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Sample records for advanced limiter test-ii

  1. Limited health literacy in advanced kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dominic M; Bradley, John A; Bradley, Clare; Draper, Heather; Johnson, Rachel; Metcalfe, Wendy; Oniscu, Gabriel; Robb, Matthew; Tomson, Charles; Watson, Chris; Ravanan, Rommel; Roderick, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Limited health literacy may reduce the ability of patients with advanced kidney disease to understand their disease and treatment and take part in shared decision making. In dialysis and transplant patients, limited health literacy has been associated with low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and mortality. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associations of limited health literacy using data from the United Kingdom-wide Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM) program. Incident dialysis, incident transplant, and transplant wait-listed patients ages 18 to 75 were recruited from 2011 to 2013 and data were collected from patient questionnaires and case notes. A score >2 in the Single-Item Literacy Screener was used to define limited health literacy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient factors associated with limited health literacy. We studied 6842 patients, 2621 were incident dialysis, 1959 were wait-listed, and 2262 were incident transplant. Limited health literacy prevalence was 20%, 15%, and 12% in each group, respectively. Limited health literacy was independently associated with low socioeconomic status, poor English fluency, and comorbidity. However, transplant wait-listing, preemptive transplantation, and live-donor transplantation were associated with increasing health literacy. PMID:27521115

  2. CCTV Video Analytics: Recent Advances and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velastin, Sergio A.

    There has been a significant increase in the number of CCTV cameras in public and private places worldwide. The cost of monitoring these cameras manually and of reviewing recorded video is prohibitive and therefore manual systems tend to be used mainly reactively with only a small fraction of the cameras being monitored at any given time. There is a need to automate at least simple observation tasks through computer vision, a functionality that has become known popularly as "video analytics". The large size of CCTV systems and the requirement of high detection rates and low false alarms are major challenges. This paper illustrates some of the recent efforts reported in the literature, highlighting advances and pointing out important limitations.

  3. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status. PMID:23237668

  4. Advanced Limiter Test-II Program to field a toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. Progress report, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.

    1985-12-31

    During the first quarter, the UCLA members of the ALT-II team worked primarily on the development of the experimental program plan and the diagnostics selection, and on the data acquisition system. These programs are discussed in this report.

  5. Fundamental Limitations in Advanced LC Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    2010-11-04

    Fundamental limitations in acceleration gradient, emittance, alignment and polarization in acceleration schemes are considered in application for novel schemes of acceleration, including laser-plasma and structure-based schemes. Problems for each method are underlined whenever it is possible. Main attention is paid to the scheme with a tilted laser bunch.

  6. Predictable nonlinear dynamics: Advances and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Anosov, L.A.; Butkovskii, O.Y.; Kravtsov, Y.A.; Surovyatkina, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    Methods for reconstruction chaotic dynamical system structure directly from experimental time series are described. Effectiveness of general methods is illustrated with the results of numerical simulation. It is of common interest that from the single time series it is possible to reconstruct a set of interconnected variables. Predictive power of dynamical models, provided by the nonlinear dynamics inverse problem solution, is limited firstly by the noise level in the system under study and is characterized by the horizon of predictability. New physical results are presented, concerning nonstationary and bifurcation nonlinear systems: (1) algorithms for revealing of nonstationarity in random-like chaotic time-series are suggested based on discriminant analysis with nonlinear discriminant function; (2) an opportunity is established to predict the final state in bifurcation system with quickly varying control parameters; (3) hysteresis is founded out in bifurcation system with quickly varying parameters; (4) delayed correlation {l_angle}noise-prediction error{r_angle} in chaotic systems is revealed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. ALPS - advanced limiter-divertor plasma-facing systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, J. P.; Bastasz, R.; Brooks, J. N.; Evans, T.; Hassanein, A.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Mattas, R. F.; McCarthy, K.; Mioduszewski, P.; Mogahed, E.; Moir, R.; Molokov, S.; Morely, N.; Nygren, R.; Reed, C.; Rognlien, T.; Ruzic, D.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sze, D.; Tillack, M.; Ulrickson, M.; Wade, P. M.; Wong, C.; Wooley, R.

    1999-09-15

    The Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for improved performance and lifetime for plasma-facing systems. The main goal of the program is to demonstrate the advantages of advanced limiter/divertor systems over conventional systems in terms of power density capability, component lifetime, and power conversion efficiency, while providing for safe operation and minimizing impurity concerns for the plasma. Most of the work to date has been applied to free surface liquids. A multi-disciplinary team from several institutions has been organized to address the key issues associated with these systems. The main performance goals for advanced limiters and diverters are a peak heat flux of >50 MW/m{sup 2},elimination of a lifetime limit for erosion, and the ability to extract useful heat at high power conversion efficiency ({approximately}40%). The evaluation of various options is being conducted through a combination of laboratory experiments, modeling of key processes, and conceptual design studies. The current emphasis for the work is on the effects of free surface liquids on plasma edge performance.

  8. Fundamental limits on beam stability at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G. A.

    1998-06-18

    Orbit correction is now routinely performed at the few-micron level in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Three diagnostics are presently in use to measure and control both AC and DC orbit motions: broad-band turn-by-turn rf beam position monitors (BPMs), narrow-band switched heterodyne receivers, and photoemission-style x-ray beam position monitors. Each type of diagnostic has its own set of systematic error effects that place limits on the ultimate pointing stability of x-ray beams supplied to users at the APS. Limiting sources of beam motion at present are magnet power supply noise, girder vibration, and thermal timescale vacuum chamber and girder motion. This paper will investigate the present limitations on orbit correction, and will delve into the upgrades necessary to achieve true sub-micron beam stability.

  9. Total hip arthroplasty: areview of advances, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Zi, Ying; Xiang, Liang-Bi; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of Osteoarthritis (OA) has been unsatisfactory and often surgeries such as total hip arthroplasty (THA) is required. THA is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage arthritic hip conditions. Cemented THA has been the treatment of choice for elderly patients with OA. An improvement in Timed “Up and Go” (TUG) before surgery might contribute to a decrease in the occurrence of DVT after THA, though post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), a chronic condition in the lower extremity does not appear to be a major complication after DVT in patients undergoing THA. For OA, four domains to be evaluated: pain, physical function, joint imaging, and patient global assessment. Thus, THA can be cost saving or, at least cost- effective in improving quality-adjusted life expectancy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances as well as advantages and limitations of THA. PMID:25784971

  10. 7 CFR 1781.7 - Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.7 Loan and advance limitations and... one or more watershed works of improvement in a single watershed project, whether made to one or more sponsoring organizations, will not exceed $10,000,000. (b) Watershed advance limitations. (1) A WS...

  11. 26 CFR 1.149(d)-1 - Limitations on advance refundings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on advance refundings. 1.149(d)-1 Section 1.149(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....149(d)-1 Limitations on advance refundings. (a) General rule. Under section 149(d) and this...

  12. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  13. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Dermatology: Potentials, Advances, and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Bilousova, Ganna; Roop, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of methods for reprogramming adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has raised the possibility of producing truly personalized treatment options for numerous diseases. Similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs can give rise to any cell type in the body and they are amenable to genetic correction by homologous recombination. These ESC properties of iPSCs allow for the development of permanent corrective therapies for many currently incurable disorders, including inherited skin diseases, without using embryonic tissues or oocytes. Here, we review recent progress and limitations of iPSC research with a focus on clinical applications of iPSCs, and using iPSCs to model human diseases for drug discovery in the field of dermatology. PMID:25368014

  14. Acceptability of an Advance Directive That Limits Food and Liquids in Advanced Dementia.

    PubMed

    Volicer, Ladislav; Stets, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals fear living with advanced dementia and may even commit suicide if they receive dementia diagnosis. Living with advanced dementia could be prevented if a person who cannot feed himself or herself would not be fed by others. The purpose of the study was to find out how acceptable would be an advance directive that includes discontinuation of feeding at certain stage of dementia for relatives of persons who died with dementia. All participants of 2 focus groups would be willing to indicate at least 1 condition in which they would not want to be fed. Some of them would be willing to make a proxy decision to stop feeding in the absence of advance directives. PMID:25313239

  15. Analysis of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Their Functional Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    The world's demand for energy is increasing dramatically, but the best energy conversion systems operate at approximately 30% efficiency. One way to decrease energy loss is in the recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. A TE generator is device that generates electricity by exploiting heat flow across a thermal gradient. The efficiency of a TE material for power generation and cooling is determined by the dimensionless Figure of Merit (ZT): ZT = S(exp. 2)sigmaT/?: where S is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature, and ? is the thermal conductivity. The parameters are not physically independent, but intrinsically coupled since they are a function of the transport properties of electrons. Traditional research on TE materials has focused on synthesizing bulk semiconductor-type materials that have low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity affording ZT values of 1. The optimization of the s/? ratio is difficult to achieve using current material formats, as these material constants are complementary. Recent areas of research are focusing on using nanostructural artifacts that introduce specific dislocations and boundary conditions that scatter the phonons. This disrupts the physical link between thermal (phonon) and electrical (electron) transport. The result is that ? is decreased without decreasing s. These material formats give ZT values of up to 2 which represent approximately 18% energy gain from waste heat recovery. The next challenge in developing the next generation of TE materials with superior performance is to tailor the interconnected thermoelectric physical parameters of the material system. In order to approach this problem, the fundamental physics of each parameter S, sigma, and ? need to be physically understood in their context of electron/phonon interaction for the construction of new high ZT thermoelectric devices. Is it possible to overcome the physical limit

  16. 26 CFR 1.149(d)-1 - Limitations on advance refundings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limitations on advance refundings. 1.149(d)-1 Section 1.149(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... advance refunding issue that is, in turn, currently refunded with a tax-exempt issue, the taxable...

  17. 26 CFR 1.149(d)-1 - Limitations on advance refundings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on advance refundings. 1.149(d)-1 Section 1.149(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... advance refunding issue that is, in turn, currently refunded with a tax-exempt issue, the taxable...

  18. 26 CFR 1.149(d)-1 - Limitations on advance refundings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitations on advance refundings. 1.149(d)-1 Section 1.149(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... advance refunding issue that is, in turn, currently refunded with a tax-exempt issue, the taxable...

  19. 26 CFR 1.149(d)-1 - Limitations on advance refundings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limitations on advance refundings. 1.149(d)-1 Section 1.149(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... advance refunding issue that is, in turn, currently refunded with a tax-exempt issue, the taxable...

  20. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II.

  1. R and D limited partnerships (possible applications in advanced communications satellite technology experiment program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Typical R&D limited partnership arrangements, advantages and disadvantages of R&D limited partnership (RDLPs) and antitrust and tax implications are described. A number of typical forms of RDLPs are described that may be applicable for use in stimulating R&D and experimental programs using the advanced communications technology satellite. The ultimate goal is to increase the rate of market penetration of goods and/or services based upon advanced satellite communications technology. The conditions necessary for these RDLP forms to be advantageous are outlined.

  2. 7 CFR 1781.7 - Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for future water supply will not be used for acquiring property rights including lands, easements, and... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred... conditions. (vi) Facilities primary for treatment and distribution of water or for sewerage, collection...

  3. 7 CFR 1781.7 - Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing. 1781.7 Section 1781.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS)...

  4. Beyond Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: Beating the Quantum Limit with Squeezed States of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsotti, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    After two decades of technology development, the first direct observation of gravitational waves appears to be imminent. Ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors world-wide are about to come back on-line after a major upgrade aimed to significantly improve their sensitivity. As these advanced detectors become a reality, the gravitational wave community is looking at new ways of further expanding their astrophysical reach. The quantum nature of light imposes a fundamental limit to the sensitivity that gravitational wave detectors can achieve, due to statistical fluctuations in the arrival time of photons at the interferometer output (shot noise) and the recoil of the mirrors due to radiation pressure noise. In this talk I will show how mature technology can be used to push interferometric precision measurement beyond the standard quantum limit by means of squeezed states of light, and current ideas on how to integrate this technology into the Advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO).

  5. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Yang, Q X; Li, J G; Zakharov, L E; Xie, H; Chen, Z X

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak-both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST. PMID:25725839

  6. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2015-02-15

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  7. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Zakharov, L. E.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.

    2015-02-01

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a "first," or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  8. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A.; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  9. Advances in addressing technical challenges of point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Lifson, Mark A; Inci, Fatih; Liang, Li-Guo; Sheng, Ye-Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-04-01

    The striking prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, as well as outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza A (H7N9), Ebola and MERS, poses great challenges for patient care in resource-limited settings (RLS). However, advanced diagnostic technologies cannot be implemented in RLS largely due to economic constraints. Simple and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, which rely less on environmental context and operator training, have thus been extensively studied to achieve early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-laboratory settings. Despite great input from material science, biomedical engineering and nanotechnology for developing POC diagnostics, significant technical challenges are yet to be overcome. Summarized here are the technical challenges associated with POC diagnostics from a RLS perspective and the latest advances in addressing these challenges are reviewed. PMID:26777725

  10. Warming-induced upslope advance of subalpine forest is severely limited by geomorphic processes.

    PubMed

    Macias-Fauria, Marc; Johnson, Edward A

    2013-05-14

    Forests are expected to expand into alpine areas because of climate warming, causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. However, this expansion will only occur if the present upper treeline is limited by low-growing season temperatures that reduce plant growth. This temperature limitation has not been quantified at a landscape scale. Here, we show that temperature alone cannot realistically explain high-elevation tree cover over a >100-km(2) area in the Canadian Rockies and that geologic/geomorphic processes are fundamental to understanding the heterogeneous landscape distribution of trees. Furthermore, upslope tree advance in a warmer scenario will be severely limited by availability of sites with adequate geomorphic/topographic characteristics. Our results imply that landscape-to-regional scale projections of warming-induced, high-elevation forest advance into alpine areas should not be based solely on temperature-sensitive, site-specific upper-treeline studies but also on geomorphic processes that control tree occurrence at long (centuries/millennia) timescales. PMID:23569221

  11. Advances and limits of using population genetics to understand local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tiffin, Peter; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Local adaptation shapes species diversity, can be a stepping stone to ecological speciation, and can facilitate species range expansion. Population genetic analyses, which complement organismal approaches in advancing our understanding of local adaptation, have become widespread in recent years. We focus here on using population genetics to address some key questions in local adaptation: what traits are involved? What environmental variables are the most important? Does local adaptation target the same genes in related species? Do loci responsible for local adaptation exhibit trade-offs across environments? After discussing these questions we highlight important limitations to population genetic analyses including challenges with obtaining high-quality data, deciding which loci are targets of selection, and limits to identifying the genetic basis of local adaptation. PMID:25454508

  12. Application of hot melt extrusion for poorly water-soluble drugs: limitations, advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Guo, Zhefei; Li, Yongcheng; Pang, Huishi; Lin, Ling; Liu, Xu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a powerful technology to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by producing amorphous solid dispersions. Although the number of articles and patents about HME increased dramatically in the past twenty years, there are very few commercial products by far. The three main obstacles limiting the commercial application of HME are summarized as thermal degradation of heat-sensitive drugs at high process temperature, recrystallization of amorphous drugs during storage and dissolving process, and difficulty to obtain products with reproducible physicochemical properties. Many efforts have been taken in recent years to understand the basic mechanism underlying these obstacles and then to overcome them. This article reviewed and summarized the limitations, recent advances, and future prospects of HME. PMID:23651401

  13. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  14. Advances in genetics and genomics: use and limitations in achieving malaria elimination goals

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

    2015-01-01

    Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effectiveness. Here we review and provide specific examples of current technological advances and how these genetic and genomic tools have increased our knowledge of host, parasite and vector biology in relation to malaria elimination and in turn enhanced the potential to reach that goal. We then discuss limitations of these tools and future prospects for the successful achievement of global malaria elimination goals. PMID:25943157

  15. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  16. Safe Use Limits for Advanced Ferritic Steels in Ultra-Supercritical Power Boilers.

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, RW

    2003-11-03

    In 2000, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Babcock & Wilcox Company to examine the databases for advanced ferritic steels and determine the safe limits for operation in supercritical steam power boilers. The materials of interest included the vanadium-modified 9-12% Cr steels with 1-2% Mo or W. The first task involved a review of pertinent information and the down-selection of a steel of special interest. The long-time database for 9Cr-1Mo-V steel was found to be most satisfactory for the examinations, and this steel was taken to be representative of the group. The second task involved the collection of aged and service exposed samples for metallurgical and mechanical testing. Here, aged samples to 75,000 hours, laboratory-tested samples to 83,000 hours, and service-exposed sample with up to 143,000 hours exposure were collected. The third task involved mechanical testing of exposed samples. Creep-rupture testing to long times was undertaken. Variable stress and temperature testing was included. Results were compared against the prediction of damage models. These models seemed to be adequate for life prediction. The fourth task involved the metallurgical examination of exposed specimens. Changes in microstructure were compared against published information on the evolution of microstructures in 9Cr-Mo-V steels and the results were found to be consistent with expectations. The fifth task involved a survey of steam and fireside corrosion. Data from the service-exposed tubing was examined, and a literature survey was undertaken as part of an activity in support of ultra-supercritical steam boiler technology. The corrosion study indicated some concerns about long-time fireside corrosion and suggested temperature limits were needed for corrosive coal ash conditions.

  17. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, K. D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-07-12

    The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products)represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries - pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most. The physico-chemical processes that control the development of this region have a significant impact on the long-term glass-water reaction. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include Geochemical Reaction Path simulations, Glass Reactivity in Allowance for Alteration Layer simulations, Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers; thus providing the fundamental data needed to develop pore-scale equations that enable more accurate predictions of nuclear waste glass corrosion in a geologic repository.

  18. Limitations of the Conventional Phase Advance Method for Constant Power Operation of the Brushless DC Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-10-29

    The brushless dc motor (BDCM) has high-power density and efficiency relative to other motor types. These properties make the BDCM well suited for applications in electric vehicles provided a method can be developed for driving the motor over the 4 to 6:1 constant power speed range (CPSR) required by such applications. The present state of the art for constant power operation of the BDCM is conventional phase advance (CPA) [1]. In this paper, we identify key limitations of CPA. It is shown that the CPA has effective control over the developed power but that the current magnitude is relatively insensitive to power output and is inversely proportional to motor inductance. If the motor inductance is low, then the rms current at rated power and high speed may be several times larger than the current rating. The inductance required to maintain rms current within rating is derived analytically and is found to be large relative to that of BDCM designs using high-strength rare earth magnets. Th us, the CPA requires a BDCM with a large equivalent inductance.

