Science.gov

Sample records for advanced lighting control

  1. Advanced controls for light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, S. G.; Edelen, A. L.; Milton, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a summary of our team's recent efforts in developing adaptive, artificial intelligence-inspired techniques specifically to address several control challenges that arise in machines/systems including those in particle accelerator systems. These techniques can readily be adapted to other systems such as lasers, beamline optics, etc… We are not at all suggesting that we create an autonomous system, but create a system with an intelligent control system, that can continually use operational data to improve itself and combines both traditional and advanced techniques. We believe that the system performance and reliability can be increased based on our findings. Another related point is that the controls sub-system of an overall system is usually not the heart of the system architecture or design process. More bluntly, often times all of the peripheral systems are considered as secondary to the main system components in the architecture design process because it is assumed that the controls system will be able to "fix" challenges found later with the sub-systems for overall system operation. We will show that this is not always the case and that it took an intelligent control application to overcome a sub-system's challenges. We will provide a recent example of such a "fix" with a standard controller and with an artificial intelligence-inspired controller. A final related point to be covered is that of system adaptation for requirements not original to a system's original design.

  2. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1991-11-11

    This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed.

  3. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.; Brown, W. Jr.; Cork, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), under construction for the past seven years, has become operational. The accelerator has been successfully commissioned using a control system based on hundreds of controllers of our own design and high performance personal computers which are the operator interface. The first beamlines are being commissioned using a control system based on VME hardware and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software. The two systems are being integrated, and this paper reports on the current work being done.

  4. Design developments for advanced general aviation aircraft. [using Fly By Light Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Gomer, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Design study results are presented for two advanced general-aviation aircraft incorporating fly-by-light/fly-by-wire controls and digital avionics and cockpit displays. The design exercise proceeded from a database of information derived from a market survey for the 4-10 passenger aircraft range. Pusher and tractor propeller configurations were treated, and attention was given to the maximization of passenger comfort. 'Outside-in' tooling methods were assumed for the primary structures of both configurations, in order to achieve surface tolerances which maximize the rearward extent of laminar flow.

  5. Advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, R. C.

    1983-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a new synchrotron radiation source which was proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The ALS will be a key component in a major new research facility, the National Center for Advanced Materials. The ALS will consist of an electron linear accelerator, a booster synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines. Most of all photon beam lines will originate from wiggler and undulator magnets placed in the 12 long straight sections of the ALS. A very low electron beam emittance will provide photon beams of unsurpassed spectral brilliance from specially-designed undulators, and a high radiofrequency will produce very short pulse lengths.

  6. Stability and control issues associated with lightly loaded rotors autorotating in high advance ratio flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigsby, James Michael

    Interest in high speed rotorcraft has directed attention toward the slowed-rotor, high advance ratio compound autogyro concept as evidenced by the current DARPA Heliplane project. The behavior of partially unloaded rotors, autorotating at high advance ratio is not well understood and numerous technical issues must be resolved before the vehicle can be realized. Autorotation in helicopters usually indicates an emergency loss of power. For the concept vehicle autorotation is the normal working state of the rotor. The necessity for a reduction in rotor speed with increasing flight speed results in high advance ratio operation where the retreating side of the rotor is dominated by the reverse flow region. Further, rotor speed changes also affect the rotor dynamics and the associated hub moments generated by cyclic flapping. The result is rotor characteristics that vary widely depending on advance ratio. In the present work, rotor behavior is characterized in terms of issues relevant to the control system conceptual design and the rotor impact on the intrinsic vehicle flight dynamics characteristics. A series of trim, stability, and control analyses, based on features inherent in the concept vehicle, are performed. Trends are identified through parametric variation of rotor operating conditions, augmented by inclusion of the sensitivities to blade mass and blade stiffness properties. In this research, non-linear models, including the rotor speed degree of freedom, were created and analyzed with FLIGHTLAB(TM) rotorcraft modeling software. Performance analysis for rotors trimmed to autorotate with zero average hub pitching and rolling moments indicates reduced rotor thrust is achieved primarily through rotor speed reduction at lower shaft incidence angle, and imposing hub moment trim constraints results in a thrust increment sign reversal with collective pitch angle above advance ratio mu ˜ 1.0. Swashplate control perturbations from trim indicate an increase in control

  7. Advanced lighting guidelines: 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eley, C.; Tolen, T.M.; Benya, J.R.; Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 Advanced Lighting Guidelines document consists of twelve guidelines that provide an overview of specific lighting technologies and design application techniques utilizing energy-efficient lighting practice. Lighting Design Practice assesses energy-efficient lighting strategies, discusses lighting issues, and explains how to obtain quality lighting design and consulting services. Luminaires and Lighting Systems surveys luminaire equipment designed to take advantage of advanced technology lamp products and includes performance tables that allow for accurate estimation of luminaire light output and power input. The additional ten guidelines -- Computer-Aided Lighting Design, Energy-Efficient Fluorescent Ballasts, Full-Size Fluorescent Lamps, Compact Fluorescent Lamps, Tungsten-Halogen Lamps, Metal Halide and HPS Lamps, Daylighting and Lumen Maintenance, Occupant Sensors, Time Scheduling Systems, and Retrofit Control Technologies -- each provide a product technology overview, discuss current products on the lighting equipment market, and provide application techniques. This document is intended for use by electric utility personnel involved in lighting programs, lighting designers, electrical engineers, architects, lighting manufacturers` representatives, and other lighting professionals.

  8. Recent Advances in Lighting Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapatovich, Walter P.

    2004-10-01

    Lighting is a global industry supplying a wide array of devices and systems that emit light ranging from incandescent lamps to light emitting diodes to electric discharge lamps. Electric discharge lamps are the most familiar plasma devices to most people. This work focuses on plasma light sources, some advances in this area and recent trends. Plasma light sources fall into two broad categories, namely low pressure and high pressure. The low-pressure lamps operate in the range of 40 to 500 Pa while the high-pressure lamps operate in the range of 0.1 to 15 MPa. The corresponding electron temperatures are about 1eV and 0.5 eV for the low and high-pressure lamps respectively. High-pressure lamps are treated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium wherein the gas temperature is equilibrated with the electron temperature. They are often called high intensity discharge lamps because of their intrinsically high radiance. Within these two broad categories are many subgroups, perhaps the most important being mercury and non-mercury containing lamps. An example of a low pressure, mercury-containing lamp is the ubiquitous fluorescent lamp. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these lamps center around inductive excitation techniques and two-photon phosphor development. The plasma research on mercury-free low-pressure lamps is focused on finding substitutes for a mercury-rare gas discharge. Several ultraviolet emitting candidates have been explored which emit both UV and visible. Longer wavelength UV is of interest because of the parallel development of phosphors mated with LED excitation wavelengths around 380nm. Several examples will be discussed. There have been major advances in high intensity discharge lamps with and without mercury. Mercury containing metal halide lamps are now being fabricated from translucent ceramic envelopes instead of the conventional vitreous silica. The higher temperature tolerant envelope materials permit using discharges in

  9. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    SciTech Connect

    PNNL

    2016-02-21

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  10. Advanced Lighting Controls for Reducing Energy use and Cost in DoD Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    DyNet protocol. The distributed processing architecture is robust against a...single point of failure. Network Bridge DyNet Master Port HF Ballast Controller DTK600 C h6C h5 C h1 C h2 C h3 C h4 C h8C h7 C h6C h5 C h1 C...h2 C h3 C h4 C h8C h7 TCP/IP over Ethernet LAN Workstations with web browsers DyNet Network trunk Server DyNet Network Spur D yN et N et w or k

  11. The Advanced Light Source: Technical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1984-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation source consisting of a 50-MeV linear accelerator, a 1.3-GeV 'booster' synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines, as shown in Figure 1. As an introduction to a detailed description of the Advanced Light Source, this section provides brief discussions on the characteristics of synchrotron radiation and on the theory of storage rings. Appendix A contents: Introduction to Synchrotron-Radiation Sources; Storage Ring; Injection System; Control System; Insertion Devices; Photon Beam Lines; and References.

  12. Preliminary results from an advanced lighting controlstestbed

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Douglas; Jennings, Judity; Rubinstein, Francis

    1998-03-01

    Preliminary results from a large-scale testbed of advanced lighting control technologies at the Phillip Burton Federal Building at 450 Golden Gate Ave. in San Francisco are presented. The first year objective of this project is to determine the sustainable energy savings and cost-effectiveness of different lighting control technologies compared to a portion of the building where only minimal controls are installed. The paper presents the analyzed results from six months of tests focused on accurately characterizing the energy savings potential of one type of daylight-linked lighting controls compared to the lighting in similar open-planned areas without dimming controls. After analyzing a half year;s data, we determined that the annual energy savings for this type of daylight- linked controls was 41% and 30% for the outer rows of lights on the South and North sides of the building, respectively. The annual energy savings dropped to 22% and 16% for the second row of lights for the South and North, respectively, and was negligible for the third rows of lights.

  13. Control and acquisition systems for new scanning transmission x-ray microscopes at Advanced Light Source (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyliszczak, T.; Hitchcock, P.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Ade, H.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Fakra, S.; Steele, W. F.; Warwick, T.

    2002-03-01

    Two new scanning x-ray transmission microscopes are being built at beamline 5.3.2 and beamline 7.0 of the Advanced Light Source that have novel aspects in their control and acquisition systems. Both microscopes use multiaxis laser interferometry to improve the precision of pixel location during imaging and energy scans as well as to remove image distortions. Beam line 5.3.2 is a new beam line where the new microscope will be dedicated to studies of polymers in the 250-600 eV energy range. Since this is a bending magnet beam line with lower x-ray brightness than undulator beam lines, special attention is given to the design not only to minimize distortions and vibrations but also to optimize the controls and acquisition to improve data collection efficiency. 5.3.2 microscope control and acquisition is based on a PC computer running WINDOWS 2000. All mechanical stages are moved by stepper motors with rack mounted controllers. A dedicated counter board is used for counting and timing and a multi-input/output board is used for analog acquisition and control of the focusing mirror. A three axis differential laser interferometer is being used to improve stability and precision by careful tracking of the relative positions of the sample and zone plate. Each axis measures the relative distance between a mirror placed on the sample stage and a mirror attached to the zone plate holder. Agilent Technologies HP 10889A servo-axis interferometer boards are used. While they were designed to control servo motors, our tests show that they can be used to directly control the piezo stage. The use of the interferometer servo-axis boards provides excellent point stability for spectral measurements. The interferometric feedback also provides active vibration isolation which reduces deleterious impact of mechanical vibrations up to 20-30 Hz. It also can improve the speed and precision of image scans. Custom C++ software has been written to provide user friendly control of the microscope

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  15. Demand-controlled lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Automatic lighting is controlled by photocell that measures intensity of available light. Photocell drives motor which operates mercury switches controlling indoor illumination sources. Device effects increase in indoor illumination intensity when illumination input to cell is insufficient. Reverse is true if input is too great.

  16. Advanced Light Source elliptical wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    A 3.5-m-long elliptical wiggler, optimized to produce elliptically polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized photons exceeds 1013 photons/s over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 A and 1.5 GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 141/2 periods, respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented.

  17. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  18. Ferroelectric Light Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A light control device is formed by ferroelectric material and N electrodes positioned adjacent thereto to define an N-sided regular polygonal region or circular region there between where N is a multiple of four.

  19. AUTOMATIC LIGHT CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Artzt, M.

    1957-08-27

    A control system for a projection kinescope used in a facsimile scanning system and, in particular, meams for maintaining substantially constant the light emanating from the flying spot on the face of the kinescope are described. In general, the invention provides a feeler member disposed in such a position with respect to a projecting lens as to intercept a portion of the light striking the lens. Suitable circuitry in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube provides a signal proportional to the light intensity of the flying spot. The grid bias on the kinescope is controlled by this signal to maintain the intensity of the spot substantially constant.

  20. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  1. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  2. Recent Advances of Light-Mediated Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Xiangzhao; Mu, Jing; Xing, Bengang

    2016-01-01

    Currently, precision theranostics have been extensively demanded for the effective treatment of various human diseases. Currently, efficient therapy at the targeted disease areas still remains challenging since most available drug molecules lack of selectivity to the pathological sites. Among different approaches, light-mediated therapeutic strategy has recently emerged as a promising and powerful tool to precisely control the activation of therapeutic reagents and imaging probes in vitro and in vivo, mostly attributed to its unique properties including minimally invasive capability and highly spatiotemporal resolution. Although it has achieved initial success, the conventional strategies for light-mediated theranostics are mostly based on the light with short wavelength (e.g., UV or visible light), which may usually suffer from several undesired drawbacks, such as limited tissue penetration depth, unavoidable light absorption/scattering and potential phototoxicity to healthy tissues, etc. Therefore, a near-infrared (NIR) light-mediated approach on the basis of long-wavelength light (700-1000 nm) irradiation, which displays deep-tissue penetration, minimized photo-damage and low autofluoresence in living systems, has been proposed as an inspiring alternative for precisely phototherapeutic applications in the last decades. Despite numerous NIR light-responsive molecules have been currently proposed for clinical applications, several inherent drawbacks, such as troublesome synthetic procedures, low water solubility and limited accumulation abilities in targeted areas, heavily restrict their applications in deep-tissue therapeutic and imaging studies. Thanks to the amazing properties of several nanomaterials with large extinction coefficient in the NIR region, the construction of NIR light responsive nanoplatforms with multifunctions have become promising approaches for deep-seated diseases diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we summarized various light

  3. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  4. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed.

  5. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-04-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  6. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Duque, Theresa; Greiner, Annette; Moxon, Elizabeth; Robinson, Arthur; Tamura, Lori

    2003-06-12

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information.

  7. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  8. Advanced Light Source: Activity report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces the world`s brightest light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The first low-energy third-generation synchrotron source in the world, the ALS provides unprecedented opportunities for research in science and technology not possible anywhere else. This year marked the beginning of operations and the start of the user research program at the ALS, which has already produced numerous high quality results. A national user facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, the ALS is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. This report contains the following: (1) director`s message; (2) operations overview; (3) user program; (4) users` executive committee; (5) industrial outreach; (6) accelerator operations; (7) beamline control system; (8) insertion devices; (9) experimental systems; (10) beamline engineering; (11) first results from user beamlines; (12) beamlines for 1994--1995; (13) special events; (14) publications; (15) advisory panels; and (16) ALS staff.

  9. Developments in Digital Addressable Lighting Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Martin

    In DALI control, a small built-in chip acts as the de-central controller in the ballast. DALI complies with an open source protocol based on standard IEC60929. One small controller controls up to 64 ballasts. Today, manufacturers are adding more devices, such as sensors, blind motor controllers, and switches. Recently, web browser based remote control was developed for the DALI Lighting Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University. This paper reports on first experiences with advanced DALI features.

  10. Monitoring performance of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Warren E.; Lampo, Edward J.; Samuelson, Bruce C.

    2001-06-13

    Providing high quality light to users in a consistent and reliable manner is one of the main goals of the accelerator physics group at the Advanced Light source (ALS). To meet this goal considerable time is spent monitoring the performance of the machine. At the Group's weekly meeting the performance of the accelerator over the previous week's run is reviewed. This paper describes the parameters that are monitored to optimize the performance of the ALS.

  11. Advanced Lighting Program Development (BG9702800) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Johnson, Steve

    1998-02-01

    The report presents a long-range plan for a broad-based, coordinated research, development and market transformation program for reducing the lighting energy intensities in commercial and residential buildings in California without compromising lighting quality. An effective program to advance lighting energy efficiency in California must be based on an understanding that lighting is a mature field and the lighting industry has developed many specialized products that meet a wide variety of light needs for different building types. Above all else, the lighting field is diverse and there are applications for a wide range of lighting products, systems, and strategies. Given the range of existing lighting solutions, an effective energy efficient lighting research portfolio must be broad-based and diverse to match the diversity of the lighting market itself. The belief that there is one solution--a magic bullet, such as a better lamp, for example--that will propel lighting efficiency across all uses to new heights is, in the authors' opinion, an illusion. A multi-path program is the only effective means to raising lighting efficiency across all lighting applications in all building types. This report presents a list of 27 lighting technologies and concepts (key activities) that could form the basis of a coordinated research and market transformation plan for significantly reducing lighting energy intensities in California buildings. The total 27 key activities into seven broad classes as follows: Light sources; Ballasts; Luminaires; Lighting Controls; Lighting Systems in Buildings; Human Factors and Education. Each of the above technology classes is discussed in terms of background, key activities, and the energy savings potential for the state. The report concludes that there are many possibilities for targeted research, development, and market transformation activities across all sectors of the building lighting industry. A concerted investment by the state to foster

  12. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  13. Advanced interdisciplinary undergraduate program: light engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Bougrov, Vladislav; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2016-09-01

    The undergraduate educational program "Light Engineering" of an advanced level of studies is focused on development of scientific learning outcomes and training of professionals, whose activities are in the interdisciplinary fields of Optical engineering and Technical physics. The program gives practical experience in transmission, reception, storage, processing and displaying information using opto-electronic devices, automation of optical systems design, computer image modeling, automated quality control and characterization of optical devices. The program is implemented in accordance with Educational standards of the ITMO University. The specific features of the Program is practice- and problem-based learning implemented by engaging students to perform research and projects, internships at the enterprises and in leading Russian and international research educational centers. The modular structure of the Program and a significant proportion of variable disciplines provide the concept of individual learning for each student. Learning outcomes of the program's graduates include theoretical knowledge and skills in natural science and core professional disciplines, deep knowledge of modern computer technologies, research expertise, design skills, optical and optoelectronic systems and devices.

  14. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern.

  15. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern. PMID:25346743

  16. Advances in Light Microscopy for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Brian A.; Burns, Laurie D.; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Mukamel, Eran A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the work of Golgi and Cajal, light microscopy has remained a key tool for neuroscientists to observe cellular properties. Ongoing advances have enabled new experimental capabilities using light to inspect the nervous system across multiple spatial scales, including ultrastructural scales finer than the optical diffraction limit. Other progress permits functional imaging at faster speeds, at greater depths in brain tissue, and over larger tissue volumes than previously possible. Portable, miniaturized fluorescence microscopes now allow brain imaging in freely behaving mice. Complementary progress on animal preparations has enabled imaging in head-restrained behaving animals, as well as time-lapse microscopy studies in the brains of live subjects. Mouse genetic approaches permit mosaic and inducible fluorescence-labeling strategies, whereas intrinsic contrast mechanisms allow in vivo imaging of animals and humans without use of exogenous markers. This review surveys such advances and highlights emerging capabilities of particular interest to neuroscientists. PMID:19555292

  17. Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Brian A; Burns, Laurie D; Wei Ho, Eric Tatt; Ghosh, Kunal K; Mukamel, Eran A; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    Since the work of Golgi and Cajal, light microscopy has remained a key tool for neuroscientists to observe cellular properties. Ongoing advances have enabled new experimental capabilities using light to inspect the nervous system across multiple spatial scales, including ultrastructural scales finer than the optical diffraction limit. Other progress permits functional imaging at faster speeds, at greater depths in brain tissue, and over larger tissue volumes than previously possible. Portable, miniaturized fluorescence microscopes now allow brain imaging in freely behaving mice. Complementary progress on animal preparations has enabled imaging in head-restrained behaving animals, as well as time-lapse microscopy studies in the brains of live subjects. Mouse genetic approaches permit mosaic and inducible fluorescence-labeling strategies, whereas intrinsic contrast mechanisms allow in vivo imaging of animals and humans without use of exogenous markers. This review surveys such advances and highlights emerging capabilities of particular interest to neuroscientists.

  18. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  19. Advance Control Measures & Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As areas develop their path forward or action plan, they should consider a variety of voluntary and mandatory measures and programs. The resources on this page can help, and participants are also encouraged to talk with their EPA Advance contact

  20. An Upgrade for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, Daniel S.; Feinberg, Benedict; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; Krebs, Gary F.; Padmore, Howard A.; Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Smith, Neville V.

    2004-09-01

    One of the first third-generation synchrotron light sources, the ALS, has been operating for almost a decade at Berkeley Lab, where experimenters have been exploiting its high brightness for forefront science. However, accelerator and insertion-device technology have significantly changed since the ALS was designed. As a result, the performance of the ALS is in danger of being eclipsed by that of newer, more advanced sources. The ALS upgrade that we are planning includes full-energy, top-off injection with higher storage-ring current and the replacement of five first-generation insertion devices with nine state-of-the art insertion devices and four new application-specific beamlines now being identified in a strategic planning process. The upgrade will help keep the ALS at the forefront of soft x-ray synchrotron light sources for the next two decades.

  1. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-10-28

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

  2. Operator scheduling at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1998-06-01

    Scheduling Operations staff at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has evolved from 5 shifts/week for commissioning operations in 1992 to the present 24 hour/day, 21 shift coverage as the ALS went to full operation for users. A number of schedules were developed and implemented in an effort to accommodate changing ALS shift coverage requirements. The present work schedule and the lessons learned, address a number of issues that are useful to any facility that is operating 24 hours/day, 7 days/week.

  3. Scientific opportunities at the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.

    1989-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with a projected completion date of September 1992, the ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in eleven long straight sections. It will also have up to 48 bending-magnet ports. Scientific opportunities in materials science, surface science, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, life science and other fields are reflected in Letters of Interest received for the establishment of beamlines.

  4. Advances in Adaptive Control Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    This poster presentation describes recent advances in adaptive control technology developed by NASA. Optimal Control Modification is a novel adaptive law that can improve performance and robustness of adaptive control systems. A new technique has been developed to provide an analytical method for computing time delay stability margin for adaptive control systems.

  5. Lighting and the Controlled Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holophane Co., Inc. New York, NY.

    More sophisticated and better controlled light, a key factor in environmental engineering, is discussed in three sections as follows--(1) how light should be released into interior spaces to satisfy the optical, physiological and psychological characteristics of people, (2) ways of reducing reflected glare, including the use of polarization, and…

  6. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, R. P.; Stoner, G. E.; Swanson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A multifaceted research program on the performance of advanced light metallic alloys in aggressive aerospace environments, and associated environmental failure mechanisms was initiated. The general goal is to characterize alloy behavior quantitatively and to develop predictive mechanisms for environmental failure modes. Successes in this regard will provide the basis for metallurgical optimization of alloy performance, for chemical control of aggressive environments, and for engineering life prediction with damage tolerance and long term reliability.

  7. Controlled synthesis of uniform BiVO4 microcolumns and advanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of metronidazole-contained wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chongfei; Dong, Shuying; Feng, Jinglan; Sun, Jingyu; Hu, Limin; Li, Yukun; Sun, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    Well-defined, uniform bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) microcolumns were synthesized through a refined hydrothermal route. During the fabrication process, a detailed orthogonal design on the synthetic conditions was performed, aiming to optimize the experimental parameters to produce BiVO4 materials (BiVO4 (Opt.)) with the most prominent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency, where the catalytic activities of the synthesized materials were evaluated via the decolorization of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The BiVO4 (Opt.) were then targetedly produced according to the determined optimal conditions and well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet and visible diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Compared with the commercial P25-TiO2 photocatalysts, the as-synthesized BiVO4 (Opt.) displayed superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities for the degradation of metronidazole-contained wastewater with the presence of H2O2. The degradation efficiency of metronidazole reached up to 70 % within 180 min, leading to a brief speculation on the possibly major steps of the visible-light-driven photocatalytic process. The current study provides a distinctive route to design novel shaped BiVO4 architectures with advanced photocatalytic capacities for the treatment of organic pollutants in the aqueous environment.

  8. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  9. Advanced Formation Flight Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    stabilizes the time dependent linearized plant (7.9) than it is to synthesize a control law which stabilizes the LTI plant (7.5). However, if a stabilizing ... control law is available, Lyapunov’s stabilizability result can also be applied to non LTI scenarios which arise from the application of linearization to

  10. Advances in infection control

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. PMID:27074240

  11. Status of the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Jay N.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be a national user facility for the production ofhigh-brightness and partially coherent soft x-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1. 5 GeV with insertion devices in 10 long straight sections and 24 premier bend-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 2 keY will be produced by undulators thereby providing many research opportunities in materials and surface science biology atomic physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bend magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keY. 2.

  12. Research opportunities at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes to above 10 keV. Scheduled to begin operations as a US Department of Energy national user facility in the spring of 1993, the ALS will support an extensive research program in which soft X-ray and ultraviolet radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Participating research teams to implement the initial scientific program have been selected.

  13. An ALS (Advanced Light Source) handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The specifications and operating parameters of the ALS injection system and storage ring are of only peripheral interest. To this end, Sections 3 and 5 and most of Section 4 are devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, time structure, etc.--assuming a representative set of four undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of five beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 provides a compendious introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 4 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction grating and crystal monochromators. 15 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Superbend upgrade on the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, D.; Krupnick, J.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Wang, B.; Zbasnik, J.; Benjegerdes, R.; Biocca, A.; Bish, P.; Brown, W.; Byrne, W.; Chen, J.; Decking, W.; DeVries, J.; DeMarco, W. R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.; Hull, D.; Jacobson, S.; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Mueller, R.; Nadolski, L.; Nishimura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J. A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Ritchie, A.; Rossi, S.; Salvant, B.; Scarvie, T.; Schmidt, A.; Spring, J.; Taylor, C.; Thur, W.; Timossi, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    2005-02-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron light source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). There was an increasing demand for additional high brightness hard X-ray beamlines in the 7-40 keV range, so in August 2001, three 1.3 T normal conducting bending magnets were removed from the storage ring and replaced with 5 T superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV, making them excellent sources of hard X-rays for protein crystallography and other hard X-ray applications. The Superbends did not compromise the performance of the facility in the VUV and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new beam lines, greatly enhancing the facility's capability and capacity in the hard X-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade since the ALS storage ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present an overview of the Superbend project, its challenges and the resulting impact on the ALS.

  15. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  16. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  17. Recent advances in the spin Hall effect of light.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xinxing; Huang, Kun; Liu, Yachao; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-03-30

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light, as an analogue of the SHE in electronic systems, is a promising candidate for investigating the SHE in semiconductor spintronics/valleytronics, high-energy physics and condensed matter physics, owing to their similar topological nature in the spin-orbit interaction. The SHE of light exhibits unique potential for exploring the physical properties of nanostructures, such as determining the optical thickness, and the material properties of metallic and magnetic thin films and even atomically thin two-dimensional materials. More importantly, it opens a possible pathway for controlling the spin states of photons and developing next-generation photonic spin Hall devices as a fundamental constituent of the emerging spinoptics. In this review, based on the viewpoint of the geometric phase gradient, we give a detailed presentation of the recent advances in the SHE of light and its applications in precision metrology and future spin-based photonics.

  18. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  19. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  20. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  1. Advanced Motor-Controller Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-22

    which document the three stages of develop- _ - fment. "U Volume Summary A. Phase I Report Flux Synthesis and PWM Synthesis Techniques Theory and...Three Phase Power Bridge and Evaluation of Motor Controller Volume Summary The three reports assembled in this votume represent work performed...1963-A * I ADVANCED MOTOR-CONTROLLER * DEVELOPMENT Final Report for Period October 1979 - June 1983 June 22, 1983 Report DTNSRDC-PASD-CR-1-83

  2. Undulators at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.; Gath, W.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Marks, S.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested, and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 μm over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within ±5 μm. Gap adjusting range is from 14 to 210 mm, which can be scanned in 1 min. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are in the mid-10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23% and 0.20% for the two U5.0s and the U8.0, respectively, and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm×6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented.

  3. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  5. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  6. Advanced Concepts for Sea Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    technology sea control missions, 1,000 tonnes to advances occur, and the threat needs 25,000 tonnes would be representative change, a proper balance can be...sea loiter aircraft, conventional subcavitating fully-sub- utilizing the stopped rotor concept; merged foils, thus providing a very a small sea...augmentation engines have been platform characteristics at conventional moved from their overhung location to a displacement ship speeds but at a re- . place

  7. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  8. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  9. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  10. Backscatter tolerant squeezed light source for advanced gravitational-wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Chua, Sheon S Y; Stefszky, Michael S; Mow-Lowry, Conor M; Buchler, Ben C; Dwyer, Sheila; Shaddock, Daniel A; Lam, Ping Koy; McClelland, David E

    2011-12-01

    We report on the performance of a dual-wavelength resonant, traveling-wave optical parametric oscillator to generate squeezed light for application in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. Shot noise suppression of 8.6±0.8 dB was measured across the detection band of interest to Advanced LIGO, and controlled squeezing measured over 5900 s. Our results also demonstrate that the traveling-wave design has excellent intracavity backscattered light suppression of 47 dB and incident backscattered light suppression of 41 dB, which is a crucial design issue for application in advanced interferometers.

  11. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for

  12. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  13. Modular, Microprocessor-Controlled Flash Lighting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Dwayne; Gray, Elizabeth; Skupinski, Robert; Stachowicz, Arthur; Birchenough, William

    2006-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled lighting system generates brief, precisely timed, high-intensity flashes of light for scientific imaging at frame rates up to about 1 kHz. The system includes an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are driven in synchronism with an externally generated timing signal (for example, a timing signal generated by a video camera). The light output can be varied in peak intensity, pulse duration, pulse delay, and pulse rate, all depending on the timing signal and associated externally generated control signals. The array of LEDs comprises as many as 16 LED panels that can be attached together. Each LED panel is a module consisting of a rectangular subarray of 10 by 20 LEDs of advanced design on a printed-circuit board in a mounting frame with a power/control connector. The LED panels are controlled by an LED control module that contains an AC-to-DC power supply, a control board, and 8 LED-panel driver boards. In prior LED panels, the LEDs are packaged at less than maximum areal densities in bulky metal housings that reduce effective active areas. In contrast, in the present LED panels, the LEDs are packed at maximum areal density so as to afford 100-percent active area and so that when panels are joined side by side to form the array, there are no visible seams between them and the proportion of active area is still 100 percent. Each panel produces an illuminance of .5 x 10( exp 4) lux at a distance of 5.8 in. (approx.1.6 cm). The LEDs are driven according to a pulse-width-modulation control scheme that makes it safe to drive the LEDs beyond their rated steady-state currents in order to generate additional light during short periods. The drive current and the pulse-width modulation for each LED panel can be controlled independently of those of the other 15 panels. The maximum allowable duration of each pulse of drive current is a function of the amount of overdrive, the total time to be spent in overdrive operation, and the limitations

  14. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  15. Advancing Control in Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, Kaila Marie

    Controlling molecular weight, architecture, and comonomer incorporation in polymers is of paramount importance for the preparation of functional materials. This dissertation will highlight the development of three strategies that improve control in macromolecular synthesis, ranging from initial polymerization to macromolecular post-modification. Controlled radical polymerization is a well-established platform for macromolecular engineering. However, many techniques require metal or sulfur additives and yield macromolecules with chain ends that are chemically reactive and thermally unstable. This dissertation presents a light-mediated method for the removal of such end groups, which is effective for a variety of chain ends as well as polymer families, both in solution and with spatial control on surfaces. Polymers with improved thermal and chemical stability can now be obtained under mild, metal-free conditions and with external regulation. To circumvent the presence of such reactive chain ends altogether, triazine-based unimolecular initiators were developed. These metal- and sulfur-free mediators are shown to control the radical polymerization of several monomer classes. Generally, the distribution of functional groups throughout the macromolecular backbone is important for numerous applications. An efficient and high-yielding strategy for the functionalization of well-defined polyethers is described herein. By controlling both the number and location of underwater adhesive catechol groups, these biomimetic macromolecules may facilitate future insights into the mechanics of mussel and underwater adhesion, and related antifouling materials.

