suggest a somewhat new approach where a certain level of crew comfort and time allocation might be sacrificed for life support system maintenance. The developed approach provides some basis for long-term space mission planning and general estimates for CELSS design.

  19. Potentialities of theoretical and experimental prediction of Life Support Systems reliability.

    PubMed

    Bartsev, S I; Okhonin, V A

    1999-01-01

    To develop and design Life Support Systems it is necessary to evaluate their reliability. However direct experiments take much time, are very expensive, and therefore are practically impossible. Promising way is to use approximate estimates of reliability, which need essentially fewer amounts of experimental data. Two types of estimates of Life Support System reliability--additive and multiplicative ones are considered in the paper. Additive estimate is based on the assumption that total system failure probability is low and therefore it can be considered as the sum of failure probability of separate units. Additive approach allows obtaining near lower-bounded estimate of failure probability. Multiplicative estimate allows evaluating the possibility of system catastrophe due to simultaneous effect of several factors when each of them separately is not dangerous. Evaluation shows that the possible error of reliability forecast increases with the increasing of number of external factors faster than exponential function. An illustration of the ecological similarity approach as promising tool for providing estimation of full-scale system reliability by means the set of small similar experimental models.

  20. Architectures and Evaluation for Adjustable Control Autonomy for Space-Based Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, a number of automation applications for control of crew life support systems have been developed and evaluated in the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This paper surveys progress on an adjustable autonomous control architecture for situations where software and human operators work together to manage anomalies and other system problems. When problems occur, the level of control autonomy can be adjusted, so that operators and software agents can work together on diagnosis and recovery. In 1997 adjustable autonomy software was developed to manage gas transfer and storage in a closed life support test. Four crewmembers lived and worked in a chamber for 91 days, with both air and water recycling. CO2 was converted to O2 by gas processing systems and wheat crops. With the automation software, significantly fewer hours were spent monitoring operations. System-level validation testing of the software by interactive hybrid simulation revealed problems both in software requirements and implementation. Since that time, we have been developing multi-agent approaches for automation software and human operators, to cooperatively control systems and manage problems. Each new capability has been tested and demonstrated in realistic dynamic anomaly scenarios, using the hybrid simulation tool.

  1. Activation of a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) breadboard facility - Wheat growth studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, William M.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will include subsystems for biomass production, food processing, and waste management in space. This paper discusses the CELSS Breadboard program, which is a research project for integration and evaluation of concepts and techniques of the CELSS facility, with special attention given to the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). The design of the BPC and of its subsystems for nutrient delivery, atmospheric control, and computer control are discussed together with the subsystem control and monitoring parameter requirements. Results from preliminary wheat-growth tests in the BPC are included.

  2. Considerations Regarding the Development of an Environmental Control and Life Support System for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is engaged in early architectural analyses and trade studies aimed at identifying requirements, predicting performance and resource needs, characterizing mission constraints and sensitivities, and guiding technology development planning needed to conduct a successful human exploration campaign of the lunar surface. Conceptual designs and resource estimates for environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) within pressurized lunar surface habitats and rovers have been considered and compared in order to support these lunar campaign studies. This paper will summarize those concepts and some of the more noteworthy considerations that will likely remain as key drivers in the evolution of the lunar surface ECLSS architecture.

  3. Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system phase 3 simplified integrated test detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.

  4. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  5. [Possibility of using higher plants in a life-support system on the moon].

    PubMed

    Terskov, I A; Lisovskiĭ, G M; Ushakova, S A; Parshina, O V; Moiseenko, L P

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of repeated termination of plant vegetation by prolonged darkness approximating the lunar night. This may be helpful for the incorporation of higher plants into the life support system of lunar bases, the solar light being used for illumination. In this connection vegetables (beet Bordeaux, turnip Petrovskaya, carrot Chantanet, dill, radish Virovsky white) and wheat (variety Sonora) were cultivated during the lunar light-dark cycle (i. e. 15 day light: 15 day dark). The experiments demonstrated that traditional plant products can be obtained under the conditions of lunar photoperiod. Grain of wheat grown during the lunar photoperiod were tested as seed material for further cultivation under similar conditions.

  6. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.

  7. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  8. The use of membranes in life support systems for long-duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, S. B.; Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of membrane processes in a long-duration manned mission's regenerative environmental control and life-support system is presently discussed, in the cases of treatment for hygiene water, urine, humidity condensate, and phase-change distillate, as well as of water-vapor and CO2 removal from spacecraft air. Attention is given to the design of a tube-side-feed hollow-fiber module for membrane support and fluids-feed, as well as to the schematics for a membrane-based urine processor, an air recirculator, a potable-water producer, and a two-stage urine treater.

  9. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Rapid Cycle Amine Repackaging and Sub-Scale Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Rivera, Fatonia L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to meet requirements for an extravehicular activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for exploration. The PLSS Ventilation Subsystem transports clean, conditioned oxygen to the pressure garment for space suit pressurization and human consumption, and recycles the ventilation gas, removing carbon dioxide, humidity, and trace contaminants. This paper provides an overview of the development efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to redesign the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister and valve assembly into a radial flow, cylindrical package for carbon dioxide and humidity control of the PLSS ventilation loop. Future work is also discussed.

  10. New Direction of NASA Exploration Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Lawson, B. Michael; Barta, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's activities in life support Research and Technology Development (R&TD) have changed in both focus and scope following implementation of recommendations from the Exploration System Architecture Study (ESAS). The limited resources available and the compressed schedule to conduct life support R&TD have required that future efforts address the needs of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and Lunar Outpost (LO). Advanced Life Support (ALS) efforts related to long duration planetary bases have been deferred or canceled. This paper describes the scope of the new Exploration Life Support (ELS) project; how it differs from ALS, and how it supports critical needs for the CEV, LSAM and LO. In addition, this paper provides rationale for changes in the scope and focus of technical content within ongoing life support R&TD activities.

  11. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life s