  19. Advances in enantioselective analysis of chiral brominated flame retardants. Current status, limitations and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Niculescu, Violeta Carolina; Ionete, Roxana-Elena; Eljarrat, Ethel

    2016-10-01

    Enantioselective analysis is a powerful tool for the discrimination of biotic and abiotic transformation processes of chiral environmental contaminants because their environmental biodegradation is mostly stereospecific. However, it is challenging when applied to new contaminants since enantioselective analysis methods are currently available only for a limited number of compounds. The enantioselective analysis of chiral novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) either using gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) with various chiral stationary phases (CSP) coupled with various mass spectrometric techniques was extensively discussed. The elution order of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) enantiomers in chiral LC was reviewed using the experimental LC data combined also with predictions from a multi-mode Hamiltonian dynamics simulation model based on interaction energies of HBCD enantiomers with β-permethylated cyclodextrin. The further development of analytical methodologies for new chiral BFRs using advanced hyphenated analytical techniques, but also the next generation mass spectrometer analyzers (i.e. GC-Qrbitrap MS-MS, LC-Qrbitrap MS-MS), will contribute to a better characterization of the transformation pathways of chiral BFRs. PMID:27265736

  20. Recent advances on enzymatic glucose/oxygen and hydrogen/oxygen biofuel cells: Achievements and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosnier, Serge; J. Gross, Andrew; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of producing electrical power from chemical energy with biological catalysts has induced the development of biofuel cells as viable energy sources for powering portable and implanted electronic devices. These power sources employ biocatalysts, called enzymes, which are highly specific and catalytic towards the oxidation of a biofuel and the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes, on one hand, are promising candidates to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts in fuel cell research. On the other hand, they offer the exciting prospect of a new generation of fuel cells which harvest energy from body fluids. Biofuel cells which use glucose as a fuel are particularly interesting for generating electricity to power electronic devices inside a living body. Hydrogen consuming biofuel cells represent an emerging alternative to platinum catalysts due to comparable efficiencies and the capability to operate at lower temperatures. Currently, these technologies are not competitive with existing commercialised fuel cell devices due to limitations including insufficient power outputs and lifetimes. The advantages and challenges facing glucose biofuel cells for implantation and hydrogen biofuel cells will be summarised along with recent promising advances and the future prospects of these exotic energy-harvesting devices.

  1. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-07-12

    Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed tomore » improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations [i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer (GRAAL) simulations], Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Finally, in this manuscript, we discuss the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers.« less

  2. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, Kideok D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-07-12

    Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations [i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer (GRAAL) simulations], Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Finally, in this manuscript, we discuss the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers.

  3. Advances in Developing HIV-1 Viral Load Assays for Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Xu, Feng; Demirci, Utkan

    2010-01-01

    Commercial HIV-1 RNA viral load assays have been routinely used in developed countries to monitor antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, these assays require expensive equipment and reagents, well-trained operators, and established laboratory infrastructure. These requirements restrict their use in resource-limited settings where people are most afflicted with the HIV-1 epidemic. Inexpensive alternatives such as the Ultrasensitive p24 assay, the Reverse Transcriptase (RT) assay and in-house reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) have been developed. However, they are still time-consuming, technologically complex and inappropriate for decentralized laboratories as point-of-care (POC) tests. Recent advances in microfluidics and nanotechnology offer new strategies to develop low-cost, rapid, robust and simple HIV-1 viral load monitoring systems. We review state-of-the-art technologies used for HIV-1 viral load monitoring in both developed and developing settings. Emerging approaches based on microfluidics and nanotechnology, which have potential to be integrated into POC HIV-1 viral load assays, are also discussed. PMID:20600784

  4. Limited Genomic Heterogeneity of Circulating Melanoma Cells in Advanced Stage Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Ed; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors (NBD) were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification (WGA) and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1 to 250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5 to 371.5 CMCs/ml). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this population may contribute to develop effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25574741

  5. Limited genomic heterogeneity of circulating melanoma cells in advanced stage patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Carmen; Li, Julia; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Kolatkar, Anand; Kendall, Jude T.; Flores, Edna; Topp, Zheng; Samlowski, Wolfram E.; McClay, Edward; Bethel, Kelly; Ferrone, Soldano; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Purpose. Circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) constitute a potentially important representation of time-resolved tumor biology in patients. To date, genomic characterization of CMCs has been limited due to the lack of a robust methodology capable of identifying them in a format suitable for downstream characterization. Here, we have developed a methodology to detect intact CMCs that enables phenotypic, morphometric and genomic analysis at the single cell level. Experimental design. Blood samples from 40 metastatic melanoma patients and 10 normal blood donors were prospectively collected. A panel of 7 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used to immunocytochemically label CMCs. Detection was performed by automated digital fluorescence microscopy and multi-parametric computational analysis. Individual CMCs were captured by micromanipulation for whole genome amplification and copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Results. Based on CSPG4 expression and nuclear size, 1-250 CMCs were detected in 22 (55%) of 40 metastatic melanoma patients (0.5-371.5 CMCs ml-1). Morphometric analysis revealed that CMCs have a broad spectrum of morphologies and sizes but exhibit a relatively homogeneous nuclear size that was on average 1.5-fold larger than that of surrounding PBMCs. CNV analysis of single CMCs identified deletions of CDKN2A and PTEN, and amplification(s) of TERT, BRAF, KRAS and MDM2. Furthermore, novel chromosomal amplifications in chr12, 17 and 19 were also found. Conclusions. Our findings show that CSPG4 expressing CMCs can be found in the majority of advanced melanoma patients. High content analysis of this cell population may contribute to the design of effective personalized therapies in patients with melanoma.

  6. Do Deaf Adults with Limited Language Have Advanced Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show that deaf children have deficits in false belief understanding due to their language impairment. However, it is not clear whether deaf adults still have problems in advanced theory of mind (ToM). The present study examined deaf adults' performance on three aspects of advanced ToM. All of the deaf groups lacking mental state…

  7. [Advance Care Planning and Decisions to limit treatment at the end of life - the view from medical ethics and psychooncology].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Eva C; Heußner, Pia

    2016-03-01

    Decisions to limit treatment are important in order to avoid overtreatment at the end of life. They proceed more than half of expected deaths in Europe and the US, but are not always communicated with the patient in advance. One reason for non-involvement is that conversations that prepare patients for end-of-life decisions and work out their preferences do not take place on a regular basis. At the same time there is growing evidence that such communication improves patients' quality of life, reduces anxiety and depression and allows patients to develop a realistic understanding of their situation - which in turn is a prerequisite for shared decision making about limiting treatment. In this paper we define "treatment limitation" and explain the medical ethics perspective. The main focus, however, is on the causes that hinder advanced care planning and conversations about limiting treatment in the care of patients with advanced disease. Finally the evidence for approaches to improve the situation is presented with concrete suggestions for solutions. PMID:26983109

  8. Forming Limits of Weld Metal in Aluminum Alloys and Advanced High-Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Smith, Mark T.; Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.

    2010-10-25

    This work characterizes the mechanical properties of DP600 laser welded TWBs (1 mm-1.5 mm) near and in the weld, as well as their limits of formability. The approach uses simple uniaxial experiments to measure the variability in the forming limits of the weld region, and uses a theoretical forming limit diagram calculation to establish a probabilistic distribution of weld region imperfection using an M-K method approach

  9. Plant Closings. Limited Advance Notice and Assistance Provided Dislocated Workers. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This is the final report in a series issued to assist Congress in assessing the problems of worker dislocation and employer practices related to advance notice and assistance provided to workers. A national survey of 2,600 business establishments was conducted to determine: (1) the extent of business closures and permanent layoffs between January…

  10. Lacking a Formal Concept of Limit: Advanced Non-Mathematics Students' Personal Concept Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, Kenneth A.; Zollman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the conceptual understanding of limit among 22 undergraduate engineering students from two different sections of the same introductory differential equations course. The participants' concepts of limit (concept images and personal concept definitions) were examined using written tasks followed by one-on-one…

  11. Measurement of high-voltage and radiation-damage limitations to advanced solar array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, D. A.; Severance, P. S.; Keinhardt, K. C.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the reconfigured Photovoltaic Array Space Power (PASP) Plus experiment: its objectives, solar-array complement, and diagnostic sensors. Results from a successful spaceflight will lead to a better understanding of high-voltage and radiation-damage limitations in the operation of new-technology solar arrays.

  12. Limited wrist arthrodesis versus radial osteotomy for advanced Kienböck's disease--for a fragmented lunate.

    PubMed

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Ryogo

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with advanced Kienböck's disease treated by limited wrist arthrodesis (LWA: n = 10) or radial osteotomy (RO: n = 28) for a fragmented lunate were retrospectively examined after an average of 47.9 and 68.1 months, respectively. Compared with pre-operative values, the active flexion-extension range of motion decreased by about 16.0 degrees in LWA and increased approximately 9.7 degrees in RO and the grip strength improved by approximately 7.5 kg in LWA and 8.0 kg in RO. In both groups, radiographs showed no significant progression of carpal collapse. Although LWA caused some decrease in wrist flexion-extension, both procedures are appropriate for surgical treatment of advanced Kienböck's disease. Most patients experienced a reduction in pain and were able to return to work. PMID:17080522

  13. The Benefits, Limitations, and Cost-Effectiveness of Advanced Technologies in the Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Vigersky, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia mitigation is critical for appropriately managing patients with diabetes. Advanced technologies are becoming more prevalent in diabetes management, but their benefits have been primarily judged on the basis of hemoglobin A1c. A critical appraisal of the effectiveness and limitations of advanced technologies in reducing both A1c and hypoglycemia rates has not been previously performed. Methods: The cost of hypoglycemia was estimated using literature rates of hypoglycemia events resulting in hospitalizations. A literature search was conducted on the effect on A1c and hypoglycemia of advanced technologies. The cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and real-time continuous glucose monitors (RT-CGM) was reviewed. Results: Severe hypoglycemia in insulin-using patients with diabetes costs $4.9-$12.7 billion. CSII reduces A1c in some but not all studies. CSII improves hypoglycemia in patients with high baseline rates. Bolus calculators improve A1c and improve the fear of hypoglycemia but not hypoglycemia rates. RT-CGM alone and when combined with CSII improve A1c with a neutral effect on hypoglycemia rates. Low-glucose threshold suspend systems reduce hypoglycemia with a neutral effect on A1c, and low-glucose predictive suspend systems reduce hypoglycemia with a small increase in plasma glucose levels. In short-term studies, artificial pancreas systems reduce both hypoglycemia rates and plasma glucose levels. CSII and RT-CGM are cost-effective technologies, but their wide adoption is limited by cost, psychosocial, and educational factors. Conclusions: Most currently available technologies improve A1c with a neutral or improved rate of hypoglycemia. Advanced technologies appear to be cost-effective in diabetes management, especially when including the underlying cost of hypoglycemia. PMID:25555391

  14. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Carla; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms. PMID:26425406

  15. Historical Context and Recent Advances in Exposure-Response Estimation for Deriving Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, M.W.; Park, R. M.; Bailer, A. J.; Whittaker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Virtually no occupational exposure standards specify the level of risk for the prescribed exposure, and most occupational exposure limits are not based on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) at all. Wider use of QRA could improve understanding of occupational risks while increasing focus on identifying exposure concentrations conferring acceptably low levels of risk to workers. Exposure-response modeling between a defined hazard and the biological response of interest is necessary to provide a quantitative foundation for risk-based occupational exposure limits; and there has been considerable work devoted to establishing reliable methods quantifying the exposure-response relationship including methods of extrapolation below the observed responses. We review several exposure-response modeling methods available for QRA, and demonstrate their utility with simulated data sets. PMID:26252067

  16. Advanced limiter test (ALT-1) in the TEXTOR tokamak: concept and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Grontz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.; Gauster, W.B.; Malinowski, H.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Blewer, R.S.; Whitley, J.B.; Dippel, K.H.; Fuchs, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm/sup 2/. The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable-aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 3 x 10/sup 4/ 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas-conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer.

  17. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22230 - Weekly testing (II-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weekly testing (II-A mines). 57.22230 Section 57.22230 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. Antibody-based detection of advanced glycation end-products: promises vs. limitations.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Hatano, Kota; Sugawa, Hikari; Arakawa, Shoutaro; Ichimaru, Kenta; Kinoshita, Shoh; Sakata, Noriyuki; Nagai, Mime

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) of the Maillard reaction were originally measured according to their fluorescent and browning properties. A subsequent study with instrumental analyses such as high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry more clearly demonstrated the involvement of each AGE structure in pathological conditions. Furthermore, immunochemical methods have also been developed to clarify the localization of AGEs in tissues and measurement of AGEs in multiple clinical samples. Although the involvement of AGEs in age-related diseases has progressed due to immunochemical techniques, the relationship between AGE structure and diseases has not been clear because little was known about the epitope structure of each anti-AGE antibody. However, the development of epitope-identified antibodies against AGEs has made it possible to clarify AGE structures involved in diseases. This review discusses not only the usability of anti-AGE antibodies to evaluate AGEs and disease pathology and screen AGE inhibitors, but also describes their usage. PMID:27421861

  3. Limiting factors to advancing thermal-battery technology for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.B.; Winchester, C.S.

    1991-10-01

    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and Power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  4. An Energy-limited Model of Algal Biofuels Production: Towards the Next Generation of Advanced Biofuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dunlop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are increasingly important as a source of renewable energy. The absence of reliable thermodynamic and other property data, and the large amount of kinetic data that would normally be required have created a major barrier to simulation. Additionally, the absence of a generally accepted flowsheet for biofuel production means that detailed simulation of the wrong approach is a real possibility. This model of algal biofuel production estimates the necessary data and places it into a heuristic model using a commercial simulator that back-calculates the process structure required. Furthermore, complex kinetics can be obviated for now by putting themore » simulator into energy limitation and forcing it to solve for the missing design variables, such as bioreactor surface area, productivity, and oil content. The model does not attempt to prescribe a particular approach, but provides a guide towards a sound engineering approach to this challenging and important problem.« less

  5. An Energy-limited Model of Algal Biofuels Production: Towards the Next Generation of Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are increasingly important as a source of renewable energy. The absence of reliable thermodynamic and other property data, and the large amount of kinetic data that would normally be required have created a major barrier to simulation. Additionally, the absence of a generally accepted flowsheet for biofuel production means that detailed simulation of the wrong approach is a real possibility. This model of algal biofuel production estimates the necessary data and places it into a heuristic model using a commercial simulator that back-calculates the process structure required. Furthermore, complex kinetics can be obviated for now by putting the simulator into energy limitation and forcing it to solve for the missing design variables, such as bioreactor surface area, productivity, and oil content. The model does not attempt to prescribe a particular approach, but provides a guide towards a sound engineering approach to this challenging and important problem.

  6. Advances in design and testing of limited angle optical diffraction tomographysystem for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuś, A.; Makowski, P.; Kujawińska, M.

    2016-03-01

    Optical diffraction tomography has been steadily proving its potential to study one of the hot topics in modern cell biology -- 3D dynamic changes in cells' morphology represented with refractive index values. In this technique digital holography is combined with tomographic reconstruction and thus it is necessary to provide projections acquired at different viewing directions. Usually the Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration is used and while the object beam performs scanning, the reference beam is in most cases stationary. This approach either limits possible scanning strategies or requires additional mechanical movement to be introduced in the reference beam. On the other hand, spiral or grid scanning is possible in alternative common-path or Michelson configurations. However, in this case there is no guarantee that a specimen is sparse enough for the object to interfere with an object-free part of the beam. In this paper we present a modified version of Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based tomographic microscope, in which both object and reference beam are subject to scanning using one scanning device only thus making any scanning scenario possible. This concept is realized with a custom-built optical system in the reference beam and is appropriate for mechanical as well as optical scanning. Usually, the tomographic reconstruction setups and algorithms are verified using a microsphere phantom, which is not enough to test the influence of the distribution of the projections. In this work we propose a more complex calibration object created using two-photon polymerization.

  7. Advances in vaccination against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli respiratory disease: potentials and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ghunaim, Haitham; Abu-Madi, Marwan Abdelhamid; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

    2014-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is one of the most economically devastating pathogens affecting the poultry industry. This group of extra-intestinal E. coli causes a variety of clinical conditions including airsacculitis and cellulitis. The economic impact of APEC is mainly due to mortality, slower growth rates, and carcass downgrading. In commercial broiler operations, APEC infections are controlled indirectly by vaccination against other respiratory diseases and minimizing stress conditions, and directly by administration of antimicrobial agents to suppress the infection in already infected flocks. The fact that most APEC strains possess some common virulence factors suggests that an effective vaccine against APEC is a viable option. The most important virulence factors that have been investigated over the years include type I and P fimbriae, aerobactin iron-acquisition system, and serum resistance traits. Despite the potential for developing an efficacious vaccine to combat this economically important poultry disease, several obstacles hinder such efforts. Those obstacles include the cost, vaccine delivery method and timing of vaccination as the birds should be immune to APEC by 21 days of age. Herein, we review the various attempts to develop an effective vaccine against the respiratory form of APEC diseases in poultry. We also discuss in-depth the potentials and limitations of such vaccines. PMID:24878325

  8. Advances in Inhalation Dosimetry Models and Methods for Occupational Risk Assessment and Exposure Limit Derivation

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Eileen D.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Morris, John B.; Jarabek, Annie M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and practical guide to occupational health professionals concerning the derivation and use of dose estimates in risk assessment for development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for inhaled substances. Dosimetry is the study and practice of measuring or estimating the internal dose of a substance in individuals or a population. Dosimetry thus provides an essential link to understanding the relationship between an external exposure and a biological response. Use of dosimetry principles and tools can improve the accuracy of risk assessment, and reduce the uncertainty, by providing reliable estimates of the internal dose at the target tissue. This is accomplished through specific measurement data or predictive models, when available, or the use of basic dosimetry principles for broad classes of materials. Accurate dose estimation is essential not only for dose-response assessment, but also for interspecies extrapolation and for risk characterization at given exposures. Inhalation dosimetry is the focus of this paper since it is a major route of exposure in the workplace. Practical examples of dose estimation and OEL derivation are provided for inhaled gases and particulates. PMID:26551218

  9. Low coherence full field interference microscopy or optical coherence tomography: recent advances, limitations and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhalim, I.

    2013-04-01

    Although low coherence microscopy (LCM) has been known for long time in the context of interference microscopy, coherence radar and white light interferometry, the whole subject has attracted a wide interest in the last two decades particularly accelerated by the entrance of OCT, as a noninvasive powerful technique for biomedical imaging. Today LCM can be classified into two types, both acts as three-dimensional imaging tool. The first is low temporal coherence microscopy; also known as optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is being used for medical diagnostics. The second is full field OCT in various modes and applied to various applications. FF-OCT uses low spatial and temporal coherence similar to the well-known coherence probe microscope (CPM) that have been in use for long time in optical metrology. The CPM has many advantages over conventional microscopy in its ability to discriminate between different transparent layers in a scattering medium thus allowing for precise noninvasive optical probing of dense tissue and other turbid media. In this paper the status of this technology in optical metrology applications will be discussed, on which we have been working to improve its performance, as well as its limitations and future prospective.