  16. Advanced light source, User`s Handbook, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national facility for scientific research and development located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) of the University of California. Its purpose is to generate beams of very bright light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The facility is open to researchers from industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  18. Performance of Advanced Light Source particle beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, is complete. The particle beam diagnostics have been installed and tested. The beam injection systems have been running for two years. We have performance data on beam position monitors, beam intensity monitors, scintillators, beam collimators, a 50 {Omega} Faraday cup, and broad-band striplines and kickers used in the linac, transport lines, and the booster synchrotron. The single-turn monitoring capability of the booster beam position monitoring system has been particularly useful for studying beam dynamics. Beam diagnostics for the storage ring are being commissioned. In this paper we describe each instrument, show its performance, and outline how the instruments are controlled and their output data displayed.

  19. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  1. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  2. Advances and prospects in visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongda, Chen; Chunhui, Wu; Honglei, Li; Xiongbin, Chen; Zongyu, Gao; Shigang, Cui; Qin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technology in optical wireless communication (OWC) that has attracted worldwide research in recent years. VLC can combine communication and illumination together, which could be applied in many application scenarios such as visible light communication local area networks (VLANs), indoor localization, and intelligent lighting. In recent years, pioneering and significant work have been made in the field of VLC. In this paper, an overview of the recent progress in VLC is presented. We also demonstrate our recent experiment results including bidirectional 100 Mbit/s VLAN or Li-Fi system based on OOK modulation without blue filter. The VLC systems that we proposed are good solutions for high-speed VLC application systems with low-cost and low-complexity. VLC technology shows a bright future due to its inherent advantages, shortage of RF spectra and ever increasing popularity of white LEDs. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2015AA033303, 2013AA013602, 2013AA013603, 2013AA03A104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61178051, 61321063, 61335010, 61178048, 61275169), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2013CB329205, 2011CBA00608).

  3. The Control of Lighting Heat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The trend toward increased lighting has accelerated the acceptance of heat recovery systems. A heating-lighting-cooling system is a responsible and efficient use of energy for future school buildings. (Author/MLF)

  4. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

    2006-04-30

    Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the

  5. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    PubMed Central

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PMID:21673938

  6. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter; A; Anastasio, Cort; Dodge, Cleveland; Fendorf, Scott; Francis, A.J.; Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Tomutsa, Liviu; Tufano, Kate; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Werner, Michelle; Williams, Ken

    2006-04-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a variety of capabilities that are applicable to very different types of environmental systems. Shown are the basic descriptions of four of the approximately 35 beam lines at the ALS. The complimentary capabilities of these four beam lines allow for investigations that range from a spatial scale of a few nanometers to several millimeters. The Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source seeks to promote and assist environmental research, particularly on the four beam lines described in this report. Several short examples of the types of research conducted on these beam lines are also described.

  7. Automatic lighting controls demonstration: Long-term results

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F. )

    1991-10-18

    An advanced electronically ballasted lighting control system was installed in a portion of an office building to measure the energy and demand savings. The lighting control system used an integrated lighting control scenario that included daylight following, lumen depreciation correction, and scheduling. The system reduced lighting energy on weekdays by 62% and 51% in the north and south daylit zones, respectively, compared to a reference zone that did not have controls. During the summer, over 75% energy savings were achieved on weekdays in the north daylit zone. Even in the south interior zone, which benefitted lime from daylight, correction strategies and adjustment of the aisleway lights to a low level resulted in energy use of only half that of the reference zone. Although, in general, the savings varied over the year due to changing daylight conditions, the energy reduction achieved with controls could be fit using a simple analytical model. Significant savings also occurred during core operating hours when it is more expensive to supply and use energy. Compared to the usage in the reference zone, energy reductions of 49%, 44%, and 62% were measured in the south daylight, south interior, and north daylight zones, respectively, during core operating hours throughout the year. Lighting energy usage on weekends decreased dramatically in the zones with controls, with the usage in the north daylit zone only 10% that of the reference zone. A simple survey developed to assess occupant response to the lighting control system showed that the occupants were satisfied with the light levels provided.

  8. Survey, alignment, and beam stability at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1997. The ALS is a third generation light source requiring magnet alignment to within 150 microns. To accomplish this, a network of monuments was established and maintained. Monthly elevation surveys show the movement of the floor over time. Inclinometers have recently been employed to give real time information about magnet, vacuum tank and magnet girder motion in the ALS storage ring.

  9. Lighting Control Best Practice Guide: Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This publication offers design, specification, and installation guidance for lighting control appropriate for K-12 educational facilities. It features applications that illustrate the best control practices for a variety of spaces, facilitating lighting control design and application. Each best practice meets the provisions of relevant energy…

  10. International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, Ted W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research.

  11. How advances in light technology have shaped ENT.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, M; Fishman, J M; Tolley, N S

    2016-02-01

    The development of light technologies, allowing anatomical visualisation of otherwise hidden structures, led to significant advances in ENT in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Natural light from the sun, and from candles, was initially harnessed using mirrors. Later, the invention of limelight and electricity preceded the emergence of the modern-day endoscope, which, in tandem with the discovery of coherent fibre-optics in the 1950s, significantly expanded the surgical repertoire available to otolaryngologists. This study aimed to trace the rich history of ENT through the specialty's use of light.

  12. Measurement of storage ring motion at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The mechanical stability of the Advanced Light Source storage ring is examined over a period of 1.5 years from the point of view of floor motion. The storage ring beam position monitor stability is examined under various operating conditions.

  13. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 1997/1998

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Annette

    1999-03-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source (ALS) activity report for 1997/98 discusses the following topics: Introduction and Overview; Science Highlights; Facility Report; Special Events; ALS Advisory Panels 1997/98; ALS Staff 1997/98 and Facts and Figures for the year.

  14. Illumination control apparatus for compensating solar light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An illumination control apparatus is presented for supplementing light from solar radiation with light from an artificial light source to compensate for periods of insufficient levels of solar light. The apparatus maintains a desired illumination level within an interior space comprising an artificial light source connected to an electrical power source with a switch means for selectively energizing said light source. An actuator means for controlling the on-off operation of the switch means is connected to a light sensor which responses to the illumination level of the interior space. A limit switch carried adjacent to the actuator limits the movement of the actuator within a predetermined range so as to prevent further movement thereof during detection of erroneous illumination conditions.

  15. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  16. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-06-22

    This study predicts new hybrid lighting applications for LEDs. In hybrid lighting, LEDs provide a low-energy 'standby' light level while another, more powerful, efficient light source provides light for occupied periods. Lighting controls will allow the two light sources to work together through an appropriate control strategy, typically motion-sensing. There are no technical barriers preventing the use of low through high CRI LEDs for standby lighting in many interior and exterior applications today. The total luminous efficacy of LED systems could be raised by increasing the electrical efficiency of LED drivers to the maximum practically achievable level (94%). This would increase system luminous efficacy by 20-25%. The expected market volumes for many types of LEDs should justify the evolution of new LED drivers that use highly efficient ICs and reduce parts count by means of ASICs. Reducing their electronics parts count by offloading discrete components onto integrated circuits (IC) will allow manufacturers to reduce the cost of LED driver electronics. LED luminaire manufacturers will increasingly integrate the LED driver and thermal management directly in the LED fixture. LED luminaires of the future will likely have no need for separable lamp and ballast because the equipment life of all the LED luminaire components will all be about the same (50,000 hours). The controls and communications techniques used for communicating with conventional light sources, such as dimmable fluorescent lighting, are appropriate for LED illumination for energy management purposes. DALI has been used to control LED systems in new applications and the emerging ZigBee protocol could be used for LEDs as well. Major lighting companies are already moving in this direction. The most significant finding is that there is a significant opportunity to use LEDs today for standby lighting purposes. Conventional lighting systems can be made more efficient still by using LEDs to provide a low

  17. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  18. Squeezed light for advanced gravitational wave detectors and beyond.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E; Barsotti, L; Dwyer, S; Sigg, D; Mavalvala, N

    2014-08-25

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that squeezed vacuum states can be injected into gravitational wave detectors to improve their sensitivity at detection frequencies where they are quantum noise limited. Squeezed states could be employed in the next generation of more sensitive advanced detectors currently under construction, such as Advanced LIGO, to further push the limits of the observable gravitational wave Universe. To maximize the benefit from squeezing, environmentally induced disturbances such as back scattering and angular jitter need to be mitigated. We discuss the limitations of current squeezed vacuum sources in relation to the requirements imposed by future gravitational wave detectors, and show a design for squeezed light injection which overcomes these limitations.

  19. Novel interfaces for light directed neuronal stimulation: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to enhance contemporary approaches. Here we review recent advances towards light directed interfaces for neuronal stimulation, focusing on state-of-the-art nanoengineered devices. In particular, we highlight challenges and prospects towards improved retinal prostheses. PMID:24872704

  20. Novel interfaces for light directed neuronal stimulation: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Light activation of neurons is a growing field with applications ranging from basic investigation of neuronal systems to the development of new therapeutic methods such as artificial retina. Many recent studies currently explore novel methods for optical stimulation with temporal and spatial precision. Novel materials in particular provide an opportunity to enhance contemporary approaches. Here we review recent advances towards light directed interfaces for neuronal stimulation, focusing on state-of-the-art nanoengineered devices. In particular, we highlight challenges and prospects towards improved retinal prostheses.

  1. The advanced light source: America`s brightest light for science and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Lawler, G.

    1994-03-01

    America`s brightest light comes from the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility for scientific research, product development, and manufacturing. Completed in 1993, the ALS produces light in the ultraviolet and x-ray regions of the spectrum. Its extreme brightness provides opportunities for scientific and technical progress not possible anywhere else. Technology is poised on the brink of a major revolution - one in which vital machine components and industrial processes will be drastically miniaturized. Industrialized nations are vying for leadership in this revolution - and the huge economic rewards the leaders will reap.

  2. Controlling metamaterial resonances with light

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Sangeeta; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Wanare, Harshawardhan

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the use of coherent optical fields as a means of dynamically controlling the resonant behavior of a variety of composite metamaterials, wherein the metamaterial structures are embedded in a dispersive dielectric medium. Control and switching are implemented by coherently driving the resonant permittivity of the embedding medium with applied optical radiation. The effect of embedding split ring resonators in a frequency-dispersive medium with Lorentz-like dispersion or with dispersion engineered by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is manifested in the splitting of the negative-permeability band, the modified (frequency-dependent) filling fractions, and the dissipation factors. The modified material parameters are strongly linked to the resonant frequencies of the medium, and for an embedding medium exhibiting EIT also to the strength and detuning of the control field. The robustness of control against the deleterious influence of dissipation associated with the metallic structures as well as the inhomogeneous broadening due to structural imperfections is demonstrated. Studies on plasmonic metamaterials that consist of metallic nanorods arranged in loops and exhibit a collective magnetic response at optical frequencies are presented. Control and switching in this class of plasmonic nanorod metamaterials is shown to be possible, for example, by embedding these arrays in a Raman-active liquid like CS{sub 2} and utilizing the inverse Raman effect.

  3. Advanced Adaptive Optics Control Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Optimal estimation and control methods for high energy laser adaptive optics systems are described. Three system types are examined: Active...the adaptive optics approaches and potential system implementations are recommended.

  4. Advanced motor-controller development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesster, L. E.; Zeitlin, D. B.; Hall, W. B.

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this development program was to investigate a promising alternative technique for control of a squirrel cage induction motor for subsea propulsion or hydraulic power applications. The technique uses microprocessor based generation of the pulse width modulation waveforms, which in turn permits use of a true integral volt-second pulse width control for the generation of low harmonic content sine waves from a 3 phase Graetz transistor power bridge.

  5. Current control of light by nonreciprocal magnetoplasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yongkang Li, Kang; Carver, Sara; Martinez, Juan Jose; Huang, Jungang; Copner, Nigel; Thueux, Yoann; Avlonitis, Nick

    2015-05-11

    The ability to actively control light has long been a major scientific and technological goal. We proposed a scheme that allows for active control of light by utilizing the nonreciprocal magnetoplasmonic effect. As a proof of concept, we applied current signal through an ultrathin metallic film in a magneto-plasmonic multilayer and found that dynamic photonic nonreciprocity appears in magnetic-optical material layer due to the magnetic field being induced from current signal and modulates surface plasmon polaritons trapped in the metal surface and the light reflected. The proposed concept provides a possible way for the active control of light and could find potential applications such as ultrafast optoelectronic signal processing for plasmonic nanocircuit technology and ultrafast/large-aperture free-space electro-optic modulation platform for wireless laser communication technology.

  6. Advanced thermal control for spacecraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    In optical systems just like any other space borne system, thermal control plays an important role. In fact, most advanced designs are plagued with volume constraints that further complicate the thermal control challenges for even the most experienced systems engineers. Peregrine will present advances in satellite thermal control based upon passive heat transfer technologies to dissipate large thermal loads. This will address the use of 700 W/m K and higher conducting products that are five times better than aluminum on a specific basis providing enabling thermal control while maintaining structural support.

  7. Nanostructures for NIR light-controlled therapies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanmei; Aw, Junxin; Xing, Bengang

    2017-03-17

    In general, effective clinical treatment demands precision medicine, which requires specific perturbation to disease cells with no damage to normal tissue. Thus far, guaranteeing that selective therapeutic effects occur only at targeted disease areas remains a technical challenge. Among the various endeavors to achieve such an outcome, strategies based on light-controlled therapies have received special attention, mostly due to their unique advantages, including the low-invasive property and the capability to obtain spatial and temporal precision at the targeted sites via specific wavelength light irradiation. However, most conventional light-mediated therapies, especially those based on short-wavelength UV or visible light irradiation, have potential issues including limited penetration depth and harmful photo damage to healthy tissue. Therefore, the implemention of near-infrared (NIR) light illumination, which can travel into deeper tissues without causing obvious photo-induced cytotoxcity, has been suggested as a preferable option for precise phototherapeutic applications in vitro and in vivo. In this article, an overview is presented of existing therapeutic applications through NIR light-absorbed nanostructures, such as NIR light-controlled drug delivery, NIR light-mediated photothermal and photodynamic therapies. Potential challenges and relevant future prospects are also discussed.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  12. Advanced Thermal HPT Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    WojciechVoytek, Sak

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a fast acting HPT Active Clearance Control System to improve engine efficiency and reduce emissions CHALLENGE: Reduction of HPT blade clearance throughout engine operation System complexity, reliability and cost must remain comparable or surpass today s engines Reduced clearance may increase possibility of rubs

  13. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  14. Optogenetic Light Crafting Tools for the Control of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Richter, Claudia; Christoph, Jan; Lehnart, Stephan E; Luther, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The control of spatiotemporal dynamics in biological systems is a fundamental problem in nonlinear sciences and has important applications in engineering and medicine. Optogenetic tools combined with advanced optical technologies provide unique opportunities to develop and validate novel approaches to control spatiotemporal complexity in neuronal and cardiac systems. Understanding of the mechanisms and instabilities underlying the onset, perpetuation, and control of cardiac arrhythmias will enable the development and translation of novel therapeutic approaches. Here we describe in detail the preparation and optical mapping of transgenic channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) mouse hearts, cardiac cell cultures, and the optical setup for photostimulation using digital light processing.

  15. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The advanced light source at the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Alan

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation, in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1-1.9 GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. In this paper we describe the main accelerator components of the ALS, the variety of insertion devices, the radiation spectra expected from these devices, and the complement of experiments that have been approved for initial operation, starting in April 1993.

  17. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  18. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  19. Tools for controlling protein interactions using light.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Chandra L; Vrana, Justin D; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2014-09-02

    Genetically encoded actuators that allow control of protein-protein interactions using light, termed 'optical dimerizers', are emerging as new tools for experimental biology. In recent years, numerous new and versatile dimerizer systems have been developed. Here we discuss the design of optical dimerizer experiments, including choice of a dimerizer system, photoexcitation sources, and the coordinate use of imaging reporters. We provide detailed protocols for experiments using two dimerization systems we previously developed, CRY2/CIB and UVR8/UVR8, for use in controlling transcription, protein localization, and protein secretion using light. Additionally, we provide instructions and software for constructing a pulse-controlled LED device for use in experiments requiring extended light treatments.

  20. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  1. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ronaldo Szilard; Hongbin Zhang; Doug Kothe; Paul Turinsky

    2011-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  2. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    SciTech Connect

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael; Roof, Kyle

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  3. Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorsa, Antonio; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Françoise; Panteley, Elena

    Advanced Topics in Control Systems Theory contains selected contributions written by lecturers at the third (annual) Formation d'Automatique de Paris (FAP) (Graduate Control School in Paris). Following on from the lecture notes from the second FAP (Volume 311 in the same series) it is addressed to graduate students and researchers in control theory with topics touching on a variety of areas of interest to the control community such as nonlinear optimal control, observer design, stability analysis and structural properties of linear systems.

  4. Advance in Photosensitizers and Light Delivery for Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Il; Li, Jia Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The brief history of photodynamic therapy (PDT) research has been focused on photosensitizers (PSs) and light delivery was introduced recently. The appropriate PSs were developed from the first generation PS Photofrin (QLT) to the second (chlorins or bacteriochlorins derivatives) and third (conjugated PSs on carrier) generations PSs to overcome undesired disadvantages, and to increase selective tumor accumulation and excellent targeting. For the synthesis of new chlorin PSs chlorophyll a is isolated from natural plants or algae, and converted to methyl pheophorbide a (MPa) as an important starting material for further synthesis. MPa has various active functional groups easily modified for the preparation of different kinds of PSs, such as methyl pyropheophorbide a, purpurin-18, purpurinimide, and chlorin e6 derivatives. Combination therapy, such as chemotherapy and photothermal therapy with PDT, is shortly described here. Advanced light delivery system is shown to establish successful clinical applications of PDT. Phtodynamic efficiency of the PSs with light delivery was investigated in vitro and/or in vivo. PMID:23423543

  5. Combination of Light and Melatonin Time Cues for Phase Advancing the Human Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tina M.; Markwald, Rachel R.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Snider, Jesse A.; Bessman, Sara C.; Jung, Christopher M.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Photic and non-photic stimuli have been shown to shift the phase of the human circadian clock. We examined how photic and non-photic time cues may be combined by the human circadian system by assessing the phase advancing effects of one evening dose of exogenous melatonin, alone and in combination with one session of morning bright light exposure. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind circadian protocol. The effects of four conditions, dim light (∼1.9 lux, ∼0.6 Watts/m2)-placebo, dim light-melatonin (5 mg), bright light (∼3000 lux, ∼7 Watts/m2)-placebo, and bright light-melatonin on circadian phase was assessed by the change in the salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) prior to and following treatment under constant routine conditions. Melatonin or placebo was administered 5.75 h prior to habitual bedtime and 3 h of bright light exposure started 1 h prior to habitual wake time. Setting: Sleep and chronobiology laboratory environment free of time cues. Participants: Thirty-six healthy participants (18 females) aged 22 ± 4 y (mean ± SD). Results: Morning bright light combined with early evening exogenous melatonin induced a greater phase advance of the DLMO than either treatment alone. Bright light alone and melatonin alone induced similar phase advances. Conclusion: Information from light and melatonin appear to be combined by the human circadian clock. The ability to combine circadian time cues has important implications for understanding fundamental physiological principles of the human circadian timing system. Knowledge of such principles is important for designing effective countermeasures for phase-shifting the human circadian clock to adapt to jet lag, shift work, and for designing effective treatments for circadian sleep-wakefulness disorders. Citation: Burke TM; Markwald RR; Chinoy ED; Snider JA; Bessman SC; Jung CM; Wright Jr KP. Combination of light and melatonin time cues for phase advancing the human circadian

  6. The vectorial control of magnetization by light.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Natsuki; Higuchi, Takuya; Shimizu, Hirokatsu; Konishi, Kuniaki; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2011-06-21

    Application of coherent light-matter interactions has recently been extended to the ultrafast control of magnetization. An important but unrealized technique is the manipulation of magnetization vector motion to make it follow an arbitrarily designed multidimensional trajectory. Here we demonstrate a full manipulation of two-dimensional magnetic oscillations in antiferromagnetic NiO with a pair of polarization-twisted femtosecond laser pulses. We employ Raman-type nonlinear optical processes, wherein magnetic oscillations are impulsively induced with a controlled initial phase. Their azimuthal angle follows well-defined selection rules that have been determined by the symmetries of the materials. We emphasize that the temporal variation of the laser-pulse polarization angle enables us to control the phase and amplitude of the two degenerate modes, independently. These results lead to a new concept of the vectorial control of magnetization by light.

  7. LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Verderber, R.R.; Rubinstein, F.

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the impact of lighting management systems that dynamically control lights in accordance with the needs of occupants. Various control strategies are described: scheduling, tuning, lumen depreciation, and daylighting. From initial experimental results, the energy savings provided by each of the above strategies are estimated to be 26, 12, 14, and 15%, respectively. Based upon a cost of $0.05-0.10 per kWh for electric energy and a 2-, 3-, or 4-yr payback, target costs for a simple and a sophisticated lighting management system are found to be $0.24 and 1.89 per ft{sup 2}, respectively, for a cost-effective investment. A growth model, based upon an extrapolation of the increase in building stock since 1975, indicates that the commercial and industrial (C and I) building stock will grow from 40 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} in 1980 to about 67 x 10{sup 9} ft{sup 2} by the year 2000. Even with the use of more efficient lighting components, the energy required for this additional C and I stock will be 307 x 10{sup 9} kWh, an increase of only 13 x 10{sup 9} kWh above current use. The specified information is used to analyze the economic impacts that using these systems will have on the lighting industry, end users, utility companies, and the nation's economy. A $1 - 4 x 10{sup 9} annual lighting control industry can be generated, creating many jobs. The estimated return on investment (ROI) for controls for end users would be between 19 and 38%. Utilities will be able to make smaller additions to capacity and invest less capital at 7-10% ROI. Finally, the annual energy savings, up to $3.4 x 10{sup 9} for end users and about $5 x 10{sup 9} for utilities, representing unneeded generating capacity, will be available to capitalize other areas of the economy.

  8. Theory of coherent control with quantum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlawin, Frank; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We develop a coherent control theory for multimode quantum light. It allows us to examine a fundamental problem in quantum optics: what is the optimal pulse form to drive a two-photon-transition? In formulating the question as a coherent control problem, we show that—and quantify how much—the strong frequency quantum correlations of entangled photons enhance the transition compared to shaped classical pulses. In ensembles of collectively driven two-level systems, such enhancement requires nonvanishing interactions.

  9. Light controlled assembly of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Polywka, Andreas; Tückmantel, Christian; Görrn, Patrick

    2017-03-23

    Metal nanoparticles show a particularly strong interaction with light, which is the basis for nanoparticle plasmonics. One of the main goals of this emerging research field is the alignment of nanoparticles and their integration into sophisticated nanostructures providing a tailored interaction with light. This assembly of nanoparticles at well-controlled substrate sites often involves expensive technological approaches, such as electron beam lithography in order to fabricate the nanoparticle structures. Furthermore difficult numerical simulations are needed to predict their optical properties. Both requirements, fabrication and prediction, complicate a cost-efficient exploitation of nanoparticle plasmonics in optoelectronic devices. Here we show that silver nanoparticles deposited under exposure to visible light arrange in a way that the resulting structure shows an optimized interaction with that light. This way, the light not only controls the nanoparticle alignment with an estimated accuracy of well below 20 nm during deposition from the liquid phase, but also defines the optical properties of the growing structure, and therefore complicated prediction is not needed.

  10. Light controlled assembly of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Polywka, Andreas; Tückmantel, Christian; Görrn, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles show a particularly strong interaction with light, which is the basis for nanoparticle plasmonics. One of the main goals of this emerging research field is the alignment of nanoparticles and their integration into sophisticated nanostructures providing a tailored interaction with light. This assembly of nanoparticles at well-controlled substrate sites often involves expensive technological approaches, such as electron beam lithography in order to fabricate the nanoparticle structures. Furthermore difficult numerical simulations are needed to predict their optical properties. Both requirements, fabrication and prediction, complicate a cost-efficient exploitation of nanoparticle plasmonics in optoelectronic devices. Here we show that silver nanoparticles deposited under exposure to visible light arrange in a way that the resulting structure shows an optimized interaction with that light. This way, the light not only controls the nanoparticle alignment with an estimated accuracy of well below 20 nm during deposition from the liquid phase, but also defines the optical properties of the growing structure, and therefore complicated prediction is not needed. PMID:28332582

  11. Light controlled assembly of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polywka, Andreas; Tückmantel, Christian; Görrn, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles show a particularly strong interaction with light, which is the basis for nanoparticle plasmonics. One of the main goals of this emerging research field is the alignment of nanoparticles and their integration into sophisticated nanostructures providing a tailored interaction with light. This assembly of nanoparticles at well-controlled substrate sites often involves expensive technological approaches, such as electron beam lithography in order to fabricate the nanoparticle structures. Furthermore difficult numerical simulations are needed to predict their optical properties. Both requirements, fabrication and prediction, complicate a cost-efficient exploitation of nanoparticle plasmonics in optoelectronic devices. Here we show that silver nanoparticles deposited under exposure to visible light arrange in a way that the resulting structure shows an optimized interaction with that light. This way, the light not only controls the nanoparticle alignment with an estimated accuracy of well below 20 nm during deposition from the liquid phase, but also defines the optical properties of the growing structure, and therefore complicated prediction is not needed.

  12. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  13. Yield advances in peanut - weed control effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in weed management are a contributing factor to advancements in peanut yield. Widespread use of vacuum planters and increased acceptance of narrow row patterns enhance weed control by lessening bareground caused by skips and promoting quick canopy closure. Cultivation was traditionall...

  14. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  15. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  16. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  17. Controlling x-rays with light.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Allison, T. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Kanter, E. P.; Krassig, B.; Varma, H. R.; Rude, B.; Santra, R.; Belkacem, A.; Young, L.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; LBNL; Univ. of California at Berkley; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largely unexplored area of ultrafast X-ray science is the use of light to control how X-rays interact with matter. To extend control concepts established for long-wavelength probes to the X-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here, an intense optical control pulse is observed to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for X-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of X-ray transparency relevant to ultrafast X-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond X-ray pulse. The ability to control X-ray-matter interactions with light will create new opportunities for present and next-generation X-ray light sources.

  18. Controlling X-rays with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Southworth, S. H.; Allison, T. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Varma, H. R.; Rude, B.; Santra, R.; Belkacem, A.; Young, L.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largely unexplored area of ultrafast X-ray science is the use of light to control how X-rays interact with matter. To extend control concepts established for long-wavelength probes to the X-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here, an intense optical control pulse is observed to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for X-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of X-ray transparency relevant to ultrafast X-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond X-ray pulse. The ability to control X-ray-matter interactions with light will create new opportunities for present and next-generation X-ray light sources.

  19. Design of the Advanced Light Source timing system

    SciTech Connect

    Fahmie, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, and as such, has several unique timing requirements. Arbitrary Storage Ring filling patterns and high single bunch purity requirements demand a highly stable, low jitter timing system with the flexibility to reconfigure on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This modular system utilizes a highly linear Gauss Clock with ``on the fly`` programmable setpoints to track a free-running Booster ramping magnet and provides digitally programmable sequencing and delay for Electron Gun, Linac, Booster Ring, and Storage Ring RF, Pulsed Magnet, and Instrumentation systems. It has proven itself over the last year of accelerator operation to be reliable and rock solid.

  20. Observations of collective effects at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Barry, W.; Corlett, J.N.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1995-10-01

    We present a summary of measurements of single beam collective effects in the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We describe measurements of coupled-bunch instabilities, including some recent results using the newly commissioned feedback systems and the results of an initial search for the fast ion instability. Single bunch effects include bunch lengthening, energy spread increase, HOM loss measurements, head-tail damping rates, current dependent tune shifts, and transverse mode coupling instability threshold. The longitudinal measurements are consistent with a broadband impedance {vert_bar}{Zeta}{sub {parallel}}/{eta}{vert_bar}{sub eff} = 0.22{plus_minus}0.07 {Omega} and transverse measurements indicate broadband impedances of {Zeta}{sub y,eff} = 155 k{Omega}/m and Z{sub x,eff} = 58 k{Omega}/m.

  1. Applications of advanced aerodynamic technology to light aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, H. L.; Mcghee, R. J.; Kohlman, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses a project for adapting advanced technology, much of it borrowed from the jet transport, to general aviation design practice. The NASA funded portion of the work began in 1969 at the University of Kansas and resulted in a smaller, experimental wing with spoilers and powerful flap systems for a Cessna Cardinal airplane. Some flight data and research pilot comments are presented. The project was expanded in 1972 to include a light twin-engine airplane. For the twin there was the added incentive of a potential increase in single-engine climb performance. The use of a new high-lift Whitcomb airfoil is planned for both the wing and the propellers. Preliminary data on the characteristics of the new airfoil are discussed. The configuration of an experimental wing for a Piper Seneca PA-34 and estimated airplane performance with this wing are discussed.

  2. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  3. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Perera, R. C. C.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), scheduled to be operational in the spring of 1993 as a U.S. Department of Energy national user facility, will be a next-generation source of soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) synchrotron radiation. Undulators will provide the world's brightest synchrotron radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes above 10 keV. These capabilities will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas in which XUV radiation is used to study and manipulate matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The ALS will also serve those interested in developing the fabrication technology for microstructures and nanostructures, as well as for characterizing them.

  4. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  5. Advanced Strategies for Outdoor LED Lighting Applications and Technologies to Curtail Regional Light Pollution Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrad, Christian Karl; Benya, James R.

    2015-08-01

    LED lighting systems for outdoor lighting applications continue to evolve as do strategies to mitigate related effects upon regional astronomical and ecological assets. The improving availability and relative lumen-per-watt efficiencies of blue-suppressed low correlated color temperature emitters, narrow band amber, phosphor converted amber, and various combinations of broadband emitters and sub-550NM and sub-500NM filters allow for a wide palette of choices to be assessed to suit site-specific and task-specific lighting needs. In addition to static spectral content options, readily available luminaire designs also include precise geometric beam shape selections and adaptive controls to include dimming, dynamic spectral shifting, motion detection, and dynamic beam shaping to minimize total environmental lumen emissions throughout the course of the nighttime hours.Regional and international light pollution mitigation regulations will also be briefly addressed in the context of luminaire shielding and spectral content control efforts to better protect human quality of life issues as well as astronomical and ecological interests.The presentation will include numerous spectral content graphs for various luminaire options as well as project-specific case studies to document comparisons of legacy lighting systems versus high-performance LED systems with regard to total lumen emissions, skyglow contributions, energy efficiency, and end-user satisfaction with the installed LED lighting systems. Physical samples of various luminaires will also be available for hands-on assessments.

  6. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  7. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  8. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  9. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  10. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  11. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  12. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  13. Light controlled phase shifter for optofluidics.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, L; Kushnir, K; Zaltron, A; Simoni, F

    2016-01-15

    We report the light-induced control of optical phase shift by a liquid crystal cell made with LiNbO3:Fe crystals as substrates. We show that a phase shift of a few πs can be easily reached for two orthogonal polarizations due to liquid crystal reorientation driven by the photovoltaic electric field originated in the substrates. This effect is exploited to get all-optical switching with a contrast of about 80%, by 2 s pump pulse.

  14. Rapid prototyping of an advanced motion controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. S.

    This paper illustrates how, using existing research material, an advanced motion control system was developed both rapidly and economically. The paper emphasizes the approach used to put the system together, rather than the results of the evaluation (which is still under way). The system consists of a field-oriented controlled (FOC) induction motor, along with a pulse-population modulated current motor drive. Specific areas addressed in this paper include: a thorough overview of the technologies involved in the project (with emphasis on FOC theory); use of advanced simulation tools and models to aid in system design and debug; use of existing systems wherever possible to help speed up development; and developing the system in an environment suited to true development work.

  15. The Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Lenkszus, F.R.; Kraimer, M.R.; Arnold, N.D.; Daly, R.T.; Gunderson, G.R.; Cha, Ben-Chin K.; Anderson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a 7-GeV positron storage ring dedicated to research facilities using synchrotron radiation. This ring, along with its injection accelerators is to be controlled and monitored with a single, flexible and expandable control system. The control system must be capable of operating the APS storage ring alone, and in conjunction with its injector synchrotron for filling, as well as operating both storage ring and injection facilities as machines with separate missions. The control system design is based on the (now classic) precepts of high-performance workstations as operators consoles, distributed microprocessors to control equipment interfacing and preprocess data, and an interconnecting network. The current design includes about 45 distributed microprocessors and five console systems, which may consist of one or more workstations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  17. Altered Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic Gene Profile in Rats Subjected to Advanced Light Phase Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Laura; Valcarcel, Lorea; da Silva, Crhistiane Andressa; Albert, Nerea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat; Serra, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level. PMID:25837425

  18. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced.

  19. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Stevani, Cassius V.; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence, and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a by-product of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and the luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millenia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin “mushrooms”, internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans) as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants) at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy where wind flow is greatly reduced. PMID:25802150

  20. Scientific program of the advanced light source at LBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1992-08-01

    Construction of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is nearing completion, with operation as a US Department of Energy national user facility scheduled to begin in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports, the ALS will be a third-generation source of soft X-ray and ultraviolet (collectively, the XUV) synchrotron radiation. Experimental facilities (insertion devices, beamlines, and end stations) will be developed and operated by participating research teams working with the ALS staff. The ability to exploit the high spectral brightness of the ALS was the main criterion for PRT selection. In the XUV spectral regions served by the ALS, a major benefit of high brightness will be the ability to achieve spatial resolution in the neighborhood of 200 Å in X-ray microscopy and holography and in spatially resolved spectroscopy. Other beneficiaries of high brightness include very-high-resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy of dilute species, diffraction from very small samples, and time-resolved spectroscopy and diffraction.

  1. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  2. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans‐Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp‐Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM‐CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM‐CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM‐CFs, German Bio‐Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM‐CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463–479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  3. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED) technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD). The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD) in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%), which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD) of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm) grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength), the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg) and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1) was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a graphical user interface

  4. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-08-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  5. Advanced control design for hybrid turboelectric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abban, Joseph; Norvell, Johnesta; Momoh, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The new environment standards are a challenge and opportunity for industry and government who manufacture and operate urban mass transient vehicles. A research investigation to provide control scheme for efficient power management of the vehicle is in progress. Different design requirements using functional analysis and trade studies of alternate power sources and controls have been performed. The design issues include portability, weight and emission/fuel efficiency of induction motor, permanent magnet and battery. A strategic design scheme to manage power requirements using advanced control systems is presented. It exploits fuzzy logic, technology and rule based decision support scheme. The benefits of our study will enhance the economic and technical feasibility of technological needs to provide low emission/fuel efficient urban mass transit bus. The design team includes undergraduate researchers in our department. Sample results using NASA HTEV simulation tool are presented.

  6. Advancing tuberculosis control within reforming health systems.

    PubMed

    Weil, D E

    2000-07-01

    In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.

  7. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  8. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of thermal control technology at JPL and NASA.It shows the active spacecraft that are in vairous positions in the solar syatem, and beyond the solar system and the future missions that are under development. It then describes the challenges that the past missions posed with the thermal control systems. The various solutions that were implemented duirng the decades prior to 1990 are outlined. A review of hte thermal challenges of the future misions is also included. The exploration plan for Mars is then reviewed. The thermal challenges of the Mars Rovers are then outlined. Also the challenges of systems that would be able to be used in to explore Venus, and Titan are described. The future space telescope missions will also need thermal control technological advances. Included is a review of the thermal requirements for manned missions to the Moon. Both Active and passive technologies that have been used and will be used are reviewed. Those that are described are Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops (MPFL), Loop Heat Pipes, an M3 Passive Cooler, Heat Siwtch for Space and Mars surface applications, phase change material (PCM) technology, a Gas Gap Actuateor using ZrNiH(x), the Planck Sorption Cooler (PCS), vapor compression -- Hybrid two phase loops, advanced pumps for two phase cooling loops, and heat pumps that are lightweight and energy efficient.

  9. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  10. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  11. Advanced Light Source activity report 1996/97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Ten years ago, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) existed as a set of drawings, calculations, and ideas. Four years ago, it stored an electron beam for the first time. Today, the ALS has moved from those ideas and beginnings to a robust, third-generation synchrotron user facility, with eighteen beam lines in use, many more in planning or construction phases, and hundreds of users from around the world. Progress from concepts to realities is continuous as the scientific program, already strong in many diverse areas, moves in new directions to meet the needs of researchers into the next century. ALS staff members who develop and maintain the infrastructure for this research are similarly unwilling to rest on their laurels. As a result, the quality of the photon beams the authors deliver, as well as the support they provide to users, continues to improve. The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the results of these efforts in an accessible form for a broad audience. The Scientific Program section, while not comprehensive, shares the breadth, variety, and interest of recent research at the ALS. (The Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports provides a more comprehensive and more technical view.) The Facility Report highlights progress in operations, ongoing accelerator research and development, and beamline instrumentation efforts. Although these Activity Report sections are separate, in practice the achievements of staff and users at the ALS are inseparable. User-staff collaboration is essential as they strive to meet the needs of the user community and to continue the ALS's success as a premier research facility.

  12. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    -based light sources. However, the progress in the last few years in LED and OLED sources has been even greater. In the editorial for the LS-11 conference by previous guest editor David Wharmby, it was stated that most LED lighting was still mostly used for signalling and decorative sources. In the three years that have passed, things have changed considerably and we now see LED light sources entering every application, ranging from street lighting and parking lots to shop lighting and even greenhouses. Currently LED prices for traditional lighting applications are high, but they are dropping rapidly. The papers published in this special issue give some indications of things to come. The paper by Jamil et al deals with the possibility of using silicon wafers as substrate material instead of the now commonly used (but more expensive) sapphire substrates. This is attractive from a cost price point of view, but leads to an increased lattice mismatch and therefore strain-induced defects. In this paper it is shown that when using intermediate matching layers it is possible to retain the same electrical and optical properties as with structures on sapphire. Another aspect that directly relates to cost is efficiency and droop in green InGaN devices, which is addressed in the paper by Lee et al. They show that by providing a flow of trymethylindium prior to the growth of the quantum wells it is possible to significantly increase the internal quantum efficiency of green LEDs. Improvement of the optical out-coupling of InGaN LEDs is discussed by Mak et al, and it is found that localized plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles (and especially silver) can help to increase the optical out-coupling in the wavelength region of interest. Nanoparticles in the form of ZnO nanorods are described by Willander et al as a possibility for phosphor-free wavelength conversion on polymer (O)LEDs. More advanced functions besides light emission can be achieved with OLEDs and this is demonstrated in

  13. Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.

  14. Light Controlled Modulation of Gene Expression by Chemical Optoepigenetic Probes

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Surya A.; Ghosh, Balaram; Hendricks, J. Adam; Szantai-Kis, D. Miklos; Törk, Lisa; Ross, Kenneth N.; Lamb, Justin; Read-Button, Willis; Zheng, Baixue; Wang, Hongtao; Salthouse, Christopher; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic gene regulation is a dynamic process orchestrated by chromatin-modifying enzymes. Many of these master regulators exert their function through covalent modification of DNA and histone proteins. Aberrant epigenetic processes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors have been essential to advancing our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of epigenetic processes. However, the resolution offered by small molecules is often insufficient to manipulate epigenetic processes with high spatio-temporal control. Here, we present a novel and generalizable approach, referred to as ‘Chemo-Optical Modulation of Epigenetically-regulated Transcription’ (COMET), enabling high-resolution, optical control of epigenetic mechanisms based on photochromic inhibitors of human histone deacetylases using visible light. COMET probes may translate into novel therapeutic strategies for diseases where conditional and selective epigenome modulation is required. PMID:26974814

  15. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  16. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  18. NASA Laser Light Scattering Advanced Technology Development Workshop, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to explore the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware and to assess user requirements and needs for a laser light scattering instrument in a reduced gravity environment. The workshop addressed experimental needs and stressed hardware development.

  19. Advanced light source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, M.

    1989-07-01

    The 1-2-GeV synchrotron radiation source will be a national user-based facility providing photon beams of unprecedented brightness in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The facility design is optimized to emphasize the use of undulators to provide high-spectral brilliance in the few electron volt to 1-keV spectral range; wigglers provide high flux up to approximately 10 keV. Beam structure of a few tens of picoseconds will be available for time-resolved experiments. The facility is designed for operational flexibility and to assure rapid commissioning. The initial complement of experimental stations consists of five insertion devices (four undulators and our wiggler) and associated beamlines, and two white light beams from bend magnets. Six other straight sections are available for additional insertion devices, and the design provides for up to 48 ports for beams from bending magnets. The storage ring is optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with a maximum energy of 1.9 GeV. The injection system includes a 1-Hz, 1.5-GeV booster synchrotron for full energy injection at the nominal operating energy of the storage ring. Filling time for the maximum stored current of 400 mA is expected to be 2 min, and the beam half-life will be about 6 h. Attention is being given to the severe requirements for beam stability and the need to independently control photon beam alignment. We describe the important characteristics of the facility, significant aspects of the technical design of accelerator systems, insertion devices and photon beamlines, and considerations related to addressing projected user needs in the development of the project.

  20. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2009-06-03

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  1. Science at the Speed of Light: Advanced Photon Source

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest x-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those x-rays.

  2. Ti foil light in the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) beam

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D.R.; Chong, Y.P.; Goosman, D.R.; Rule, D.W.; Fiorito, R.B.

    1987-09-01

    An experiment is in progress to characterize the visible light produced when a Ti foil is immersed in the ATA 2 kA, 43 MeV beam. Results obtained to date indicate that the optical condition of the foil surface is a critical determinant of these characteristics, with a very narrow angular distribution obtained when a highly polished and flat foil is used. These data are consistent with the present hypothesis that the light is produced by transition radiation. Incomplete experiments to determine the foil angle dependence of the detected light and its polarization are summarized and remaining experiments are described.

  3. Increased light extraction and directional emission control in gallium nitride photonic crystal light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGroddy, Kelly C.

    GaN has become the prominent material for blue-green light emitting diodes (LEDs) and efficient white light sources. Advancements in LED efficiency for lighting has the potential to dramatically impact energy consumption world wide. A limiting factor to achieving high efficiencies in GaN LEDs is the light extraction efficiency. This work addresses many key issues pertaining to the use of PhCs to increase the extraction efficiency and emission directionality of GaN LEDs. Limitations in extraction efficiency of GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes (LEDs) are addressed by implementing an LED design using both 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) in-plane and index guiding layers (IGLs) in the vertical direction. The effects of PhCs on light extraction and emission directionality from GaN LEDs are studied experimentally. Angular resolved electroluminescence clearly shows the combined effect of controlling the vertical mode profile with the IGLs and tailoring the emission profile with the periodicity of the PhC lattice. Various materials are used to increase the index contrast of the IGL and the effects are measured. Increases in vertical emission as high as 3.5x are achieved for PhC LEDs with an Al0.12Ga0.88N IGL over non-PhC LEDs with a ˜30% improvement attributed to the incorporation of the AlGaN IGL. This enhancement is achieved by tailoring both the directionality and guided mode control. The impact of incorporating PhCs and IGLs on LED device design and performance are addressed. Effects of etching the PhCs near the QWs have been observed and explanations for this behavior will be discussed. It will be shown that an un-doped IGL can severely limit current spreading in the n-type side of the device and have a detrimental impact on device performance. Finally, a method of patterning PhCs with periodicities as small as 230nm by laser interference lithography and imprint lithography has been developed to provide a fast, inexpensive method of pattering PhCs over large

  4. Guiding lights: recent developments in optogenetic control of biochemical signals.

    PubMed

    Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I

    2013-03-01

    Optogenetics arises from the innovative application of microbial opsins in mammalian neurons and has since been a powerful technology that fuels the advance of our knowledge in neuroscience. In recent years, there has been growing interest in designing optogenetic tools extendable to broader cell types and biochemical signals. To date, a variety of photoactivatable proteins (refers to induction of protein activity in contrast to fluorescence) have been developed based on the understanding of plant and microbial photoreceptors including phototropins, blue light sensors using flavin adenine dinucleotide proteins, cryptochromes, and phytochromes. Such tools offered researchers reversible, quantitative, and precise spatiotemporal control of enzymatic activity, protein-protein interaction, protein translocation, as well as gene transcription in cells and in whole animals. In this review, we will briefly introduce these photosensory proteins, describe recent developments in optogenetics, and compare and contrast different methods based on their advantages and limitations.

  5. Control Software for Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded software has been developed specifically for controlling an Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). A Video Guidance Sensor is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. Such a system includes pulsed laser diodes and a video camera, the output of which is digitized. From the positions of digitized target images and known geometric relationships, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. The present software consists of two subprograms running in two processors that are parts of the AVGS. The subprogram in the first processor receives commands from an external source, checks the commands for correctness, performs commanded non-image-data-processing control functions, and sends image data processing parts of commands to the second processor. The subprogram in the second processor processes image data as commanded. Upon power-up, the software performs basic tests of functionality, then effects a transition to a standby mode. When a command is received, the software goes into one of several operational modes (e.g. acquisition or tracking). The software then returns, to the external source, the data appropriate to the command.

  6. Evaluation of advanced light scattering technology for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, W. J.; Rosenblum, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of modern light scattering equipment and the uses it might have in studying processes in microgravity are evaluated. Emphasis is on the resolution of polydisperse systems. This choice was made since a major use of light scattering was expected to be the study of crystal growth of macromolecules in low gravity environments. An evaluation of a modern photon correlation spectrometer and a Mie spectrometer is presented.

  7. 77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does not contain guidance on the proposed RTNSS for Passive Advance Light Water Reactors. DATES: Submit comments by November...

  8. 78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The NRC seeks public...- Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' This area includes a revised...

  9. Advanced methods of microscope control using μManager software

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Arthur D.; Tsuchida, Mark A.; Amodaj, Nenad; Pinkard, Henry; Vale, Ronald D.; Stuurman, Nico

    2014-01-01

    μManager is an open-source, cross-platform desktop application, to control a wide variety of motorized microscopes, scientific cameras, stages, illuminators, and other microscope accessories. Since its inception in 2005, μManager has grown to support a wide range of microscopy hardware and is now used by thousands of researchers around the world. The application provides a mature graphical user interface and offers open programming interfaces to facilitate plugins and scripts. Here, we present a guide to using some of the recently added advanced μManager features, including hardware synchronization, simultaneous use of multiple cameras, projection of patterned light onto a specimen, live slide mapping, imaging with multi-well plates, particle localization and tracking, and high-speed imaging. PMID:25606571

  10. Automatic lighting controls demonstration: Long-term results. Final report, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.

    1991-10-18

    An advanced electronically ballasted lighting control system was installed in a portion of an office building to measure the energy and demand savings. The lighting control system used an integrated lighting control scenario that included daylight following, lumen depreciation correction, and scheduling. The system reduced lighting energy on weekdays by 62% and 51% in the north and south daylit zones, respectively, compared to a reference zone that did not have controls. During the summer, over 75% energy savings were achieved on weekdays in the north daylit zone. Even in the south interior zone, which benefitted lime from daylight, correction strategies and adjustment of the aisleway lights to a low level resulted in energy use of only half that of the reference zone. Although, in general, the savings varied over the year due to changing daylight conditions, the energy reduction achieved with controls could be fit using a simple analytical model. Significant savings also occurred during core operating hours when it is more expensive to supply and use energy. Compared to the usage in the reference zone, energy reductions of 49%, 44%, and 62% were measured in the south daylight, south interior, and north daylight zones, respectively, during core operating hours throughout the year. Lighting energy usage on weekends decreased dramatically in the zones with controls, with the usage in the north daylit zone only 10% that of the reference zone. A simple survey developed to assess occupant response to the lighting control system showed that the occupants were satisfied with the light levels provided.

  11. Controlling light by light with an optical event horizon.

    PubMed

    Demircan, A; Amiranashvili, Sh; Steinmeyer, G

    2011-04-22

    A novel concept for an all-optical transistor is proposed and verified numerically. This concept relies on cross-phase modulation between a signal and a control pulse. Other than previous approaches, the interaction length is extended by temporally locking control and the signal pulse in an optical event horizon, enabling continuous modification of the central wavelength, energy, and duration of a signal pulse by an up to sevenfold weaker control pulse. Moreover, if the signal pulse is a soliton it may maintain its solitonic properties during the switching process. The proposed all-optical switching concept fulfills all criteria for a useful optical transistor in [Nat. Photon. 4, 3 (2010)], in particular, fan-out and cascadability, which have previously proven as the most difficult to meet.

  12. Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, C. G.

    2016-09-01

    Preface; 1. Historical; 2. Waves and wave-motion; 3. The behaviour of ripples; 4. The behaviour of light; 5. Refraction through glass blocks and prisms; 6. The imprinting of curvatures; 7. Simple mathematical treatment; 8. More advanced mathematical treatment; 9. The velocity of light; 10. The spectrum and colour; 11. Geometrical optics; 12. The eye and optical instruments; 13. Sources of light; 14. Interference, diffraction and polarisation; 15. Suggestions for class experiments; Index.

  13. The measured energy savings from two lighting control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.M.; Karayel, M.

    1984-09-01

    The energy-saving benefits of two lighting control strategies--scheduling and daylighting--were investigated at demonstration sites in two large commercial buildings. A continuously dimmable lighting control system was installed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company Building in San Francisco, and an on/off switching system was installed at the World Trade Center in New York City. By automatically scheduling the operation of the lighting systems to conform with occupancy patterns, lighting energy consumption was reduced 10-40 percent. Several scheduling techniques were investigated, and the influence of switching the zone size on energy savings was examined. Using photoelectrically controlled lighting systems, which switch or dim lighting in accordance with available daylight, the energy consumed for lighting in daylit areas was reduced to 25-35 percent. The influence of clear and overcast conditions on the energy savings associated with daylight-linked controls is discussed.

  14. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.

    1983-12-01

    The Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  15. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advanced control and power system (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  16. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  17. Laser Light Scattering, from an Advanced Technology Development Program to Experiments in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Tscharnuter, Walther W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Dautet, Henri; Deschamps, Pierre; Boucher, Francois; Zuh, Jixiang; Tin, Padetha; Rogers, Richard B.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advancements in laser light scattering hardware are described. These include intelligent single card correlators; active quench/active reset avalanche photodiodes; laser diodes; and fiber optics which were used by or developed for a NASA advanced technology development program. A space shuttle experiment which will employ aspects of these hardware developments is previewed.

  18. X-ray micro-Tomography at the Advanced Light Source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The X-ray micro-Tomography Facility at the Advanced Light Source has been in operation since 2004. The source is a superconducting bend magnet of critical energy 10.5KeV; photon energy coverage is 8-45 KeV in monochromatic mode, and a filtered white light option yields useful photons up to 50 KeV. A...

  19. Light Scattering by Polymers: Two Experiments for Advanced Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Background information, procedures, equipment, and results for two experiments are presented. The first involves the measurement of the mass-average and degree of coiling of polystyrene and is interpreted by the full mathematical theory of light scattering. The second is the study of transitions in gelatin. (JN)

  20. Homeostasis lighting control based on relationship between lighting environment and human behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Risa; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although each person has own preferences, living spaces which can respond to various preferences and needs have not become reality. Focusing on the lighting environments which influence on the impression of living spaces, this research aims to offer comfortable lighting environments for each resident by a flexible control. This research examines the relationship between lighting environments and human behaviors considering colored lights. In accord with the relationship, this research proposes an illuminance-color control system which flexibly changes spatial environments responding to human conditions. Firstly, the psychological evaluation was conducted in order to build human models for various environments. As a result, preferred lighting environments for each examinee were determined for particular behaviors. Moreover, satisfaction levels of lighting environments were calculated by using seven types of impression of the environments as parameters. The results were summarized as human models. Secondly, this research proposed "Homeostasis Lighting Control System", which employs the human models. Homeostasis lighting control system embodies the algorithm of homeostasis, which is one of the functions of the physiological adaptation. Human discomfort feelings are obtained automatically by the sensor agent robot. The system can offer comfortable lighting environments without controlling environments by residents autonomously based on the information from the robot. This research takes into accounts both illuminance and color. The robot communicates with the server which contains human models, then the system corresponds to individuals. Combining these three systems, the proposed system can effectively control the lighting environment. At last, the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by simulation experiments.

  1. Control of light propagation by optical indexmodulation for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Mei-Ling

    To maximize the efficiency of collection or extraction in terms of controllability of photons is one of the solutions to overcome the hurdle of the global energy crisis. By engineering the optical index of materials to create complex network structure, the light propagation is able to be modified as well as their optical properties, such as reflection, transmission, diffraction, absorption and emission. Moreover, advances in nanotechnology, present an unprecedented opportunity to explore strong photon-structure interaction and to manipulate the basic optical modes. In this study, we modulate the optical index of material and nanostructure to control the flow of the light and the optical modes guided or trapped in terms of a need for energy-efficient photonics. Two cases of photon controlling are investigated. One is the graded-index multilayer antireflection coating for maximizing collection efficiency. The other is the randomness 2-demensional (2D) array of light emitting diode for enhancing extraction efficiency. An antireflection (AR) coating is a type of coating applied to the surface of a material to reduce light reflection and to increase light transmission. The coating can improve solar collection efficiency and, therefore, the overall solar-to-electricity efficiency. A theoretical calculation predicts an extremely low reflectance using the concept of a multi-layer graded index profile. The graded-index approach is shown to achieve this goal by offering a mechanism for minimizing Fresnel reflection that is fundamentally different from either the traditional lambda/4 AR-coating or the modified surface structures. Multi-layer nanostructure AR-coating was engineered to dramatically reduce optical reflection over all wavelengths of sun light and incident anglestheta. Our experimental result illustrates that solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency increases by 22.2% when going from a conventional single-layer lambda/4 to a seven layer graded index AR

  2. A single dose of alcohol does not meaningfully alter circadian phase advances and phase delays to light in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-04-15

    Central circadian timing influences mental and physical health. Research in nocturnal rodents has demonstrated that when alcohol is consumed, it reaches the central hypothalamic circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nuclei) and can directly alter circadian phase shifts to light. In two separate studies, we examined, for the first time, the effects of a single dose of alcohol on circadian phase advances and phase delays to light in humans. Two 23-day within-subjects placebo-controlled counterbalanced design studies were conducted. Both studies consisted of 6 days of fixed baseline sleep to stabilize circadian timing, a 2-day laboratory session, a 6-day break, and a repeat of 6 days of fixed sleep and a 2-day laboratory session. In the phase advance study (n= 10 light drinkers, 24-45 yr), the laboratory sessions consisted of a baseline dim light phase assessment, sleep episode, alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo, 2-h morning bright light pulse, and final phase assessment. In the phase-delay study (n= 14 light drinkers, 22-44 yr), the laboratory sessions consisted of a baseline phase assessment, alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo, 2-h late night bright light pulse, sleep episode, and final phase assessment. In both studies, alcohol either increased or decreased the observed phase shifts to light (interaction P≥ 0.46), but the effect of alcohol vs. placebo on phase shifts to light was always on average smaller than 30 min. Thus, no meaningful effects of a single dose of alcohol vs. placebo on circadian phase shifts to light in humans were observed.

  3. Flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane (ATLIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Project organization and execution, airplane description and performance predictions, and the results of the flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin engine airplane (ATLIT) are presented. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34-200 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll control spoilers, and full span Fowler flaps. The conclusions for the ATLIT evaluation are based on complete stall and roll flight test results and partial performance test results. The Stalling and rolling characteristics met design expectations. Climb performance was penalized by extensive flow separation in the region of the wing body juncture. Cruise performance was found to be penalized by a large value of zero lift drag. Calculations showed that, with proper attention to construction details, the improvements in span efficiency and zero lift drag would permit the realization of the predicted increases in cruising and maximum rate of climb performance.

  4. Estimation of 1D proximity budget impacts due to light source for advanced node design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, R. C.; Wu, Tony; Liu, H. H.

    2014-03-01

    The laser impacts on the proximity error are well known in many previous studies and papers. The proximity budget control is more and more important for advanced node design. The goal of this paper is to describe the laser spectral bandwidth and wavelength stability contributions to the proximity budget by considering general line/space and trench pattern design. We performed experiments and modeled the photolithography response using Panoramic Technology HyperLith simulation over a range of laser bandwidth and wavelength stability conditions to quantify the long term and short term stability contributions on wafer-to-wafer and field-to-field proximity variation. Finally, we determine the requirements for current system performance to meet patterning requirements and minimize the laser contribution on proximity error and within 4% of target CD Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) budget process requirement [2]. This paper also discusses how the wafer lithography drivers are enabled by ArFi light source technologies.

  5. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source.

    PubMed

    Bakeman, M S; van Tilborg, J; Sokollik, T; Baum, D; Ybarrolaza, N; Duarte, R; Toth, C; Leemans, W P

    2010-10-01

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  6. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-10-15

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  7. Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Use in Advanced Oxidation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    assume both the power requirements and lifetimes of UV LEDs will improve rapidly in the coming decades. LEDs turn electrical energy into light energy ... energy consumption or limiting the time the LED is powered , but do not require the highest possible rate of contamination destruction. 20 This might...as they are durable; compact; can be powered by low voltage, direct current from solar cells or batteries; and do not contain other hazardous

  8. Dispersion-controlled slow light in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshihiko; Adachi, Jun; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hamachi, Yohei; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    Slow light with a markedly low group velocity is a promising solution for optical buffering and advanced time-domain optical signal processing. It is also anticipated to enhance linear and nonlinear effects and so miniaturize functional photonic devices because slow light compresses optical energy in space. Photonic crystal waveguide devices generate on-chip slow light at room temperature with a wide bandwidth and low dispersion suitable for short pulse transmission. This paper first explains the delay-bandwidth product, fractional delay, and tunability as crucial criteria for buffering capacity of slow light devices. Then the paper describes experimental observations of slow light pulse, exhibiting their record high values. It also demonstrates the nonlinear enhancement based on slow light pulse transmission.

  9. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  10. Annual meeting of the Advanced Light Source Users` Association

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: ALS Director`s Report; ALS Operations Update; Recent Results in Machine Physics; Progress in Beamline Commissioning and Overview of New Projects; The ALS Scientific Program; First Results from the SpectroMicroscopy Beamline; Soft X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Solids; Soft X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Molecules; Microstructures and Micromachining at the ALS; High-Resolution Photoemission from Simple Atoms and Molecules; X-Ray Diffraction at the ALS; Utilizing Synchrotron Radiation in Advanced Materials Industries; Polymer Microscopy: About Balls, Rocks and Other ``Stuff``; Infrared Research and Applications; and ALS User Program.

  11. Final LDRD report : design and fabrication of advanced device structures for ultra high efficiency solid state lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Shul, Randy John; Wendt, Joel Robert; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this one year LDRD was to improve the overall efficiency of InGaN LEDs by improving the extraction of light from the semiconductor chip. InGaN LEDs are currently the most promising technology for producing high efficiency blue and green semiconductor light emitters. Improving the efficiency of InGaN LEDs will enable a more rapid adoption of semiconductor based lighting. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop photonic structures to improve light extraction from nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). While many advanced device geometries were considered for this work, we focused on the use of a photonic crystal for improved light extraction. Although resonant cavity LEDs and other advanced structures certainly have the potential to improve light extraction, the photonic crystal approach showed the most promise in the early stages of this short program. The photonic crystal (PX)-LED developed here incorporates a two dimensional photonic crystal, or photonic lattice, into a nitride-based LED. The dimensions of the photonic crystal are selected such that there are very few or no optical modes in the plane of the LED ('lateral' modes). This will reduce or eliminate any radiation in the lateral direction so that the majority of the LED radiation will be in vertical modes that escape the semiconductor, which will improve the light-extraction efficiency. PX-LEDs were fabricated using a range of hole diameters and lattice constants and compared to control LEDs without a photonic crystal. The far field patterns from the PX-LEDs were dramatically modified by the presence of the photonic crystal. An increase in LED brightness of 1.75X was observed for light measured into a 40 degree emission cone with a total increase in power of 1.5X for an unencapsulated LED.