  10. Long-term care for elder women in Spain: advances and limitations.

    PubMed

    Vara, María-Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In Spain, elder women are the largest group in need of long-term care. Significant improvements in this issue took place between 2007 and 2011, thanks to the Dependency Law (2006). But severe limitations showed the difficulty of overcoming the historical backwardness of Spanish social policy. This article describes the situation of Spanish people with dependency in activities of daily living. It analyzes changes driven by this law, especially in their impacts on elder women. It assesses the extent to which those changes can alter the traditional model of care. There are three major findings: First, measures promoted by the law have improved the previous situation but are incapable of developing a new model. Care for elders still relies on family, with lack of professionalism, little socialization, and expanding commodification. Second, the current care model is fundamentally detrimental to older women and women caregivers. Third, this kind of model hinders the overcoming of gender inequalities in intrafamily, generational, and social relations. PMID:25010903

  11. Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming? A Critical Review of Limitations and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2006-07-03

    The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it would be more prudent to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at or below current levels which, in turn, would require a greater than 20-fold reduction (i.e., ?95%) in per capita carbon emissions in industrialized nations within the next 50 to 100 years. Using the Kaya equation as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether CO2 mitigation approaches such as energy efficiency improvements, carbon sequestration, and the development of carbon-free energy sources would be sufficient to bring about the required reduction in per capita carbon emissions without creating unforeseen negative impacts elsewhere. In terms of energy efficiency, large improvements (?5-fold) are in principle possible given aggressive investments in R&D and if market imperfections such as corporate subsidies are removed. However, energy efficiency improvements per se will not result in a reduction in carbon emissions if, as predicted by the IPCC, the size of the global economy has expanded 12-26 fold by 2100. Terrestrial carbon sequestration via reforestation and improved agricultural soil management has many environmental advantages but has only limited CO2 mitigation potential because the global terrestrial carbon sink (ca. 200 Gt C) is small relative to the size of fossil fuel deposits (?4000 Gt C). By contrast, very large amounts of CO2 can potentially be removed from the atmosphere via sequestration in geologic formations and oceans, but carbon storage is not permanent and is likely to create many unpredictable environmental consequences. Renewable solar energy can in theory provide

  12. BAND-LIMITED CORONAGRAPHS USING A HALFTONE-DOT PROCESS. II. ADVANCES AND LABORATORY RESULTS FOR ARBITRARY TELESCOPE APERTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, P.; Kasper, M.

    2012-01-01

    The band-limited coronagraph is a nearly ideal concept that theoretically enables perfect cancellation of all the light of an on-axis source. Over the past several years, several prototypes have been developed and tested in the laboratory, and more emphasis is now on developing optimal technologies that can efficiently deliver the expected high-contrast levels of such a concept. Following the development of an early near-IR demonstrator, we present and discuss the results of a second-generation prototype using halftone-dot technology. We report improvement in the accuracy of the control of the local transmission of the manufactured prototype, which was measured to be less than 1%. This advanced H-band band-limited device demonstrated excellent contrast levels in the laboratory, down to {approx}10{sup -6} at farther angular separations than 3{lambda}/D over 24% spectral bandwidth. These performances outperform the ones of our former prototype by more than an order of magnitude and confirm the maturity of the manufacturing process. Current and next-generation high-contrast instruments can directly benefit from such capabilities. In this context, we experimentally examine the ability of the band-limited coronagraph to withstand various complex telescope apertures.

  13. Usability of Operational Performance Support Tools - Findings from Sea Test II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky; Litaker, Harry; McGuire, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Sea Test II, aka NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations 17(NEEMO 17) took place in the Florida Aquarius undersea habitat. This confined underwater environment provides a excellent analog for space habitation providing similarities to space habitation such as hostile environment, difficult logistics, autonomous operations, and remote communications. This study collected subjective feedback on the usability of two performance support tools during the Sea Test II mission, Sept 10-14, 2013; Google Glass and iPAD. The two main objectives: - Assess the overall functionality and usability of each performance support tool in a mission analog environment. - Assess the advantages and disadvantages of each tool when performing operational procedures and Just-In-Time-Training (JITT).

  14. Cell Phone-Based and Adherence Device Technologies for HIV Care and Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve. PMID:26439917

  15. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS+WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 SURVEY FOR LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS. I. THE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Meara, John M.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Madau, Piero

    2011-08-01

    We present a set of 71 quasars observed in the near ultraviolet with the PR200L prism on the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the G280 grism on the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The quasars were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to search for intervening Lyman limit system (LLS) absorption. The sample was subjected to the constraints that the quasars have AB magnitude g' < 18.5, quasar emission redshift 2.3 < z{sub em} < 2.6, and lack strong BAL or z {approx_equal} z{sub em} absorption. The median emission redshift of the sample is z-bar = 2.403. The data were all processed using custom data reduction pipelines, and the one-dimensional spectra have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and resolution to easily identify absorption from LLS over the redshift range 1.2 < z < 2.5. The WFC3 data presented here are the first non-calibration spectra from the G280 grism.

  16. Slow advance of the weathering front during deep, supply-limited saprolite formation in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewawasam, Tilak; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Dixon, Jean L.; Schuessler, Jan A.; Maekeler, Ricarda

    2013-10-01

    Silicate weathering - initiated by major mineralogical transformations at the base of ten meters of clay-rich saprolite - generates the exceptionally low weathering flux found in streams draining the crystalline rocks of the mountainous and humid tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. This conclusion is reached from a thorough investigation of the mineralogical, chemical, and Sr isotope compositions of samples within a regolith profile extending >10 m from surface soil through the weathering front in charnockite bedrock (a high-grade metamorphic rock), corestones formed at the weathering front, as well as from the chemical composition of the dissolved loads in nearby streams. Weatherable minerals and soluble elements are fully depleted at the top of the profile, showing that the system is supply-limited, such that weathering fluxes are controlled directly by the supply of fresh minerals. We determine the weathering rates using two independent means: (1) in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides in surface soil and creek sediments in the close vicinity of the regolith combined with immobile element mass balance across the regolith and (2) river dissolved loads. Silicate weathering rates determined from both approaches range from 16 to 36 t km-2 y-1, corresponding to a weathering front advance rate of 6-14 mm ky-1. These rates agree across the 101 to 104 y time scales over which our rate metrics integrate, suggesting that the weathering system operates at steady state. Within error these rates are furthermore compatible with those obtained by modeling the advance rate of the weathering front from chemical gradients and mineral dissolution rates. The silicate weathering flux out of the weathering profile, measured on small creeks, amounts to 84% of the profile’s export flux; the remaining 16% is contributed by non-silicate, atmospheric-derived input. The silicate weathering flux, as measured by dissolved loads in large catchments, amounts to ca. 50% of the total dissolved flux

  17. Atomic layer deposition-Sequential self-limiting surface reactions for advanced catalyst "bottom-up" synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2016-06-01

    Catalyst synthesis with precise control over the structure of catalytic active sites at the atomic level is of essential importance for the scientific understanding of reaction mechanisms and for rational design of advanced catalysts with high performance. Such precise control is achievable using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD), except that the deposition is split into a sequence of two self-limiting surface reactions between gaseous precursor molecules and a substrate. The unique self-limiting feature of ALD allows conformal deposition of catalytic materials on a high surface area catalyst support at the atomic level. The deposited catalytic materials can be precisely constructed on the support by varying the number and type of ALD cycles. As an alternative to the wet-chemistry based conventional methods, ALD provides a cycle-by-cycle "bottom-up" approach for nanostructuring supported catalysts with near atomic precision. In this review, we summarize recent attempts to synthesize supported catalysts with ALD. Nucleation and growth of metals by ALD on oxides and carbon materials for precise synthesis of supported monometallic catalyst are reviewed. The capability of achieving precise control over the particle size of monometallic nanoparticles by ALD is emphasized. The resulting metal catalysts with high dispersions and uniformity often show comparable or remarkably higher activity than those prepared by conventional methods. For supported bimetallic catalyst synthesis, we summarize the strategies for controlling the deposition of the secondary metal selectively on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support to exclude monometallic formation. As a review of the surface chemistry and growth behavior of metal ALD on metal surfaces, we demonstrate the ways to precisely tune size, composition and structure of bimetallic metal nanoparticles. The cycle-by-cycle "bottom up" construction of bimetallic (or multiple

  18. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  19. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  20. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  1. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  2. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  3. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Advanced High Power Rockets— (a) At any altitude where clouds or obscuring phenomena of more than five...) Into any cloud; (d) Between sunset and sunrise without prior authorization from the FAA; (e) Within...

  4. Sensitization Profile to Allergens in Patients Using Multi-Test II

    PubMed Central

    Maniglia, Sergio Fabricio; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Santos, Victor Carvalho dos; Ueda, Denis Massatsugu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical intervention in allergies has broadened its perspective, also focusing in the quality of life of patients. Patients are instructed, before using pharmacotherapy agents, to avoid the causal agent. Objective This study aims to analyze the sensitization profile of patients with allergic complaints and identify possible characteristics specific to each age group and gender. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study included data collected from medical records (from Multi-Test II database, Lincoln Diagnostics Inc. Decatur, Illinois) of 1,912 patients who underwent skin prick test from March to October 2013. Patients were organized and analyzed according to gender, age, and results of the allergens subtypes tested. Results The study was composed of 1,912 patients (60% male and 40% female) of ages between 3 and 87 years. Positive tests were more prevalent in quantity and intensity with the mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, each with 60% of the total analyzed. In second place were pollens, especially Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis. Conclusion The female and male sexes were equally atopic. Fungi and epithelia of dog and cat were not considered potential aeroallergens that could cause symptoms. However, mites are common in Paraná, Brazil. Further studies regarding the pollens are needed, as this study result diverged from the literature. PMID:25992129

  5. Gas and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for environmental speciation analysis — advances and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpunar, Joanna; McSheehy, Shona; Połeć, Kasia; Vacchina, Véronique; Mounicou, Sandra; Rodriguez, Isaac; Łobiński, Ryszard

    2000-07-01

    Recent advances in the coupling of gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and their role in trace element speciation analysis of environmental materials are presented. The discussion is illustrated with three research examples concerning the following topics: (i) development and coupling of multicapillary microcolumn GC with ICP MS for speciation of organotin in sediment and biological tissue samples; (ii) speciation of arsenic in marine algae by size-exclusion-anion-exchange HPLC-ICP MS; and (iii) speciation of cadmium in plant cell cultures by size-exclusion HPLC-ICP MS. Particular attention is paid to the problem of signal identification in ICP MS chromatograms; the potential of electrospray MS/MS for this purpose is highlighted.

  6. Limiting the risk of cardiac toxicity with esophageal-sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Ruben, Jeremy D.; Senthi, Sashendra

    2016-01-01

    Background Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is routinely utilized in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RTOG 0617 found that overall survival was impacted by increased low (5 Gy) and intermediate (30 Gy) cardiac doses. We evaluated the impact of esophageal-sparing IMRT on cardiac doses with and without the heart considered in the planning process and predicted toxicity compared to 3D-conventional radiotherapy (3DCRT). Methods Ten consecutive patients with N2 Stage III NSCLC treated to 60 Gy in 30 fractions, between February 2012 and September 2014, were evaluated. For each patient, 3DCRT and esophageal-sparing IMRT plans were generated. IMRT plans were then created with and without the heart considered in the optimization process. To compare plans, the dose delivered to 95% and 99% of the target (D95% and D99%), and doses to the esophagus, lung and heart were compared by determining the volume receiving X dose (VXGy) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculated. Results IMRT reduced maximum esophagus dose to below 60 Gy in all patients and produced significant reductions to V50Gy, V40Gy and esophageal NTCP. The cost of this reduction was a non-statistically, non-clinically significant increase in low dose (5 Gy) lung exposure that did not worsen lung NTCP. IMRT plans produced significant cardiac sparing, with the amount of improvement correlating to the amount of heart overlapping with the target. When included in plan optimization, for selected patients further sparing of the heart and improvement in heart NTCP was possible. Conclusions Esophageal-sparing IMRT can significantly spare the heart even if it is not considered in the optimization process. Further sparing can be achieved if plan optimization constrains low and intermediate heart doses, without compromising lung doses. PMID:27162670

  7. Limited Utility of ITPA Deficiency to Predict Early Anemia in HCV Patients with Advanced Fibrosis Receiving Telaprevir

    PubMed Central

    Aghemo, Alessio; Grassi, Eleonora; Rumi, Maria Grazia; D'Ambrosio, Roberta; Galmozzi, Enrico; Degasperi, Elisabetta; Castaldi, Davide; Soffredini, Roberta; Colombo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe anemia is a common side effect of Pegylated Interferon + Ribavirin (PR) and Telaprevir (TVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3–F4). Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) genetic variants are associated with RBV- induced anemia and dose reduction. Aim To test the association of ITPA polymorphisms rs1127354 and rs7270101 with hemoglobin (Hb) decline, need for RBV dose reduction (RBV DR), erythropoietin (EPO) support and blood transfusions during the first 12 weeks of TVR triple therapy. Materials and Methods 69 consecutive HCV-1 patients (mean age 57 years) with F3-F4 who received PR and TVR were genotyped for ITPA polymorphisms rs1127354 and rs7270101. Estimated ITPA deficiency was graded on severity (0–3, no deficiency/mild/moderate/severe). Results ITPA deficiency was absent in 48 patients (70%), mild in 12 (17%) and moderate in 9 patients (13%). Mean week 4 Hb decline was higher in non ITPA deficient patients (3,85 g/dL) than in mildly or moderately ITPA deficient patients (3,07 g/dL and 1,67 g/dL, p<0.0001). Grade 3–4 anemia developed in 81% non ITPA deficient patients versus 67% mild deficient and 55% moderate deficient patients (p = ns). Grade of ITPA deficiency was not associated with RbvDR (no deficiency: 60%, mild: 58%, moderate: 67%; p = ns), EPO use (no deficiency: 65%, mild: 58%, moderate:56%; p = ns) or need for blood transfusion (no deficiency: 27%, mild: 17%, moderate: 33%; p = ns). Conclusions In patients with F3–F4 chronic hepatitis C receiving TVR based therapy, ITPA genotype does not impact on the management of early anemia. PMID:24760000

  8. Sequential chemoradiation in locally advanced head and neck cancer after induction chemotherapy: an induction chemotherapy schedule more suited to a limited resource setting

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Aparna; Nath, Partha; Biswas, Jaydip

    2015-01-01

    Background In our experience, induction docetaxel, platinum, and fluorouracil (TPF) chemotherapy and sequential chemoradiation in locally advanced head and neck cancer lowers compliance owing to their considerable toxicity. Most of our head and neck cancer patients have locally advanced disease at presentation. Physicians frequently prefer paclitaxel–cisplatin induction chemotherapy instead, because of better patient tolerance. Materials and methods A total of 207 locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving paclitaxel and cisplatin prior to chemoradiation from November 2010 to October 2013 were studied retrospectively. Parameters like febrile neutropaenia, treatment compliance, and response rates were compared to our institutional retrospective data with TPF chemotherapy. Response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (Recist) version 1.1. Toxicity was assessed by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 during chemotherapy. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria were used for assessment during chemoradiation. Results Febrile neutropaenia with paclitaxel– cisplatin was significantly lower 3.4% (7/207) versus 44.5% (73/164) with TPF chemotherapy (two-tailed P value < 0.0001). A 95.7 % (198/207) paclitaxel–cisplatin patients completed chemoradiation versus 87% with TPF. The difference was significant (two-tailed P value = 0.0070). Response rate at treatment completion with paclitaxel –cisplatin was 89.7% versus 88% with TPF chemotherapy. No significant differences were observed (two-tailed P value = 0.7007). Conclusion Induction paclitaxel and cisplatin with sequential chemoradiation in locally advanced head and neck cancer is more suitable in a limited resource setting. Lower toxicity, better compliance, and comparable response are encouraging in our study cohort. PMID:26082800

  9. Advances In Vertical Solid-State Current Limiters For Individual Field Emitter Regulation In High-Density Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frances A.; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2015-12-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of improved solid-state elements intended for individual regulation of field emitters part of high-density arrays. We demonstrate a high-yield, CMOS compatible fabrication process of single-crystal, vertical, ungated, n-type silicon field-effect transistors (FETs); each device behaves as a current source when is biased at a voltage larger than its drain-source saturation voltage. An ungated FET in saturation connected in series to a field emitter can compensate for the wide variation in current-voltage characteristics of the field emitters due to the tip radii spread present in any field emitter array, which should result in emitter burn-out protection, larger array utilization, and smaller array emission non-uniformity. Using 1-2 Ωcm single-crystal n-Si wafers, we fabricated arrays of 25 μm tall vertical ungated FETs with 0.5 μm diameter that span two orders of magnitude of array size. Experimental characterization of the arrays demonstrates that the current is limited with > 3.5 V bias voltage to the same ∼6 μA (6 A.cm-2) per-FET value. Finite element simulations of the device predict a saturation voltage close to the experimental value and a saturation current within a factor of two of the experimental value.

  10. End-of-Life Discussions and Advance Care Planning for Children on Long-Term Assisted Ventilation with Life-Limiting Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Sheila S.; Graham, Robert J.; Keens, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Families of children with life-limiting conditions who are on long-term assisted ventilation need to undertake end-of-life advance care planning (ACP) in order to align their goals and values with the inevitability of their child's condition and the risks it entails. To discuss how best to conduct ACP in this population, we performed a retrospective analysis of end-of-life discussions involving our deceased ventilator-assisted patients between 1987 and 2009. A total of 34 (72 percent) of 47 study patients were the subject of these discussions; many discussions occurred after acute deterioration. They resulted in directives to forgo or limit interventions for 21 children (45 percent). We surmise that many families were hesitant to discuss end-of-life issues during periods of relative stability. By offering anticipatory guidance and encouraging contemplation of patients’ goals both in times of stability and during worsening illness, health care providers can better engage patients’ families in ACP. As the child's condition progresses, the emphasis can be recalibrated. How families respond to such encouragement can also serve as a gauge of their willingness to pursue ACP. PMID:22582468

  11. Simulation of forest tree species' bud burst dates for different climate scenarios: chilling requirements and photo-period may limit bud burst advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Maximilian; Schaber, Jörg; Marx, Andreas; Jäckel, Greta; Badeck, Franz-Werner; Seppelt, Ralf; Doktor, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates whether the assumed increase of winter and spring temperatures is depicted by phenological models in correspondingly earlier bud burst (BB) dates. Some studies assume that rising temperatures lead to an earlier BB, but even later BB has been detected. The phenological model PIM (promoter-inhibitor-model) fitted to the extensive phenological database of the German Weather Service was driven by several climate scenarios. This model accounts for the complicated mechanistic interactions between chilling requirements, temperature and photo-period. It predicts BB with a r 2 between 0.41 and 0.62 and a RMSE of around 1 week, depending on species. Parameter sensitivities depict species dependent interactions between growth and chilling requirements as well as photo-period. A mean trend to earlier BB was revealed for the period 2002- 2100, varying between -0.05 and -0.11 days per year, depending on species. These trends are lower than for the period 1951- 2009. Within climate scenario period, trends are decreasing for beech and chestnut, stagnating for birch and increasing for oak. Results suggest that not fulfilled chilling requirements accompanied by an increasing dependency on photo-period potentially limit future BB advancement. The combination of a powerful phenological model, a large scale phenological database and several climate scenarios, offers new insights into the mechanistic comprehension of spring phenology.

  12. Limits, complementarity and improvement of Advanced SAR Interferometry monitoring of anthropogenic subsidence/uplift due to long term CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, M.; Raucoules, D.; Rohmer, J.; Loschetter, A.; Raffard, D.; Le Gallo, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A prerequisite to the large scale industrial development of CO2 Capture and geological Storage is the demonstration that the storage is both efficient and safe. In this context, precise uplift/subsidence monitoring techniques constitute a key component of any CO2 storage risk management. Space-borne Differential SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry is a promising monitoring technique. It can provide valuable information on vertical positions of a set of scatterer undergoing surface deformation induced by volumetric changes through time and space caused by CO2 injection in deep aquifers. To what extent ? To date, InSAR techniques have been successfully used in a variety of case-studies involving the measure of surface deformation caused by subsurface fluid withdrawal / injection. For instance, groundwater flow characterization in complex aquifers systems, oil / gas field characterization, verification of enhanced oil recovery efficiency, monitoring of seasonal gas storage. The successful use of InSAR is strictly related to the favourable scattering conditions in terms of spatial distribution of targets and their temporal stability. In arid regions, natural radar scatterers density can be very high, exceeding 1,000 per square km. But future onshore industrial-scale CO2 storage sites are planned in more complex land-covers such as agricultural or vegetated terrains. Those terrains are characterized by poor to moderate radar scatterers density, which decrease the detection limits of the space-borne interferometric technique. The present study discusses the limits and constraints of advanced InSAR techniques applied to deformation measurements associated with CO2 injection/storage into deep aquifers in the presence of agricultural and vegetated land-covers. We explore different options to enhance the measurement performances of InSAR techniques. As a first option, we propose to optimize the deployment of a network of 'artificial' scatterers, i.e. corner

  13. Using Advanced Data Assimilation For Assessing The Capabilities And Limits Of Using The GOCE Geoid To Improve The Shelf And Coastal Ocean Low-Frequency Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, L.; Pierre J., D.; Guilhem, M.; Georges, B.; Matthieu, L.; Muriel, L.; Roger, H.; Catherine, B.

    2008-12-01

    Realistic ocean modelling is part of the new challenges that has arisen in the past decade in order to access precise and accurate knowledge of the ocean circulation, especially at regional and coastal scales. An efficient ocean modelling system is now built both on both a hydrodynamic model and a data assimilation technique. Altimetric data plays a central role because of their relative abundance, coverage and repetitive sampling. At the large scales, using a geostrophic balance equation, the upper-layer ocean circulation could be approximately retrieved from the ocean surface topography, assuming that the ocean surface reference level, given by the geoid, is known with sufficient accuracy. However the geoid solutions do not contain the smaller scales characterizing coastal dynamics. More generally, the lack of control over the permanent circulations is a serious limitation for the regional ocean modelling and forecasting. The need for better ocean geoids has then been identified for a long time, and the recent gravimetric satellite missions are a first step to solve the problem. The GOCE satellite, developed at ESA and scheduled for lift- off in September 2008, will operate between two and two and a half years. Its main objective is to further improve our knowledge of the geopotential in providing a higher resolution static model for a variety of applications, especially in oceanography. The scientific community expects that the improved geoid model from GOCE will significantly advance our skill at modelling the mean ocean circulation, by using (1) precise geocentric sea surface elevations obtained from global altimetric measurements, (2) a mean geoid model with an accuracy of the order of one centimeter on spatial scales down to the width of boundary currents, (3) additional oceanographic data sets required to constrain ocean circulation models with data assimilation. The study presented here aims to assess the capabilities and the limits of the use of the GOCE

  14. "I'm Not Going to Be, Like, for the AP": English Language Learners' Limited Access to Advanced College-Preparatory Courses in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko; Kangas, Sara E. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advancement to postsecondary education for English language learners (ELLs) can be seriously constrained by a lack of academic preparation during high school. Currently, ELLs lag behind their non-ELL peers in their level of access to advanced college-preparatory courses. Through a qualitative case study of ELL education at a large public high…

  15. Toward full-chip prediction of yield-limiting contact patterning failure: correlation of simulated image parameters to advanced contact metrology metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Chou, Dyiann

    2006-03-01

    Electrical failure due to incomplete contacts or vias has arisen as one of the primary modes of yield loss for 130 nm and below designs in manufacturing. Such failures are generally understood to arise from both random and systematic sources. The addition of redundant vias, where possible, has long been an accepted DFM practice for mitigating the impact of random defects. Incomplete vias are often characterized by having a diameter near the target dimension but a depth of less than 100% of target. As such, it is a difficult problem to diagnose and debug in-line, since bright and dark field optical inspection systems cannot typically distinguish between a closed, partially open and fully open contact. Advanced metrology systems have emerged in recent years to meet this challenge, but no perfect manufacturing solution has yet been identified for full field verification of all contacts. Voltage Contrast (VC) SEM metrology biases the wafer to directly measure electrical conductivity after fill / polish, and can therefore easily discern a lack of electrical connection to the underlying conductor caused by incomplete photo, etch, or fill processing. While an entire wafer can in principal be VC scanned, throughput limitations dictate very sparse sampling in manufacturing. SEM profile grading (PG) leverages the rich content of the secondary electron waveform to decipher information about the bottom of the contact. Several authors have demonstrated an excellent response of the Profile Grade to intentional defocus vectors. However, the SEM can only target discreet or single digit groupings of contacts, and therefore requires intelligent guidance to identify those contacts which are most prone to failure, enabling protection of the fab WIP. An a-priori knowledge of which specific contacts in a layout are most likely to fail would prove very useful for proactive inspection in manufacturing. Model based pre-manufacturing verification allows for such knowledge to be communicated

  16. On the Limits of Advance Preparation for a Task Switch: Do People Prepare All the Task Some of the Time or Some of the Task All the Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Remington, Roger W.; Johnston, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of advance preparation for a task switch, testing 2 key assumptions of R. De Jong's (2000) failure-to-engage theory: (a) Task-switch preparation is all-or-none, and (b) preparation failures stem from nonutilization of available control capabilities. In 3 experiments, switch costs varied dramatically across…

  17. Formulation of detailed consumables management models for the development (preoperational) period of advanced space transportation system. Volume 3: Study of constraints/limitations for STS consumables management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    The constraints and limitations for STS Consumables Management are studied. Variables imposing constraints on the consumables related subsystems are identified, and a method determining constraint violations with the simplified consumables model in the Mission Planning Processor is presented.

  18. Diffraction-limited imaging with very large telescopes; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Cargese, France, Sept. 13-23, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloin, D. M.; Mariotti, J.-M.

    Recent advances in optics and observation techniques for very large astronomical telescopes are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include Fourier optics and coherence, optical propagation and image formation through a turbulent atmosphere, radio telescopes, continuously deformable telescopes for optical interferometry (I), amplitude estimation from speckle I, noise calibration of speckle imagery, and amplitude estimation from diluted-array I. Consideration is given to first-order imaging methods, speckle imaging with the PAPA detector and the Knox-Thompson algorithm, phase-closure imaging, real-time wavefront sensing and adaptive optics, differential I, astrophysical programs for high-angular-resolution optical I, cophasing telescope arrays, aperture synthesis for space observatories, and lunar occultations for marcsec resolution.

  19. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, R Sam; Kardos, Keith W; Fritch, Dean F; Kunsman, Kenneth P; Blum, Kristen A; Newland, Gregory A; Waga, Joe; Kurtz, Lisa; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2005-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if extreme passive exposure to cannabis smoke in a motor vehicle would produce positive results for delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid. Passive exposure to cannabis smoke in an unventilated room has been shown to produce a transient appearance of THC in oral fluid for up to 30 min. However, it is well known that such factors as room size and extent of smoke exposure can affect results. Questions have also been raised concerning the effects of tobacco when mixed with marijuana and THC content. We conducted two passive cannabis studies under severe passive smoke exposure conditions in an unventilated eight-passenger van. Four passive subjects sat alongside four active cannabis smokers who each smoked a single cannabis cigarette containing either 5.4%, 39.5 mg THC (Study 1) or 10.4%, 83.2 mg THC (Study 2). The cigarettes in Study 1 contained tobacco mixed with cannabis; cigarettes in Study 2 contained only cannabis. Oral fluid specimens were collected from passive and active subjects with the Intercept Oral Specimen Collection Device for 1 h after smoking cessation while inside the van (Study 1) and up to 72 h (passive) or 8 h (active) outside the van. Additionally in Study 1, Intercept collectors were exposed to smoke in the van to assess environmental contamination during collection procedures. For Study 2, all oral fluid collections were outside the van following smoking cessation to minimize environmental contamination. Oral samples were analyzed with the Cannabinoids Intercept MICRO-PLATE EIA and quantitatively by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). THC concentrations were adjusted for dilution (x 3). The screening and confirmation cutoff concentrations for THC in neat oral fluid were 3 ng/mL and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for THC in the GC-MS-MS assay were 0.3 and 0.75 ng/mL, respectively. Urine specimens were collected, screened (EMIT, 50

  20. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  1. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  2. On limit and limit setting.

    PubMed

    Gorney, J E

    1994-01-01

    This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580

  3. Delving into Limits of Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Beth; Smith, Ken W.

    2011-01-01

    Limits are foundational to the central concepts of calculus. However, the authors' experiences with students and educational research abound with examples of students' misconceptions about limits and infinity. The authors wanted calculus students to understand, appreciate, and enjoy their first introduction to advanced mathematical thought. Thus,…

  4. On Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?

  5. Family Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert

    1966-01-01

    Dr Robert Smith surveys the history of birth control and sounds a warning for the future of mankind, if the population explosion is allowed to continue unchecked. He stresses the importance of the role of the general practitioner in the limitation of births. Sir Theodore Fox describes the work of the Family Planning Association and stresses that, increasingly, this is a specialist service covering all aspects of fertility. He also feels that the general practitioner has a role in family planning. PMID:5954261

  6. Impedance cardiography: recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Gerard; Strasz, Anna; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Gąsiorowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of recent advancements in impedance cardiography regarding methodical approach, applied equipment and clinical or research implementations. The review is limited to the papers which were published over last 17 months (dated 2011 and 2012) in well recognised scientific journals. PMID:23042327

  7. Force Limited Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

    2005-01-01

    data. A simple two degree of freedom system is shown and the governing equations for basic force limiting results for this system are reviewed. The design and results of the shuttle vibration forces (SVF) experiments are reviewed. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) also was used to validate force limiting. Test instrumentation and supporting equipment are reviewed including piezo-electric force transducers, signal processing and conditioning systems, test fixtures, and vibration controller systems. Several examples of force limited vibration testing are presented with some results.

  8. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  9. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  10. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  11. Students' Formalising Process of the Limit Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabael, Tangul

    2014-01-01

    The concept of limit is the foundation for many concepts such as the derivative and the integral in advanced mathematics. The limit concept has been a research topic in mathematics education for years and in the literature it is a broadly accepted fact that the limit is a difficult notion for most students. The study presented in this article is a…

  12. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  13. Dietary patterns are associated with dietary recommendations but have limited relationship to body mass index in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Traditional food systems in indigenous groups have historically had health promoting benefits. The objectives of this study were to determine if a traditional dietary pattern of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations (PNwT) could be derived using reduced rank regression (RRR) and if the pattern would be associated with lower body mass index (BMI) and current Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Design The baseline data from the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort were used to derive dietary patterns for the total sample and those with plausibly reported energy intakes. Setting Pacific Northwest Coast of Washington State, United States. Subjects Adult PNwT members of the CoASTAL cohort with lab-measured weight and height and up to 4 days of dietary records (n=418). Results A traditional dietary pattern did not evolve from the analysis. Moderate consumption of a sweet drinks dietary pattern was associated with a lower BMI while higher consumption of a vegetarian based dietary pattern was associated with higher BMI. The highest consumers of the vegetarian based dietary pattern were almost 6 times more likely to meet the recommendations for dietary fiber. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns were found. Further exploration is needed to confirm whether the lack of finding a traditional pattern is due to methodology or the loss of a traditional dietary pattern among this population. Longitudinal assessment of the CoASTAL cohort’s dietary patterns needs to continue. PMID:22348238

  14. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  15. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  16. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  17. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  18. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  19. Advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  20. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  1. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation. PMID:25345035

  2. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  3. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  4. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  5. Irreversibility of advanced osteoporosis: Limited role for pharmacologic intervention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parfitt, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Osteoporosis is of medical interest only because it increases bone fragility and risk of fracture, and except for relief of symptoms, preventing fracture is the only purpose of intervention. To prevent the first fracture, adequate bone density must be accumulated and conserved, but to prevent subsequent fracture, bone density must be augmented so that the supportive function of the skeleton can be restored. Almost 50 years after the recognition of post menopausal osteoporosis as a clinical entity, not one of the many treatments that have been used has been demonstrated to be efficacious in reducing subsequent fracture risk. My purpose is not to recite this chronicle of disappointment, but to account for it in terms of bone biology, to consider some possible exceptions, and to reiterate the importance of preventing damage to the skeleton rather than belatedly attempting its repair.

  6. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Craft, Meggan E

    2016-01-01

    Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables), identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks. PMID:27547199

  7. Advances and Limitations of Disease Biogeography Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Craft, Meggan E.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping disease transmission risk is crucial in public and animal health for evidence based decision-making. Ecology and epidemiology are highly related disciplines that may contribute to improvements in mapping disease, which can be used to answer health related questions. Ecological niche modeling is increasingly used for understanding the biogeography of diseases in plants, animals, and humans. However, epidemiological applications of niche modeling approaches for disease mapping can fail to generate robust study designs, producing incomplete or incorrect inferences. This manuscript is an overview of the history and conceptual bases behind ecological niche modeling, specifically as applied to epidemiology and public health; it does not pretend to be an exhaustive and detailed description of ecological niche modeling literature and methods. Instead, this review includes selected state-of-the-science approaches and tools, providing a short guide to designing studies incorporating information on the type and quality of the input data (i.e., occurrences and environmental variables), identification and justification of the extent of the study area, and encourages users to explore and test diverse algorithms for more informed conclusions. We provide a friendly introduction to the field of disease biogeography presenting an updated guide for researchers looking to use ecological niche modeling for disease mapping. We anticipate that ecological niche modeling will soon be a critical tool for epidemiologists aiming to map disease transmission risk, forecast disease distribution under climate change scenarios, and identify landscape factors triggering outbreaks. PMID:27547199

  8. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  9. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  10. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  11. Partnering with Families through Institutional Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Dion

    2001-01-01

    Because of limited resources and rising populations, more intentional relationships among university departments are needed to achieve common goals, especially in parent programming. Article focuses on novel partnering opportunities for student affairs and institutional advancement departments. (GCP)

  12. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  13. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    system with a low initial development and infrastructure cost and a high operating cost. Note however that this has resulted in a 'Catch 22' standoff between the need for large initial investment that is amortized over many launches to reduce costs, and the limited number of launches possible at today's launch costs. Some examples of missions enabled (either in cost or capability) by advanced propulsion include long-life station-keeping or micro-spacecraft applications using electric propulsion or BMDO-derived micro-thrusters, low-cost orbit raising (LEO to GEO or Lunar orbit) using electric propulsion, robotic planetary missions using aerobraking or electric propulsion, piloted Mars missions using aerobraking and/or propellant production from Martian resources, very fast (100-day round-trip) piloted Mars missions using fission or fusion propulsion, and, finally, interstellar missions using fusion, antimatter, or beamed energy. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Technology program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is aimed at assessing the feasibility of a range of near-term to far term advanced propulsion technologies that have the potential to reduce costs and/or enable future space activities. The program includes cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; and directly supported independent research at universities and industry. The cooperative program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry-supported research includes modeling and proof-of-concept experiments in advanced, high-lsp, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion.

  14. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  15. Turbine pyrometry for advanced engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Strange, R. R.

    1987-06-01

    The turbine pyrometry requirements for advanced engine designs are examined. The practical use of current optical pyrometer systems is limited to situations where the reflected radiation comprises not more than 50 percent of the total signal. Alternative approaches, including techniques known as 'Advanced Dual Spectral Area Pyrometer', 'Active Pyrometry', passive synchronous detection pyrometry, and techniques that use thermographic phosphors, are discussed. It is suggested that the methods that use thermographic phosphors at low temperatures can be extended to high temperatures and gas turbine engine environment and can be adapted to the vane scanning pyrometer application.

  16. Frailty in Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Emer

    2016-07-01

    Frailty is defined as a biological syndrome reflecting impaired physiologic reserve and heightened vulnerability to stressors. The evolving profile of heart failure (HF), increased survival of aging patients with complex comorbidities in parallel with the growing population undergoing mechanical circulatory support as lifetime therapy, means that advanced HF specialists are becoming aware of the burden of frailty and its downstream consequences on postintervention outcomes in these patients. The limited data available to date suggest that frailty is highly prevalent in patients with advanced HF and appears to provide prognostic information not captured by traditional risk assessment. PMID:27371513

  17. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  18. Advanced composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Smith, Peter J.; Horton, Ray E.

    1993-01-01

    Boeing's ATCAS program has completed its third year and continues to progress towards a goal to demonstrate composite fuselage technology with cost and weight advantages over aluminum. Work on this program is performed by an integrated team that includes several groups within The Boeing Company, industrial and university subcontractors, and technical support from NASA. During the course of the program, the ATCAS team has continued to perform a critical review of composite developments by recognizing advances in metal fuselage technology. Despite recent material, structural design, and manufacturing advancements for metals, polymeric matrix composite designs studied in ATCAS still project significant cost and weight advantages for future applications. A critical path to demonstrating technology readiness for composite transport fuselage structures was created to summarize ATCAS tasks for Phases A, B, and C. This includes a global schedule and list of technical issues which will be addressed throughout the course of studies. Work performed in ATCAS since the last ACT conference is also summarized. Most activities relate to crown quadrant manufacturing scaleup and performance verification. The former was highlighted by fabricating a curved, 7 ft. by 10 ft. panel, with cocured hat-stiffeners and cobonded J-frames. In building to this scale, process developments were achieved for tow-placed skins, drape formed stiffeners, braided/RTM frames, and panel cure tooling. Over 700 tests and supporting analyses have been performed for crown material and design evaluation, including structural tests that demonstrated limit load requirements for severed stiffener/skin failsafe damage conditions. Analysis of tests for tow-placed hybrid laminates with large damage indicates a tensile fracture toughness that is higher than that observed for advanced aluminum alloys. Additional recent ATCAS achievements include crown supporting technology, keel quadrant design evaluation, and

  19. Room for advancement

    SciTech Connect

    Carrio, L.A. ); Sharpe, R. ); Bizzarri, R.E. ); Wilson, T.E. )

    1993-12-01

    The advanced biological nutrient removal (ABNR) process is a viable nutrient removal choice for wastewater treatment plants where site limitations and energy costs are a concern. Specifically, ABNR plants: can remove more than 60% of total nitrogen; achieve a high degree of phosphorus removal - primarily by chemical additions; use step aeration (step feed) to save tank volume and site space and to eliminate mixed liquor recirculation requirements; use less energy; use a supplemental source of carbon (typically, methanol) in small quantities to achieve higher levels of nitrogen removal; take advantage of the highest denitrification rates of raw wastewater; allow nitrification of low alkalinity wastewater with no chemical supplement; can be created from existing step aeration plants with only minor modifications; and can retain all the flexibility and wet-weather flow stability of conventional step aeration systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Advanced desiccant materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czanderna, A. W.; Thomas, T. M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  1. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  2. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  3. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  4. Limits to adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.

  5. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...

  6. The Light Cage Limit to Interstellar Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, C. R.

    It has long been argued that an advanced space-faring civilisation must be gradualists who evolve and migrate within the limits imposed by resources and whose culture avoids conflict and exploitation. However, it is argued here that a relatively young civilisation which develops a set of technologies which enable it to engage in economic interstellar travel is unlikely to constrain its activities in this way and will experience rapid economic expansion and growth. In such a scenario the speed of light imposes a fundamental limit to the distance over which the civilisation can expand, providing a possible mechanism whereby interstellar expansion is self-limiting and possibly self-terminating.

  7. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  8. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  9. Advanced Automation For The Battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, S. Y.