  12. Controlling Light Pollution in the Third World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J.

    2001-12-01

    Third world countries and those on the way toward development share the same problems as those facing industrialized countries. The public must be made aware of the unnecessary waste of energy, the exclusion of the beauty of the night sky, the interference with the natural day and night cycles of flora and fauna, and in the neighborhood of astronomical observatories the interference with some of the most exciting research activities of modern science. Authorities, in particular municipalities, have to replace the fixtures of public lighting by shielded fixtures, which do not emit light upwards. This results in substantial savings in money and energy. Third world countries face additional problems. These include; 1. The network of electrical energy in areas which never had that service before. Cerro Tololo in Chile and Llano del Hato in Venezuela are good examples. During the site surveys which led to the establishment of these observatories no lights were seen anywhere nearby. 2. The rapid and uncontrolled growth of the population leads to a rapidly expanding suburban development with its demand of new public lighting. This is enhanced by the fact that most of the young people of the rural population move to the cities. 3. In many cases outdoor light fixtures are imported and hence costly. In addition manufacturers prefer to unload their stock of obsolete fixtures in the third world. 4. Education has to start out at a lower level than is the case in industrialized countries. 5. Often one finds a certain resistance to rules imposed by the developed world which until not too long ago they did not have anyway. 6. Air pollution of the northern hemisphere, produced by industrialized countries, frequently spills over into the tropics, and thus enhances the backscatter from the sky.

  13. Evolutionary/advanced light water reactor data report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-09

    The US DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition is examining options for placing fissile materials that were produced for fabrication of weapons, and now are deemed to be surplus, into a condition that is substantially irreversible and makes its use in weapons inherently more difficult. The principal fissile materials subject to this disposition activity are plutonium and uranium containing substantial fractions of plutonium-239 uranium-235. The data in this report, prepared as technical input to the fissile material disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) deal only with the disposition of plutonium that contains well over 80% plutonium-239. In fact, the data were developed on the basis of weapon-grade plutonium which contains, typically, 93.6% plutonium-239 and 5.9% plutonium-240 as the principal isotopes. One of the options for disposition of weapon-grade plutonium being considered is the power reactor alternative. Plutonium would be fabricated into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and fissioned (``burned``) in a reactor to produce electric power. The MOX fuel will contain dioxides of uranium and plutonium with less than 7% weapon-grade plutonium and uranium that has about 0.2% uranium-235. The disposition mission could, for example, be carried out in existing power reactors, of which there are over 100 in the United States. Alternatively, new LWRs could be constructed especially for disposition of plutonium. These would be of the latest US design(s) incorporating numerous design simplifications and safety enhancements. These ``evolutionary`` or ``advanced`` designs would offer not only technological advances, but also flexibility in siting and the option of either government or private (e.g., utility) ownership. The new reactor designs can accommodate somewhat higher plutonium throughputs. This data report deals solely with the ``evolutionary`` LWR alternative.

  14. Advanced Light Source report. Volume 7, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The exceptional science already emerging from the user program at the ALS shows that the promises of ``unique research opportunities`` and ``experiments not possible anywhere else`` made at the inception of the ALS are indeed coming true. In less than a year of beamline operations, the ALS has produced numerous high-quality results and achieved an enviable level of performance. Since the beginning of 1994, the ALS has operated for 92% of its scheduled hours, an outstanding achievement for a new machine. The ALS` ability to deliver the brightest light in the world in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum has attracted a who`s who of synchrotron research to the experiment floor. These users have produced a variety of scientifically significant results during the ALS` first year of operation, a few of which are highlighted in this article.

  15. Use of prismatic films to control light distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneipp, K. G.

    1994-01-01

    Piping light for illumination purposes is a concept which has been around for a long time. In fact, it was the subject of an 1881 United States patent which proposed the use of mirrors inside a tube to reflect light from wall to wall down the tube. The use of conventional mirrors for this purpose, however, has not worked because mirrors do not reflect well enough. On the other hand, optical fibers composed of certain glasses or plastics are known to transport light much more efficiently. The light that enters is reflected back and forth within the walls of the fiber until it reaches the other end. This is possible by means of a principle known as 'total internal reflection'. No light escapes through the walls and very little is absorbed in the bulk of the fiber. However, while optical fibers are very efficient in transporting light, they are impractical for transporting large quantities of light. Lorne Whitehead, as a student at the University of British Columbia, recognized that prismatic materials could be used to create a 'prism light guide', a hollow structure that can efficiently transport large quantities of light. This invention is a pipe whose transparent walls are formed on the outside into precise prismatic facets. The facets are efficient total internal reflection mirrors which prevent light travelling down the guide from escaping. Very little light is absorbed by the pipe because light travels primarily in the air space within the hollow guide. And, because the guide is hollow, weight and cost factors are much more favorable than would be the case with very large solid fibers. Recent advances in precision micromachining, polymer processing, and certain other manufacturing technologies have made the development of OLF (Optical Lighting Film) possible. The process is referred to as 'microreplication' and has been found to have broad applicability in a number of diverse product areas.

  16. Environment assisted degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The general goals of the research program are to characterize alloy behavior quantitatively and to develop predictive mechanisms for environmental failure modes. Successes in this regard will provide the basis for metallurgical optimization of alloy performance, for chemical control of aggressive environments, and for engineering life prediction with damage tolerance and long term reliability.

  17. [Drug release system controlled by near infrared light].

    PubMed

    Niidome, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods have absorption bands in the near-infrared region; in this spectral range, light penetrates deeply into tissues. The absorbed light energy is converted into heat by gold nanorods. This is the so-called photothermal effect. Gold nanorods are therefore expected to act not only as thermal converters for photothermal therapy, but also as controllers for drug-release systems responding to irradiation with near-infrared light. To achieve a controlled-release system that could be triggered by light irradiation, the gold nanorods were modified with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). When the dsDNA-modified gold nanorods were irradiated with near-infrared light, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was released from the gold nanorods because of the photothermal effect. The release of ssDNA was also observed in tumors grown on mice after near-infrared light irradiation. We also proposed a different controlled-release system responding to near-infrared light. Gold nanorods were modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) through Diels-Alder cycloadducts. When the gold nanorods were irradiated with near-infrared light, the PEG chains were released from the gold nanorods because of the retro Diels-Alder reaction induced by the photothermal effect. Such controlled-release systems triggered by near-infrared light irradiation will be expanded for gold nanorod drug delivery system applications.

  18. Single-layer mirrors for advanced research light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Siewert, F.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Hertlein, F.; Matiaske, M.; Wiesmann, J.; Gaudin, J.

    2010-06-01

    X-ray mirrors are needed for beam guidance, beam alignment and monochromatisation at third-generation synchrotron light sources (PETRA III) and forthcoming Free-Electron Lasers (LCLS, European XFEL). Amorphous carbon coatings are currently used as total reflection mirrors at FLASH to guide the photon beam to the various beamlines. These coatings were prepared by means of magnetron sputtering. The new GKSS sputtering facility for the deposition of single and multilayer mirrors with a length of up to 1500 mm and a width of up to 120 mm is in operation. In this contribution we present the results of this new deposition system. A major advantage is that it is now possible to prepare one, two or more mirrors with similar properties over the whole deposition length. The mirror properties were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The performance of the mirrors is analyzed, considering X-ray reflectivity, film thickness and surface roughness. The uniformity of these properties over the whole deposition length of 1500 mm is demonstrated. The results obtained will be discussed and compared with former results.

  19. Single-layer mirrors for advanced research light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stoermer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Siewert, F.; Hertlein, F.; Matiaske, M.; Wiesmann, J.; Gaudin, J.

    2010-06-23

    X-ray mirrors are needed for beam guidance, beam alignment and monochromatisation at third-generation synchrotron light sources (PETRA III) and forthcoming Free-Electron Lasers (LCLS, European XFEL). Amorphous carbon coatings are currently used as total reflection mirrors at FLASH to guide the photon beam to the various beamlines. These coatings were prepared by means of magnetron sputtering. The new GKSS sputtering facility for the deposition of single and multilayer mirrors with a length of up to 1500 mm and a width of up to 120 mm is in operation. In this contribution we present the results of this new deposition system. A major advantage is that it is now possible to prepare one, two or more mirrors with similar properties over the whole deposition length. The mirror properties were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The performance of the mirrors is analyzed, considering X-ray reflectivity, film thickness and surface roughness. The uniformity of these properties over the whole deposition length of 1500 mm is demonstrated. The results obtained will be discussed and compared with former results.

  20. Vacuum system for the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.; Henderson, T.; Meneghetti, J. )

    1989-03-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit most synchrotron photons to escape the electron channel and be absorbed in an antechamber. The gas generated by the photons hitting the absorbers in the antechambers will be pumped by titanium sublimation pumps located directly under the absorbers. The electron channel and the antechamber are connected by a 10-mm-high slot that offers good electrodynamic isolation of the two chambers of frequencies affecting the store electron orbit. Twelve 10-meter-long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. Machining both the inside and outside of the vacuum chamber permits the use of complex and accurate surfaces. The use of thick plates allows flanges to be machined directly into the wall of each chamber, thus avoiding much welding. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  1. Improving the performance of photo-electrically controlled lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Ward, G.; Verderber, R.

    1988-08-01

    The ability of a photo-electrically controlled lighting system to maintain a constant total light level on a task surface by responding to changing daylight levels is affected by the control algorithm used to relate the photosensor signal to the supplied electric light level and by the placement and geometry of the photosensor. We describe the major components of a typical control system, discuss the operation of three different control algorithms, and derive expressions for each algorithm that express the total illuminance at the task as a function of the control photosensor signal. Using a specially-designed scale model, we measured the relationship between the signal generated by various ceiling-mounted control photosensors and workplane illuminance for two room geometries under real sky conditions. The measured data were used to determine the performance of systems obeying the three control algorithms under varying daylight conditions. Control systems employing the commonly-used integral reset algorithm supplied less electric light than required, failing to satisfy the control objective regardless of the control photosensor used. Systems employing an alternative, closed-loop proportional control algorithm achieved the control objective under virtually all tested conditions when operated by a ceiling-mounted photosensor shielded from direct window light.

  2. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  3. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  4. Meeting Summary Advanced Light Water Reactor Fuels Industry Meeting Washington DC October 27 - 28, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group first met in November of 2010 with the objective of looking 20 years ahead to the role that advanced fuels could play in improving light water reactor technology, such as waste reduction and economics. When the group met again in March 2011, the Fukushima incident was still unfolding. After the March meeting, the focus of the program changed to determining what we could do in the near term to improve fuel accident tolerance. Any discussion of fuels with enhanced accident tolerance will likely need to consider an advanced light water reactor with enhanced accident tolerance, along with the fuel. The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group met in Washington D.C. on October 72-18, 2011 to continue discussions on this important topic.

  5. Advanced controls pay out in 6 weeks at Texas refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Bullerdiek, E.A.; Hobbs, J.W.

    1995-06-19

    Marathon Oil Co. installed advanced controls on two crude units and a fluid catalytic cracking unit main fractionator at its 70,000 b/d Texas City, Tex., refinery. The advanced controls were based on inferred properties supplied by an outside vendor, who also provided consulting and assistance during the implementation phases. (Inferred properties are on-line computations for estimating laboratory test properties, such as ASTM boiling point and flash point, that are used for product quality control.) The paper discusses inferred properties, bias updating, control strategies, control implementation, and post-project work, including fuzzy logic, the statistical quality control program, benefits, and availability.

  6. High-speed multilevel phase/amplitude spatial light modulator advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauchert, Kipp A.; Serati, Steven A.

    1999-03-01

    Recent and near-term advancements in our multi-level (analog) phase/amplitude liquid crystal spatial light modulators will be presented. These advancements include higher resolution, smaller pixel pitch, planarized pixel pads, and higher speed modulation for phase-only, amplitude-only, and phase- amplitude-coupled modulation. These devices have applications in optical processing, optical storage, holographic display, and beam steering. Design criteria and experimental data will be presented.

  7. Control of the Rat Pineal Gland by Light Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Daniel P.; Larin, Frances; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Control of pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase (S-adenosylmethionine:N-acetylserotonin-O-methyl transferase; EC 2.1.1.4) by light spectra was determined by placing groups of rats previously housed in continuous darkness under one of seven light sources for 96 hr; rats were exposed to the same intensity of irradiation. Activity of the enzyme was lowest in rats maintained under green light (λ peak = 530 nm); blue and yellow light were somewhat less effective; red and ultraviolet light did not significantly lower the enzyme activity. The suppression of pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase by full-spectrum light sources could be correlated with the proportions of their spectral outputs in the blue-green-yellow range. These observations suggest that the retinal photopigment that mediates pineal responses to light in rats is rhodopsin or another compound with similar absorption properties. PMID:4506068

  8. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    PubMed

    Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; Gruner, Daniel S; Harpole, W Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Adler, Peter B; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Orrock, John L; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren L; Williams, Ryan J; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin P; Yang, Louie H

    2014-04-24

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  9. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  10. Controlling template erosion with advanced cleaning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, SherJang; Yu, Zhaoning; Wähler, Tobias; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Wang, Hongying; Yang, Henry; Hsu, Yautzong; Lee, Kim; Kuo, David; Dress, Peter

    2012-03-01

    We studied the erosion and feature stability of fused silica patterns under different template cleaning conditions. The conventional SPM cleaning is compared with an advanced non-acid process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry optical critical dimension (SE-OCD) measurements were used to characterize the changes in pattern profile with good sensitivity. This study confirmed the erosion of the silica patterns in the traditional acid-based SPM cleaning mixture (H2SO4+H2O2) at a rate of ~0.1nm per cleaning cycle. The advanced non-acid clean process however only showed CD shift of ~0.01nm per clean. Contamination removal & pattern integrity of sensitive 20nm features under MegaSonic assisted cleaning is also demonstrated.

  11. Advanced control technology for LSST platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, R. S.

    1981-02-01

    Basic technology in the design, mechanization, and analysis of control systems for large flexible space structures was examined. The focus of the platform control effort was on pointing control. The reason for this emphasis was because of the unique problems in this area posed by multiple independent experiment packages operating simultaneously on a single platform. Attitude control and stationkeeping were also addressed for future consideration.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-06-01

    of interest. The specific nonlinear soil behavior included in the NLSSI calculation presented in this report is gapping and sliding. Other NLSSI effects are not included in the calculation. The results presented in this report document initial model runs in the linear and nonlinear analysis process. Final comparisons between traditional and advanced SPRA will be presented in the September 30th deliverable.

  13. Smart Engines Via Advanced Model Based Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Marc

    2000-08-20

    A ''new'' process for developing control systems - Less engine testing - More robust control system - Shorter development cycle time - ''Smarter'' approach to engine control - On-board models describe engine behavior - Shorter, systematic calibration process - Customer and legislative requirements designed-in.

  14. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  15. Bumblebees Perform Well-Controlled Landings in Dim Light

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Therese; Dacke, Marie; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

    2016-01-01

    To make a smooth touchdown when landing, an insect must be able to reliably control its approach speed as well as its body and leg position—behaviors that are thought to be regulated primarily by visual information. Bumblebees forage and land under a broad range of light intensities and while their behavior during the final moments of landing has been described in detail in bright light, little is known about how this is affected by decreasing light intensity. Here, we investigate this by characterizing the performance of bumblebees, B. terrestris, landing on a flat platform at two different orientations (horizontal and vertical) and at four different light intensities (ranging from 600 lx down to 19 lx). As light intensity decreased, the bees modified their body position and the distance at which they extended their legs, suggesting that the control of landing in these insects is visually mediated. Nevertheless, the effect of light intensity was small and the landings were still well controlled, even in the dimmest light. We suggest that the changes in landing behavior that occurred in dim light might represent adaptations that allow the bees to perform smooth landings across the broad range of light intensities at which they are active. PMID:27683546

  16. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  17. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  18. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Caged molecular beacons: controlling nucleic acid hybridization with light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunming; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Yang, Chaoyong James; Tan, Weihong

    2011-05-28

    We have constructed a novel class of light-activatable caged molecular beacons (cMBs) that are caged by locking two stems with a photo-labile biomolecular interaction or covalent bond. With the cMBs, the nucleic acid hybridization process can be easily controlled with light, which offers the possibility for a high spatiotemporal resolution study of intracellular mRNAs.

  20. Improving on-wafer CD correlation analysis using advanced diagnostics and across-wafer light-source monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagna, Paolo; Zurita, Omar; Rechtsteiner, Gregory; Lalovic, Ivan; Bekaert, Joost

    2014-04-01

    With the implementation of multi-patterning ArF-immersion for sub 20nm integrated circuits (IC), advances in equipment monitoring and control are needed to support on-wafer yield performance. These in-situ equipment monitoring improvements, along with advanced litho-cell corrections based on on-wafer measurements, enable meeting stringent overlay and CD control requirements for advanced lithography patterning. The importance of light-source performance on lithography pattering (CD and overlay) has been discussed in previous publications.[1-3] Recent developments of Cymer ArF light-source metrology and on-board monitoring enable end-users to detect, for each exposed wafer, changes in the near-field and far-field spatial profiles and polarization performance, [4-6] in addition to the key `optical' scalar parameters, such as bandwidth, wavelength and energy. The major advantage of this capability is that the key performance metrics are sampled at rates matched to wafer performance, e.g. every exposure field across the wafer, which is critical for direct correlation with on-wafer performance for process control and excursion detection.

  1. Advanced rotorcraft control using parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1991-01-01

    A reliable algorithm for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters is presented. The algorithm is part of a design algorithm for an optimal linear dynamic output feedback controller that minimizes a finite time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed loop eigensystem. This approach through the use of a accurate Pade series approximation does not require the closed loop system matrix to be diagonalizable. The algorithm has been included in a control design package for optimal robust low order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm has been demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

  2. NAN-190 potentiates the circadian response to light and speeds re-entrainment to advanced light cycles.

    PubMed

    Kessler, E J; Sprouse, J; Harrington, M E

    2008-07-17

    Health problems can arise from de-synchrony between the external environment and the endogenous circadian rhythm, yet the circadian system is not able to quickly adjust to large, abrupt changes in the external daily cycle. In this study, we investigated the ability of NAN-190 to potentiate the circadian rhythm response to light as measured by phase of behavioral activity rhythms. NAN-190 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to significantly potentiate the response to light both in dark-adapted and entrained hamsters. Furthermore, NAN-190 was effective even when administered up to 6 h after light onset. Response to a light pulse was both greater in magnitude and involved fewer unstable transient cycles. Finally, NAN-190 was able to speed re-entrainment to a 6 h advance of the light/dark cycle by an average of 6 days when compared with vehicle-treated animals. This work suggests that compounds like NAN-190 may hold great potential as a pharmaceutical treatment for jetlag, shift work, and other circadian disorders.

  3. NAN-190 potentiates the circadian response to light and speeds re-entrainment to advanced light cycles

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Eileen J; Sprouse, Jeffrey; Harrington, Mary E

    2008-01-01

    Health problems can arise from de-synchrony between the external environment and the endogenous circadian rhythm, yet the circadian system is not able to quickly adjust to large, abrupt changes in the external daily cycle. In this study, we investigated the ability of NAN-190 to potentiate the circadian rhythm response to light as measured by phase of behavioral activity rhythms. NAN-190 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to significantly potentiate the response to light both in dark-adapted and entrained hamsters. Furthermore, NAN-190 was effective even when administered up to 6 hours after light onset. Response to a light pulse was both greater in magnitude and involved fewer unstable transient cycles. Finally, NAN-190 was able to speed re-entrainment to a 6 h advance of the light: dark cycle by an average of 6 days when compared to vehicle-treated animals. This work suggests that compounds like NAN-190 may hold great potential as a pharmaceutical treatment for jetlag, shift work, and other circadian disorders. PMID:18538936

  4. Rotorcraft flying qualities improvement using advanced control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Postlethwaite, I.; Howitt, J.; Foster, N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on recent experience gained when a multivariable helicopter flight control law was tested on the Large Motion Simulator (LMS) at DRA Bedford. This was part of a study into the application of multivariable control theory to the design of full-authority flight control systems for high-performance helicopters. In this paper, we present some of the results that were obtained during the piloted simulation trial and from subsequent off-line simulation and analysis. The performance provided by the control law led to level 1 handling quality ratings for almost all of the mission task elements assessed, both during the real-time and off-line analysis.

  5. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  6. Local feedback control of light honeycomb panels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chinsuk; Elliott, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental work on the feedback control of sound radiation from honeycomb panels using piezoceramic actuators. It is motivated by the problem of sound transmission in aircraft, specifically the active control of trim panels. Trim panels are generally honeycomb structures designed to meet the design requirement of low weight and high stiffness. They are resiliently mounted to the fuselage for the passive reduction of noise transmission. Local coupling of the closely spaced sensor and actuator was observed experimentally and modeled using a single degree of freedom system. The effect of the local coupling was to roll off the response between the actuator and sensor at high frequencies, so that a feedback control system can have high gain margins. Unfortunately, only relatively poor global performance is then achieved because of localization of reduction around the actuator. This localization prompts the investigation of a multichannel active control system. Globalized reduction was predicted using a model of 12-channel direct velocity feedback control. The multichannel system, however, does not appear to yield a significant improvement in the performance because of decreased gain margin.

  7. Light Control of the Flow of Phototactic Microswimmer Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Xabel; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    Some microalgae are sensitive to light intensity gradients. This property is known as phototaxis: The algae swim toward a light source (positive phototaxis). We use this property to control the motion of microalgae within a Poiseuille flow using light. The combination of flow vorticity and phototaxis results in a concentration of algae around the center of the flow. Intermittent light exposure allows analysis of the dynamics of this phenomenon and its reversibility. With this phenomenon, we hope to pave the way toward new algae concentration techniques (a bottleneck challenge in biofuel algal production) and toward the improvement of pollutant biodetector technology.

  8. Light control of the flow of phototactic microswimmer suspensions.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Xabel; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2013-03-29

    Some microalgae are sensitive to light intensity gradients. This property is known as phototaxis: The algae swim toward a light source (positive phototaxis). We use this property to control the motion of microalgae within a Poiseuille flow using light. The combination of flow vorticity and phototaxis results in a concentration of algae around the center of the flow. Intermittent light exposure allows analysis of the dynamics of this phenomenon and its reversibility. With this phenomenon, we hope to pave the way toward new algae concentration techniques (a bottleneck challenge in biofuel algal production) and toward the improvement of pollutant biodetector technology.

  9. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  10. Advanced Topics in Wet-Weather Discharge Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses four related but generally independent wet-weather flow (WWF) topic areas, namely: i) opportunities for advanced practices in WWF control technology, particularly as it applies to sewered systems; ii) tradeoffs between storage facilities (tanks) and enlarged...

  11. Networked Lighting Power and Control Platform for Solid State Lighting in Commercial Office Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covaro, Mark

    2012-08-15

    Redwood Systems' objective is to further accelerate the acceptance of solid state lighting (SSL) with fine grain and easy-to-use control. In addition, increased and improved sensor capability allows the building owner or user to gather data on the environment within the building. All of this at a cost equal to or less than that of code-compliant fluorescent lighting. The grant we requested and received has been used to further enhance the system with power conversion efficiency improvements and additional features. Some of these features, such as building management system (BMS) control, allow additional energy savings in non-lighting building systems.

  12. Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controls for Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Garg, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    The research vision of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the area of integrated flight and propulsion controls technologies is described. In particular the Integrated Method for Propulsion and Airframe Controls developed at the Lewis Research Center is described including its application to an advanced aircraft configuration. Additionally, future research directions in integrated controls are described.

  13. Advanced Light Source First-Phase Scientific Program, 1993/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This composite document outlines ten different experiments planned for the beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Researchers from various parts of the country have detailed their methods and equipment to be used in experiments in biology and physics. X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy are the common topics to these experiments. (GHH)

  14. Advances in the IGNITOR Plasma Control^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villone, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, F.; Ramogida, G.; Bombarda, F.; Coletti, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coppi, B.

    2007-11-01

    The IGNITOR vertical position and shape controller has been designed on the basis of the CREATE-L linearized plasma response model, taking into account the engineering constraints of the machine and the features of the burning plasma regimes to be obtained. Special care has been devoted to the design of a robust control system, that can operate even when a degradation of the performance of the electro-magnetic diagnostics may occur. The coupling between the vertical position control and the plasma shape control has been analyzed, in order to allow the plasma vertical position to be stabilized also in the case where a shape disturbance is provoked by a change of the main plasma parameters. Simulations of the control system response have been carried out using realistic models of the electrical power supply system. The non-linear computation of equilibrium flux maps before and after the perturbation shows that the system is able to recover from all the assumed disturbances with this control scheme. In addition, the control of the plasma current and of the separatrix of the double-null plasma configuration is being studied.^*Sponsored in part by ENEA and the US D.O.E.

  15. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  16. Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

  17. Cationic Polymerization of Vinyl Ethers Controlled by Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Kottisch, Veronika; Michaudel, Quentin; Fors, Brett P

    2016-12-07

    Photoinitiated cationic polymerizations are widely used in industrial processes; however, gaining photocontrol over chain growth would expand the utility of these methods and facilitate the design of novel complex architectures. We report herein a cationic polymerization regulated by visible light. This polymerization proceeds under mild conditions: a combination of a metal-free photocatalyst, a chain-transfer agent, and light irradiation enables the synthesis of various poly(vinyl ether)s with good control over molecular weight and dispersity as well as excellent chain-end fidelity. Significantly, photoreversible cation formation in this system enables efficient control over polymer chain growth with light.

  18. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  19. Bright morning light advances the human circadian system without affecting NREM sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D J; Beersma, D G; Daan, S; Lewy, A J

    1989-01-01

    Eight male subjects were exposed to either bright light or dim light between 0600 and 0900 h for 3 consecutive days each. Relative to the dim light condition, the bright light treatment advanced the evening rise in plasma melatonin and the time of sleep termination (sleep onset was held constant) for an average approximately 1 h. The magnitude of the advance of the plasma melatonin rise was dependent on its phase in dim light. The reduction in sleep duration was at the expense of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Spectral analysis of the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed that the advance of the circadian pacemaker did not affect EEG power densities between 0.25 and 15.0 Hz during either non-REM or REM sleep. The data show that shifting the human circadian pacemaker by 1 h does not affect non-REM sleep homeostasis. These findings are in accordance with the predictions of the two-process model of sleep regulation.

  20. Spin control of light with hyperbolic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermakov, Oleh Y.; Ovcharenko, Anton I.; Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Iorsh, Ivan V.; Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-08-01

    Transverse spin angular momentum is an inherent feature of evanescent waves which may have applications in nanoscale optomechanics, spintronics, and quantum information technology due to the robust spin-directional coupling. Here we analyze local spin angular momentum density of hybrid surface waves propagating along anisotropic hyperbolic metasurfaces. We reveal that, in contrast to bulk plane waves and conventional surface plasmons at isotropic interfaces, the spin of the hybrid surface waves can be engineered to have an arbitrary angle with the propagation direction. This property allows us to tailor directivity of surface waves via the magnetic control of the spin projection of quantum emitters, and it can be useful for optically controlled spin transfer.

  1. LATEST LASER AND LIGHT-BASED ADVANCES FOR ETHNIC SKIN REJUVENATION

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed Lotfy; Lloyd, Heather Woolery

    2008-01-01

    Background: Advances in nonablative skin rejuvenation technologies have sparked a renewed interest in the cosmetic treatment of aging skin. More options exist now than ever before to reverse cutaneous changes caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. Although Caucasian skin is more prone to ultraviolet light injury, ethnic skin (typically classified as types IV to VI) also exhibits characteristic photoaging changes. Widespread belief that inevitable or irreversible textural changes or dyspigmentation occurs following laser- or light-based treatments, has been challenged in recent years by new classes of devices capable of protecting the epidermis from injury during treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review recent clinical advances in the treatment of photoaging changes in ethnic skin. This article provides a basis for the classification of current advances in nonablative management of ethnic skin. PMID:19881986

  2. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  3. Advanced traffic control strategies for intelligent vehicle highway systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Nathan H.; Stamatiadis, C.; Tarnoff, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses traffic signal control strategies that are suitable for advanced traffic management within IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems). The strategies consist of a multi-level design for the real-time, traffic-adaptive control of the urban signal network system. Each control level has different response characteristics, with the more advanced levels incorporating in a nested fashion the capabilities of the lower levels. A principal goal of the new multi-level design is to invoke a selected control strategy when it can provide the greatest benefit.

  4. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  5. Control of Smart Building Using Advanced SCADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Vivin Thomas

    For complete control of the building, a proper SCADA implementation and the optimization strategy has to be build. For better communication and efficiency a proper channel between the Communication protocol and SCADA has to be designed. This paper concentrate mainly between the communication protocol, and the SCADA implementation, for a better optimization and energy savings is derived to large scale industrial buildings. The communication channel used in order to completely control the building remotely from a distant place. For an efficient result we consider the temperature values and the power ratings of the equipment so that while controlling the equipment, we are setting a threshold values for FDD technique implementation. Building management system became a vital source for any building to maintain it and for safety purpose. Smart buildings, refers to various distinct features, where the complete automation system, office building controls, data center controls. ELC's are used to communicate the load values of the building to the remote server from a far location with the help of an Ethernet communication channel. Based on the demand fluctuation and the peak voltage, the loads operate differently increasing the consumption rate thus results in the increase in the annual consumption bill. In modern days, saving energy and reducing the consumption bill is most essential for any building for a better and long operation. The equipment - monitored regularly and optimization strategy is implemented for cost reduction automation system. Thus results in the reduction of annual cost reduction and load lifetime increase.

  6. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  7. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

  9. Advanced Motor and Motor Control Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for

  10. Modern advances in sustainable tick control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are the vector of the many different organisms responsible for both animal and human diseases. Understanding the progress we have made and new directions in tick control is critical to the sustainability of human and animal health. The integration of vaccines, acaricides, and new acaricide ap...

  11. Efficient distributed control of light-emitting diode array lighting systems.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianfei; Pandharipande, Ashish

    2012-07-15

    We consider illumination rendering with distributed control of a lighting system with an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). As low-cost microprocessors become standard components in LED drivers, distributing the computation of the control signals to individual LED drivers becomes attractive. Common distributed control algorithms require each individual controller to exchange information with all the others and process it. This incurs too large a communication and processing overhead for a low-cost local controller. In this Letter, we propose a distributed control algorithm for achieving global illumination rendering, wherein a controller only needs to communicate within a selected neighborhood. We present design criteria for defining the communication neighborhood and study its impact on rendering performance.

  12. Advances in temperature derivative control and calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmerich, J.L.; Loos, J.; Miller, A.; Milverton, P.