    1983-05-01

    Autonomous robots for the battlefield offer a tantalizing alternative to manned warfare. These systems rely upon many well established technological areas. Near term applications of autonomous battlefield robots (ABRs) are possible in such mission areas as surveillance and communications support. Such more advanced applications as weapons and countermeasures control await at least the development of fault tolerant information processing resources. Several open research issues still limit the current realizable performance of ARBs. In spite of these limitations, ABRs should be implemented for near term applications to gain the systems experience necessary to construct more capable ABR systems.

  10. Advances in SIS receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frerking, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Significant advances in SIS receiver technology since the last Asilomar meeting include: superconductor materials, integrated inductive tuning elements, and planar mounting structures. The effect of these advances is to push the upper frequency operating limit from about 600 to 1500 GHz, and to enhance the feasibility of focal plane arrays of heterodyne receivers. A fundamental high frequency operating limit of SIS mixers is set by the superconducting energy gap. A practical limitation for high frequency operation of SIS junctions is their parasitic capacitance and resistance. The performance of the mixer will be degraded by the Resistor-Capacitor rolloff. Several designs were reported for inductive elements integrated on the same substrate as the SIS junctions to tune out the bulk junction capacitance. Most millimeter SIS-based heterodyne receivers have used waveguide coupling structures. Technology has advanced to the state where programs that have a high probability of success can be defined to produce arrays of SIS receivers for frequencies as high as 1500 GHz.

  11. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  12. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-15

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. ''Cold dark matter'' (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. ''Modified Newtonian dynamics'' provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. ''Dark energy''might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  14. Advanced Pressure Boundary Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L; Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperatures of fossil power plants is fundamental to improving thermal efficiencies and reducing undesirable emissions such as CO{sub 2}. One group of alloys with the potential to satisfy the conditions required of higher operating temperatures is the advanced ferritic steels such as ASTM Grade 91, 9Cr-2W, and 12Cr-2W. These are Cr-Mo steels containing 9-12 wt% Cr that have martensitic microstructures. Research aimed at increasing the operating temperature limits of the 9-12 wt% Cr steels and optimizing them for specific power plant applications has been actively pursued since the 1970's. As with all of the high strength martensitic steels, specifying upper temperature limits for tempering the alloys and heat treating weldments is a critical issue. To support this aspect of development, thermodynamic analysis was used to estimate how this critical temperature, the A{sub 1} in steel terminology, varies with alloy composition. The results from the thermodynamic analysis were presented to the Strength of Weldments subgroup of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code and are being considered in establishing maximum postweld heat treatment temperatures. Experiments are also being planned to verify predictions. This is part of a CRADA project being done with Alstom Power, Inc.

  15. Transition Metal Configurations and Limitations of the Orbital Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scerri, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    Points out a misconception that is reinforced in many elementary and advanced chemistry texts. Discusses the general limitations of the orbital concept. Notes misconceptions related to the transition elements and their first ionization energies. (MVL)

  16. Optimally combined confidence limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot, P.; Le Diberder, F.

    1998-02-01

    An analytical and optimal procedure to combine statistically independent sets of confidence levels on a quantity is presented. This procedure does not impose any constraint on the methods followed by each analysis to derive its own limit. It incorporates the a priori statistical power of each of the analyses to be combined, in order to optimize the overall sensitivity. It can, in particular, be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several analyses searching for the Higgs boson in different decay channels, with different selection efficiencies, mass resolution and expected background. It can also be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several experiments (e.g. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, at LEP 2) independently of the method followed by each of these experiments to derive their own limit. A method to derive the limit set by one analysis is also presented, along with an unbiased prescription to optimize the expected mass limit in the no-signal-hypothesis.

  17. Systematics and limit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.

  18. Advance directives education: a critical need.

    PubMed

    Kroning, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing age, most older Americans do not have Advance Health Care Directives (AHCDs) while healthcare providers report limited knowledge for teaching about AHCDs. This article offers a history of AHCDs, explores one method for assessing AHCD knowledge using the Knowledge-Attitudinal-Experimental Survey on Advance Directives (KAESAD), and utilizes adult learning theory to develop an AHCD educational in-service for nurses. AHCD information and resources are provided. PMID:25296485

  19. Dose limits for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

  20. Limits to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  1. Fundamental limits on EMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, R. M.; Lin, S.-Y.; Schulz, R. B.

    1981-02-01

    Both fundamental and state-of-the-art limits are treated with emphasis on the former. Fundamental limits result from both natural and man-made electromagnetic noise which then affect two basic ratios, signal-to-noise (S/N) and extraneous-input-to-noise (I/N). Tolerable S/N values are discussed for both digital and analog communications systems. These lead to tolerable signal-to-extraneous-input (S/I) ratios, again for digital and analog communications systems, as well as radar and sonar. State-of-the-art limits for transmitters include RF noise emission, spurious emissions, and intermodulation. Receiver limits include adjacent-channel interactions, image, IF, and other spurious responses, including cross modulation, intermodulation, and desensitization. Unintentional emitters and receivers are also discussed. Coupling limitations between undesired sources and receptors are considered from mechanisms including radiation, induction, and conduction.

  2. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  3. Low speed propellers: Impact of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivity studies performed to evaluate the potential of several advanced technological elements on propeller performance, noise, weight, and cost for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Studies indicate that the application of advanced technologies to general aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft an average of ten percent, meeting current regulatory noise limits. Through the use of composite blade construction, up to 25 percent propeller weight reduction can be achieved. This weight reduction in addition to seven percent propeller efficiency improvements through application of advanced technologies result in four percent reduction in direct operating costs, ten percent reduction in aircraft acquisition cost, and seven percent lower gross weight for general aviation aircraft.

  4. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  5. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  6. The limits of prevention.

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, J M

    1985-01-01

    Recent years have been marked by unprecedented accomplishments in preventing disease and reducing mortality. More gains can be expected, but there are limits. The forces shaping the nature and potential of prevention programs can be characterized as points falling along a spectrum ranging from the purely scientific to the purely social. This paper focuses on four elements of that spectrum, discussing some of the limitations to prevention that are presented by biological, technical, ethical, and economic factors. The author concludes with an essentially optimistic perspective on the prospects, special opportunities, and imperatives inherent in each of the categories of limitations discussed. PMID:3923530

  7. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  8. Galilean limit of electrodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reula, O. A.; Hamity, V. H.; Frittelli, S.

    The final interest of the authors' work is to study the Newtonian limit as an approximation to General Relativity. In this paper they show, using the Galilean limit of electrodynamics with external sources as a test model, some of the problems that they will be confronted with, and the techniques that are introduced to attack them. The crucial physical issue, to define an asymptotic expansion of a class of solutions, is the selection of initial data which results of imposing regularity conditions in the nonrelativistic limit. The authors' model is an example of a more general class of systems which includes, hopefully, the gravitational field plus matter.

  9. Optical limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  10. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  11. Pixel detectors for diffraction-limited storage rings

    PubMed Central

    Denes, Peter; Schmitt, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic advances in synchrotron radiation sources produce ever-brighter beams of X-rays, but those advances can only be used if there is a corresponding improvement in X-ray detectors. With the advent of storage ring sources capable of being diffraction-limited (down to a certain wavelength), advances in detector speed, dynamic range and functionality is required. While many of these improvements in detector capabilities are being pursued now, the orders-of-magnitude increases in brightness of diffraction-limited storage ring sources will require challenging non-incremental advances in detectors. This article summarizes the current state of the art, developments underway worldwide, and challenges that diffraction-limited storage ring sources present for detectors. PMID:25177989

  12. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  13. Advances in influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenically variable regions of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which requires regular updates to match circulating seasonal influenza A and B virus strains. Given the relatively limited protection induced by current seasonal influenza vaccines, a more universal influenza vaccine that would protect against more—if not all—influenza viruses is among the largest unmet medical needs of the 21st century. New insights into correlates of protection from influenza and into broad B- and T-cell protective anti-influenza immune responses offer promising avenues for innovative vaccine development as well as manufacturing strategies or platforms, leading to the development of a new generation of vaccines. These aim at the rapid and massive production of influenza vaccines that provide broad protective and long-lasting immunity. Recent advances in influenza vaccine research demonstrate the feasibility of a wide range of approaches and call for the initiation of preclinical proof-of-principle studies followed by clinical trials in humans. PMID:24991424

  14. Advanced positron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variola, A.

    2014-03-01

    Positron sources are a critical system for the future lepton colliders projects. Due to the large beam emittance at the production and the limitation given by the target heating and mechanical stress, the main collider parameters fixing the luminosity are constrained by the e+ sources. In this context also the damping ring design boundary conditions and the final performance are given by the injected positron beam. At present different schemes are being taken into account in order to increase the production and the capture yield of the positron sources, to reduce the impact of the deposited energy in the converter target and to increase the injection efficiency in the damping ring. The final results have a strong impact not only on the collider performance but also on its cost optimization. After a short introduction illustrating their fundamental role, the basic positron source scheme and the performance of the existing sources will be illustrated. The main innovative designs for the future colliders advanced sources will be reviewed and the different developed technologies presented. Finally the positrons-plasma R&D experiments and the futuristic proposals for positron sources will reviewed.

  15. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  16. Advances in metabolite identification.

    PubMed

    Wishart, David S

    2011-08-01

    One of the central challenges to metabolomics is metabolite identification. Regardless of whether one uses so-called 'targeted' or 'untargeted' metabolomics, eventually all paths lead to the requirement of identifying (and quantifying) certain key metabolites. Indeed, without metabolite identification, the results of any metabolomic analysis are biologically and chemically uninterpretable. Given the chemical diversity of most metabolomes and the character of most metabolomic data, metabolite identification is intrinsically difficult. Consequently a great deal of effort in metabolomics over the past decade has been focused on making metabolite identification better, faster and cheaper. This review describes some of the newly emerging techniques or technologies in metabolomics that are making metabolite identification easier and more robust. In particular, it focuses on advances in metabolite identification that have occurred over the past 2 to 3 years concerning the technologies, methodologies and software as applied to NMR, MS and separation science. The strengths and limitations of some of these approaches are discussed along with some of the important trends in metabolite identification. PMID:21827274

  17. Advanced stitching technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardino, Frank L.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of textile composites, the selection of materials and constructional techniques must be matched with product performance, productivity, and cost requirements. Constructional techniques vary. A classification of various textile composite systems is given. In general, the chopped fiber system is not suitable for structural composite applications because of fiber discontinuity, uncontrolled fiber orientation and a lack of fiber integration or entanglement. Linear filament yarn systems are acceptable for structural components which are exposed to simple tension in their applications. To qualify for more general use as structural components, filament yarn systems must be multi-directionally positioned. With the most sophisticated filament winding and laying techniques, however, the Type 2 systems have limited potential for general load-bearing applications because of a lack of filament integration or entanglement, which means vulnerability to splitting and delamination among filament layers. The laminar systems (Type 3) represented by a variety of simple fabrics (woven, knitted, braided and nonwoven) are especially suitable for load-bearing panels in flat form and for beams in a roled up to wound form. The totally integrated, advanced fabric system (Type 4) are thought to be the most reliable for general load-bearing applications because of fiber continuity and because of controlled multiaxial fiber orientation and entanglement. Consequently, the risk of splitting and delamination is minimized and practically omitted. Type 4 systems can be woven, knitted, braided or stitched through with very special equipment. Multiaxial fabric technologies are discussed.

  18. PLT rotating pumped limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.

    1984-07-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.

  19. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  20. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    arrhythmias (e.g., typical atrial flutter and atrial ventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia), for which the success rates using the fluoroscopy approach were extremely high and unlikely to be improved upon using nonfluoroscopic mapping. By age 50, almost 100% of people who have had surgery for congenital heart disease will develop arrhythmia. Some centres are under greater pressure because of expertise in complex ablation procedures for subsets of patients. The use of advanced mapping systems requires the support of additional electrophysiologic laboratory time and nursing time. Conclusions For patients suffering from symptomatic, drug-refractory atrial fibrillation and are otherwise healthy, catheter ablation offers a treatment option that is less invasive than is open surgical ablation. Small RCTs that may have been limited by type 2 errors showed significant reductions in fluoroscopy exposure in nonfluoroscopy-guided ablation and a trend toward lower overall failure rate that did not reach statistical significance. Pooled analysis suggests that advanced mapping systems may reduce the overall failure rate in the ablation of atrial fibrillation. Observational studies suggest that ablation guided by complex mapping/navigation systems is a promising treatment for complex arrhythmias such as highly symptomatic, drug-refractory atrial fibrillation for which rate control is not an option In people with atrial fibrillation, ablation guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping resulted in arrhythmia free rates of 80% or higher, reduced mortality, and better quality of life at experienced centres. Although generally safe, serious complications such as stroke, atrial-esophageal, and pulmonary vein stenosis had been reported following ablation procedures. Experts advised that advanced mapping systems are also required for catheter ablation of: Hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia from ischemic heart disease Macro re-entrant atrial tachycardia after surgical correction of

  1. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  2. Dabrafenib Alone and in Combination With Trametinib Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally or Regionally Advanced Melanoma That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-29

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IIB Melanoma (Locally Advanced); Stage IIC Melanoma (Locally Advanced); Stage IIIA Melanoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma (Limited, Resectable)

  3. Parametric studies of advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maser, J. G.; Fertis, D. G.; Chamis, C. C.; Aiello, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of geometric variables (sweep and twist) on the structural performance of advanced turboprops are investigated. The investigation is limited to aerodynamically efficient turboprops using an acceptable design configuration as a baseline. The baseline configuration is modified using a seven by seven array of independently varying sweep and twist parameters while maintaining acceptable aerodynamic efficiency. The turboprop structural performance is evaluated in terms of critical speeds, tip displacements, and vibration frequencies where geometric nonlinearities are included. The results obtained are presented in such a manner as to highlight the effects of sweep and twist on the structural performance of aerodynamically efficient turboprop configurations.

  4. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  5. Force Limit System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  6. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  7. Estimating turbine limit load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.

  8. Optical limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  9. Limits on nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouché, M.; Battesti, R.; Rizzo, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.

  10. The Limits of Technological Optimism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiago, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    Presents the arguments advanced by James E. Krier, a professor of environmental law, against the belief that technological advancements will mitigate the problem of population growth in the battle against pollution control. (MDH)

  11. Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making. PMID:23586906

  12. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  13. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Coats' disease and retinoblastoma can both present with the triad of a retinal detachment, the appearance of a subretinal mass, and dilated retinal vessels. Thus, even the most experienced observer may not be able to differentiate these entities on ophthalmoscopic findings alone. Coats' disease is the most common reason for which eyes are enucleated with the misdiagnosis of retinoblastoma. Ultrasonography is the auxiliary diagnostic test most easily incorporated into the clinical examination, and can be utilized repeatedly without biologic tissue hazard. Ultrasonically identifiable features allowing differentiation between Coats' disease and retinoblastoma include the topography and character of retinal detachment and presence or absence of subretinal calcifications. Ultrasonography is of lesser use in poorly calcified retinoblastoma and in detecting optic nerve or extraocular extension in heavily calcified retinoblastoma. CT is perhaps the single most valuable test because of its ability to: (a) delineate intraocular morphology, (b) quantify subretinal densities, (c) identify vascularities within the subretinal space through the use of contrast enhancement, and (d) detected associated orbital or intracranial abnormalities. Optimal computed tomographic studies, however, require multiple thin slices both before and after contrast introduction and expose the child to low levels of radiation if studies are repeated periodically. MR imaging is valuable for its multiplanar imaging capabilities, its superior contrast resolution, and its ability to provide insights into the biochemical structure and composition of tissues. It is limited in its ability to detect calcium, which is the mainstay of ultrasonic and CT differentiation. Aqueous LDH and isoenzyme levels were not valuable in distinguishing between Coats' disease and retinoblastoma. The value of aqueous NSE levels in the differentiation of advanced Coats' disease and exophytic retinoblastoma deserves

  14. Intellectually Limited Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminer, Ruth K.; Cohen, Herbert J.

    The paper examines whether a relationship exists between intellectual limitation on the mother's part and unfavorable outcomes for her children. The scope of the problem is examined and the difficulties inherent in estimating prevalence are noted. The issue of child neglect, rather than abuse is shown to be a major problem among institutionalized…

  15. On gas detonation limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Gapanov, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    A one-dimensional model for a multiheaded detonation has been constructed with account for friction, heat losses, and the decay of gas velocity pulsations. The existence of detonation limits in narrow channels has been numerically shown. The calculation results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  16. The Outer Limits: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Barbara R.; Biesekerski, Joan

    The Quinmester course "The Outer Limits" involves an exploration of unknown worlds, mental and physical, through fiction and nonfiction. Its purpose is to focus attention on the ongoing conquest of the frontiers of the mind, the physical world, and outer space. The subject matter includes identification and investigation of unknown worlds in the…

  17. Limits to Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)

  18. The Limits of Laughter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindess, Harvey

    1983-01-01

    Three incidents which elucidate the limits of laughter are described. Most persons enjoy humor as comic relief, but when humor strikes a blow at something they hold dear, they find it very hard to laugh. People are upset by an irreverent attitude toward things they hold in esteem. (RM)

  19. Limitations in scatter propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, E. W.

    1982-04-01

    A short description of the main scatter propagation mechanisms is presented; troposcatter, meteor burst communication and chaff scatter. For these propagation modes, in particular for troposcatter, the important specific limitations discussed are: link budget and resulting hardware consequences, diversity, mobility, information transfer and intermodulation and intersymbol interference, frequency range and future extension in frequency range for troposcatter, and compatibility with other services (EMC).

  20. Defined by Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, Sonya; Murphy, Katy

    2010-01-01

    Undocumented students are a population defined by limitations. Their lack of legal residency and any supporting paperwork (e.g., Social Security number, government issued identification) renders them essentially invisible to the American and state governments. They cannot legally work. In many states, they cannot legally drive. After the age of…

  1. Defining structural limit zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Method for defining limit loads uses probability distribution of largest load occurring during given time intervals. Method is compatible with both deterministic and probabilistic structural design criteria. It also rationally accounts for fact that longer structure is exposed to random loading environment, greater is possibility that it will experience extreme load.

  2. How neuroscience might advance the law.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Erin Ann

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally. PMID:15590609

  3. Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…

  4. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  5. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  6. Advance directives: the New Zealand context.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Pauline; McCallin, Antoinette; Diesfeld, Kate

    2005-07-01

    Advance directives convey consumers' wishes about accepting or refusing future treatment if they become incompetent. They are designed to communicate a competent consumer's perspective regarding the preferred treatment, should the consumer later become incompetent. There are associated ethical issues for health practitioners and this article considers the features that are relevant to nurses. In New Zealand, consumers have a legal right to use an advance directive that is not limited to life-prolonging care and includes general health procedures. Concerns may arise regarding a consumer's competence and the document's validity. Nurses need to understand their legal and professional obligations to comply with an advance directive. What role does a nurse play and what questions arise for a nurse when advance directives are discussed with consumers? This article considers the cultural dimensions, legal boundaries, consumers' and providers' perspectives, and the medical and nursing positions in New Zealand. PMID:16045243

  7. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    Mask aligner lithography is very attractive for less-critical lithography layers and is widely used for LED, display, CMOS image sensor, micro-fluidics and MEMS manufacturing. Mask aligner lithography is also a preferred choice the semiconductor back-end for 3D-IC, TSV interconnects, advanced packaging (AdP) and wafer-level-packaging (WLP). Mask aligner lithography is a mature technique based on shadow printing and has not much changed since the 1980s. In shadow printing lithography a geometric pattern is transferred by free-space propagation from a photomask to a photosensitive layer on a wafer. The inherent simplicity of the pattern transfer offers ease of operation, low maintenance, moderate capital expenditure, high wafers-per-hour (WPH) throughput, and attractive cost-of-ownership (COO). Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) comprises different measures to improve shadow printing lithography beyond current limits. The key enabling technology for AMALITH is a novel light integrator systems, referred to as MO Exposure Optics® (MOEO). MOEO allows to fully control and shape the properties of the illumination light in a mask aligner. Full control is the base for accurate simulation and optimization of the shadow printing process (computational lithography). Now photolithography enhancement techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), phase masks (AAPSM), half-tone lithography and Talbot lithography could be used in mask aligner lithography. We summarize the recent progress in advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) and discuss possible measures to further improve shadow printing lithography.

  8. Advancements in asphere manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric optics can pose as a challenge to the manufacturing community due to the surface shape and level of quality required. The aspheric surface may have inflection points that limit the usable tool size during manufacturing, or there may be a stringent tolerance on the slope for mid-spatial frequencies that may be problematic for sub-aperture finishing techniques to achieve. As aspheres become more commonplace in the optics community, requests for more complex aspheres have risen. OptiPro Systems has been developing technologies to create a robust aspheric manufacturing process. Contour deterministic microgrinding is performed on a Pro80 or eSX platform. These platforms utilize software and the latest advancements in machine motion to accurately contour the aspheric shape. Then the optics are finished using UltraForm Finishing (UFF), which is a sub-aperture polishing process. This process has the capability to adjust the diameter and compliance of the polishing lap to allow for finishing over a wide range of shapes and conditions. Finally, the aspheric surfaces are qualified using an OptiTrace contact profilometer, or an UltraSurf non-contact 3D surface scanner. The OptiTrace uses a stylus to scan across the surface of the part, and the UltraSurf utilizes several different optical pens to scan the surface and generate a topographical map of the surface under test. This presentation will focus on the challenges for asphere manufacturing, how OptiPro has implemented its technologies to combat these challenges, and provide surface data for analysis.

  9. Limited cooperativity in protein folding.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Victor; Campos, Luis A; Sadqi, Mourad

    2016-02-01

    Theory and simulations predict that the structural concert of protein folding reactions is relatively low. Experimentally, folding cooperativity has been difficult to study, but in recent years we have witnessed major advances. New analytical procedures in terms of conformational ensembles rather than discrete states, experimental techniques with improved time, structural, or single-molecule resolution, and combined thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of fast folding have contributed to demonstrate a general scenario of limited cooperativity in folding. Gradual structural disorder is already apparent on the unfolded and native states of slow, two-state folding proteins, and it greatly increases in magnitude for fast folding domains. These results demonstrate a direct link between how fast a single-domain protein folds and unfolds, and how cooperative (or structurally diverse) is its equilibrium unfolding process. Reducing cooperativity also destabilizes the native structure because it affects unfolding more than folding. We can thus define a continuous cooperativity scale that goes from the 'pliable' two-state character of slow folders to the gradual unfolding of one-state downhill, and eventually to intrinsically disordered proteins. The connection between gradual unfolding and intrinsic disorder is appealing because it suggests a conformational rheostat mechanism to explain the allosteric effects of folding coupled to binding. PMID:26845039

  10. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  11. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, S Diane; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ng, Tien M H; Melroy, Joel T; Hess, Mary M; Tallian, Kimberly; Trujillo, Toby C; Vermeulen, Lee C

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Clinical Practice Affairs Committee to review and update the College's 1995 White Paper, "Rewards and Advancements for Clinical Pharmacy Practitioners." Because of the limited data on the present state of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, an online survey of "front-line" clinical pharmacists and pharmacy managers was conducted (1126 total respondents, 14% response rate). The resulting White Paper discusses motivators and existing systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, as well as perceived barriers to implementation of these systems. Clinical pharmacists reported work-life balance, a challenging position, and opportunities for professional advancement as the most important factors for career success. At the time of the survey, financial rewards appeared not to be a major motivator for clinical pharmacists. Managers underestimated the importance that clinical pharmacists place on work-life balance and favorable work schedules. Although almost two thirds of the clinical pharmacists surveyed had not developed a professional development plan, 84% indicated an interest in career planning. Both clinical pharmacists and managers rated the lack of a clear reward and advancement structure as the most important barrier to effective systems of rewards and advancements. Pharmacy managers and administrators are encouraged to develop effective systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists that positively impact patient care and the institution's mission; these systems will benefit the clinical pharmacist, the health care institution, and the patient. PMID:20030483

  12. Advancement in LIDAR Data Collection: NASA's Experimental Airborne Advanced Research LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riordan, Kevin; Wright, C. Wayne; Noronha, Conan

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research LIDAR (EAARL) is a new developmental LIDAR designed to investigate and advance LIDAR techniques using a adaptive time resolved backscatter information for complex coastal research and monitoring applications. Information derived from such an advanced LIDAR system can potentially improve the ability of resource managers and policy makers to make better informed decisions. While there has been a large amount of research using LIDAR in coastal areas, most are limited in the amount of information captured from each laser pulse. The unique design of the EAARL instrument permits simultaneous acquisition of coastal environments which include subaerial bare earth topography, vegetation biomass, and bare earth beneath vegetated areas.

  13. Unilateral mandibular advancement with bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung-Won; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) is an effective surgical procedure that is used for the correction of mandibular prognathism. However, application of IVRO for mandibular advancement has been limited because of the instability of the proximal segments caused by the gap between the distal and proximal segments. We report a case of unilateral mandibular advancement with bilateral IVRO for the correction of facial asymmetry. This case shows possible application of bilateral IVRO for unilateral mandibular advancement without any means of fixation. PMID:25974825

  14. Chief executives. Off limits.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nigel

    2002-04-11

    Trust remuneration committees are paying chief executives above the limits recommended in Department of Health guidance. In doing so they are ignoring the government's stated policy of fair pay for all in the NHS and their duty of accountability. Excessive awards made by a remuneration committee can be subject to judicial review and overturned. The health secretary should review the workings of trust remuneration committees and ensure that their decisions are transparent to the public. PMID:11989336

  15. Quantum limits of thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stace, Thomas M.

    2010-07-15

    The precision of typical thermometers consisting of N particles scales as {approx}1/{radical}(N). For high-precision thermometry and thermometric standards, this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to {approx}1/N, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.

  16. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  17. Limits of social mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-04-16

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  18. Strategic arms limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, G.A.; Johnson, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1969, the focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some form of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus that enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  19. Elastic limit of silicane.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu

    2014-10-21

    Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers. PMID:25190587

  20. LIMITS ON QUAOAR'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W.; Gimeno, German

    2013-09-10

    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  1. Deriving exposure limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1990-07-01

    Historically many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser occupational exposure limits (EL1s) or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Although some safety standards have been limited in scope to manufacturer system safety performance standards or to codes of practice most have included occupational EL''s. Initially in the 1960''s attention was drawn to setting EL''s however as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971 after the first decade of laser use that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AEL''s) were based upon the EL''s. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPE''s (i. e. EL''s) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation. 2. 0

  2. Limits of social mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719

  3. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  4. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  6. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  7. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  8. 48 CFR 32.408 - Application for advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract. (2) A cash flow forecast showing estimated disbursements and receipts for the period of contract... shall limit the forecast to the contract to be financed by advance payments. (3) The proposed total amount of advance payments. (4) The name and address of the financial institution at which the...

  9. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  10. Fluid machines: Expanding the limits, past and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, M. J.; Sandercock, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    During the 40 yr period from 1940 to 1980, the capabilities and operating limits of fluid machines were greatly extended. This was due to a research program, carried out to meet the needs of aerospace programs. Some of the events are reviewed. Overall advancements of all machinery components are discussed followed by a detailed examination of technology advancements in axial compressors and pumps. Future technology needs are suggested.

  11. Limited efficacy of early postoperative jejunal feeding.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J T; Wolfe, B M; Calvert, C C

    1985-07-01

    Twenty patients underwent placement of a jejunal catheter for early postoperative feeding at the time of upper abdominal operations, and a control group of 11 patients underwent operative procedures of similar magnitude without jejunostomy. Advancement of the rate of feeding to target intake over 6 to 7 days was attempted. Complications from the feeding led to cessation or curtailment of intake in 65 percent of the patients. Specific complications included abdominal pain and distention, diarrhea, and retrograde reflux of the feeding into the stomach. No statistically significant difference in nitrogen balance was demonstrated between the fed and unfed groups, presumably due to the limitations of nutrient delivery or absorption in the fed groups or elevated breath hydrogen excretion in patients with abdominal pain and distention suggests that the nature of the nutrients, particularly complex carbohydrates, is a factor in the development of feeding complications. Caution must be exercised in advancing the rate of postoperative jejunal feeding. PMID:3925800

  12. Limits of Astrophysics with Gravitational-Wave Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Thomas; Sammut, Letizia; Qiu, Shi; Mandel, Ilya; Thrane, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The recent Advanced LIGO detection of gravitational waves from the binary black hole GW150914 suggests there exists a large population of merging binary black holes in the Universe. Although most are too distant to be individually resolved by advanced detectors, the superposition of gravitational waves from many unresolvable binaries is expected to create an astrophysical stochastic background. Recent results from the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations show that this astrophysical background is within reach of Advanced LIGO. In principle, the binary black hole background encodes interesting astrophysical properties, such as the mass distribution and redshift distribution of distant binaries. However, we show that this information will be difficult to extract with the current configuration of advanced detectors (and using current data analysis tools). Additionally, the binary black hole background also constitutes a foreground that limits the ability of advanced detectors to observe other interesting stochastic background signals, for example, from cosmic strings or phase transitions in the early Universe. We quantify this effect.

  13. At the limit of polychromatic microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, Gene E; Pang, Judy; Larson, Ben C; Budai, John D; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Choi, Jae-Young; Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Shu, Deming; Khounsary, Ali

    2009-01-01

    With a high-energy 3rd generation source like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), it is possible to push the performance of polychromatic microdiffraction far beyond current levels and to approach the intrinsic limit of the technique based on sample damage and the diffraction limit of X-rays. We describe ongoing efforts to improve the spatial, temporal and momentum transfer resolution of polychromatic microdiffraction on beamline 34-ID-E at the APS. The goal of this effort is to provide high-resolution images of 3D crystal structures over sufficient volumes and with sufficient detail to clarify the underlying physics of inhomogeneous structure and evolution on mesoscopic length scales. The performance of a high-speed amorphous Si area detector system and the ongoing development of advanced focusing optics will be described and discussed in light of the ultimate limits set by the physics of X-rays and materials, and in light of opportunities to field specialized insertion devices and optics for polychromatic microdiffraction.

  14. Strategic arms limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  15. Fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  16. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  17. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  18. Limits to biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  19. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  20. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  1. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  2. Optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit

    PubMed Central

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past century the resolution of far-field optical microscopes, which rely on propagating optical modes, was widely believed to be limited because of diffraction to a value on the order of a half-wavelength λ∕2 of the light used. Although immersion microscopes had slightly improved resolution on the order of λ∕2n, the increased resolution was limited by the small range of refractive indices, n, of available transparent materials. We are experiencing quick demolition of the diffraction limit in optical microscopy. Over the past few years numerous nonlinear optical microscopy techniques based on photoswitching and saturation of fluorescence demonstrated far-field resolution of 20 to 30 nm. The latest exciting example of these techniques has been demonstrated by Huang et al. [Science 319, 810–813 (2008)]. Moreover, recent progress in metamaterials indicates that artificial optical media can be created, which do not exhibit the diffraction limit. Resolution of linear “immersion” microscopes based on such metamaterials appears limited only by losses, which can be compensated by gain media. Thus, optical microscopy is quickly moving towards the 10 nm resolution scale, which should bring about numerous revolutionary advances in biomedical imaging. PMID:19404465

  3. Advances in Bioprinting Technologies for Craniofacial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Dafydd O; Farré-Guasch, Elisabet; Helder, Marco N; Gibbs, Susan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; van Zuijlen, Paul P; Wolff, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor site morbidity. These limitations have subsequently led to the development of less invasive techniques such as 3D bioprinting that could offer possibilities to manufacture patient-tailored bioactive tissue constructs for craniofacial reconstruction. Here, we discuss the current technological and (pre)clinical advances of 3D bioprinting for use in craniofacial reconstruction and highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the coming years. PMID:27113634

  4. Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Pierre; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Menzel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    X-ray ptychography, a scanning coherent diffractive imaging technique, holds promise for imaging with dose-limited resolution and sensitivity. If the foreseen increase of coherent flux by orders of magnitude can be matched by additional technological and analytical advances, ptychography may approach imaging speeds familiar from full-field methods while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. Beyond promises of high throughput, spectroscopic applications in three dimensions become feasible, as do measurements of sample dynamics through time-resolved imaging or careful characterization of decoherence effects. PMID:25177990

  5. Limits of custodial symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Di Chiara, Stefano; Foadi, Roshan

    2009-11-01

    We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. This 'doublet-extended standard model' adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4)xU(1){sub X}{approx}SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xP{sub LR}xU(1){sub X} symmetry in the top-quark mass generating sector. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M{yields}0) and standard-model-like (M{yields}{infinity}) limits. In this simple model, we find that the experimental limits on the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling favor smaller M while the presence of a potentially sizable negative contribution to {alpha}T strongly favors large M. Comparison with precision electroweak data shows that the heavy partner of the top quark must be heavier than about 3.4 TeV, making it difficult to search for at LHC. This result demonstrates that electroweak data strongly limit the amount by which the custodial symmetry of the top-quark mass generating sector can be enhanced relative to the standard model. Using an effective field theory calculation, we illustrate how the leading contributions to {alpha}T, {alpha}S, and the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling in this model arise from an effective operator coupling right-handed top quarks to the Z boson, and how the effects on these observables are correlated. We contrast this toy model with extradimensional models in which the extended custodial symmetry is invoked to control the size of additional contributions to {alpha}T and the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling, while leaving the standard model contributions essentially unchanged.

  6. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  7. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...

  8. Nature limits filarial transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

  9. Physical limits to magnetogenetics.

    PubMed

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. PMID:27529126

  10. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  11. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  12. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  13. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  14. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  15. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  16. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  17. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  18. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  19. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  20. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  1. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  2. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  3. Advances in Autophagy Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Laura E.; Williamson, Leon E.; Chan, Edmond Y. W.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy plays a critical role in cell metabolism by degrading and recycling internal components when challenged with limited nutrients. This fundamental and conserved mechanism is based on a membrane trafficking pathway in which nascent autophagosomes engulf cytoplasmic cargo to form vesicles that transport their content to the lysosome for degradation. Based on this simple scheme, autophagy modulates cellular metabolism and cytoplasmic quality control to influence an unexpectedly wide range of normal mammalian physiology and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarise recent advancements in three broad areas of autophagy regulation. We discuss current models on how autophagosomes are initiated from endogenous membranes. We detail how the uncoordinated 51-like kinase (ULK) complex becomes activated downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1). Finally, we summarise the upstream signalling mechanisms that can sense amino acid availability leading to activation of MTORC1. PMID:27187479

  4. Recent Advances in Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Yeun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is characterized with acute systemic vasculitis, occurs predominantly in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Patients with this disease recover well and the disease is self-limited in most cases. Since it can lead to devastating cardiovascular complications, KD needs special attention. Recent reports show steady increases in the prevalence of KD in both Japan and Korea. However, specific pathogens have yet to be found. Recent advances in research on KD include searches for genetic susceptibility related to KD and research on immunopathogenesis based on innate and acquired immunity. Also, search for etiopathogenesis and treatment of KD has been actively sought after using animal models. In this paper, the recent progress of research on KD was discussed. PMID:26632378

  5. Advanced measurement techniques, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Carraway, Debra L.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Croom, Cynthia C.

    1987-01-01

    In modern laminar flow flight and wind tunnel research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The process of transition involves both the possible modes of disturbance growth, and the environmental conditioning of the instabilities by freestream or surface conditions. The possible modes of disturbance growth include viscous, inviscid, and modes which may bypass these natural ones. Theory provides information on the possible modes of disturbance amplification, but experimentation must be relied upon to determine which of those modes actually dominates the transition process in a given environment. The results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of transition phenomena in the subsonic and transonic flight and wind tunnel environments are presented.

  6. Advances in Autophagy Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Laura E; Williamson, Leon E; Chan, Edmond Y W

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy plays a critical role in cell metabolism by degrading and recycling internal components when challenged with limited nutrients. This fundamental and conserved mechanism is based on a membrane trafficking pathway in which nascent autophagosomes engulf cytoplasmic cargo to form vesicles that transport their content to the lysosome for degradation. Based on this simple scheme, autophagy modulates cellular metabolism and cytoplasmic quality control to influence an unexpectedly wide range of normal mammalian physiology and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarise recent advancements in three broad areas of autophagy regulation. We discuss current models on how autophagosomes are initiated from endogenous membranes. We detail how the uncoordinated 51-like kinase (ULK) complex becomes activated downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1). Finally, we summarise the upstream signalling mechanisms that can sense amino acid availability leading to activation of MTORC1. PMID:27187479

  7. Recent advance in patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recent advance in technology has developed a lot of new aspects of clinical monitoring. We can monitor sedation levels during anesthesia using various electroencephalographic (EEG) indices, while it is still not useful for anesthesia depth monitoring. Some attempts are made to monitor the changes in sympathetic nerve activity as one of the indicators of stress, pain/analgesia, or anesthesia. To know the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, heart rate or blood pressure variability is investigated. For trend of cardiac output, low invasive monitors have been investigated. Improvement of ultrasound enables us to see cardiac structure and function continuously and clearer, increases success rate and decreases complication of central venous puncture and various kinds of nerve blocks. Without inserting an arterial catheter, trends of arterial oxygen tension or carbon dioxide tension can be monitored. Indirect visualization of the airway decreases difficult intubation and makes it easier to teach tracheal intubation. The changes in blood volume can be speculated non-invasively. Cerebral perfusion and metabolism are not ordinary monitored yet, but some studies show their usefulness in management of critically ill. This review introduces recent advances in various monitors used in anesthesia and critical care including some studies of the author, especially focused on EEG and cardiac output. However, the most important is that these new monitors are not almighty but should be used adequately in a limited situation where their meaning is confirmed. PMID:20877698

  8. Physical limits to magnetogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17210.001 PMID:27529126

  9. Integrated Current Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, S.; Alfonso, M. M.; Mirabella, I. B.

    2011-10-01

    The LCL has been extensively used in ESA scientific satellites and since a few years ago is being also the baseline device for earth observation satellites such as CRYOSAT 1 and 2, SENTINAL 1, 2 and 3, EARTWATCH, etc. It seems that the use of this LCL is also being considered as an alternative to fuse approach for commercial telecommunication satellites. Scope of this document is to provide a technical description of the Integrated Current Limiter device (shortly ICL later on) developed inside the domain of ESTECContract22049-09-NL-A Twith STMicroelectronics s.r.l. (ref. Invitation to Tender AO/1-5784/08/NL/A T). The design of the ICL device takes into account both ESA and power electronics designer's experience. This experience is more than 25 years long in Europe. The ICL design has been leaded in order to be fully compliant with the applicable specification issued by ESA and the major European power electronics manufacturers that have participated in its edition.