    1996-11-01

    Temperature stabilization by inertial feedback control has proven a powerful tool to create the ultrastable environment essential for high resolution calorimetry. A thermally insulated mass, connected to a base through Seebeck effect sensors (thermopiles) is used as a reference to control the base temperature. The thermopile signal is proportional to both the heat capacity of the reference mass and the derivative {dot {Theta}} of the base temperature {Theta}. Using vacuum insulation and bismuth telluride thermopiles, we designed and tested temperature derivative sensors (TDSs) with sensitivities up to 3300 VsK{sup {minus}1}. Standard industrial controllers with approximately {plus_minus}1 {mu}V input noise and stability, permit control of temperature derivatives to {plus_minus}3{times}10{sup {minus}10} Ks{sup {minus}1}. Single-cup thermoelectric calorimeters coupled to the TDS-controlled base permitted measurement of heat flow from samples in a power range from 3 {mu}W to 10 W with high accuracy ({plus_minus}100 ppm), resolution ({plus_minus}0.2 {mu}W), and reproducibility ({plus_minus}1 {mu}W). The design of two instruments is described in detail. Their performance is demonstrated on a variety of measurements, e.g., the determination of sample heat capacities with temperature ramp rates {dot {Theta}}={plus_minus}5{times}10{sup {minus}6} Ks{sup {minus}1}, the half-life of a 3 g tritium sample in a uranium getter bed, the decay heat of depleted uranium, and the heat evolution of epoxy resin. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  14. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  15. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  16. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  17. A randomized controlled trial with bright light and melatonin for delayed sleep phase disorder: effects on subjective and objective sleep.

    PubMed

    Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2014-02-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is assumed to be common amongst adolescents, with potentially severe consequences in terms of school attendance and daytime functioning. The most common treatment approaches for DSPD are based on the administration of bright light and/or exogenous melatonin with or without adjunct behavioural instructions. Much is generally known about the chronobiological effects of light and melatonin. However, placebo-controlled treatment studies for DSPD are scarce, in particular in adolescents and young adults, and no standardized guidelines exist regarding treatment. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the short- and long-term effects on sleep of a DSPD treatment protocol involving administration of timed bright light and melatonin alongside gradual advancement of rise time in adolescents and young adults with DSPD in a randomized controlled trial and an open label follow-up study. A total of 40 adolescents and young adults (age range 16-25 years) diagnosed with DSPD were recruited to participate in the study. The participants were randomized to receive treatment for two weeks in one of four treatment conditions: dim light and placebo capsules, bright light and placebo capsules, dim light and melatonin capsules or bright light and melatonin capsules. In a follow-up study, participants were re-randomized to either receive treatment with the combination of bright light and melatonin or no treatment in an open label trial for approximately three months. Light and capsules were administered alongside gradual advancement of rise times. The main end points were sleep as assessed by sleep diaries and actigraphy recordings and circadian phase as assessed by salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). During the two-week intervention, the timing of sleep and DLMO was advanced in all treatment conditions as seen by about 1 h advance of bed time, 2 h advance of rise time and 2 h advance of DLMO in all four groups. Sleep

  18. The U5.0 undulator design for the advanced light source at LBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.; Savoy, R.

    1990-05-01

    The U5.0 undulator, currently under design, is the first in a series of insertion devices planned for the Advanced Light Source at LBL. U5.0 parameters include a 5-cm period and a 5-m length with an 0.837-T maximum field at a 14-mm gap. A hybrid configuration utilizing NdFeB permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur poles is used for the magnetic structure. Construction is modular with many pole assemblies attached to a pole mount, which in turn is fastened onto one of the backing beams. Vertical field integral correction at the ends is accomplished with permanent magnet rotators. The support structure features a four-post configuration, a rigid base with three kinematic floor supports, and two rigid 5-m long backing beams that fit within the 2.4-m-high accelerator enclosure. The drive system is computer-controlled using a stepper motor and shaft encoder coupled to a roller-screw/nut and chain drive train. Vacuum chamber design is a rigid configuration with a 10 mm vertical by 218 mm horizontal aperture of 5.5 m length. Chamber fabrication features a two-piece welded chamber of 5083 H321 aluminum. Pumping is with ion and titanium sublimation pumps.

  19. Advanced methods for light trapping in optically thin silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, James Richard

    2011-12-01

    The field of light trapping is the study of how best to absorb light in a thin film of material when most light either reflects away at the surface or transmits straight through to the other side. This has tremendous application to the field of photovoltaics where thin silicon films can be manufactured cheaply, but also fail to capture all of the available photons in the solar spectrum. Advancements in light trapping therefore bring us closer to the day when photovoltaic devices may reach grid parity with traditional fossil fuels on the electrical energy market. This dissertation advances our understanding of light trapping by first modeling the effects of loss in planar dielectric waveguides. The mathematical framework developed here can be used to model any arbitrary three-layer structure with mixed gain or loss and then extract the total field solution for the guided modes. It is found that lossy waveguides possess a greater number of eigenmodes than their lossless counterparts, and that these "loss guided" modes attenuate much more rapidly than conventional modes. Another contribution from this dissertation is the exploration of light trapping through the use of dielectric nanospheres embedded directly within the active layer of a thin silicon film. The primary benefit to this approach is that the device can utilize a surface nitride layer serving as an antireflective coating while still retaining the benefits of light trapping within the film. The end result is that light trapping and light injection are effectively decoupled from each other and may be independently optimized within a single photovoltaic device. The final contribution from this work is a direct numerical comparison between multiple light trapping schemes. This allows us to quantify the relative performances of various design techniques against one another and objectively determine which ideas tend to capture the most light. Using numerical simulation, this work directly compares the absorption

  20. Developing smart lighting LED-based device by using light parameterization and control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risteiu, Mircea; Ileana, Ioan; Marc, Gheorghe

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a smart system for control of chromatic distribution of white light produced by LED sources in order to satisfy simultaneously physiological comfort and color rendering requests. In region of interest (ROI) lighted by an ensemble of RGB and white LED's, a system of appropriate light sensors (from UV to IR radiation) take the chromatic an intensity information and send them to a microcontroller based device. Following the actual state of illumination end the desired one, the microcontroller will command the LED drivers adequately to obtain the optimum situation.

  1. BLAM (Benthic Light Availability Model): A Proposed Model of Hydrogeomorphic Controls on Light in Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, J. P.; Doyle, M. W.; Stanley, E. H.

    2006-12-01

    Light is vital to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. It drives photosynthesis and photochemical reactions, affects thermal structure, and influences behavior of aquatic biota. Despite the fundamental role of light to riverine ecosystems, light studies in rivers have been mostly neglected because i) boundary conditions (e.g., banks, riparian vegetation) make ambient light measurements difficult, and ii) the optical water quality of rivers is highly variable and difficult to characterize. We propose a benthic light availability model (BLAM) that predicts the percent of incoming photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available at the river bed. BLAM was developed by quantifying light attenuation of the five hydrogeomorphic controls that dictate riverine light availability: topography, riparian vegetation, channel geometry, optical water quality, and water depth. BLAM was calibrated using hydrogeomorphic data and light measurements from two rivers: Deep River - a 5th-order, turbid river in central North Carolina, and Big Spring Creek - a 2nd-order, optically clear stream in central Wisconsin. We used a series of four PAR sensors to measure i) above-canopy PAR, ii) PAR above water surface, iii) PAR below water surface, and iv) PAR on stream bed. These measurements were used to develop empirical light attenuation coefficients, which were then used in combination with optical water quality measurements, shading analyses, channel surveys, and flow records to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in riverine light availability. Finally, we apply BLAM to the Baraboo River - a 6th-order, 120-mile, unimpounded river in central Wisconsin - in order to characterize light availability along the river continuum (from headwaters to mouth).

  2. Advanced Technology Direction and Control Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-16

    WORK UN4IT NUMBERS The MITRE Corporation ’ 1820 flolley Madison Blvd. Work Unit 2214G McLean, VJ rginia 22102 Ii. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS...Satellite communications using low power technique. A spread spectrum system being developed by The MITRE Corporation for the Maritime Commission. vI I,: I...300-3000 MHz; SHF (super high frequency), 3-30 GHz; EHF (extra high frequency), 30-300 GHz. 3-3 The MITRE Corporation prepared a survey of

  3. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  4. The Development of the Undulator Controls Module at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alarcon, A.D.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    The Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, SNAL, is the first hard x-ray Free Electron Laser. The Undulator Controls Module, UCM, controls five cams and two translation stages that regulate the position of each of the 33 permanent undulator magnet segments within 10 microns. The UCM package, hardware and software, was designed and built by the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne. Important lessons were learned throughout the collaborative design, installation, testing, and commissioning periods that could be invaluable to future similar controls projects.

  5. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  6. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  7. Controlled Fluoroalkylation Reactions by Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Iqbal, Naeem; You, Youngmin; Cho, Eun Jin

    2016-10-18

    base for dehydrohalogenation of the intermediate, and also a Brønsted base for deprotonation. In the same context, the selection of solvent is also critical since it affects the rate and selectivity of reactions depending upon its polarity and reagent solubilizing ability and plays additional roles in the process, for example, as a hydrogen atom source. By clearly understanding the roles of additives and solvent, we designed several controlled fluoroalkylation reactions where different products were formed selectively from the same starting substrates. In addition, we could exploit one of the most important advantages of radical reactions, that is, the use of unactivated π-systems such as alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and heteroarenes as radical acceptors without prefunctionalization. Furthermore, fluoroalkylation processes under mild room-temperature reaction conditions tolerate various functional groups and are therefore easily applicable to late-stage modifications of highly functionalized advanced intermediates.

  8. Advanced Controller for the Free-Piston Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Jamison, Mike; Roth, Mary Ellen; Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is being considered as an advanced power conversion technology to be used for future NASA deep space missions requiring long life radioisotope power systems. This technology has a conversion efficiency of over 25%, which is significantly higher than the efficiency of the Radioisotope Thermal-electric Generators (RTG) now in use. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been recognized as a leader in Stirling technology and is responsible for the development of advanced technologies that are intended to significantly improve key characteristics of the Stirling convertor. The advanced technologies identified for development also consider the requirements of potential future missions and the new capabilities that have become available in the associated technical areas. One of the key areas identified for technology development is the engine controller. To support this activity, an advanced controller is being developed for the Stirling power convertor. This controller utilizes active power factor correction electronics and microcontroller-based controls. The object of this paper is to present an overview of the advanced controller concept with modeling, simulation and hardware test data.

  9. Development of Advanced High Uranium Density Fuels for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, James; Butt, Darryl; Meyer, Mitchell; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-15

    This work conducts basic materials research (fabrication, radiation resistance, thermal conductivity, and corrosion response) on U3Si2 and UN, two high uranium density fuel forms that have a high potential for success as advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels. The outcome of this proposed work will serve as the basis for the development of advance LWR fuels, and utilization of such fuel forms can lead to the optimization of the fuel performance related plant operating limits such as power density, power ramp rate and cycle length.

  10. High-resolution VUV spectroscopy: New results from the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, F.; Bozek, J.

    1996-06-01

    Third-generation synchrotron light sources are providing photon beams of unprecedented brightness for researchers in atomic and molecular physics. Beamline 9.0.1, an undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), produces a beam in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum with exceptional flux and spectral resolution. Exciting new results from experiments in atomic and molecular VUV spectroscopy of doubly excited autoionizing states of helium, hollow lithium, and photoelectron spectroscopy of small molecules using Beamline 9.0.1 at the ALS are reported.

  11. Light-Controlled ZrO2 Surface Hydrophilicity

    PubMed Central

    Rudakova, Aida V.; Maevskaya, Maria V.; Emeline, Alexei V.; Bahnemann, Detlef W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years many works are aimed at finding a method of controllable switching between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of a surface. The hydrophilic surface state is generally determined by its energy. Change in the surface energy can be realized in several different ways. Here we report the ability to control the surface wettability of zirconium dioxide nano-coatings by changing the composition of actinic light. Such unique photoinduced hydrophilic behavior of ZrO2 surface is ascribed to the formation of different active surface states under photoexcitation in intrinsic and extrinsic ZrO2 absorption regions. The sequential effect of different actinic lights on the surface hydrophilicity of zirconia is found to be repeatable and reversibly switchable from a highly hydrophilic state to a more hydrophobic state. The observed light-controllable reversible and reproducible switching of hydrophilicity opens new possible ways for the application of ZrO2 based materials. PMID:27703174

  12. Optogenetic switches for light-controlled gene expression in yeast.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Francisco; Rojas, Vicente; Delgado, Verónica; Agosin, Eduardo; Larrondo, Luis F

    2017-04-01

    Light is increasingly recognized as an efficient means of controlling diverse biological processes with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetic switches are molecular devices for regulating light-controlled gene expression, protein localization, signal transduction and protein-protein interactions. Such molecular components have been mainly developed through the use of photoreceptors, which upon light stimulation undergo conformational changes passing to an active state. The current repertoires of optogenetic switches include red, blue and UV-B light photoreceptors and have been implemented in a broad spectrum of biological platforms. In this review, we revisit different optogenetic switches that have been used in diverse biological platforms, with emphasis on those used for light-controlled gene expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The implementation of these switches overcomes the use of traditional chemical inducers, allowing precise control of gene expression at lower costs, without leaving chemical traces, and positively impacting the production of high-value metabolites and heterologous proteins. Additionally, we highlight the potential of utilizing this technology beyond laboratory strains, by optimizing it for use in yeasts tamed for industrial processes. Finally, we discuss how fungal photoreceptors could serve as a source of biological parts for the development of novel optogenetic switches with improved characteristics. Although optogenetic tools have had a strong impact on basic research, their use in applied sciences is still undervalued. Therefore, the invitation for the future is to utilize this technology in biotechnological and industrial settings.

  13. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  14. Controlling the optical spin Hall effect with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafont, O.; Luk, S. M. H.; Lewandowski, P.; Kwong, N. H.; Leung, P. T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaitre, A.; Tignon, J.; Schumacher, S.; Baudin, E.; Binder, R.

    2017-02-01

    The optical spin Hall effect is a transport phenomenon of exciton polaritons in semiconductor microcavities, caused by the polaritonic spin-orbit interaction, which leads to the formation of spin textures. The control of the optical spin Hall effect via light injection in a double microcavity is demonstrated. Angular rotations of the polarization pattern up to 22° are observed and compared to a simple theoretical model. The device geometry is responsible for the existence of two polariton branches which allows a robust independent control of the polariton spin and hence the polarization state of the emitted light field, a solution technologically relevant for future spin-optronic devices.

  15. First commissioning results for the elliptically polarizing undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. T.; Feng, J.; Arenholz, E.; Padmore, H. A.; Henderson, T.; Marks, S.; Hoyer, E.; Schlueter, R.; Kortright, J. B.; Martynov, V.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.

    2001-07-01

    A new facility at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, for high resolution magnetic spectroscopy is described. Beamline 4.0.2 has an elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) and a high resolution monochromator, covering the energy range from 90 to 1800 eV. In this paper, we present the first commissioning results from this beamline, including measurements of the spectral resolution, photon flux and polarization of the x-rays.

  16. Advanced Light Water Reactor Program: Program management and staff review methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, D.H.

    1986-12-01

    This report summarizes the NRC/EPRI coordinated effort to develop design requirements for a standardized advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and the procedures for screening and applying new generic safety issues to this program. The end-product will be an NRC-approved ALWR Requirements Document for use by the nuclear industry in generating designs of LWRs to be constructed for operation in the 1990s and beyond.

  17. Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, Mark; Kinsey, Jim

    2015-03-01

    In July 2013, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a joint initiative to address a key portion of the licensing framework essential to advanced (non-light water) reactor technologies. The initiative addressed the “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,” Appendix A to10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50, which were developed primarily for light water reactors (LWRs), specific to the needs of advanced reactor design and licensing. The need for General Design Criteria (GDC) clarifications in non-LWR applications has been consistently identified as a concern by the industry and varied stakeholders and was acknowledged by the NRC staff in their 2012 Report to Congress1 as an area for enhancement. The initiative to adapt GDC requirements for non-light water advanced reactor applications is being accomplished in two phases. Phase 1, managed by DOE, consisted of reviews, analyses and evaluations resulting in recommendations and deliverables to NRC as input for NRC staff development of regulatory guidance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed this technical report using technical and reactor technology stakeholder inputs coupled with analysis and evaluations provided by a team of knowledgeable DOE national laboratory personnel with input from individual industry licensing consultants. The DOE national laboratory team reviewed six different classes of emerging commercial reactor technologies against 10 CFR 50 Appendix A GDC requirements and proposed guidance for their adapted use in non-LWR applications. The results of the Phase 1 analysis are contained in this report. A set of draft Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) has been proposed for consideration by the NRC in the establishment of guidance for use by non-LWR designers and NRC staff. The proposed criteria were developed to preserve the underlying safety bases expressed by the original GDC, and recognizing that advanced reactors may take

  18. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright light duration?

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Efficient treatments to phase advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. METHODS Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9±5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 hour/day for 3 treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg melatonin 5 hours before baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-minute exposures separated by 30 minutes of room light (2 h group); four 15-minute exposures separated by 45 minutes of room light (1 h group), and one 30-minute exposure (0.5 h group). Dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. RESULTS Compared to the 2 h group (phase shift=2.4±0.8 h), smaller phase advance shifts were seen in the 1 h (1.7±0.7 h) and 0.5 h (1.8±0.8 h) groups. The 2-hour pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-minute bright light exposure was as effective as 1 hour of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 hours of bright light. CONCLUSIONS A 30-minute morning bright light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase advance human circadian rhythms. PMID:25620199

  19. Thermophysical properties of saturated light and heavy water for Advanced Neutron Source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, A.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor`s nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20--300{degrees}C and 0.0025--8.5 MPa, respectively, while those for heavy water were 50--250{degrees}C and 0.012--3.9 MPa. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density was the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes, and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitled QuikProp.

  20. Thermophysical properties of saturated light and heavy water for advanced neutron source applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, A.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor's nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20--300[degrees]C and 0.0025--8.5 MPa, respectively, while those for heavy water were 50--250[degrees]C and 0.012--3.9 MPa. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density was the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes, and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitled QuikProp.

  1. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; et al, et al

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  2. Minimum Control Requirements for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulange, Richard; Jones, Harry; Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Advanced control technologies are not necessary for the safe, reliable and continuous operation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. ALS systems can and are adequately controlled by simple, reliable, low-level methodologies and algorithms. The automation provided by advanced control technologies is claimed to decrease system mass and necessary crew time by reducing buffer size and minimizing crew involvement. In truth, these approaches increase control system complexity without clearly demonstrating an increase in reliability across the ALS system. Unless these systems are as reliable as the hardware they control, there is no savings to be had. A baseline ALS system is presented with the minimal control system required for its continuous safe reliable operation. This baseline control system uses simple algorithms and scheduling methodologies and relies on human intervention only in the event of failure of the redundant backup equipment. This ALS system architecture is designed for reliable operation, with minimal components and minimal control system complexity. The fundamental design precept followed is "If it isn't there, it can't fail".

  3. ATYPICAL MACULOPATHY IN A PATIENT WITH LIGHT CHAIN DEPOSITION DISEASE MIMICKING ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Oshry, Lauren J.; Reichel, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report a previously unreported presentation of advanced geographic atrophy of the macula mimicking nonneovascular (dry) age-related macular degeneration in a patient with light chain deposition disease. Methods: Ocular examination included dilated fundus examination, fundus autofluorescence, full-field electroretinography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Patients: Single-patient case report. Results: Dilated fundus examination demonstrated diffuse loss of the retinal pigment epithelium in a geographic atrophy pattern in the macula and drusenlike deposits localized to the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium. There were no signs of choroidal neovascularization or retinal pigment epithelium detachments. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated wide areas of retinal pigment epithelium loss. Full-field electroretinography was normal. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography displayed atrophy of the outer retinal layers. Discussion: This is the first documented case of drusenlike deposits and maculopathy in a patient with light chain deposition disease that mimics advanced geographic atrophy that is typically observed in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. Physicians should be aware of the macular changes that can be associated with light chain deposition disease, and patients with light chain deposition disease should be regularly evaluated for associated macular disease. PMID:26934302

  4. Development of a microsecond X-ray protein footprinting facility at the Advanced Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sayan; Celestre, Richard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Chance, Mark R.; Ralston, Corie

    2014-01-01

    X-ray footprinting (XF) is an important structural biology tool used to determine macromolecular conformations and dynamics of both nucleic acids and proteins in solution on a wide range of timescales. With the impending shut-down of the National Synchrotron Light Source, it is ever more important that this tool continues to be developed at other synchrotron facilities to accommodate XF users. Toward this end, a collaborative XF program has been initiated at the Advanced Light Source using the white-light bending-magnet beamlines 5.3.1 and 3.2.1. Accessibility of the microsecond time regime for protein footprinting is demonstrated at beamline 5.3.1 using the high flux density provided by a focusing mirror in combination with a micro-capillary flow cell. It is further reported that, by saturating samples with nitrous oxide, the radiolytic labeling efficiency is increased and the imprints of bound versus bulk water can be distinguished. These results both demonstrate the suitability of the Advanced Light Source as a second home for the XF experiment, and pave the way for obtaining high-quality structural data on complex protein samples and dynamics information on the microsecond timescale. PMID:24971962

  5. RECENT BEAM MEASUREMENTS AND NEW INSTRUMENTATION AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baptiste, Kenneth; Barry, Walter; Chin, Michael; Filippetto, Daniele; Jaegerhofer, Lukas; Julian, James; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Low, Raymond; Plate, David; Portmann, Gregory; Robin, David; Scarvie, Tomas; Stupakov, Gennady; Weber, Jonah; Zolotorev, Max

    2008-05-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  6. Recent Beam Measurements and New Instrumentation at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Chin, M.; Filippetto, D.; Jaegerhofer, L.; Julian, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Low, R.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; Stupakov, G.; Weber, J.; Zolotorev, M.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-11

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley was the first of the soft x-ray third generation light source ever built, and since 1993 has been in continuous and successful operation serving a large community of users in the VUV and soft x-ray community. During these years the storage ring underwent through several important upgrades that allowed maintaining the performance of this veteran facility at the forefront. The ALS beam diagnostics and instrumentation have followed a similar path of innovation and upgrade and nowadays include most of the modem and last generation devices and technologies that are commercially available and used in the recently constructed third generation light sources. In this paper we will not focus on such already widely known systems, but we will concentrate our effort in the description of some measurements techniques, instrumentation and diagnostic systems specifically developed at the ALS and used during the last few years.

  7. Light fields in complex media: Mesoscopic scattering meets wave control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, Stefan; Gigan, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The newly emerging field of wave front shaping in complex media has recently seen enormous progress. The driving force behind these advances has been the experimental accessibility of the information stored in the scattering matrix of a disordered medium, which can nowadays routinely be exploited to focus light as well as to image or to transmit information even across highly turbid scattering samples. An overview of these new techniques, their experimental implementations, and the underlying theoretical concepts following from mesoscopic scattering theory is provided. In particular, the intimate connections between quantum transport phenomena and the scattering of light fields in disordered media, which can both be described by the same theoretical concepts, are highlighted. Particular emphasis is put on how these topics relate to application-oriented research fields such as optical imaging, sensing, and communication.

  8. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  9. Controlling the path of discretized light in waveguide lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2011-01-15

    A general method for flexible control of the path of discretized light beams in homogeneous waveguide lattices, based on longitudinal modulation of the coupling constant, is theoretically proposed. As compared to beam steering and refraction achievable in graded-index waveguide arrays, the proposed approach enables the synthesis of rather arbitrary target paths.

  10. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  11. Vision Based Autonomous Robotic Control for Advanced Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.

  12. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  13. Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali

    2016-11-21

    Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.

  14. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  15. Overview of the US program of controls for advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Sackett, J.I.; Monson, R.; Lindsay, R.W.; Carroll, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    An automated control system can incorporate control goals and strategies, assessment of present and future plant status, diagnostic evaluation and maintenance planning, and signal and command validation. It has not been feasible to employ these capabilities in conventional hard-wired, analog, control systems. Recent advances in computer-based digital data acquisition systems, process controllers, fiber-optic signal transmission artificial intelligence tools and methods, and small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers---with both numeric and symbolic capabilities---have provided many of the necessary ingredients for developing large, practical automated control systems. Furthermore, recent reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. This paper presents an overall US national perspective for advanced controls research and development. The goals of high reliability, low operating cost and simple operation are described. The staged approach from conceptualization through implementation is discussed. Then the paper describes the work being done by ORNL, ANL and GE. The relationship of this work to the US commercial industry is also discussed.

  16. Control of Ultracold Collisions with Frequency-Chirped Light

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.J.; Gould, P.L.; Gensemer, S.D.; Vala, J.; Kosloff, R.

    2005-08-05

    We report on ultracold atomic collision experiments utilizing frequency-chirped laser light. A rapid chirp below the atomic resonance results in adiabatic excitation to an attractive molecular potential over a wide range of internuclear separation. This leads to a transient inelastic collision rate which is large compared to that obtained with fixed-frequency excitation. The combination of high efficiency and temporal control demonstrates the benefit of applying the techniques of coherent control to the ultracold domain.

  17. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  18. Circulating advanced glycation peptides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: evidence for preferential modification of IgG light chains.

    PubMed

    Gugliucci, A; Menini, T

    1998-01-01

    As the glycation/glycoxidation hypothesis for the genesis of diabetic complications is achieving widespread acceptance, much attention is being paid to the role of low molecular weight advanced glycation (AGE) adducts, as second generation glycating agents. We set out a study with the objective of attesting the presence of increased amounts of AGE-peptides in the circulation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and to determine the nature of the plasma proteins which are main targets for advanced glycation. AGE (Ex 370/Em 440 nm) and pentosidine fluorescence (Ex 335/Em 385 nm) were significantly higher in plasma from diabetic rats after only one month of hyperglycemia as compared to controls (35 +/- 7 vs 25 +/- 2 AU, p< 0.05 and 54 +/- 14 vs 27 +/- 3 AU, p< 0.01 respectively). AGE-peptides (<10 kDa) were more than two-fold higher in diabetic animals. Immunoblots after SDS-PAGE of plasma proteins showed that AGE-IgG displayed a selective predominant increment in the same animals. When native rat IgG was incubated in the presence of AGE-peptides isolated from diabetic animals, AGE modification was already apparent after only 24 h of incubation, and was particularly important for light chains. AGE-immunoreactive light chains displayed an apparent increase in molecular weight. Aminoguanidine prevented, while copper enhanced AGE binding to IgG light chains. Our data validate the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat as a model reproducing the presence of circulating AGE-peptides, give evidence that IgG are preferential targets for advanced glycation in plasma and suggest that this modification, mediated by AGE-peptides, can be prevented by aminoguanidine.

  19. Application of infinite model predictive control methodology to other advanced controllers.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ayyad, M; Dubay, R; Hernandez, J M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an application of most recent developed predictive control algorithm an infinite model predictive control (IMPC) to other advanced control schemes. The IMPC strategy was derived for systems with different degrees of nonlinearity on the process gain and time constant. Also, it was shown that IMPC structure uses nonlinear open-loop modeling which is conducted while closed-loop control is executed every sampling instant. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate that the methodology of IMPC can be applied to other advanced control strategies making the methodology generic. The IMPC strategy was implemented on several advanced controllers such as PI controller using Smith-Predictor, Dahlin controller, simplified predictive control (SPC), dynamic matrix control (DMC), and shifted dynamic matrix (m-DMC). Experimental work using these approaches combined with IMPC was conducted on both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems and compared with the original forms of these advanced controllers. Computer simulations were performed on nonlinear plants demonstrating that the IMPC strategy can be readily implemented on other advanced control schemes providing improved control performance. Practical work included real-time control applications on a DC motor, plastic injection molding machine and a MIMO three zone thermal system.

  20. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) for Primary Animal Habitat Lighting in Highly Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Syrkin, N.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Significant alterations in Biological Clock responses have been reported following sidereal time changes (e.g., Jet-lag), and exposure to microgravity (e.g., daytime sleepiness). Additionally, light reduces circulating melatonin (spectral specificity greatest between 450-500 nm). It was hypothesized that LEDs can replace the current light sources used in zero gravity and terrestrial research laboratories because of their small size, low mass, low energy consumption and long functional life. This report evaluates the capacity of LEDs to entrain the circadian system of rats as judged by measurement of overt behavioral circadian rhythms (activity, feeding, drinking). These data were collected in highly controlled environments similar to the shuttle Animal Enclosure Modules. Two groups were compared: control - animals exposed to standard cool-white fluorescent lights, and test - animals exposed to LEDs with a spectral power distribution matching the fluorescent lights. Gross locomotor activity, feeding and drinking frequencies were continuously monitored and stored at 10 minute intervals. Animals were exposed to the following photoperiods: 28 days of 12L:12D, 19 days of 24L:0D and 16 days of 12L:12D. Light intensities tested varied between 0.1 to 100 lux. Rats received food and water ad libitum, and temperature and humidity were controlled throughout the study. The general health status of all rats was acceptable for each day of this study. No incidents of aggressive behavior were observed. Growth, locomotor activity, food and water consumption were comparable for all groups of animals, i.e, the circadian characteristics of the animals under these conditions were comparable. These results indicate that LED arrays are as effective in maintaining circadian rhythm stability as the commonly used cool-white fluorescent light sources. LEDs with their flexible spectrum, low energy requirements and minimal heat production have advantages for some chronopharmacology studies and

  1. The U5.0 Undulator for the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1992-01-01

    The U5.0 Undulator, an 89 period, 5 cm period length, 4.6 m long insertion device has been designed, is being fabricated, and is scheduled for completion in early 1992. This undulator will be the first high brightness source, in the 50 to 1,500 eV range, for the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A hybrid magnetic configuration using Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet material and vanadium permendur poles has been selected to achieve the field quality needed to meet performance requirements. The magnetic structure is modular with each half consisting of five assembly sections, which provide the periodic structure, and end structures, for entrance and exit correction, mounted on a steel backing beam. Each assembly section consists of 35 half-period pole assemblies bolted to a mount. The required 0.837 T effective peak field at a 1.4 cm gap has been verified with model measurements. Vertical field integral correction is accomplished with the end structures, each having an arrangement of permanent magnet rotors which will be adjusted to minimize electron beam missteering over the undulator operating field range. To reduce the effect of environmental fields, the steel backing beams are connected through parallel, low-reluctance, Ni-Fe hinges. The magnetic structure is connected through four rollernuts to the drive system that provides gap adjustment with an arrangement of roller screws, chain drives, a gear reduction unit, and a stepper motor driven by a closed loop control system. Magnetic structure and drive system support are from a 2.4 m high structure which includes a support base with four vertical supports. The vacuum chamber design is a two-piece machined and welded 5083-H321 aluminum construction of 5.1 m length. Pumping is with a combination of ion, titanium sublimation pump and nonevaporable getter pumps. Magnetic design, subsystem design, and fabrication progress are presented.

  2. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  3. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  4. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  5. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  6. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A; Brown, Spencer C; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-05-26

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis.

  7. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A.; Brown, Spencer C.; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis. PMID:25964332

  8. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS`s design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience.

  9. Controlling death: the false promise of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Henry S

    2007-07-03

    Advance directives promise patients a say in their future care but actually have had little effect. Many experts blame problems with completion and implementation, but the advance directive concept itself may be fundamentally flawed. Advance directives simply presuppose more control over future care than is realistic. Medical crises cannot be predicted in detail, making most prior instructions difficult to adapt, irrelevant, or even misleading. Furthermore, many proxies either do not know patients' wishes or do not pursue those wishes effectively. Thus, unexpected problems arise often to defeat advance directives, as the case in this paper illustrates. Because advance directives offer only limited benefit, advance care planning should emphasize not the completion of directives but the emotional preparation of patients and families for future crises. The existentialist Albert Camus might suggest that physicians should warn patients and families that momentous, unforeseeable decisions lie ahead. Then, when the crisis hits, physicians should provide guidance; should help make decisions despite the inevitable uncertainties; should share responsibility for those decisions; and, above all, should courageously see patients and families through the fearsome experience of dying.

  10. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  11. Advances in sensor adaptation to changes in ambient light: a bio-inspired solution - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Dean, Brian; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    Fly-inspired sensors have been shown to have many interesting qualities such as hyperacuity (or an ability to achieve movement resolution beyond the theoretical limit), extreme sensitivity to motion, and (through software simulation) image edge extraction, motion detection, and orientation and location of a line. Many of these qualities are beyond the ability of traditional computer vision sensors such as charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays. To obtain these characteristics, a prototype fly-inspired sensor has been built and tested in a laboratory environment and shows promise. Any sophisticated visual system, whether man made or natural, must adequately adapt to lighting conditions; therefore, light adaptation is a vital milestone in getting the fly eye vision sensor prototype working in real-world conditions. A design based on the common house fly, Musca domestica, was suggested in a paper presented to RMBS 2009 and showed an ability to remove 72-86% of effects due to ambient light changes. In this paper, a more advanced version of this design is discussed. This new design is able to remove 97-99% of the effects due to changes in ambient light, by more accurately approximating the light adaptation process used by the common house fly.

  12. Aequorin-expressing yeast emits light under electric control.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Hueso, Angeles; Palanca, Carles; Marco, Guillem; Pitarch, Miguel; Otero, Eduardo; Crespo, Juny; Szablowski, Jerzy; Rivera, Sara; Domínguez-Escribà, Laura; Navarro, Emilio; Montagud, Arnau; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández; González, Asier; Ariño, Joaquín; Moya, Andrés; Urchueguía, Javier; Porcar, Manuel

    2011-03-20

    In this study, we show the use of direct external electrical stimulation of a jellyfish luminescent calcium-activated protein, aequorin, expressed in a transgenic yeast strain. Yeast cultures were electrically stimulated through two electrodes coupled to a standard power generator. Even low (1.5 V) electric pulses triggered a rapid light peak and serial light pulses were obtained after electric pulses were applied periodically, suggesting that the system is re-enacted after a short refraction time. These results open up a new scenario, in the very interphase between synthetic biology and cybernetics, in which complex cellular behavior might be subjected to electrical control.

  13. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  14. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  15. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and

  16. Overview of the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Franceschini, Fausto; Evans, Thomas M.; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was established in July 2010 for the purpose of providing advanced modeling and simulation solutions for commercial nuclear reactors. The primary goal is to provide coupled, higher-fidelity, usable modeling and simulation capabilities than are currently available. These are needed to address light water reactor (LWR) operational and safety performance-defining phenomena that are not yet able to be fully modeled taking a first-principles approach. In order to pursue these goals, CASL has participation from laboratory, academic, and industry partners. These partners are pursuing the solution of ten major "Challenge Problems" in order to advance the state-of-the-art in reactor design and analysis to permit power uprates, higher burnup, life extension, and increased safety. At present, the problems being addressed by CASL are primarily reactor physics-oriented; however, this paper is intended to introduce CASL to the reactor dosimetry community because of the importance of reactor physics modelling and nuclear data to define the source term for that community and the applicability and extensibility of the transport methods being developed.

  17. The DPC-2000 advanced control system for the Dynamitron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestler, Bernard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    1993-07-01

    The DPC-2000 is an advanced control system utilizing the latest technology in computer control circuitry and components. Its overall design is modular and technologically advanced to keep up with customer and engineering demands. The full control system is presented as four units. They are the Remote I/O (Input / Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The central processing unit, the heart of the system, executes a high level language program that communicates to the different sub-assemblies through advanced serial and parallel communication lines. All operational parameters of the accelerator are monitored, controlled and corrected at close to 20 times per second. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not have to communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the machine. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. This allows the operator to set up the process parameters by selecting the product identification code from a menu presented on the display screen. All process parameters are printed to report at regular intervals during a process run for later analysis and record keeping.

  18. Fly-by-light flight control system technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, A.; Berwick, J. W.; Griffith, D. M.; Marston, S. E.; Norton, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a four-month, phased effort to develop a Fly-by-Light Technology Development Plan are documented. The technical shortfalls for each phase were identified and a development plan to bridge the technical gap was developed. The production configuration was defined for a 757-type airplane, but it is suggested that the demonstration flight be conducted on the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle. The modifications required and verification and validation issues are delineated in this report. A detailed schedule for the phased introduction of fly-by-light system components has been generated. It is concluded that a fiber-optics program would contribute significantly toward developing the required state of readiness that will make a fly-by-light control system not only cost effective but reliable without mitigating the weight and high-energy radio frequency related benefits.

  19. Coherent control of ultracold collisions with chirped light: Direction matters

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M. J.; Pechkis, J. A.; Carini, J. L.; Gould, P. L.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.

    2007-05-15

    We demonstrate the ability to coherently control ultracold atomic Rb collisions using frequency-chirped light on the nanosecond time scale. For certain center frequencies of the chirp, the rate of inelastic trap-loss collisions induced by negatively chirped light is dramatically suppressed compared to the case of a positive chirp. We attribute this to a fundamental asymmetry in the system: an excited wave packet moves inward on the attractive molecular potential. For a positive chirp, the resonance condition moves outward in time, while for a negative chirp, it moves inward, in the same direction as the excited wave packet; this allows multiple interactions between the wave packet and the light, enabling the wave packet to be returned coherently to the ground state. Classical and quantum calculations support this interpretation.

  20. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  1. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  2. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  3. Integrated intelligent systems in advanced reactor control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmeyer, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    An intelligent, reactor control room, information system is designed to be an integral part of an advanced control room and will assist the reactor operator's decision making process by continuously monitoring the current plant state and providing recommended operator actions to improve that state. This intelligent system is an integral part of, as well as an extension to, the plant protection and control systems. This paper describes the interaction of several functional components (intelligent information data display, technical specifications monitoring, and dynamic procedures) of the overall system and the artificial intelligence laboratory environment assembled for testing the prototype. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  4. An advanced teleoperator control system - Design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Lee, Hahk S.

    1992-01-01

    The design goal of an advanced teleoperator control system is twofold: 1) to allow the operator's manual control to be robust to system nonlinearities such as time delays and operator's control errors, and 2) to support the high performance of teleoperation while reducing the operator's control burden by providing the master and slave arms with desirable dynamic properties and by allowing the slave arm to automatically perform such control tasks as compliance and force control in the form of task sharing. The authors present a novel teleoperator control system achieving the above design goal by taking the following into consideration: the human dynamics involved in generating control command based on visual and forced feedback is modeled and incorporated into the controller design and evaluation; the dynamic characteristics of slave and master arms are actively modified in such a way as to implement the desirable dynamic characteristics; and the force feedback is redefined in terms of the combination of opposition and force discrepancies in order to establish the required man/machine dynamic coordination under shared control. The proposed control system with human dynamics in the control loop is simulated and compared with a number of conventional methods in the presence of human control errors and time delays.

  5. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  6. Advances in atmospheric light scattering theory and remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Sun, Wenbo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    This issue focuses especially on characterizing particles in the Earth-atmosphere system. The significant role of aerosol particles in this system was recognized in the mid-1970s [1]. Since that time, our appreciation for the role they play has only increased. It has been and continues to be one of the greatest unknown factors in the Earth-atmosphere system as evidenced by the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments [2]. With increased computational capabilities, in terms of both advanced algorithms and in brute-force computational power, more researchers have the tools available to address different aspects of the role of aerosols in the atmosphere. In this issue, we focus on recent advances in this topical area, especially the role of light scattering and remote sensing. This issue follows on the heels of four previous topical issues on this subject matter that have graced the pages of this journal [3-6].

  7. Analysis of insertion device magnet measurements for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.M.; Schlueter, R.; Wang, C.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), which is currently being commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third generation light source designed to produce XUV radiation of unprecedented brightness. To meet the high brightness goal the storage ring has been designed for very small electron beam emittance and the undulators installed in the ALS are built to a high degree of precision. The allowable magnetic field errors are driven by electron beam and radiation requirements. Detailed magnetic measurements and adjustments are performed on each undulator to qualify it for installation in the ALS. The first two ALS undulators, IDA and IDB, have been installed. This paper describes the program of measurements, data analysis, and adjustments carried out for these two devices. Calculations of the radiation spectrum, based upon magnetic measurements, are included. Final field integral distributions are also shown. Good field integral uniformity has been achieved using a novel correction scheme, which is also described.

  8. Analysis of insertion device magnet measurements for the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Steve; Humphries, David E.; Kincaid, Brian M.; Schlueter, Ross D.; Wang, Chunxi

    1993-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), which is currently being commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third generation light source designed to produce XUV radiation of unprecedented brightness. To meet the high brightness goal the storage ring has been designed for very small electron beam emittance and the undulators installed in the ALS are built to a high degree of precision. The allowable magnetic field errors are driven by electron beam and radiation requirements. Detailed magnetic measurements and adjustments are performed on each undulator to qualify it for installation in the ALS. The first two ALS undulators, IDA and IDB, have been installed. This paper describes the program of measurements, data analysis, and adjustments carried out for these two devices. Calculations of the radiation spectrum, based upon magnetic measurements, are included. Final field integral distributions are also shown. Good field integral uniformity has been achieved using a novel correction scheme, which is also described.

  9. Photocatalytic Removal of Microcystin-LR by Advanced WO3-Based Nanoparticles under Simulated Solar Light

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya; Sugiura, Norio; Yang, Yingnan

    2015-01-01

    A series of advanced WO3-based photocatalysts including CuO/WO3, Pd/WO3, and Pt/WO3 were synthesized for the photocatalytic removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) under simulated solar light. In the present study, Pt/WO3 exhibited the best performance for the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. The MC-LR degradation can be described by pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Chloride ion (Cl−) with proper concentration could enhance the MC-LR degradation. The presence of metal cations (Cu2+ and Fe3+) improved the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. This study suggests that Pt/WO3 photocatalytic oxidation under solar light is a promising option for the purification of water containing MC-LR. PMID:25884038

  10. The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (ALS, LBL)

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.

    1990-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation, in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1-1.9 GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. In this paper we describe the main accelerator components of the ALS, the variety of insertion devices, the radiation spectra expected from these devices, and the complement of experiments that have been approved for initial operation, starting in April 1993.

  11. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  12. Advanced Light Source Compendium of User Abstracts andTechnical Reports 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Devereaux, M.K.; Dixon, D.J.; Greiner, A.; editors

    1998-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility located at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. Operation of the ALS is funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. This Compendium contains abstracts written by users summarizing research completed or in progress during 1997, ALS technical reports describing ongoing efforts related to improvement in machine operations and research and development projects, and information on ALS beamlines planned through 1998.

  13. Fabrication and test of prototype ring magnets for the ALS (Advanced Light Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, J.; Avery, R.; Caylor, R.; Green, M.I.; Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Hernandez, S.; Humphries, D.; Kajiyama, Y.; Keller, R.; Low, W.; Marks, S.; Milburn, J.; Yee, D.

    1989-03-01

    Prototype Models for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole, Quadrupole and Sextupole and the Storage Ring Gradient Magnet, Quadrupole and Sextupole have been constructed. The Booster Magnet Prototypes have been tested. The Storage Ring Magnets are presently undergoing tests and magnetic measurements. This paper reviews the designs and parameters for these magnets, briefly describes features of the magnet designs which respond to the special constraints imposed by the requirements for both accelerator rings, and reviews some of the results of magnet measurements for the prototype. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters.

  15. A directly cooled grating substrate for ALS (Advanced Light Source) undulator beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, R.; Swain, T.

    1989-08-01

    Design analyses using finite element methods are presented for thermal distortion of water-cooled diffraction grating substrates for a potential application at the LBL Advanced Light Source, demonstrating that refinements in cooling channel configuration and heat flux distribution can significantly reduce optical surface distortion with high heat loads. Using an existing grating substrate design, sensitivity of tangential slope errors due to thermal distortion is evaluated for a variety of thermal boundary conditions, including coolant flow rate and heat transfer film coefficients, surface illumination area and heat distribution profile, and location of the convection cooling surfaces adjacent to the heated region. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Utility leadership in reopening the nuclear option with advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Marston, T.U.; Layman, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Since 1981, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been pursing the development of the advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The ALWR Program is comprised of five phases and are described in the paper. In order to meet the anticipated baseline power generation requirements in the US, the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC) has developed a strategic plan for ALWR implementation in order to regain the nuclear option in the United States. The paper also covers the policies behind the utility requirements, the status of ALWR developments in the United States, the electricity demands during the period 1990-2010, and some of the innovative features of the passive plants presently under design.

  17. Successful Completion of the Top-off Upgrade of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Bailey, B.; Baptiste, K.; Barry, W.; Biocca, A.; Byrne, W.; Casey, P.; Chin, M.; Donahue, R.; Duarte, R.; Fahmie, M.; Gath, B.; Jacobson, S.; Julian, J.; Jung, J. Y.; Kritscher, M.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Marks, S.; McKean, P.; Mueller, R.

    2010-06-23

    An upgrade of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to enable top-off operation has been completed during the last four years. The final work centered around radiation safety aspects, culminating in a systematic proof that top-off operation is equally safe as decaying beam operation. Commissioning and transition to full user operations happened in late 2008 and early 2009. Top-off operation at the ALS provides a very large increase in time-averaged brightness (by about a factor of 10) as well as improvements in beam stability. The following sections provide an overview of the radiation safety rationale, commissioning results, as well as experience in user operations.

  18. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  19. Realizing the benefits of restored periodicity in the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, D.; Safranek, J.; Decking, W.

    1999-04-01

    An essential feature of third generation storage ring based light sources is the magnetic lattice is designed with a high degree of periodicity. Tracking simulations show that if the periodicity is perturbed (by focusing errors, for example), nonlinear resonances become excited, which causes a reduction in the dynamic aperture. Therefore it is important to have a method to measure and correct perturbed periodicity. In this paper we study the effect of broken and restored periodicity at an actual third generation light source: the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. First, we show that it is possible to accurately determine the storage ring optic and thus the perturbation of the periodicity by fitting measured orbit response matrices. This method allows us to determine individual field gradient errors in quadrupoles and closed orbit errors in sextupoles. By varying individual quadrupole field strengths it is possible to correct the optic, largely restoring the lattice periodicity. A comparison is made of the performance of the storage ring before and after the optic is corrected. Measurements of the electron beam tails and the synchrotron light image reveal a large suppression in resonance excitation after the optic is corrected. Correcting the optic also improves the injection efficiency.

  20. Enhanced Performance of the Advanced Light Source through Periodicity Restoration of the Linear Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, D.; Steier, C.; Safranek, J.; Decking, W.

    2002-01-01

    An essential feature of third generation storage ring based light sources is the magnetic lattice is designed with a high degree of periodicity. Tracking simulations show that if the periodicity is perturbed (by focusing errors for example), non-linear resonances become excited, which causes a reduction in the dynamic aperture. Therefore it is important to have a method to measure and correct perturbed periodicity. In this paper we study the effect of broken and restored periodicity at an actual third generation light source: the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. First we show that it is possible to accurately determine the storage ring optic and thus the perturbation of the periodicity by fitting measured orbit response matrices. This method allows us to determine individual field gradient errors in quadrupoles and closed orbit errors in sextupoles. By varying individual quadrupole field strengths it is possible to correct the optic, largely restoring the lattice periodicity. A comparison is made of the performance of the ALS before and after the optic is corrected. Measurements of the electron beam tails and the synchrotron light image reveal a large suppression in resonance excitation after the optic is corrected. Correcting the optic also improves the injection efficiency and lifetime.

  1. Efficient nanorod-based amorphous silicon solar cells with advanced light trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; van Lare, M. C.; Veldhuizen, L. W.; Polman, A.; Rath, J. K.; Schropp, R. E. I.

    2015-11-01

    We present a simple, low-cost, and scalable approach for the fabrication of efficient nanorod-based solar cells. Templates with arrays of self-assembled ZnO nanorods with tunable morphology are synthesized by chemical bath deposition using a low process temperature at 80 °C. The nanorod templates are conformally coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon light absorber layers of 100 nm and 200 nm thickness. An initial efficiency of up to 9.0% is achieved for the optimized design. External quantum efficiency measurements on the nanorod cells show a substantial photocurrent enhancement both in the red and the blue parts of the solar spectrum. Key insights in the light trapping mechanisms in these arrays are obtained via a combination of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, optical absorption, and external quantum efficiency measurements. Front surface patterns enhance the light incoupling in the blue, while rear side patterns lead to enhanced light trapping in the red. The red response in the nanorod cells is limited by absorption in the patterned Ag back contact. With these findings, we develop and experimentally realize a further advanced design with patterned front and back sides while keeping the Ag reflector flat, showing significantly enhanced scattering from the back reflector with reduced parasitic absorption in the Ag and thus higher photocurrent generation. Many of the findings in this work can serve to provide insights for further optimization of nanostructures for thin-film solar cells in a broad range of materials.

  2. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-07-08

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms.

  3. Controllable light capsules employing modified Bessel-Gauss beams

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Qian; Ren, Yuxuan; Qiu, Xingze; Zhong, Mincheng; Li, Yinmei

    2016-01-01

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a novel class of controlled light capsules with nearly perfect darkness, directly employing intrinsic properties of modified Bessel-Gauss beams. These beams are able to naturally create three-dimensional bottle-shaped region during propagation as long as the parameters are properly chosen. Remarkably, the optical bottle can be controlled to demonstrate various geometries through tuning the beam parameters, thereby leading to an adjustable light capsule. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of the light capsule derived from modified Bessel-Gauss beams. Moreover, a binary digital micromirror device (DMD) based scheme is first employed to shape the bottle beams by precise amplitude and phase manipulation. Further, we demonstrate their ability for optical trapping of core-shell magnetic microparticles, which play a particular role in biomedical research, with holographic optical tweezers. Therefore, our observations provide a new route for generating and controlling bottle beams and will widen the potentials for micromanipulation of absorbing particles, aerosols or even individual atoms. PMID:27388558

  4. Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines; Part I: Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to give wind turbine engineers information and examples of the design, testing through simulation, field implementation, and field testing of advanced wind turbine controls.

  5. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response andEnergy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-17

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial building's contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. This paper discusses recent research results and new opportunities for advanced building control systems to provide demand response (DR) to improve electricity markets and reduce electric grid problems. The main focus of this paper is the role of new and existing control systems for HVAC and lighting in commercial buildings. A demand-side management framework from building operations perspective with three main features: daily energy efficiency, daily peak load management and event driven, dynamic demand response is presented. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide potential in commercial buildings is outlined. Case studies involving energy management and control systems and DR savings opportunities are presented. The paper also describes results from three years of research in California to automate DR in buildings. Case study results and research on advanced buildings systems in New York are also presented.

  6. Recent advances in active control of aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Gopal; Fuller, Christopher

    2002-11-01

    Active noise control techniques can provide significant reductions in aircraft interior noise levels without the structural modifications or weight penalties usually associated with passive techniques, particularly for low frequency noise. Our main objective in this presentation is to give a review of active control methods and their applications to aircraft cabin noise reduction with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges facing the noise control engineer in the practical application of these techniques. The active noise control method using secondary acoustic sources, e.g., loudspeakers, as control sources for tonal noise reduction is first discussed with results from an active noise control flight test demonstration. An innovative approach of applying control forces directly to the fuselage structure using piezoelectric actuators, known as active structural acoustic control (ASAC), to control cabin noise is then presented. Experimental results from laboratory ASAC tests conducted on a full-scale fuselage and from flight tests on a helicopter will be discussed. Finally, a hybrid active/passive noise control approach for achieving significant broadband noise reduction will be discussed. Experimental results of control of broadband noise transmission through an aircraft structure will be presented.

  7. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration.

  8. Measurement of the Radiation Incident on NbFeB Insertion Devices at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Gary; Holmes, Michael

    1997-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories Advanced Light Source is a third generation light source containing NdFeB permanent magnet insertion devices.The lifetime of the permanent magnets in a radiation environment is of paramount importance. Measurements of the radiation incident on the insertion device magnets under various operating conditions are presented.

  9. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-09-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  10. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  11. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  12. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  13. Optochemokine Tandem for Light-Control of Intracellular Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Weissbecker, Juliane; Sauer, Frank; Wood, Phillip G.; Bamberg, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    An optochemokine tandem was developed to control the release of calcium from endosomes into the cytosol by light and to analyze the internalization kinetics of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by electrophysiology. A previously constructed rhodopsin tandem was re-engineered to combine the light-gated Ca2+-permeable cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2(L132C), CatCh, with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a functional tandem protein tCXCR4/CatCh. The GPCR was used as a shuttle protein to displace CatCh from the plasma membrane into intracellular areas. As shown by patch-clamp measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy, heterologously expressed tCXCR4/CatCh was internalized via the endocytic SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway. The kinetics of internalization could be followed electrophysiologically via the amplitude of the CatCh signal. The light-induced release of Ca2+ by tandem endosomes into the cytosol via CatCh was visualized using the Ca2+-sensitive dyes rhod2 and rhod2-AM showing an increase of intracellular Ca2+ in response to light. PMID:27768773

  14. Light controls cerebral blood flow in naive animals

    PubMed Central

    Rungta, Ravi L; Osmanski, Bruno-Félix; Boido, Davide; Tanter, Mickael; Charpak, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Optogenetics is increasingly used to map brain activation using techniques that rely on functional hyperaemia, such as opto-fMRI. Here we test whether light stimulation protocols similar to those commonly used in opto-fMRI or to study neurovascular coupling modulate blood flow in mice that do not express light sensitive proteins. Combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy and ultrafast functional ultrasound imaging, we report that in the naive mouse brain, light per se causes a calcium decrease in arteriolar smooth muscle cells, leading to pronounced vasodilation, without excitation of neurons and astrocytes. This photodilation is reversible, reproducible and energy-dependent, appearing at about 0.5 mJ. These results impose careful consideration on the use of photo-activation in studies involving blood flow regulation, as well as in studies requiring prolonged and repetitive stimulations to correct cellular defects in pathological models. They also suggest that light could be used to locally increase blood flow in a controlled fashion. PMID:28139643

  15. Light controllable surface coating for effective photothermal killing of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Eun Bi; Jeong, Chan Jin; Sharker, Shazid Md; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2015-07-22

    Although the electronic properties of conducting films have been widely explored in optoelectronic fields, the optical absorption abilities of surface-coated films for photothermal conversion have been relatively less explored in the production of antibacterial coatings. Here, we present catechol-conjugated poly(vinylpyrrolidone) sulfobetaine (PVPS) and polyaniline (PANI) tightly linked by ionic interaction (PVPS:PANI) as a novel photothermal antibacterial agent for surface coating, which can absorb broadband near-infrared (NIR) light. Taking advantage of the NIR light absorption, this coating film can release eminent photothermal heat for the rapid killing of surface bacteria. The NIR light triggers a sharp rise in photothermal heat, providing the rapid and effective killing of 99.9% of the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria tested within 3 min of NIR light exposure when used at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Although considerable progress has been made in the design of antibacterial coatings, the user control of NIR-irradiated rapid photothermal destruction of surface bacteria holds increasing attention beyond the traditional boundaries of typical antibacterial surfaces.

  16. Control over topological insulator photocurrents with light polarization.

    PubMed

    McIver, J W; Hsieh, D; Steinberg, H; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Gedik, N

    2011-12-04

    Three-dimensional topological insulators represent a new quantum phase of matter with spin-polarized surface states that are protected from backscattering. The static electronic properties of these surface states have been comprehensively imaged by both photoemission and tunnelling spectroscopies. Theorists have proposed that topological surface states can also exhibit novel electronic responses to light, such as topological quantum phase transitions and spin-polarized electrical currents. However, the effects of optically driving a topological insulator out of equilibrium have remained largely unexplored experimentally, and no photocurrents have been measured. Here, we show that illuminating the topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) with circularly polarized light generates a photocurrent that originates from topological helical Dirac fermions, and that reversing the helicity of the light reverses the direction of the photocurrent. We also observe a photocurrent that is controlled by the linear polarization of light and argue that it may also have a topological surface state origin. This approach may allow the probing of dynamic properties of topological insulators and lead to novel opto-spintronic devices.

  17. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  18. Reliability, Safety and Error Recovery for Advanced Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    For long-duration automated operation of regenerative life support systems in space environments, there is a need for advanced integration and control systems that are significantly more reliable and safe, and that support error recovery and minimization of operational failures. This presentation outlines some challenges of hazardous space environments and complex system interactions that can lead to system accidents. It discusses approaches to hazard analysis and error recovery for control software and challenges of supporting effective intervention by safety software and the crew.

  19. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  1. QUANTUM CONTROL OF LIGHT: From Slow Light and FAST CARS to Nuclear γ-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Marlan

    2007-06-01

    In recent work we have demonstrated strong coherent backward wave oscillation using forward propagating fields only. This surprising result is achieved by applying laser fields to an ultra-dispersive medium with proper chosen detunings to excite a molecular vibrational coherence that corresponds to a backward propagating wave [PRL, 97, 113001 (2006)]. The physics then has much in common with propagation of ultra-slow light. Applications of coherent scattering and remote sensing to the detection of bio and chemical pathogens (e.g., anthrax) via Coherent Anti-Raman Scattering together with Femtosecond Adaptive Spectroscopic Techniques (FAST CARS [Opt. Comm., 244, 423 (2005)]) will be discussed. Furthermore, the interplay between quantum optics (Dicke super and sub-radiant states) and nuclear physics (forward scattering of γ radiation) provides interesting problems and insights into the quantum control of scattered light [PRL, 96, 010501 (2005)].

  2. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study.

    PubMed Central

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Materials and methods Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Results Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). Conclusions VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources. PMID:28275281

  3. A killer application: Controllable lighting systems as a load management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, J.F.

    1999-07-01

    What exactly is a Killer Application? Simply put, it is any technological advance that changes the rules of an industry in a positive way, and by extension the lives of that industry`s customers. Under this heading, the use of controlled lighting as a load management strategy quite precisely fills the job description of a Killer APP. Load management is defined as the modification of energy usage patterns in response to external conditions. Historically, it was focused on interruptible loads, e.g., air conditioners, hot water heaters. As such, it was seen by building managers and occupants as inconvenient or uncomfortable. Lighting was never considered. That was then. With the marginal cost of electricity today reaching more than 20 times the cost of electricity at off-peak hours, load management, re-framed as the building-wide application of controlled lighting, has emerged as a dynamic, proven energy strategy. It comprehensively addresses changes in energy costs. By employing leading-edge technologies to reduce lighting energy costs, it reduces, under certain rate structures, the average cost of energy for every kilowatt-hour used throughout the entire facility. It is the first application to make utility deregulation pay off big for businesses.

  4. Performance of dimming control scheme in visible light communication system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixiong; Zhong, Wen-De; Yu, Changyuan; Chen, Jian; Francois, Chin Po Shin; Chen, Wei

    2012-08-13

    We investigate the performance of visible light communication (VLC) system with a pulse width modulation (PWM) dimming control scheme. Under this scheme, the communication quality in terms of number of transmitted bits and bit error rate (BER) of less than 10(-3) should be guaranteed. However, for on-off-keying (OOK) signal, the required data rate becomes 10 times as high as the original data rate when the duty cycle of dimming control signal is 0.1. To make the dimming control scheme easy to be implemented in VLC system, we propose the variable M-QAM OFDM VLC system, where M is adjusted according to the brightness of LED light in terms of duty cycle. The results show that with different duty cycles the required data rates are not higher than the original value and less LED lamp power is required to guarantee the communication quality, which makes the dimming control system that satisfies both communication and illumination requirements easy to be implemented and power-saving.

  5. Refinements and Tests of an Advanced Controller to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated 3-D turbulent wind inflow field, with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, while maximizing energy capture. Active damping should be added to these dynamic structures to maintain stability for operation in a complex environment. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), we have designed, implemented, and tested advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on linear models of the turbine that are generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we present field test results of an advanced control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads in Region 3.

  6. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenshan; Vasudev, Alok P; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-09-23

    Plasmonics provides a route to develop ultracompact optical devices on a chip by using extreme light concentration and the ability to perform simultaneous electrical and optical functions. These properties also make plasmonics an ideal candidate for dynamically controlling nonlinear optical interactions at the nanoscale. We demonstrate electrically tunable harmonic generation of light from a plasmonic nanocavity filled with a nonlinear medium. The metals that define the cavity also serve as electrodes that can generate high direct current electric fields across the nonlinear material. A fundamental wave at 1.56 micrometers was frequency doubled and modulated in intensity by applying a moderate external voltage to the electrodes, yielding a voltage-dependent nonlinear generation with a normalized magnitude of ~7% per volt.

  7. Reconfigurable Array of Radiating Elements (RARE) controlled by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovnik, Lev

    1994-01-01

    The parameters of a silicon - dielectric - metal microstrip line were compared with those of a metal - dielectric - metal microstrip line from an actual FLAPS antenna. The proposed structure has higher losses; this is caused by the electrical conductivity of the illuminated silicon electrode being lower than is the case with a line using a copper top electrode. However, the value of these conductive losses is on the same order as the radiative losses in the microstrip line used in FLAPS antenna. These results point to the feasibility of using the proposed type of a microstrip line in a light-controlled reconfigurable MMW antenna with reasonable energy losses and with a reasonable light flux.