  10. Limits of computational biology

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Are we close to a complete inventory of living processes so that we might expect in the near future to reproduce every essential aspect necessary for life? Or are there mechanisms and processes in cells and organisms that are presently inaccessible to us? Here I argue that a close examination of a particularly well-understood system— that of Escherichia coli chemotaxis— shows we are still a long way from a complete description. There is a level of molecular uncertainty, particularly that responsible for fine-tuning and adaptation to myriad external conditions, which we presently cannot resolve or reproduce on a computer. Moreover, the same uncertainty exists for any process in any organism and is especially pronounced and important in higher animals such as humans. Embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune recognition, memory formation, and survival in the real world, all depend on vast numbers of subtle variations in cell chemistry most of which are presently unknown or only poorly characterized. Overcoming these limitations will require us to not only accumulate large quantities of highly detailed data but also develop new computational methods able to recapitulate the massively parallel processing of living cells. PMID:25318467

  11. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity. PMID:21133977

  12. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  13. Expanding Advanced Civilizations in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, C.

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  14. Technical Considerations for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews concerns involving advanced propulsion systems. The problems involved with the use of Am-242m, is that it has a high "eta" plus an order of magnitude larger fission cross section than other fissionable materials, and that it is extremely rare. However other americium isotopes are much more common, but extremely effective isotopic separation is required. Deuterium-Tritium fusion is also not attractive for space propulsion applications. Because the pulsed systems cannot breed adequate amounts of tritium and it is difficult and expensive to bring tritium from Earth. The systems that do breed tritium have severely limited performance. However, other fusion processes should still be evaluated. Another problem with advanced propellants is that inefficiencies in converting the total energy generated into propellant energy can lead to tremendous heat rejection requirements. Therefore Many. advanced propulsion concepts benefit greatly from low-mass radiators.

  15. Confidence limits and their errors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran Raja

    2002-03-22

    Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.

  16. Aerodynamic Limitations of the UH-60A Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Colin P.; Bousman, William G.

    1996-01-01

    High quality airloads data have been obtained on an instrumented UH-60A in flight and these data provide insight into the aerodynamic limiting behavior of the rotor. At moderate weight coefficients and high advance ratio limiting performance is largely caused by high drag near the blade tip on the advancing side of the rotor as supercritical flow develops on the rotor with moderate to strong, shocks on both surfaces of the blade. Drag divergence data from two-dimensional airfoil tests show good agreement with the development of the supercritical flow regions. Large aerodynamic pitching moments are observed at high advance ratio, as well, and these pitching moments are the source of high torsional moments on the blade and control system loads. These loads occur on the advancing side of the disk and are not related to blade stall which does not occur for these weight coefficients. At high weight coefficients aerodynamic and structural limits are related to dynamic stall cycles that begin on the retreating side of the blade and, for the most severe conditions, carry around to the advancing side of the blade at the presumed first frequency of the blade/control system.

  17. Limits to Tidal Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

  18. Exercise limitation following transplantation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Trevor J; McKenna, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation is one of the medical miracles or the 20th century. It has the capacity to substantially improve exercise performance and quality of life in patients who are severely limited with chronic organ failure. We focus on the most commonly performed solid-organ transplants and describe peak exercise performance following recovery from transplantation. Across all of the common transplants, evaluated significant reduction in VO2peak is seen (typically renal and liver 65%-80% with heart and/or lung 50%-60% of predicted). Those with the lowest VO2peak pretransplant have the lowest VO2peak posttransplant. Overall very few patients have a VO2peak in the normal range. Investigation of the cause of the reduction of VO2peak has identified many factors pre- and posttransplant that may contribute. These include organ-specific factors in the otherwise well-functioning allograft (e.g., chronotropic incompetence in heart transplantation) as well as allograft dysfunction itself (e.g., chronic lung allograft dysfunction). However, looking across all transplants, a pattern emerges. A low muscle mass with qualitative change in large exercising skeletal muscle groups is seen pretransplant. Many factor posttransplant aggravate these changes or prevent them recovering, especially calcineurin antagonist drugs which are key immunosuppressing agents. This results in the reduction of VO2peak despite restoration of near normal function of the initially failing organ system. As such organ transplantation has provided an experiment of nature that has focused our attention on an important confounder of chronic organ failure-skeletal muscle dysfunction. PMID:23723030

  19. Over the limit.

    PubMed

    Qu, G

    1989-01-01

    With over 1 billion population, China is adding some 15 million to that total each year. And in the 18 years from 1982 to 2000, the net increase of Chinese population is expected to exceed 200 million. Because of the gigantic pressure from population and some mistakes in policies, the levels of ecological destruction and environment pollution are both serious. This includes deforestation, grassland degradation, desert encroachment, water resources shortage, and waste of mineral resources. Natural disasters including floods and droughts caused by those problems happen more and more frequently. If development damages the resource base, it can only result in a false prosperity, the so-called hollow economy. A large number of environmental problems result directly or indirectly from the pressure of population growth. Studies show that the appropriate number of people that can be supported by China's 9.6 million sq. km is about 700 million. However, this limit is now exceeded by over 300 million people, and will be exceeded by 500 million by the end of this century. Therefore, the task is to implement a birth control policy. At present, in urban areas, the goal of family planning has been reached, but in rural areas hard work is needed. Population control in urban areas, especially in big and medium-sized cities, includes dealing with the inflow of migrants from the countryside. There are 13 cities with a population above 2 million, 37 cities above 1-2 million, and 75 cities above 0.5-1 million. A lot of cities are very crowded, exerting great pressure on the environment. The booming of rural enterprises could provide a good solution to control the flow of rural people into big and medium-sized cities. The relationship between population, resources, environment, and development should be managed properly. PMID:12291350

  20. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  1. A Teaching Experiment in Constructing the Limit of a Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Pham Sy; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    "Limit" is a difficult mathematical concept, even for good students. It is also a key foundational idea for the study of advanced mathematics. It holds a central position as a foundation of the theory of approximation, of continuity, and of differential and integral calculus. However, the difficulty for teachers is how to organise…

  2. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  3. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  4. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  5. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  6. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  7. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  8. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  9. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  10. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  11. Role of microemuslsions in advanced drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aman Kumar; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    Microemulsions have gained significant attention from formulation scientists since the time they have been discovered, because of their excellent properties related to their stability, solubility, simplicity, and formulation aspects. The application of microemulsions is not limited to drug delivery via the oral, topical or ocular routes, but may also be seen in cosmetics, immunology, sensor devices, coating, textiles, analytical chemistry, and spermicide. Finally, the objective of this review is to discuss briefly the applications of microemulsions in advanced drug delivery. PMID:25711493

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  13. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  14. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  15. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  16. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  17. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  18. Cascaded humidified advanced turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swenson, E.C.; Cohn, A.; Bradshaw, D.; Taylor, R.; Wilson, J.M.; Gaul, G.; Jahnke, F.; Polsky, M.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes how, by combining the best features of simple- and combined-cycle gas turbine power plants, the CHAT cycle concept offers power producers a clean, more efficient and less expensive alternative to both. The patented cascaded advanced turbine and its cascaded humidified advanced turbine (CHAT) derivative offer utilities and other power producers a practical advanced gas turbine power plant by combining commercially-available gas turbine and industrial compressor technologies in a unique way. Compared to combined-cycle plants, a CHAT power plant has lower emissions and specific capital costs-approximately 20 percent lower than what is presently available. Further, CHAT`s operating characteristics are especially well-suited to load following quick start-up scenarios and they are less susceptible to power degradation from higher ambient air temperature conditions.

  19. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  20. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  1. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  2. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  3. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  4. Physical limits of inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2008-07-01

    We show that physical devices that perform observation, prediction, or recollection share an underlying mathematical structure. We call devices with that structure “inference devices”. We present a set of existence and impossibility results concerning inference devices. These results hold independent of the precise physical laws governing our universe. In a limited sense, the impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, these impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum-mechanical “uncertainty principle”. The mathematics of inference devices has close connections to the mathematics of Turing Machines (TMs). In particular, the impossibility results for inference devices are similar to the Halting theorem for TMs. Furthermore, one can define an analog of Universal TMs (UTMs) for inference devices. We call those analogs “strong inference devices”. We use strong inference devices to define the “inference complexity” of an inference task, which is the analog of the Kolmogorov complexity of computing a string. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the inference complexity of an inference task can differ for two different inference devices. This is analogous to the “encoding” bound governing how much the Kolmogorov complexity of a string can differ between two UTMs used to compute that string. However no universe can contain more than one strong inference device. So whereas the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is arbitrary up to specification of the UTM, there is no such arbitrariness in the inference complexity of an inference task. We informally discuss the philosophical implications of these results, e.g., for whether the universe “is” a computer. We also derive some graph-theoretic properties governing any set of multiple inference devices. We also present an

  5. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  6. 10 CFR 2.643 - Acceptance and docketing of application for limited work authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance and docketing of application for limited work... Construct Certain Utilization Facilities; and Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations Phased Applications Involving Limited Work Authorizations § 2.643 Acceptance and docketing of application for...

  7. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  8. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  9. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  10. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  11. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  12. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  13. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  14. Technological advances in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Orphanoudakis, S C; Kaldoudi, E; Tsiknakis, M

    1996-06-01

    Teleradiology consists of a set of added-value telematic services, implemented over an advanced telecommunications infrastructure and supported by different information technologies and related applications. The main goal of teleradiology is to provide different levels of support for remote diagnostic imaging procedures. This paper considers technological advances in this important area, including a discussion of the various added-value telematic services, applications supporting these services, and the required information technology and telecommunications infrastructure. Teleradiology is also considered in the general context of an integrated regional health telematics network, emphasizing its role and its interaction with other information and networking services. PMID:8832235

  15. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  16. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  17. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  18. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  19. Advanced Neuroimaging in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Wu, Ona

    2013-01-01

    Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging have occurred at a rapid pace over the past two decades. Novel techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow, metabolism, white matter connectivity, and neural network activation have great potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), while also providing biomarkers to guide the development of new therapies. Several of these advanced imaging modalities are currently being implemented into clinical practice, whereas others require further development and validation. Ultimately, for advanced neuroimaging techniques to reach their full potential and improve clinical care for the many civilians and military personnel affected by TBI, it is critical for clinicians to understand the applications and methodological limitations of each technique. In this review, we examine recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging and the potential applications of these techniques to the clinical care of patients with TBI. We also discuss pitfalls and confounders that should be considered when interpreting data from each technique. Finally, given the vast amounts of advanced imaging data that will soon be available to clinicians, we discuss strategies for optimizing data integration, visualization and interpretation. PMID:23361483

  20. Determining the least limiting water range using limited soil data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) is a useful tool to evaluate changes in soil physical condition caused by changing soil management. It incorporates limitations to plant growth based on limiting aeration, water holding capacity and soil strength. A disadvantage of the LLWR is the need to determ...

  1. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  2. Development of an interactive computer program for advance care planning

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J.; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of an innovative, multimedia decision aid for advance care planning. Background Advance care planning is an important way for people to articulate their wishes for medical care when they are not able to speak for themselves. Living wills and other types of advance directives are the most commonly used tools for advance care planning, but have been criticized for being vague, difficult to interpret, and inconsistent with individuals’ core beliefs and values. Results We developed a multimedia, computer-based decision aid for advance care planning (‘Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future’) to overcome many of the limitations of standard advance directive forms. This computer program guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, and unlike standard advance directives, provides tailored education, values clarification exercises, and a decision-making tool that translates an individual’s values and preferences into a specific medical plan that can be implemented by a health-care team. Pilot testing with 50 adult volunteers recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic showed high levels of satisfaction with the program. Further pilot testing with 34 cancer patients indicated that the program was perceived to be highly accurate at representing patients’ wishes. Conclusions This paper describes the development of an innovative decision aid for advance care planning that was designed to overcome common problems with standard advance directives. Preliminary testing suggests that it is acceptable to users and is accurate. PMID:18823445

  3. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  4. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  5. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Technological advances transforming rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.; Mao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the past decade have revolutionized many areas of rheumatology, ranging from diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development to the mechanistic understanding of rheumatic diseases. This overview highlights key technological innovations and discusses the major impact that these developments are having on research and clinical practice. PMID:26439404

  7. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  8. Advances in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Elma D; Kirkland, Eugene B; Domingo, Diana Santo

    2008-08-01

    Major advancements in the realm of photoprotection have occurred over the last decade providing potential means to reduce the prevalence of ultraviolet radiation-related skin problems. This review elucidates current photoprotective methods and recent developments that may hold future promise. PMID:18819220

  9. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  10. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  11. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  12. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  13. NIST ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Not-yet-possible technologies are the domain of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Technology Program. The ATP is a unique partnership between government and private industry to accelerate the development of high-risk technologies that promise sign...

  14. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  15. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  16. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  17. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  18. Management of advanced melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma.

  19. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  20. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  1. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  2. Advances in satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  3. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. The Advancement Checkup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that an external audit of a college advancement program is analogous to a periodic physical examination that offers objectivity and expertise. Audits are appropriate at the time of administrative transitions, performance difficulties, and even periods of sustained success. Guidelines and expectations are discussed. (MSE)

  5. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  6. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  7. Cartoons as Advance Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Williams, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated student reaction to the use of cartoons as advance organizers for online discussions in an online course. A convenience sample of 15 students participated in the study by contributing cartoons, participating in online discussions, and completing a survey. Overall, survey results indicated student reaction to the…

  8. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  10. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  11. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  12. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  13. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  14. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  15. Advanced electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, L.G.

    1980-07-01

    The Advanced Electric Vehicle is defined as an automobile which can fulfill the general-purpose role of today's internal-combustion-engine-powered car without utilizing petroleum fuels directly. It relies principally on the utilization of electricity. A number of candidate systems are described. The present status of each is discussed as are the problems to be overcome before implementation can proceed.

  16. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  17. Where Advancement Fails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtman, Leon E.

    1987-01-01

    Faculty members and advancement officers tend to come from different environments and to inhabit different worlds. The failure of the two to understand one another and work together in the interest of their institutions is discussed. The central administration must serve as a bridge between the two. (MLW)

  18. Interfaces for Advanced Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the coming generation of supercomputers that will have the power to make elaborate "artificial realities" that facilitate user-computer communication. Illustrates these technological advancements with examples of the use of head-mounted monitors which are connected to position and orientation sensors, and gloves that track finger and…

  19. Horizontal drilling technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-04

    Horizontal drilling technology is making further advances in the Texas Austin chalk play as such drilling continues to spread in many U.S. land areas. One company has completed a Cretaceous Austin chalk oil well with the longest horizontal well bore in Texas and what at 1 1/6 miles is believed to be the world's longest medium radius horizontal displacement.

  20. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  1. Psychological Disorders and Functional Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brentar, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Psychological disorders lead to functional limitations that can impact a student's performance in school. These students are eligible for accommodations if they can demonstrate that a specific disability exists and that it substantially limits one or more major life activity. The most common functional limitations reported by this population…

  2. Limit analysis of pipe clamps

    SciTech Connect

    Flanders, H.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Service Level D (faulted) load capacity of a conventional three-bolt pipe-clamp based upon the limit analysis method is presented. The load distribution, plastic hinge locations, and collapse load are developed for the lower bound limit load method. The results of the limit analysis are compared with the manufacturer's rated loads. 3 refs.

  3. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, L.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the performance and reliability characteristics of chemical propulsion systems requires research and testing of higher-performance propellants, higher efficiency thrusters, cryogenics technology, lightweight components and advancements in propulsion system design and assessment. Propellants are being investigated to identify practical combinations with higher efficiencies and better thermal properties to reduce thermal control requirements. This includes combinations with modest increases, such as LOX-hydrazine, as well as a new evaluation of major improvements available from fluorine-bearing oxidizers. Practical ways of implementing cryogenic propulsion to further increase efficiency are also being studied. Some potential advances include small pump-fed engines, and improvements in cryocooler technology and tank pressure control. Gelled propellants will be tested to determine the practicality of letting propellants freeze at low environmental temperatures and thawing them only when required for use. The propellant tank is typically the single highest non-expendable mass in a chemical propulsion system. Lightweight tank designs, materials and methods of fabrication are being investigated. These are projected to offer a 45-50 percent decrease in tank mass, representing the potential inert system mass savings. Mission and systems analyses are being conducted to guide the technology research and set priorities for technology investment, based on estimated gains in payload and mission capabilities. This includes development of advanced assessment tools and analyses of specific missions selected from Science Missions' Directorate. The goal is to mature a suite of reliable advanced propulsion technologies that will promote more cost efficient missions through the reduction of interplanetary trip time, increased scientific payload mass fraction and longer on-station operations. This talk will review the Advanced Chemical technology development roadmap, current

  4. Updates on Force Limiting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Scharton, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The following conventional force limiting methods currently practiced in deriving force limiting specifications assume one-dimensional translation source and load apparent masses: Simple TDOF model; Semi-empirical force limits; Apparent mass, etc.; Impedance method. Uncorrelated motion of the mounting points for components mounted on panels and correlated, but out-of-phase, motions of the support structures are important and should be considered in deriving force limiting specifications. In this presentation "rock-n-roll" motions of the components supported by panels, which leads to a more realistic force limiting specifications are discussed.

  5. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  6. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Green, Kim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing towards generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. PMID:24922570

  7. Recent Advances in Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of 'nano-impacts'. PMID:26246984

  8. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  9. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  10. Epilepsy: new advances.

    PubMed

    Moshé, Solomon L; Perucca, Emilio; Ryvlin, Philippe; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2015-03-01

    Epilepsy affects 65 million people worldwide and entails a major burden in seizure-related disability, mortality, comorbidities, stigma, and costs. In the past decade, important advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and factors affecting its prognosis. These advances have translated into new conceptual and operational definitions of epilepsy in addition to revised criteria and terminology for its diagnosis and classification. Although the number of available antiepileptic drugs has increased substantially during the past 20 years, about a third of patients remain resistant to medical treatment. Despite improved effectiveness of surgical procedures, with more than half of operated patients achieving long-term freedom from seizures, epilepsy surgery is still done in a small subset of drug-resistant patients. The lives of most people with epilepsy continue to be adversely affected by gaps in knowledge, diagnosis, treatment, advocacy, education, legislation, and research. Concerted actions to address these challenges are urgently needed. PMID:25260236

  11. Advanced Separation Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was formed in 2001 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to conduct fundamental research in advanced separation and to develop technologies that can be used to produce coal and minerals in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The CAST consortium consists of seven universities - Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Montana Tech, University of Utah, University of Nevada-Reno, and New Mexico Tech. The consortium brings together a broad range of expertise to solve problems facing the US coal industry and the mining sector in general. At present, a total of 60 research projects are under way. The article outlines some of these, on topics including innovative dewatering technologies, removal of mercury and other impurities, and modelling of the flotation process. 1 photo.

  12. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  13. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  14. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  15. Technical advances power neuroscience

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, M.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques are helping researchers study the development of nerve cells in cell cultures and in vivo. These new methods are offering insights into the brain that were not available even a couple of years ago. Among the new advances discussed are imaging technology for evaluating the thinking human brain. One area in which researchers have made recent progress is the quest for ways to create immortal cell lines from specific types of nerve cells. Other projects using genetically engineered retroviruses and tumor-inducing genes, as well as gene regulation are discussed. Recent advances in neuroscience techniques apply not only to neurons, but also to whole brains as well. One example is a high-resulution electroencephalogram (EEG). Although the EEG cannot pin down the actual sites of activity as precisely as static brain imaging methods, it complements them with real-time recording that can keep up with the very rapid pace of brain activity.