  8. An Autonomous and Controllable Light-Driven DNA Walking Device

    PubMed Central

    You, Mingxu; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaobing; Liu, Haipeng; Wang, Ruowen; Wang, Kelong; Williams, Kathryn R.; Tan, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology has been largely inspired by the biological world. The complex, but well-organized, living system hosts an array of molecular-sized machines responsible for information processing, structure building and, sometimes, movement. We present here a novel light-powered DNA mechanical device, which is reminiscent of cellular protein motors in nature, especially those of green plants. This walking device, which is based on pyrene- assisted photolysis of disulfide bonds, is capable of autonomous locomotion, with light control of initiation, termination and velocity. Based on DNA sequence design and such physical conditions as temperature and ionic strength, this photon-fueled DNA walker exhibits the type of operational freedom and mechanical speed that may rival protein motors in the future. PMID:22298502

  9. Photonic metasurfaces for spatiotemporal and ultrafast light control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Amr Mohammad Emadeldin Abdelmaksoud

    The emergence of photonic metasurfaces - planar arrays of nano-antennas - has enabled a new paradigm of light control through wave-front engineering. Space-gradient metasurfaces induce spatially varying phase and/or polarization to propagating light. As a consequence, photons propagating through space-gradient metasurfaces can be engineered to undergo a change to their momentum, angular momentum and/or spin states. In our study, we implement metasurface-based devices that break the spin symmetry of light to obtain Photonic Spin Hall Effect (PSHE). We utilized PSHE to design a real-time circular dichroism spectrometer, a device vital in bio-sensing, and an optical rotator used in secure quantum communications. In addition, we developed metasurface based Fabry--Perot nano-cavities, which go beyond the diffraction limit of light, a requirement to enhance photonic spontaneous emission using the Purcell effect. In addition, we demonstrate that the field of flat photonics is further empowered by utilizing time-gradient metasurfaces with dynamic responses to propagating light. A new genus of optical devices and physical effects can be realized. Photons experience inelastic interactions with time-varying metasurfaces resulting in a Doppler-like wavelength-shift. Furthermore, Snell's relations are modified to a more universal form not limited by Lorentz reciprocity, hence meeting all the requirements to build magnetic-free optical isolators. Finally, we construct the concept of ultrafast metasurfaces. We integrate spatial interference methodology delivered by metasurfaces and temporal interference of phase-locked frequency-comb provided by ultrafast technology. This leads to generation of coherent 4D space-time optical patterns, which is implemented to achieve ultrafast laser beam steering over hundred-picosecond scale.

  10. Molecular factors controlling photosynthetic light harvesting by carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Polívka, Tomás; Frank, Harry A

    2010-08-17

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments that absorb light in the spectral region in which the sun irradiates maximally. These molecules transfer this energy to chlorophylls, initiating the primary photochemical events of photosynthesis. Carotenoids also regulate the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus and protect it from photoinduced damage caused by excess light absorption. To carry out these functions in nature, carotenoids are bound in discrete pigment-protein complexes in the proximity of chlorophylls. A few three-dimensional structures of these carotenoid complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, the stage is set for attempting to correlate the structural information with the spectroscopic properties of carotenoids to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of their function in photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we summarize current spectroscopic data describing the excited state energies and ultrafast dynamics of purified carotenoids in solution and bound in light-harvesting complexes from purple bacteria, marine algae, and green plants. Many of these complexes can be modified using mutagenesis or pigment exchange which facilitates the elucidation of correlations between structure and function. We describe the structural and electronic factors controlling the function of carotenoids as energy donors. We also discuss unresolved issues related to the nature of spectroscopically dark excited states, which could play a role in light harvesting. To illustrate the interplay between structural determinations and spectroscopic investigations that exemplifies work in the field, we describe the spectroscopic properties of four light-harvesting complexes whose structures have been determined to atomic resolution. The first, the LH2 complex from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, contains the carotenoid rhodopin glucoside. The second is the LHCII trimeric complex from higher plants which uses the carotenoids

  11. Controlling the efficiency of an artificial light-harvesting complex

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Janne; Fanciulli, Riccardo; Dijkhuizen, Niels; Moore, Ana L.; Hauer, Jürgen; Buckup, Tiago; Motzkus, Marcus; Herek, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive femtosecond pulse shaping in an evolutionary learning loop is applied to a bioinspired dyad molecule that closely mimics the early-time photophysics of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) photosynthetic antenna complex. Control over the branching ratio between the two competing pathways for energy flow, internal conversion (IC) and energy transfer (ET), is realized. We show that by pulse shaping it is possible to increase independently the relative yield of both channels, ET and IC. The optimization results are analyzed by using Fourier analysis, which gives direct insight to the mechanism featuring quantum interference of a low-frequency mode. The results from the closed-loop experiments are repeatable and robust and demonstrate the power of coherent control experiments as a spectroscopic tool (i.e., quantum-control spectroscopy) capable of revealing functionally relevant molecular properties that are hidden from conventional techniques. PMID:18509052

  12. Advanced interactive displays for deployable command and control centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrysik, Peter A.; Parada, Francisco E.; Stedman, Terrance A.; Zhang, Jingyuan

    2003-09-01

    Command and control in today's battlefield environment requires efficient and effective control of massive amounts of constantly changing information from a variety of databases and real-time sensors. Using advanced information technology for presentation and interactive control enables more extensive data fusion and correlation to present an accurate picture of the battlespace to commanders and their staffs. The Interactive DataWall being developed by the Advanced Displays and Intelligent Interfaces (ADII) technology team of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) is a strong contender for solving the information management problems facing the 21st century military commander. It provides an ultra high-resolution large screen display with multi-modal, wireless interaction. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology has been combined with specialized hardware and software developed in-house to provide a unique capability for multimedia data display and control. The technology once isolated to a laboratory environment has been packaged into deployable systems that have been successfully transitioned to support the warfighter in the field.

  13. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  14. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  15. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  16. Light-controlled nitric oxide delivering molecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Sortino, Salvatore

    2010-08-01

    The multiple roles nitric oxide (NO) plays as a bioregulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant agent has triggered an explosive interest in recent years in compounds able to deliver this diatomic radical for therapeutic purposes. A major issue associated with NO donors is the precise control of the NO release, which effect is highly concentration and flux dependent. Light represents a convenient non-invasive on/off trigger to deliver NO on demand since it allows the accurate control of site, timing and dosage. The assembling of NO photodonors through different approaches may lead to intriguing light-responsive molecular constructs including nanostructured films, polymers, gels, nanoparticles and molecular conjugates which exhibit promising potential in view of practical applications. This tutorial review illustrates the recent research from our and other laboratories towards the fabrication of these molecular assemblies, highlighting the logical design and the relevance in the biomedical field. Therefore, this review is aimed to be a source of inspiration for a wide range of scientists belonging to the chemical, materials science and biochemical communities, facing the common challenge of fabricating controllable NO dispensers.

  17. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive controlled drug delivery: advances, challenges, and outlook

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanhui; Li, Yihong; Xu, Qien; Liu, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, the application of nanomaterials in the field of drug delivery has attracted much attention in the past decades. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as promising drug nanocarriers have become a new area of interest in recent years due to their unique properties and capabilities to efficiently entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the latest advances on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in drug delivery. In particular, we focus on the stimuli-responsive controlled release systems that are able to respond to intracellular environmental changes, such as pH, ATP, GSH, enzyme, glucose, and H2O2. Moreover, drug delivery induced by exogenous stimuli including temperature, light, magnetic field, ultrasound, and electricity is also summarized. These advanced technologies demonstrate current challenges, and provide a bright future for precision diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28053526

  18. Efficient nanorod-based amorphous silicon solar cells with advanced light trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Y.; Lare, M. C. van; Polman, A.; Veldhuizen, L. W.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2015-11-14

    We present a simple, low-cost, and scalable approach for the fabrication of efficient nanorod-based solar cells. Templates with arrays of self-assembled ZnO nanorods with tunable morphology are synthesized by chemical bath deposition using a low process temperature at 80 °C. The nanorod templates are conformally coated with hydrogenated amorphous silicon light absorber layers of 100 nm and 200 nm thickness. An initial efficiency of up to 9.0% is achieved for the optimized design. External quantum efficiency measurements on the nanorod cells show a substantial photocurrent enhancement both in the red and the blue parts of the solar spectrum. Key insights in the light trapping mechanisms in these arrays are obtained via a combination of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, optical absorption, and external quantum efficiency measurements. Front surface patterns enhance the light incoupling in the blue, while rear side patterns lead to enhanced light trapping in the red. The red response in the nanorod cells is limited by absorption in the patterned Ag back contact. With these findings, we develop and experimentally realize a further advanced design with patterned front and back sides while keeping the Ag reflector flat, showing significantly enhanced scattering from the back reflector with reduced parasitic absorption in the Ag and thus higher photocurrent generation. Many of the findings in this work can serve to provide insights for further optimization of nanostructures for thin-film solar cells in a broad range of materials.

  19. Model-based advanced process control of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C W; Shariff, R; Stanley, S J; Smith, D W; Zhang, Q; Saumer, E D

    2002-01-01

    The drinking water treatment industry has seen a recent increase in the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for process modelling and offline process control tools and applications. While conceptual frameworks for integrating the ANN technology into the real-time control of complex treatment processes have been proposed, actual working systems have yet to be developed. This paper presents development and application of an ANN model-based advanced process control system for the coagulation process at a pilot-scale water treatment facility in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The system was successfully used to maintain a user-defined set point for effluent quality, by automatically varying operating conditions in response to changes in influent water quality. This new technology has the potential to realize significant operational cost saving for utilities when applied in full-scale applications.

  20. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  1. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  2. Benchmarking of Advanced Control Strategies for a Simulated Hydroelectric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotti, S.; Simani, S.; Alvisi, S.; Venturini, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses and develops the design of advanced control strategies for a typical hydroelectric plant during unsteady conditions, performed in the Matlab and Simulink environments. The hydraulic system consists of a high water head and a long penstock with upstream and downstream surge tanks, and is equipped with a Francis turbine. The nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic turbine and the inelastic water hammer effects were considered to calculate and simulate the hydraulic transients. With reference to the control solutions addressed in this work, the proposed methodologies rely on data-driven and model-based approaches applied to the system under monitoring. Extensive simulations and comparisons serve to determine the best solution for the development of the most effective, robust and reliable control tool when applied to the considered hydraulic system.

  3. Active control of light based on polarization-coupling cascading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Juan; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-10-01

    In this letter, we proposed a novel method for optical manipulation based on polarization-coupling cascading in MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Polarization-coupling cascading, a series of energy exchanges between two orthogonally polarized beams close to phase matching condition, can also lead to phase shifts, in analogy with that in cascaded second-order nonlinearities. In addition, the parameters of light such as phase, amplitude, and group velocity can be modulated by changing the relative power ratio of the incident continuous wave beams. The phase control was demonstrated by Newton's rings experiment, which was in good agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  4. Graphene-enabled electrically controlled terahertz spatial light modulators.

    PubMed

    Kakenov, Nurbek; Takan, Taylan; Ozkan, Vedat Ali; Balcı, Osman; Polat, Emre O; Altan, Hakan; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-05-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate a broadband terahertz (THz) spatial light modulator using 5×5 arrays of large area graphene supercapacitors. Our approach relies on controlling spatial charge distribution on a passive matrix array of patterned graphene electrodes. By changing the voltage bias applied to the rows and columns, we were able to pattern the THz transmittance through the device with high modulation depth and low operation voltage. We anticipate that the simplicity of the device architecture with high contrast THz modulation over a broad spectral range could provide new tools for THz imaging and communication systems.

  5. Use of IBM's Advanced Control System in Undergraduate Process Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.; Sullivan, Gerald R.

    1986-01-01

    This article: (1) traces some of the history behind the International Business Machines (IBM) and academic arrangement; (2) describes the Advanced Control System and how it is used in undergraduate process control courses; (3) discusses benefits to students and teachers; and (4) summarizes future plans. (JN)

  6. PREFACE: European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Sören

    2014-12-01

    The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is an annual event that has been organised since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary and Denmark. The overall planning of the workshops is conducted by the Intelligent Control and Diagnosis (ICD) steering committee. This year's ACD workshop took place at HTW Berlin (University of Applied Sciences) and was organised by the Control Engineering group of School of Engineering I of HTW Berlin. 38 papers were presented at ACD 2014, with contributions spanning a variety of fields in modern control science: Discrete control, nonlinear control, model predictive control, system identification, fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, control applications, applications of fuzzy logic, as well as modelling and simulation, the latter two forming a basis for all tasks in modern control. Three interesting and high-quality plenary lectures were delivered. The first plenary speaker was Wolfgang Weber from Pepperl+Fuchs, a German manufacturer of state-of-the-art industrial sensors and process interfaces. The second and third plenary speakers were two internationally high-ranked researchers in their respective fields, Prof. Didier Theilliol from Université de Lorraine and Prof. Carsten Scherer from Universität Stuttgart. Taken together, the three plenary lectures sought to contribute to closing the gap between theory and applications. On behalf of the whole ACD 2014 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who submitted papers and participated in the workshop. We hope it was a fruitful and memorable event for all. Together we are looking forward to the next ACD workshop in 2015 in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Horst Schulte (General Chair), Sören Georg (Programme Chair)

  7. Advanced Controls for the Multi-pod Centipod WEC device

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Alan; Fleming, Alex

    2016-02-15

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) has developed a Wave Energy Converter (WEC), Centipod, which is a multiple point absorber, extracting wave energy primarily in the heave direction through a plurality of point absorber floats sharing a common stable reference structure. The objective of this project was to develop advanced control algorithms that will be used to reduce Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). This project investigated the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the power capture of the WEC. The MPC controller developed in this work is a state-space, “look ahead” controller approach using knowledge of past and current states to predict future states to take action with the PTO to maximize power capture while still respecting system constraints. In order to maximize power, which is the product of force and velocity, the controller must aim to create phase alignment between excitation force and velocity. This project showed a 161% improvement in the Annual Energy Production (AEP) for the Centipod WEC when utilizing MPC, compared to a baseline, fixed passive damping control strategy. This improvement in AEP was shown to provide a substantial benefit to the WEC’s overall Cost of Energy, reducing LCOE by 50% from baseline. The results of this work proved great potential for the adoption of Model Predictive Controls in Wave Energy Converters.

  8. Controlled guidance of light through a flexible optical waveguide sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson-Smith, Chloë; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni

    2016-03-01

    The controlled guidance of light rays through a mechanically flexible large area polymer optical waveguide sheet is investigated using Zemax OpticStudio software. The geometry and spatial distribution of micro-optical features patterned on the waveguide sheet determines whether the surface acts as a light concentrator or diffuser. To illustrate the concept, incident light is collected over a large center area and then transmitted to the border where it is emitted through an illumination window covered by an array of photo-cells. The efficiencies of the collector and illuminating regions of the hybrid PDMS collector-diffuser waveguide sheet are discussed. Initial analysis of the waveguide design demonstrates an ideal efficiency of over 90% for the concentrating region of the waveguide and over 80% efficiency for the diffusing region of the waveguide. The Zemax simulation of the ideal design of the hybrid concentrator-diffuser waveguide exhibited an efficiency of up to 75%. However this efficiency significantly decreased when examining the waveguide's performance as a flexible sheet. The necessary design modifications, to mitigate these losses in efficiency, are discussed, and future work will focus on analyzing and optimizing the waveguide design for performance as a fully flexible concentrator-diffuser membrane.

  9. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  10. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  11. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  12. Design of an AdvancedTCA board management controller (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.; Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Mico, S.; Vasey, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the upgrade of the back-end electronics of the CMS and ATLAS experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . In this context, the electronic systems for experiments group at CERN is running a project to evaluate, specify, design and support xTCA equipment. As part of this project, an Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) for ATCA blades, based on a commercial solution, has been designed to be used on existing and future ATCA blades. This paper reports on the status of this project presenting the hardware and software developments.

  13. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  14. Photometric Calibration of an EUV Flat Field Spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    May, M; Lepson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Thorn, D; Chen, H; Hey, D; Smith, A

    2002-07-03

    The photometric calibration of ail extreme ultraviolet flat field spectrometer has been done at the Advanced Light Source at LBNL. This spectrometer is used to record spectrum for atomic physics research from highly charged ions in plasmas created in the Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and SUPEREBIT. Two calibrations were done each with a different gold-coated grating, a 1200 {ell}/mm and a 2400 {ell}/mm, that covered 75-300{angstrom} and 15-160{angstrom}, respectively. The detector for this calibration was a back thinned CCD. The relative calibration was determined for several different incident angles for both gratings. Within the scatter of the data, the calibration was roughly insensitive to the incidence angle for the range of angles investigated.

  15. Special issue on the "Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors Research and Development Progress"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turinsky, Paul J.; Martin, William R.

    2017-04-01

    In this special issue of the Journal of Computational Physics, the research and development completed at the time of manuscript submission by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is presented. CASL is the first of several Energy Innovation Hubs that have been created by the Department of Energy. The Hubs are modeled after the strong scientific management characteristics of the Manhattan Project and AT&T Bell Laboratories, and function as integrated research centers that combine basic and applied research with engineering to accelerate scientific discovery that addresses critical energy issues. Lifetime of a Hub is expected to be five or ten years depending upon performance, with CASL being granted a ten year lifetime.

  16. The Advanced Light Source U8 beam line, 20--300 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.; Warwick, T.; Howells, M.; McKinney, W.; Digennaro, D.; Gee, B.; Yee, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1991-10-01

    The U8 is a beam line under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The beam line will be described along with calculations of its performance and its current status. An 8 cm period undulator is followed by two spherical collecting mirrors, an entrance slit, spherical gratings having a 15{degree} deviation angle, a moveable exit slit, and refocusing and branching mirrors. Internal water cooling is provided to the metal M1 and M2 mirrors as well as to the gratings. Calculations have been made of both the flux output and the resolution over its photon energy range of 20--300 eV. The design goal was to achieve high intensity, 10{sup 12} photons/sec, at a high resolving power of 10,000. The U8 Participating Research Team (PRT) is planning experiments involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of gaseous atoms and molecules, the spectroscopy of ions and actinide spectroscopy.

  17. The advanced light source — a new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.

  18. The advanced light source: A new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1990-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft-x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.

  19. Advanced Oxidation of Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue with Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert; Mudimbi, Patrick; Miller, Michael E; Magnuson, Matthew; Willison, Stuart; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2017-01-01

      This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) coupled with hydrogen peroxide as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of two test chemicals. Brilliant Blue FCF consistently exhibited greater degradation than tartrazine, with 83% degradation after 300 minutes at the 100% duty cycle compared with only 17% degradation of tartrazine under the same conditions. These differences are attributable to the structural properties of the compounds. Duty cycle was positively correlated with the first-order rate constants (k) for both chemicals but, interestingly, negatively correlated with the normalized first-order rate constants (k/duty cycle). Synergistic effects of both hydraulic mixing and LED duty cycle were manifested as novel oscillations in the effluent contaminant concentration. Further, LED output and efficiency were dependent upon duty cycle and less efficient over time perhaps due to heating effects on semiconductor performance.

  20. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-11-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further.

  1. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  2. A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis. [Advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M. )

    1988-01-01

    A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. A new synchrotron light source at Louisiana State University's Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockbauer, Roger L.; Ajmera, Pratul; Poliakoff, Erwin D.; Craft, Ben C.; Saile, Volker

    1990-05-01

    A 1.2-GeV synchrotron light source is being constructed at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) at Louisiana State University. The expressed purpose of the center, which has been funded by a grant from the US Department of Energy, is to develop X-ray lithography techniques for manufacturing microcircuits, although basic science programs are also being established. The storage ring will be optimized for the soft-X-ray region and will be the first commercially manufactured electron storage ring in the United States. The magnetic lattice is based on a design developed by Chasman and Green and will allow up to three insertion devices to be installed for higher-energy and higher-intensity radiation. In addition to the lithography effort, experimental programs are being established in physics, chemistry, and related areas.

  4. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  5. Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

  6. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature.

  7. A Superbend X-Ray Microdiffraction Beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, N.; Kunz, M.; Chen, K.; Celestre, R.S.; MacDowell, A.A.; Warwick, T.

    2009-03-10

    Beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source is a newly commissioned beamline dedicated to x-ray microdiffraction. It operates in both monochromatic and polychromatic radiation mode. The facility uses a superconducting bending magnet source to deliver an X-ray spectrum ranging from 5 to 22 keV. The beam is focused down to {approx} 1 um size at the sample position using a pair of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors enclosed in a vacuum box. The sample placed on high precision stages can be raster-scanned under the microbeam while a diffraction pattern is taken at each step. The arrays of diffraction patterns are then analyzed to derive distribution maps of phases, strain/stress and/or plastic deformation inside the sample.

  8. Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, T.; Padmore, H.; Ade, H.; Hitchcock, A.P.; Rightor, E.G.; Tonner, B.P.

    1996-08-01

    Several third generation synchrotron radiation facilities are now operational and the high brightness of these photon sources offers new opportunities for x-ray microscopy. Well developed synchrotron radiation spectroscopy techniques are being applied in new instruments capable of imaging the surface of a material with a spatial resolution smaller than one micron. There are two aspects to this. One is to further the field of surface science by exploring the effects of spatial variations across a surface on a scale not previously accessible to x-ray measurements. The other is to open up new analytical techniques in materials science using x-rays, on a spatial scale comparable to that of the processes or devices to be studied. The development of the spectromicroscopy program at the Advanced Light Source will employ a variety of instruments, some are already operational. Their development and use will be discussed, and recent results will be presented to illustrate their capabilities.

  9. Magnetic properties of the ALS (Advanced Light Source) booster synchrotron engineering model magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Green, M.I.; Hoyer, E.; Koo, Y.M.; Luchini, K.; Marks, S.; Milburn, J.; Nelson, D.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to be a third-generation electron storage ring producing high-brightness VUV and X-ray radiation from wiggler and undulator insertion devices. Engineering models of all lattice magnets that are to be installed in the storage ring and its booster synchrotron have been built and are being tested to verify their performance. This paper is concerned with the magnets that form the booster lattice: dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and corrector dipoles (steerers). After a brief outline of measurement techniques and equipment, the major design parameters of these magnets are listed. Measured effective lengths and multipole field errors are then given for each type. All engineering models meet the specifications, and tracking studies including the measured systematic field errors show acceptable performance of the booster synchrotron; hence the designs are qualified for production. 3 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Interactive and cooperative sensing and control for advanced teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the paradigm of interactive and cooperative sensing and control as a fundamental mechanism of integrating and fusing the strengths of man and machine for advanced teleoperation. The interactive and cooperative sensing and control is considered as an extended and generalized form of traded and shared control. The emphasis of interactive and cooperative sensing and control is given to the distribution of mutually nonexclusive subtasks to man and machine, the interactive invocation of subtasks under the man/machine symbiotic relationship, and the fusion of information and decisionmaking between man and machine according to their confidence measures. The proposed interactive and cooperative sensing and control system is composed of such major functional blocks as the logical sensor system, the sensor-based local autonomy, the virtual environment formation, and the cooperative decision-making between man and machine. The Sensing-Knowledge-Command (SKC) fusion network is proposed as a fundamental architecture for implementing cooperative and interactive sensing and control. Simulation results are shown.

  11. SECOND GENERATION ADVANCED REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The third reporting period in Phase II (April 1--June 30, 1998) included experimental activities at pilot scale and comparison of the results with full-scale data. The pilot scale tests were performed with the objective of simulating furnace conditions of ongoing full-scale tests at the Greenidge boiler No. 6 owned and operated by NYSEG and defining the processes controlling AR performance to subsequently improve the performance. The tests were conducted in EER' s Boiler Simulator Facility. The main fuel pulsing system was used at the BSF to control the degree of unmixedness, thus providing control over furnace gas O{sub 2} and CO concentrations. Results on AR-Lean, presented in the previous quarterly report, were compared with full-scale data. Performance of reburn+SNCR was tested to predict NO{sub x} control at Greenidge. The results of the BSF reburn+SNCR simulation tests demonstrated that there are synergistic advantages of using these two technologies in series. In particular, injection of overfire air provides additional mixing that reduces negative effects on AR performance at the temperature regime of the Greenidge boiler.

  12. Indicator system for advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  13. Controlling epithelial sodium channels with light using photoswitchable amilorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönberger, Matthias; Althaus, Mike; Fronius, Martin; Clauss, Wolfgang; Trauner, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    Amiloride is a widely used diuretic that blocks epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). These heterotrimeric transmembrane proteins, assembled from β, γ and α or δ subunits, effectively control water transport across epithelia and sodium influx into non-epithelial cells. The functional role of δβγENaC in various organs, including the human brain, is still poorly understood and no pharmacological tools are available for the functional differentiation between α- and δ-containing ENaCs. Here we report several photoswitchable versions of amiloride. One compound, termed PA1, enables the optical control of ENaC channels, in particular the δβγ isoform, by switching between blue and green light, or by turning on and off blue light. PA1 was used to modify functionally δβγENaC in amphibian and mammalian cells. We also show that PA1 can be used to differentiate between δβγENaC and αβγENaC in a model for the human lung epithelium.

  14. Research and development on the application of advanced control technologies to advanced nuclear reactor systems: A US national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Monson, L.R.; Carrol, D.G.; Dayal, Y.; Argonne National Lab., IL; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    Control system designs for nuclear power plants are becoming more advanced through the use of digital technology and automation. This evolution is taking place because of: (1) the limitations in analog based control system performance and maintenance and availability and (2) the promise of significant improvement in plant operation and availability due to advances in digital and other control technologies. Digital retrofits of control systems in US nuclear plants are occurring now. Designs of control and protection systems for advanced LWRs are based on digital technology. The use of small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers in these designs is the first step of an evolutionary process described in this paper. Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, GE Nuclear Energy and several universities are performing research and development in the application of advances in control theory, software engineering, advanced computer architectures, artificial intelligence, and man-machine interface analysis to control system design. The target plant concept for the work described in this paper is the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module reactor (PRISM), an advanced modular liquid metal reactor concept. This and other reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay C. Almlie

    2004-12-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-FC26-01NT41184 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the original five-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included benchscale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task was to

  16. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Paticulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Jay Almlie

    2004-09-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. The scope of work was modified to include an additional sixth task, initiated in April 2003. The objective of this task

  17. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  18. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  19. Intra-beam Scattering and Minimum Achievable Emittance in the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-08-13

    Intra-beam scattering (IBS) potentially limits the minimum emittance of low-energy storage rings, and this effect strongly influences the choice of energy of damping rings for linear colliders. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is the third-generation synchrotron light source operating in high-intensity, low-emittance beams at energies up to 2 GeV. It can operate with an emittance coupling of below 1%. We present measurements of the beam growth in three dimensions as a function of current, for normalized natural horizontal emittances approximately 1-10 mm-mrad at energies of 0.7-1.5 GeV, values comparable to the parameters in an NLC damping ring [1]. Using a dedicated diagnostic beamline with an x-ray scintillator imaging system, measurements of the transverse beamsize are made, simultaneously with bunch length measurements using an optical streak camera. The bunch volume growth as a function of bunch current is compared with theoretical estimates, for a parameter space of IBS, where very little experimental data exists so far.

  20. Recent advances in the science and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Gaj, Michael P.; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Choi, Sangmoo; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhang, Yadong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Voit, Walter E.; Wei, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    In this talk, we will discuss recent advances in the science and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). First, we will focus on materials in which light emission involves the process of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). In these materials, triplet excited states can convert into optically emissive singlet excited states by reverse intersystem crossing, allowing for nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. This process can be used to design a new class of materials that are all organic, offering a lower cost alternative to conventional electrophosphorescent materials that contain heavy and expensive elements such as Pt and Ir. We will discuss molecular design strategies and present examples of materials that can be used as emitters or hosts in the emissive layer. In a second part of this talk, we will review recent progress in fabricating OLEDs on shape memory polymer substrates (SMPs). SMPs are mechanically active, smart materials that can exhibit a significant drop in modulus once an external stimulus such as temperature is applied. In their rubbery state upon heating, the SMP can be easily deformed by external stresses into a temporary geometric configuration that can be retained even after the stress is removed by cooling the SMP to below the glass transition temperature. Reheating the SMP causes strain relaxation within the polymer network and induces recovery of its original shape. We will discuss how these unique mechanical properties can also be extended to a new class of OLEDs.

  1. High security chaotic multiple access scheme for visible light communication systems with advanced encryption standard interleaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Junchao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Diyang; Liu, Xingcheng

    2016-06-01

    Chaotic sequences can be applied to realize multiple user access and improve the system security for a visible light communication (VLC) system. However, since the map patterns of chaotic sequences are usually well known, eavesdroppers can possibly derive the key parameters of chaotic sequences and subsequently retrieve the information. We design an advanced encryption standard (AES) interleaving aided multiple user access scheme to enhance the security of a chaotic code division multiple access-based visible light communication (C-CDMA-VLC) system. We propose to spread the information with chaotic sequences, and then the spread information is interleaved by an AES algorithm and transmitted over VLC channels. Since the computation complexity of performing inverse operations to deinterleave the information is high, the eavesdroppers in a high speed VLC system cannot retrieve the information in real time; thus, the system security will be enhanced. Moreover, we build a mathematical model for the AES-aided VLC system and derive the theoretical information leakage to analyze the system security. The simulations are performed over VLC channels, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and high security of our presented AES interleaving aided chaotic CDMA-VLC system.

  2. An ALS handbook: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The few specifications and operating parameters of the ALS storage ring that are of interest are those that directly determine the radiation characteristics. Sections 4 through 5 are primarily devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, etc.--assuming a representative set of three undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of four beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 discusses the properties of the stored electron beam that affect the radiation. Section 3 then provides an introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 5 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction-grating and crystal monochromators. As compared with previous editions of this booklet, the performance plots and tabular compilations of the ALS radiation characteristics are now based on conservative engineering designs rather than preliminary physics designs.

  3. Measurements of Intra-Beam Scattering at Low Emittance in the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.; Corlett, J.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.; De Santis, S.; Steier, C.; Wolski, A.; Wu, Y.; Bane, K.; Raubenheimer, T.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, J.; Smith, T.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    The beam emittance at the interaction point of linear colliders is expected to be strongly influenced by the emittance of the beams extracted from the damping rings. Intra-beam scattering (IBS) potentially limits the minimum emittance of low-energy storage rings, and this effect strongly influences the choice of energy of damping rings [1]. Theoretical analysis suggests that the NLC damping rings will experience modest emittance growth at 1.98 GeV, however there is little experimental data of IBS effects for very low-emittance machines in the energy regime of interest. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a third-generation synchrotron light source operating with high-intensity, low-emittance beams at energies of approximately 1-2 GeV, and with emittance coupling capability of 1% or less. We present measurements of the beam growth in three dimensions as a function of current, for normalized natural horizontal emittance of approximately 1-10 mm-mrad at energies of 0.7-1.5 GeV, values comparable to the parameters in an NLC damping ring. Using a dedicated diagnostic beamline with an x-ray scintillator imaging system, measurements of the transverse beamsize are made, and bunch length measurements are made using an optical streak camera. Emittance growth as a function of bunch current is determined, and compared with preliminary calculation estimates.

  4. Advanced control of nonlinear beams with Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymchenko, M.; Gomez-Diaz, J. S.; Lee, J.; Nookala, N.; Belkin, M. A.; Alù, A.

    2016-12-01

    The application of the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase approach to the design of nonlinear metasurfaces has recently enabled subdiffractive phase control over the generated nonlinear fields, embedding phased array features in ultrathin structures. Here, we rigorously model, analyze, and design highly efficient nonlinear metasurfaces with advanced functionalities, including the generation of pencil beams steered in arbitrary directions in space, as well as vortex beams with polarization-dependent angular momentum, and we extend the PB approach to various nonlinear processes. To this purpose, we develop an accurate and efficient theoretical framework—inspired by the linear phase array theory—based on the effective nonlinear susceptibility method, thus avoiding the use of time-consuming numerical simulations. Our findings allow exploiting the flat nonlinear optics paradigm, enabling exciting applications based on subwavelength field control over flat and large-scale structures with giant nonlinear responses.

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Payne; Lary Swanson; Antonio Marquez; Ary Chang; Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-09-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The twelfth reporting period in Phase II (July 3-October 15, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task No.2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  6. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Zamansky

    2000-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The eleventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 2000) included design validation AR-Lean tests (Task 2.6) in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. The objective of tests was to determine the efficiency of AR-Lean at higher than optimum OFA/N-Agent injection temperatures in large pilot-scale combustion facility. Tests demonstrated that co-injection of urea with overfire air resulted in NO{sub x} reduction. However, observed NO{sub x} reduction was smaller than that under optimum conditions.

  7. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The ninth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 1999) included preparation of the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace for tests and setting the SGAR model to predict process performance under Tower Furnace conditions. Based on results of previous work, a paper has been prepared and submitted for the presentation at the 28 Symposium (International) on Combustion to be held at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  8. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    2000-12-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+% NO{sub x} control in coal-fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The thirteenth reporting period in Phase II (October 1-December 31, 2000) included SGAR tests in which coal was used as the reburning fuel. All test work was conducted at GE-EER's 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility. Three test series were performed including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and reburning + SNCR. Tests demonstrated that over 90% NO{sub x} reduction could be achieved with utilization of coal as a reburning fuel in SGAR. The most effective SGAR variant is reburning + SNCR followed by AR-Lean and AR-Rich.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  11. Mercuty Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  12. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  13. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  14. Controllable curvature from planar polymer sheets in response to light.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Amber M; Mailen, Russell W; Zikry, Mohammed A; Dickey, Michael D; Genzer, Jan

    2017-02-24

    The ability to change shape and control curvature in 3D structures starting from planar sheets can aid in assembly and add functionality to an object. Herein, we convert planar sheets of shape memory polymers (SMPs) into 3D objects with controllable curvature by dictating where the sheets shrink. Ink patterned on the surface of the sheet absorbs infrared (IR) light, resulting in localized heating, and the material shrinks locally wherever the temperature exceeds the activation temperature, Ta. We introduce two different mechanisms for controlling curvature within SMP sheets. The 'direct' mechanism uses localized shrinkage to induce curvature only in regions patterned with ink. The 'indirect' mechanism uses localized shrinkage in regions patterned with ink to induce curvature in neighboring regions without ink through a balance of internal stresses. Finite element analysis predicts the final shape of the polymer sheets with excellent qualitative agreement with experimental studies. Results from this study show that curvature can be controlled by the distribution and darkness of the ink pattern on the polymer sheet. Additionally, we utilize the direct and indirect curvature mechanisms to demonstrate the formation and actuation of gripper devices, which represent the potential utility of this approach.

  15. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  16. Advanced methods for displays and remote control of robots.

    PubMed

    Eliav, Ami; Lavie, Talia; Parmet, Yisrael; Stern, Helman; Edan, Yael

    2011-11-01

    An in-depth evaluation of the usability and situation awareness performance of different displays and destination controls of robots are presented. In two experiments we evaluate the way information is presented to the operator and assess different means for controlling the robot. Our study compares three types of displays: a "blocks" display, a HUD (head-up display), and a radar display, and two types of controls: touch screen and hand gestures. The HUD demonstrated better performance when compared to the blocks display and was perceived to have greater usability compared to the radar display. The HUD was also found to be more useful when the operation of the robot was more difficult, i.e., when using the hand-gesture method. The experiments also pointed to the importance of using a wide viewing angle to minimize distortion and for easier coping with the difficulties of locating objects in the field of view margins. The touch screen was found to be superior in terms of both objective performance and its perceived usability. No differences were found between the displays and the controllers in terms of situation awareness. This research sheds light on the preferred display type and controlling method for operating robots from a distance, making it easier to cope with the challenges of operating such systems.

  17. Light-controlled modulation of gene expression by chemical optoepigenetic probes.

    PubMed

    Reis, Surya A; Ghosh, Balaram; Hendricks, J Adam; Szantai-Kis, D Miklos; Törk, Lisa; Ross, Kenneth N; Lamb, Justin; Read-Button, Willis; Zheng, Baixue; Wang, Hongtao; Salthouse, Christopher; Haggarty, Stephen J; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Epigenetic gene regulation is a dynamic process orchestrated by chromatin-modifying enzymes. Many of these master regulators exert their function through covalent modification of DNA and histone proteins. Aberrant epigenetic processes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors have been essential to advancing our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of epigenetic processes. However, the resolution offered by small molecules is often insufficient to manipulate epigenetic processes with high spatiotemporal control. Here we present a generalizable approach, referred to as 'chemo-optical modulation of epigenetically regulated transcription' (COMET), enabling high-resolution, optical control of epigenetic mechanisms based on photochromic inhibitors of human histone deacetylases using visible light. COMET probes may be translated into new therapeutic strategies for diseases where conditional and selective epigenome modulation is required.

  18. 40 CFR 86.1717-01 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. 86.1717-01 Section 86.1717-01 Protection of... Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1717-01 Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. (a) The provisions of §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1717-99 - Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. 86.1717-99 Section 86.1717-99 Protection of... Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86.1717-99 Emission control diagnostic system for 1999 and later light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks. (a) The provisions of §...

  20. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-02-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  1. Advanced Issues of Wind Turbine Modelling and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simani, Silvio

    2015-11-01

    The motivation for this paper comes from a real need to have an overview about the challenges of modelling and control for very demanding systems, such as wind turbine systems, which require reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety over power conversion efficiency. These issues have begun to stimulate research and development in the wide control community particularly for these installations that need a high degree of “sustainability”. Note that this topic represents a key point mainly for offshore wind turbines with very large rotors, since they are characterised by challenging modelling and control problems, as well as expensive and safety critical maintenance works. In this case, a clear conflict exists between ensuring a high degree of availability and reducing maintenance times, which affect the final energy cost. On the other hand, wind turbines have highly nonlinear dynamics, with a stochastic and uncontrollable driving force as input in the form of wind speed, thus representing an interesting challenge also from the modelling point of view. Suitable control methods can provide a sustainable optimisation of the energy conversion efficiency over wider than normally expected working conditions. Moreover, a proper mathematical description of the wind turbine system should be able to capture the complete behaviour of the process under monitoring, thus providing an important impact on the control design itself. In this way, the control scheme could guarantee prescribed performance, whilst also giving a degree of “tolerance” to possible deviation of characteristic properties or system parameters from standard conditions, if properly included in the wind turbine model itself. The most important developments in advanced controllers for wind turbines are addressed, and open problems in the areas of modelling of wind turbines are also outlined.

  2. Light, heat, action: neural control of fruit fly behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Lin, Suewei; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a popular model to investigate fundamental principles of neural circuit operation. The sophisticated genetics and small brain permit a cellular resolution understanding of innate and learned behavioural processes. Relatively recent genetic and technical advances provide the means to specifically and reproducibly manipulate the function of many fly neurons with temporal resolution. The same cellular precision can also be exploited to express genetically encoded reporters of neural activity and cell-signalling pathways. Combining these approaches in living behaving animals has great potential to generate a holistic view of behavioural control that transcends the usual molecular, cellular and systems boundaries. In this review, we discuss these approaches with particular emphasis on the pioneering studies and those involving learning and memory. PMID:26240426

  3. Anomalous light propagation and diffraction control in waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, Andreas H.; Streppel, Ulrich; Pertsch, Thomas; Peschel, Ulf; Lederer, Falk L.

    2002-11-01

    The understanding of light propagation primarily derives from studies of isotropic media. The law of refraction predicts that the tilt of a beam traversing an interface between two media will monotonously grow with the angle of incidence. The law of diffraction predicts beam spreading being completely determined by the ratio of wavelength and width, only slightly affected by the refractive index and independent of the tilt. In this paper, we demonstrate anomalies in light refraction and diffraction in evanescently coupled waveguide arrays ('discrete' refraction and diffraction). We have studied the propagation of beams in these arrays. It turned out that refraction and diffraction exhibit strong anomalies as they depend periodically on the initial beam tilt. In contrast to isotropic systems we found that transverse energy transport cannot exceed a certain maximum velocity and that the diffractive spreading depends on the direction of propagation, i.e., by varying the angle of incidence, size and sign of diffraction can be controlled and it can even be arrested. For particular initial tilts the array can undo beam spreading. The experiments were performed on homogeneous arrays of 75 waveguides in an inorganic-organic polymer on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. The 6 cm long samples were fabricated by UV-lithography on 4" wafers. Each waveguide provided low loss single mode waveguiding (<0.5 dB/cm) at λ= 633 nm. The uniform separation of adjacent guides was chosen for efficient evanescent coupling. The theoretical explanation of the measured effects was done based on coupled mode theory.

  4. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-06-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with the input power density on the dura mater membrane, thus allowing continued irradiation concentration to the deep lesion without damage to the dura mater. Multibeam inputs along different directions, or at different positions, can be guided to focus to the same spot behind the membrane, hence providing a similar gamma knife function in optical spectral range. Moreover, both the polarization and the phase of the input field can be recovered in the target area, allowing coherent field superposition in comparison with the linear intensity superposition for the gamma knife.

  5. Controlled light field concentration through turbid biological membrane for phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fujuan; He, Hexiang; Zhuang, Huichang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Yang, Zhenchong; Cai, Zhigang; Gu, Huaiyu; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Laser propagation through a turbid rat dura mater membrane is shown to be controllable with a wavefront modulation technique. The scattered light field can be refocused into a target area behind the rat dura mater membrane with a 110 times intensity enhancement using a spatial light modulator. The efficient laser intensity concentration system is demonstrated to imitate the phototherapy for human brain tumors. The power density in the target area is enhanced more than 200 times compared with the input power density on the dura mater membrane, thus allowing continued irradiation concentration to the deep lesion without damage to the dura mater. Multibeam inputs along different directions, or at different positions, can be guided to focus to the same spot behind the membrane, hence providing a similar gamma knife function in optical spectral range. Moreover, both the polarization and the phase of the input field can be recovered in the target area, allowing coherent field superposition in comparison with the linear intensity superposition for the gamma knife. PMID:26114042

  6. Glass-based confined structures enabling light control

    SciTech Connect

    Chiappini, Andrea; Normani, Simone; Chiasera, Alessandro; Vasilchenko, Iustyna; Ristic, Davor; Boulard, Brigitte; Dorosz, Dominik; Scotognella, Francesco; Vaccari, Alessandro; Taccheo, Stefano; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Ramponi, Roberta; and others

    2015-04-24

    When a luminescent ion is confined in a system characterized by one or more specific properties such as spatial size, geometrical dimension and shape, refractive index, local crystal field, cut-off vibrational energy and so on, it's possible to control its emission. The control of branching ratios as a function of the composition, the luminescence enhancement induced by a photonic crystal, or the laser action in a microresonator, are well known examples of light control. Photonic glass-based structures are extremely viable systems to exploit the above mentioned properties and in our research team we have successfully fabricated luminescent photonic structures by different techniques, including sol-gel, rf sputtering, drawing, melting, and physical vapour deposition. Here we will discuss some of them with the aim to make the reader aware of the chemical-physical properties related to each specific system. We will demonstrate that glass ceramic waveguides in some cases present superior spectroscopic properties in respect to the parent glass, that compositional properties can play a positive role in reducing luminescence quenching and in developing novel planar waveguides and fibers, that colloids allow to obtain high internal quantum efficiency and that photonic crystals, microcavities and microresonators can enable the handling of the rare earth luminescence. Finally, the pros and cons of the systems and of the different techniques employed for their fabrication will be discussed and some perspectives concerning the glass photonics will be proposed looking at both possible applications and investigation of physical properties.

  7. Unequal error control scheme for dimmable visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Keyan; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Yi; Li, Huaan

    2017-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which has the advantages of a very large bandwidth, high security, and freedom from license-related restrictions and electromagnetic-interference, has attracted much interest. Because a VLC system simultaneously performs illumination and communication functions, dimming control, efficiency, and reliable transmission are significant and challenging issues of such systems. In this paper, we propose a novel unequal error control (UEC) scheme in which expanding window fountain (EWF) codes in an on-off keying (OOK)-based VLC system are used to support different dimming target values. To evaluate the performance of the scheme for various dimming target values, we apply it to H.264 scalable video coding bitstreams in a VLC system. The results of the simulations that are performed using additive white Gaussian noises (AWGNs) with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are used to compare the performance of the proposed scheme for various dimming target values. It is found that the proposed UEC scheme enables earlier base layer recovery compared to the use of the equal error control (EEC) scheme for different dimming target values and therefore afford robust transmission for scalable video multicast over optical wireless channels. This is because of the unequal error protection (UEP) and unequal recovery time (URT) of the EWF code in the proposed scheme.

  8. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the nuclear power plant operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation's energy and environmental security.

  9. Control of atomic transition rates via laser-light shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáuregui, R.

    2015-04-01

    A modular systematic analysis of the feasibility of modifying atomic transition rates by tailoring the electromagnetic field of an external coherent light source is presented. The formalism considers both the center of mass and internal degrees of freedom of the atom, and all properties of the field: frequency, angular spectrum, and polarization. General features of recoil effects for internal forbidden transitions are discussed. A comparative analysis of different structured light sources is explicitly worked out. It includes spherical waves, Gaussian beams, Laguerre-Gaussian beams, and propagation invariant beams with closed analytical expressions. It is shown that increments in the order of magnitude of the transition rates for Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian beams, with respect to those obtained in the paraxial limit, require waists of the order of the wavelength, while propagation invariant modes may considerably enhance transition rates under more favorable conditions. For transitions that can be naturally described as modifications of the atomic angular momentum, this enhancement is maximal (within propagation invariant beams) for Bessel modes, Mathieu modes can be used to entangle the internal and center-of-mass involved states, and Weber beams suppress this kind of transition unless they have a significant component of odd modes. However, if a recoil effect of the transition with an adequate symmetry is allowed, the global transition rate (center of mass and internal motion) can also be enhanced using Weber modes. The global analysis presented reinforces the idea that a better control of the transitions between internal atomic states requires both a proper control of the available states of the atomic center of mass, and shaping of the background electromagnetic field.

  10. Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wugalter, S.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.

  11. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath; Polagye, Brian; Fabien, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Marnagh, Cian; Donegan, James

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  12. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  13. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  14. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  15. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  16. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  17. 47 CFR 17.47 - Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of antenna structure lights and... CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.47 Inspection of antenna structure lights and associated control...

  18. Further development of soft X-ray scanning microscopy with anelliptical undulator at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Ade, Harald; Fakra, Sirine; Gilles, Mary; Hitchcock, Adam; Kilcoyne, David; Shuh, David; Tyliszczak, Tolek

    2003-04-02

    Soft x-ray scanning microscopy (1) is under continuing development at the Advanced Light Source. Significant progress has been made implementing new scan control systems in both operational microscopes (2) and they now operate at beam lines 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 with interferometer servo scanning and stabilization. The interferometer servo loop registers the images on a universal x/y coordinate system and locks the x-ray spot on selected features for spectro-microscopic studies. At the present time zone plates are in use with 35nm outer zone width and the imaging spatial resolution is at the diffraction limit of these lenses. Current research programs are underway in areas of polymer chemistry, environmental chemistry and materials science. A dedicated polymer STXM is in operation on a bend magnet beam line (4) and is the subject of a separate article (3) in this issue. Here we focus on the capabilities of STXM at a new beam line that employs an elliptical undulator (5) to give control of the polarization of the x-ray beam. This facility is in the process of commissioning and some results are available, other capabilities will be developed during the first half of 2003.

  19. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  20. An hour of bright white light in the early morning improves performance and advances sleep and circadian phase during the Antarctic winter.

    PubMed

    Corbett, R W; Middleton, B; Arendt, J

    2012-09-13

    Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to an hour of bright light in the morning and the evening during the Polar winter has beneficial effects on circadian phase. This study investigated the effect of a single hour of bright white morning light on circadian phase, sleep, alertness and cognitive performance. Nine individuals (eight male, one female, median age 30 years), wintering at Halley Research Station (75°S), Antarctica from 7th May until 6th August 2007, were exposed to bright white light for a fortnight from 08:30 to 09:30 h, with two fortnight control periods on either side. This sequence was performed twice, before and following Midwinter. Light exposure, sleep and alertness were assessed daily by actigraphy, sleep diaries and subjective visual analogue scales. Circadian phase (assessed by urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) and cognitive performance were evaluated at the end of each fortnight. During light exposure circadian phase was advanced from 4.97 ± 0.96 decimal hours (dh) (mean ± SD) to 4.08 ± 0.68 dh (p = 0.003). Wake-up time was shifted by a similar margin from 8.45 ± 1.83 dh to 7.59 ± 0.78 dh (p < 0.001). Sleep start time was also advanced (p = 0.047) but by a lesser amount, consequently, actual sleep time was slightly reduced. There was no change in objective or subjective measures of sleep quality or subjective measures of alertness. An improvement in cognitive performance was found with both the Single Letter Cancellation Test (p < 0.001) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.026) with preserved circadian variation. These beneficial effects of a single short duration light treatment may have implications not only for the Antarctic but other remote environments where access to natural light and delayed circadian phase, is problematic. These results require validation in larger studies at varying locations.

  1. Advanced launch system trajectory optimization using suboptimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaver, Douglas A.; Hull, David G.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum-final mass trajectory of a proposed configuration of the Advanced Launch System is presented. A model for the two-stage rocket is given; the optimal control problem is formulated as a parameter optimization problem; and the optimal trajectory is computed using a nonlinear programming code called VF02AD. Numerical results are presented for the controls (angle of attack and velocity roll angle) and the states. After the initial rotation, the angle of attack goes to a positive value to keep the trajectory as high as possible, returns to near zero to pass through the transonic regime and satisfy the dynamic pressure constraint, returns to a positive value to keep the trajectory high and to take advantage of minimum drag at positive angle of attack due to aerodynamic shading of the booster, and then rolls off to negative values to satisfy the constraints. Because the engines cannot be throttled, the maximum dynamic pressure occurs at a single point; there is no maximum dynamic pressure subarc. To test approximations for obtaining analytical solutions for guidance, two additional optimal trajectories are computed: one using untrimmed aerodynamics and one using no atmospheric effects except for the dynamic pressure constraint. It is concluded that untrimmed aerodynamics has a negligible effect on the optimal trajectory and that approximate optimal controls should be able to be obtained by treating atmospheric effects as perturbations.

  2. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furstenau, R.V.; Ingrahm, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA and is owned and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The ATR is operated for the US DOE by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies. In recent years, prime irradiation space in the ATR has been made available for use by customers having irradiation service needs in addition to the reactor`s principal user, the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. To enhance the reactor`s capabilities, the US DOE has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and temperature control for up to 28 experiments. The ATR-ITV will have the flexibility to simultaneously support a variety of experiments requiring fast, thermal or mixed spectrum neutron environments. Temperature control is accomplished by varying the thermal conductivity across a gas gap established between the experiment specimen capsule wall and the experiment `in-pile tube (IPT)` inside diameter. Thermal conductivity is adjusted by alternating the control gas mixture ratio of two gases with different thermal conductivities.

  3. Modeling and simulation challenges pursued by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul J.; Kothe, Douglas B.

    2016-05-15

    The Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first Energy Innovation Hub of the Department of Energy, was established in 2010 with the goal of providing modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities that support and accelerate the improvement of nuclear energy's economic competitiveness and the reduction of spent nuclear fuel volume per unit energy, and all while assuring nuclear safety. To accomplish this requires advances in M&S capabilities in radiation transport, thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance and corrosion chemistry. To focus CASL's R&D, industry challenge problems have been defined, which equate with long standing issues of the nuclear power industry that M&S can assist in addressing. To date CASL has developed a multi-physics “core simulator” based upon pin-resolved radiation transport and subchannel (within fuel assembly) thermal-hydraulics, capitalizing on the capabilities of high performance computing. CASL's fuel performance M&S capability can also be optionally integrated into the core simulator, yielding a coupled multi-physics capability with untapped predictive potential. Material models have been developed to enhance predictive capabilities of fuel clad creep and growth, along with deeper understanding of zirconium alloy clad oxidation and hydrogen pickup. Understanding of corrosion chemistry (e.g., CRUD formation) has evolved at all scales: micro, meso and macro. CFD R&D has focused on improvement in closure models for subcooled boiling and bubbly flow, and the formulation of robust numerical solution algorithms. For multiphysics integration, several iterative acceleration methods have been assessed, illuminating areas where further research is needed. Finally, uncertainty quantification and data assimilation techniques, based upon sampling approaches, have been made more feasible for practicing nuclear engineers via R&D on dimensional reduction and biased sampling. Industry adoption of CASL's evolving M

  4. Modeling and simulation challenges pursued by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turinsky, Paul J.; Kothe, Douglas B.

    2016-05-01

    The Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the first Energy Innovation Hub of the Department of Energy, was established in 2010 with the goal of providing modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities that support and accelerate the improvement of nuclear energy's economic competitiveness and the reduction of spent nuclear fuel volume per unit energy, and all while assuring nuclear safety. To accomplish this requires advances in M&S capabilities in radiation transport, thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance and corrosion chemistry. To focus CASL's R&D, industry challenge problems have been defined, which equate with long standing issues of the nuclear power industry that M&S can assist in addressing. To date CASL has developed a multi-physics ;core simulator; based upon pin-resolved radiation transport and subchannel (within fuel assembly) thermal-hydraulics, capitalizing on the capabilities of high performance computing. CASL's fuel performance M&S capability can also be optionally integrated into the core simulator, yielding a coupled multi-physics capability with untapped predictive potential. Material models have been developed to enhance predictive capabilities of fuel clad creep and growth, along with deeper understanding of zirconium alloy clad oxidation and hydrogen pickup. Understanding of corrosion chemistry (e.g., CRUD formation) has evolved at all scales: micro, meso and macro. CFD R&D has focused on improvement in closure models for subcooled boiling and bubbly flow, and the formulation of robust numerical solution algorithms. For multiphysics integration, several iterative acceleration methods have been assessed, illuminating areas where further research is needed. Finally, uncertainty quantification and data assimilation techniques, based upon sampling approaches, have been made more feasible for practicing nuclear engineers via R&D on dimensional reduction and biased sampling. Industry adoption of CASL's evolving M

  5. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly

  6. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team indicates

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  8. Developments and advances in emission control technology. SP-1120

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Automotive emission control is an increasingly complex subject that continues to be of vital importance. Tighter emission standards as well as requirements for increased emission system performance and durability have resulted in ongoing development and continuing advances in emission control technology. A great deal of attention continues to be focused on technologies for emission control during cold-start. Detailed analyses are required to determine fundamental mechanisms which govern emission control under a wide variety of operating conditions. Effects of possible catalyst poisons as well as the mechanical durability of aftertreatment systems are being evaluated. Engine, vehicle, and aftertreatment sensors are being utilized to monitor and ensure emission control performance. Improved analytical techniques are being used to help understand emissions problems and to suggest avenues to solutions. Papers assembled in this volume touch on all of these areas. Catalyst durability papers address issues related to hot vibration testing and catalyst durability based on substrate surface area. A variety of papers related to the chemical composition of fuels address issues such as fuel hydrocarbon and NO conversion in three-way catalysts, fuel composition effects on emissions in urban traffic, and fuel sulfur effects on catalysts and on-board diagnostics (OBD-II) systems. Information useful for understanding the performance of cold-start technologies is described in papers on a numerical method for predicting warm-up characteristics of catalysts systems, axial characterization of warmup and underfloor catalytic converters, and EHC impact on extended soak times. Other approaches for reducing cold-start emissions are addressed in papers on in-cylinder catalysts and the use of intake air oxygen enrichment technology. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  9. Toward femtosecond X-ray spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Henry Herng Wei

    The realization of tunable, ultrashort pulse x-ray sources promises to open new venues of science and to shed new light on long-standing problems in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Fundamentally new information can now be accessed. Used in a pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrashort x-ray pulses provide a means to monitor atomic rearrangement and changes in electronic structure in condensed-matter and chemical systems on the physically-limiting time-scales of atomic motion. This opens the way for the study of fast structural dynamics and the role they play in phase transitions, chemical reactions and the emergence of exotic properties in materials with strongly interacting degrees of freedom. The ultrashort pulse x-ray source developed at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is based on electron slicing in storage rings, and generates ˜100 femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation spanning wavelengths from the far-infrared to the hard x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The tunability of the source allows for the adaptation of a broad range of static x-ray spectroscopies to useful pump-probe measurements. Initial experiments are attempted on transition metal complexes that exhibit relatively large structural changes upon photo-excitation and which have excited-state evolution determined by strongly interacting structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Specifically, iron(II) complexes undergo a spin-crossover transition upon optical irradiation. The dynamics of the transition involve a metal-to-ligand charge transfer, a DeltaS = 2 change in magnetic moment and 10% bond dilation in the first coordination shell of the iron. Studies of the electronic dynamics are studied with time-resolved optical absorption measurements. The current progress of time-resolved structural studies to complete the picture of the spin-crossover transition is presented.

  10. Toward Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Henry Herng Wei

    2004-01-01

    The realization of tunable, ultrashort pulse x-ray sources promises to open new venues of science and to shed new light on long-standing problems in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Fundamentally new information can now be accessed. Used in a pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrashort x-ray pulses provide a means to monitor atomic rearrangement and changes in electronic structure in condensed-matter and chemical systems on the physically-limiting time-scales of atomic motion. This opens the way for the study of fast structural dynamics and the role they play in phase transitions, chemical reactions and the emergence of exotic properties in materials with strongly interacting degrees of freedom. The ultrashort pulse x-ray source developed at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is based on electron slicing in storage rings, and generates ~100 femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation spanning wavelengths from the far-infrared to the hard x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The tunability of the source allows for the adaptation of a broad range of static x-ray spectroscopies to useful pump-probe measurements. Initial experiments are attempted on transition metal complexes that exhibit relatively large structural changes upon photo-excitation and which have excited-state evolution determined by strongly interacting structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Specifically, iron(II) complexes undergo a spin-crossover transition upon optical irradiation. The dynamics of the transition involve a metal-to-ligand charge transfer, a ΔS=2 change in magnetic moment and 10% bond dilation in the first coordination shell of the iron. Studies of the electronic dynamics are studied with time-resolved optical absorption measurements. The current progress of time-resolved structural studies to complete the picture of the spin-crossover transition is presented.

  11. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the...

  12. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions Payment Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity...

  13. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the...

  14. Applications of the Advanced Light Source to problems in the earth, soil, and environmental sciences report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: ALS status and research opportunities; advanced light source applications to geological materials; applications in the soil and environmental sciences; x-ray microprobe analysis; potential applications of the ALS in soil and environmental sciences; and x-ray spectroscopy using soft x-rays: applications to earth materials.

  15. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology

  16. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot-Scale. The project team will include the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor, W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner, and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, which will host the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a

  17. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski; Mark S. Sheldon; David Moyeda; Roy Payne

    2001-06-30

    This project develops a family of novel Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) NO{sub x} control technologies, which can achieve 95% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). The conventional Advanced Reburning (AR) process integrates basic reburning and N-agent injection. The SGAR systems include six AR variants: (1) AR-Lean--injection of the N-agent and promoter along with overfire air; (2) AR-Rich--injection of N-agent and promoter into the reburning zone; (3) Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR)--injection of N-agents and promoters both into the reburning zone and with overfire air; (4) AR-Lean + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters with overfire air and into the temperature zone at which Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is effective; (5) AR-Rich + Promoted SNCR--injection of N-agents and promoters into the reburning zone and into the SNCR zone; and (6) Promoted Reburning + Promoted SNCR--basic or promoted reburning followed by basic or promoted SNCR process. The project was conducted in two phases over a five-year period. The work included a combination of analytical and experimental studies to confirm the process mechanisms, identify optimum process configurations, and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. Phase I was conducted from October, 1995 to September, 1997 and included both analytical studies and tests in bench and pilot-scale test rigs. Phase I moved AR technology to Maturity Level III-Major Subsystems. Phase II is conducted over a 45 month period (October, 1997-June, 2001). Phase II included evaluation of alternative promoters, development of alternative reburning fuel and N-Agent jet mixing systems, and scale up. The goal of Phase II was to move the technology to Maturity Level I-Subscale Integrated System. Tests in combustion facility ranging in firing rate from 0.1 x 10{sup 6} to 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr demonstrated the

  18. Diffusion of light gases in advanced nanoporous membranes and catalysts via NMR diffusometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Robert A.

    Diffusion in nanoporous gas separation membranes and catalysts plays an important role in their selectivity and performance. As a result, there is an intense effort towards development of novel membranes and catalysts with microstructures tailored for improved transport properties. Fundamental understanding and prediction of the mass transport properties of these materials can be obtained by studies of mass transport on a broad range of microscopic length scales. In this dissertation, a novel NMR diffusometry technique is employed to study the influence of the pore network properties on light gas diffusion for several nanoporous systems, which represent promising advanced gas separation membranes and catalysts. The following systems were investigated: (i) carbon molecular sieve membranes, (ii) mixed-matrix membranes and (iii) rare-earth aerogel catalysts. For carbon molecular sieve membranes, the self-diffusion properties of several light gases of industrial importance are characterized by investigating the dependences of the self diffusivity on displacement length scale, temperature, sorbate loading and composition. Analysis of these dependences and comparison of the measured microscopic transport data with the corresponding results of membrane permeation enabled the determination of membrane structural properties which lead to the remarkable diffusion selectivity of these membranes. For mixed-matrix membranes, detailed measurements of light gas sorbate diffusion over a broad range of microscopic length scales enables resolution of the different modes of sorbate self-diffusion inside mixed-matrix membranes. Finally for samaria-aerogel catalyst, the influence of catalyst packing is explored based on detailed microscopic diffusion measurements over a broad range of sorbate loading pressures and detailed data analysis. These studies were enabled by application of a novel pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance technique, developed in part by this work

  19. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Charlene R. Crocker; Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller

    2003-11-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4--Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a

  20. Mercury Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Stanley J. Miller; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Zola; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2004-03-31

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the original 5-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes benchscale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at