  16. Advanced Sensor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, D. C.; Howard, D. E.; Smith, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Concepts project was conducted under the Center Director's Discretionary Fund at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Its objective was to advance the technology originally developed for the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology project. The objective of this effort was to develop and test several new motion sensors. To date, the investigators have invented seven new technologies during this endeavor and have conceived several others. The innovative basic sensor technology is an absolute position sensor. It employs only two active components, and it is simple, inexpensive, reliable, repeatable, lightweight, and relatively unobtrusive. Two sensors can be utilized in the same physical space to achieve redundancy. The sensor has micrometer positional accuracy and can be configured as a two- or three-dimensional sensor. The sensor technology has the potential to pioneer a new class of linear and rotary sensors. This sensor is the enabling technology for autonomous assembly of modular structures in space and on extraterrestrial locations.

  17. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  18. Advanced Virgo: AN Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fafone, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years on the development of gravitational wave detectors. Several km-scale interferometers have already operated at interesting sensitivity levels. In particular, the interferometric detector for gravitational waves Virgo completed its fourth science run in August 2011, when the upgrade toward the second-generation detector Advanced Virgo started. This major upgrade is planned to be completed by 2015. The expected final sensitivity of Advanced Virgo is about ten times better than the sensitivity reached by its predecessor. Many of the components of the detector will be changed to meet this goal, including new core optics, a more powerful laser, an improved vacuum system, the implementation of the signal-recycling technique. In this paper the description of the project and the expected schedule are presented.

  19. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  20. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler–Volmer and Marcus–Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of ‘nano-impacts’. PMID:26246984

  1. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Advanced composites X

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In the past ten years, high volume, high performance applications of advanced composites in transportation have grown substantially. The 10th annual ASM/ESD Advanced Composites Conference and Exposition presents the latest developments in composite applications and technologies with over 70 papers presented. The conference is organized in tracks covering body, chassis, powertrain and infrastructure applications, material sciences, manufacturing processes and recycling. Polymer composite and metal matrix composite technologies are included throughout. Body sessions feature adhesive bonding, analysis and test methods and crash energy absorption. The Chassis sessions showcase polymer and metal composite applications. The Powertrain/Propulsion track includes emerging materials as well as design and processing case studies. The Materials Science track features papers on new materials, their performance and theoretical treatment. Manufacturing Processes sessions cover process, modelling, fiber preforming and emerging manufacturing methods. The Infrastructure and Recycling track includes a panel discussion of infrastructure applications and technical papers on the recycling of polymer composites and nondestructive testing.

  3. Advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, D. J.

    1985-12-01

    A collection of papers on advanced signal processing in radar, sonar, and communications is presented. The topics addressed include: transmitter aerials, high-power amplifier design for active sonar, radar transmitters, receiver array technology for sonar, new underwater acoustic detectors, diversity techniques in communications receivers, GaAs IC amplifiers for radar and communication receivers, integrated optical techniques for acoustooptic receivers, logarithmic receivers, CCD processors for sonar, acoustooptic correlators, designing in silicon, very high performance integrated circuits, and digital filters. Also discussed are: display types, scan converters in sonar, display ergonomics, simulators, high throughput sonar processors, optical fiber systems for signal processing, satellite communications, VLSI array processor for image and signal processing, ADA, future of cryogenic devices for signal processing applications, advanced image understanding, and VLSI architectures for real-time image processing.

  4. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  5. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  6. Advancing-layers method for generation of unstructured viscous grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach for generating highly stretched grids which is based on a modified advancing-front technique and benefits from the generality, flexibility, and grid quality of the conventional advancing-front-based Euler grid generators is presented. The method is self-sufficient for the insertion of grid points in the boundary layer and beyond. Since it is based on a totally unstructured grid strategy, the method alleviates the difficulties stemming from the structural limitations of the prismatic techniques.

  7. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  8. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  9. Advanced studies program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in view graph form and include the following: (1) Space Station Engineering; (2) level 1 engineering organization; (3) advanced studies program organization; (4) NASA Center support areas; (5) work breakdown; (6) Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program Phases; (7) distributed systems evolution; (8) Space Shuttle ET mating analogy to on-orbit tank mating; (9) reference growth concept; (10) technology assessment process; (11) SSF technology priorities; (12) accomplishments; and (13) near term direction.

  10. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  11. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  12. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  13. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  14. Recent advances in dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Teresa; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The use of dermoscopy has offered a new morphological dimension of skin lesions and has provided an effective diagnostic tool to differentiate melanoma from other benign or malignant skin tumors but also to support the clinical diagnosis in general dermatology. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent and important advances in the rising world of dermoscopy. PMID:26949523

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  16. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d-/sup 3/He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs.

  17. The Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Advanced Small Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Lithium-based units offer highest performance. Paper reviews status of advanced, small rechargeable batteries. Covers aqueous systems including lead/lead dioxide, cadmium/nickel oxide, hydrogen/nickel oxide, and zinc/nickel oxide, as well as nonaqueous systems. All based on lithium anodes, nonaqueous systems include solid-cathode cells (lithium/molybdenum disulfide, lithium/titanium disulfide, and lithium/vanadium oxide); liquid-cathode cells (lithium/sulfur dioxide cells); and new category, lithium/polymer cells.

  19. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  20. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  1. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  2. Advanced composites for windmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquardez, G.

    A development status assessment is conducted for advanced composite construction techniques for windmill blade structures which, as in the case of composite helicopter rotors, promise greater reliability, longer service life, superior performance, and lower costs. Composites in wind turbine applications must bear aerodynamic, inertial and gravitational loads in complex interaction cycles. Attention is given to large Darrieus-type vertical axis windmills, to which composite construction methods may offer highly effective pitch-control mechanisms, especially in the 'umbrella' configuration.

  3. Advanced geothermal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Murphy, H.D.; Hanold, R.J.; Myers, C.W.; Dunn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the US Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was producing 10 MW thermal - and still climbing - proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction has been demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive. Noteworthy among these technological advances are techniques in computer simulation of geothermal reservoirs, new means for well stimulation, new high-temperature logging tools and packers, new hard-rock penetration techniques, and new methods for mapping fracture flow paths across large underground areas in reservoirs. In addition, many of these same technological advances can be applied by the petroleum industry to help lower production costs in domestic oil and gas fields. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  5. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  6. Advanced gearbox technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Cedoz, R. W.; Salama, E. E.; Wagner, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced 13,000 HP, counterrotating (CR) gearbox was designed and successfully tested to provide a technology base for future designs of geared propfan propulsion systems for both commercial and military aircraft. The advanced technology CR gearbox was designed for high efficiency, low weight, long life, and improved maintainability. The differential planetary CR gearbox features double helical gears, double row cylindrical roller bearings integral with planet gears, tapered roller prop support bearings, and a flexible ring gear and diaphragm to provide load sharing. A new Allison propfan back-to-back gearbox test facility was constructed. Extensive rotating and stationary instrumentation was used to measure temperature, strain, vibration, deflection and efficiency under representative flight operating conditions. The tests verified smooth, efficient gearbox operation. The highly-instrumented advanced CR gearbox was successfully tested to design speed and power (13,000 HP), and to a 115 percent overspeed condition. Measured CR gearbox efficiency was 99.3 percent at the design point based on heat loss to the oil. Tests demonstrated low vibration characteristics of double helical gearing, proper gear tooth load sharing, low stress levels, and the high load capacity of the prop tapered roller bearings. Applied external prop loads did not significantly affect gearbox temperature, vibration, or stress levels. Gearbox hardware was in excellent condition after the tests with no indication of distress.

  7. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  8. Advanced Rigid Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate s (ESMD) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project (TDP) and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s (ARMD) Hypersonics Project are developing new advanced rigid ablators in an effort to substantially increase reliability, decrease mass, and reduce life cycle cost of rigid aeroshell-based entry systems for multiple missions. Advanced Rigid Ablators combine ablation resistant top layers capable of high heat flux entry and enable high-speed EDL with insulating mass-efficient bottom that, insulate the structure and lower the areal weight. These materials may benefit Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) vendors and may potentially enable new NASA missions for higher velocity returns (e.g. asteroid, Mars). The materials have been thermally tested to 400-450 W/sq cm at the Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Lab (LHMEL), Hypersonics Materials Evaluation Test System (HyMETS) and in arcjet facilities. Tested materials exhibit much lower backface temperatures and reduced recession over the baseline materials (PICA). Although the EDL project is ending in FY11, NASA in-house development of advanced ablators will continue with a focus on varying resin systems and fiber/resin interactions.

  9. Advanced battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  10. Advances in Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, W. R.

    This is the first volume of Advances in Irrigation, a new serial publication by the publishers of Advances in Agronomy and Advances in Hydroscience and designed to follow the same format. The editor is a well-known researcher and writer on irrigation and related subjects and has assembled a collection of highly regarded and respected authors for the initial volume. The readership for this volume will probably be mainly specialists and students interested in irrigation and an occasional design engineer.The seven contributions in this volume fall roughly into two classes: research and practice. Three papers (“Conjunctive Use of Rainfall and Irrigation in Semi-arid Regions,” by Stewart and Musik, “Irrigation Scheduling Using Soil Moisture Measurements: Theory and Practice,” by G. S. and M. D. Campbell, and “Use of Solute Transport Models to Estimate Salt Balance Below Irrigated Cropland,” by Jury) cover topics that have been the subject of a number of reviews. The contributions here provide brief, well-written, and authoritative summaries of the chosen topics and serve as good introductions or reviews. They should lend themselves well to classroom use in various ways. They also should be helpful to the nonspecialist interested in getting a sense of the subject without going into great detail.

  11. Limits of performance: CW laser damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rashmi S.; Rey, Justin J.; Stewart, Alan F.

    2007-01-01

    High performance optical coatings are an enabling technology for many applications - navigation systems, telecom, fusion, advanced measurement systems of many types as well as directed energy weapons. The results of recent testing of superior optical coatings conducted at high flux levels have been presented. Failure of these coatings was rare. However, induced damage was not expected from simple thermal models relating flux loading to induced temperatures. Clearly, other mechanisms must play a role in the occurrence of laser damage. Contamination is an obvious mechanism-both particulate and molecular. Less obvious are structural defects and the role of induced stresses. These mechanisms are examined through simplified models and finite element analysis. The results of the models are compared to experiment, for induced temperatures and observed stress levels. The role of each mechanism is described and limiting performance is determined.

  12. Human factors of advanced technology (glass cockpit) transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year study of airline crews at two U.S. airlines who were flying an advanced technology aircraft, the Boeing 757 is discussed. The opinions and experiences of these pilots as they view the advanced, automated features of this aircraft, and contrast them with previous models they have flown are discussed. Training for advanced automation; (2) cockpit errors and error reduction; (3) management of cockpit workload; and (4) general attitudes toward cockpit automation are emphasized. The limitations of the air traffic control (ATC) system on the ability to utilize the advanced features of the new aircraft are discussed. In general the pilots are enthusiastic about flying an advanced technology aircraft, but they express mixed feelings about the impact of automation on workload, crew errors, and ability to manage the flight.

  13. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  14. Advances in surgery. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the advancements made in surgery. The topics discussed are: Diagnostic uses of computerized tomography of abdomen; kidney surgery advancements, evaluation and management of pheochromocytomas; trauma of spleen and liver and microsurgery applications.

  15. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    MedlinePlus

    ... Getting Started State by State Info FAQs Educational Webcasts Links Current Research In the News Legal Issues ... How to write a Psychiatric Advance Directive?" View webcast (15:04) What are Psychiatric Advance Directives? View ...

  16. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  17. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  18. Fully integrated biochip platforms for advanced healthcare.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications. PMID:23112644

  19. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications. PMID:23112644

  20. Advanced imaging research and development at DARPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Nibir K.; Dat, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Advances in imaging technology have huge impact on our daily lives. Innovations in optics, focal plane arrays (FPA), microelectronics and computation have revolutionized camera design. As a result, new approaches to camera design and low cost manufacturing is now possible. These advances are clearly evident in visible wavelength band due to pixel scaling, improvements in silicon material and CMOS technology. CMOS cameras are available in cell phones and many other consumer products. Advances in infrared imaging technology have been slow due to market volume and many technological barriers in detector materials, optics and fundamental limits imposed by the scaling laws of optics. There is of course much room for improvements in both, visible and infrared imaging technology. This paper highlights various technology development projects at DARPA to advance the imaging technology for both, visible and infrared. Challenges and potentials solutions are highlighted in areas related to wide field-of-view camera design, small pitch pixel, broadband and multiband detectors and focal plane arrays.

  1. Chemical Approaches for Advanced Optical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixing

    Advances in optical microscopy have been constantly expanding our knowledge of biological systems. The achievements therein are a result of close collaborations between physicists/engineers who build the imaging instruments and chemists/biochemists who design the corresponding probe molecules. In this work I present a number of chemical approaches for the development of advanced optical imaging methods. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the recent advances of novel imaging approaches taking advantage of chemical tag technologies. Chapter 2 describes the second-generation covalent trimethoprim-tag as a viable tool for live cell protein-specific labeling and imaging. In Chapter 3 we present a fluorescence lifetime imaging approach to map protein-specific micro-environment in live cells using TMP-Cy3 as a chemical probe. In Chapter 4, we present a method harnessing photo-activatable fluorophores to extend the fundamental depth limit in multi-photon microscopy. Chapter 5 describes the development of isotopically edited alkyne palette for multi-color live cell vibrational imaging of cellular small molecules. These studies exemplify the impact of modern chemical approaches in the development of advanced optical microscopies.

  2. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  3. TIMSS Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden, Robert A.; Lie, Svein; Robitaille, David F.; Angell, Carl; Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2006-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks was a collaborative venture involving mathematics and physics experts from around the world. The document contains two frameworks for implementing TIMSS Advanced 2008--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics. It also contains…

  4. TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The "TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks" provides the foundation for the two international assessments to take place as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) Advanced 2015--Advanced Mathematics and Physics. Chapter 1 (Liv…

  5. Advances in ice mechanics - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.; Hallam, S.D.; Maatanen, M.; Sinha, N.K.; Sodhi, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the interaction of icebergs with offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included advances in ice mechanics in the United Kingdom, ice mechanics in Finland, recent advances in ice mechanics in Canada, advances in sea ice mechanics in the USA, foundations, monitoring, hazards, risk assessment, and deformation.

  6. Report of the Commission on Tests: II. Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    The second volume of the Commission on Tests' report contains the briefs submitted by individual members for the consideration of the full Commission. These briefs, which argued for 46 proposed recommendations, formed the basis for the recommendations made in the first volume. Each brief is accompanied by a record of the endorsements, comments,…

  7. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  8. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  9. The limits of crop productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce; Monje, Oscar

    1992-01-01

    The component processes that govern yield limits in food crops are reviewed and how each process can be individually measured is described. The processes considered include absorption of photosynthetic radiation by green tissue, carbon-fixation efficiency in photosynthesis, carbon use efficiency in respiration, biomass allocation to edible products, and efficiency of photosynthesis and respiration. The factors limiting yields in optimal environments are considered.

  10. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  11. Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W.

    1992-12-31

    A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

  12. Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M.; McGlynn, B.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Sharma, P.; Zuppe, S.; Pfeiffer, C.

    2008-12-01

    In-class hydrology education is typically strongly biased towards the instructor's background and overcoming this limitation is burdensome within the time-constraints academia. This problem is particularly true for academics in tenure-track positions when most of the material development must occur. To overcome this challenge and advance a broader perspective of hydrology education, we are in the process of establishing the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology education and a modular core curriculum based on modern pedagogical standards. The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty in educating hydrologists that can solve today's and tomorrow's interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced.

  13. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26475775

  14. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  15. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  16. Advances in Light Microscopy for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Brian A.; Burns, Laurie D.; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Mukamel, Eran A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the work of Golgi and Cajal, light microscopy has remained a key tool for neuroscientists to observe cellular properties. Ongoing advances have enabled new experimental capabilities using light to inspect the nervous system across multiple spatial scales, including ultrastructural scales finer than the optical diffraction limit. Other progress permits functional imaging at faster speeds, at greater depths in brain tissue, and over larger tissue volumes than previously possible. Portable, miniaturized fluorescence microscopes now allow brain imaging in freely behaving mice. Complementary progress on animal preparations has enabled imaging in head-restrained behaving animals, as well as time-lapse microscopy studies in the brains of live subjects. Mouse genetic approaches permit mosaic and inducible fluorescence-labeling strategies, whereas intrinsic contrast mechanisms allow in vivo imaging of animals and humans without use of exogenous markers. This review surveys such advances and highlights emerging capabilities of particular interest to neuroscientists. PMID:19555292

  17. Advanced Materials for Neural Surface Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Amelia A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing electrodes for neural interfacing applications requires deep consideration of a multitude of materials factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the stiffness, biocompatibility, biostability, dielectric, and conductivity properties of the materials involved. The combination of materials properties chosen not only determines the ability of the device to perform its intended function, but also the extent to which the body reacts to the presence of the device after implantation. Advances in the field of materials science continue to yield new and improved materials with properties well-suited for neural applications. Although many of these materials have been well-established for non-biological applications, their use in medical devices is still relatively novel. The intention of this review is to outline new material advances for neural electrode arrays, in particular those that interface with the surface of the nervous tissue, as well as to propose future directions for neural surface electrode development. PMID:26392802

  18. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  19. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  20. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  1. Advancing High Contrast Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, M.; Poyneer, L.; GPI Team

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing challenge has been to directly image faint extrasolar planets adjacent to their host suns, which may be ~1-10 million times brighter than the planet. Several extreme AO systems designed for high-contrast observations have been tested at this point, including SPHERE, Magellan AO, PALM-3000, Project 1640, NICI, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI, Macintosh et al. 2014). The GPI is the world's most advanced high-contrast adaptive optics system on an 8-meter telescope for detecting and characterizing planets outside of our solar system. GPI will detect a previously unstudied population of young analogs to the giant planets of our solar system and help determine how planetary systems form. GPI employs a 44x44 woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 1 kHz. The controller uses Fourier-based reconstruction and modal gains optimized from system telemetry (Poyneer et al. 2005, 2007). GPI has an apodized Lyot coronal graph to suppress diffraction and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for obtaining planetary spectra. This paper discusses current performance limitations and presents the necessary instrumental modifications and sensitivity calculations for scenarios related to high-contrast observations of non-sidereal targets.

  2. Advances in recombinant antibody manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Renate; Reinhart, David

    2016-04-01

    Since the first use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for recombinant protein expression, production processes have steadily improved through numerous advances. In this review, we have highlighted several key milestones that have contributed to the success of CHO cells from the beginning of their use for monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression until today. The main factors influencing the yield of a production process are the time to accumulate a desired amount of biomass, the process duration, and the specific productivity. By comparing maximum cell densities and specific growth rates of various expression systems, we have emphasized the limiting parameters of different cellular systems and comprehensively described scientific approaches and techniques to improve host cell lines. Besides the quantitative evaluation of current systems, the quality-determining properties of a host cell line, namely post-translational modifications, were analyzed and compared to naturally occurring polyclonal immunoglobulin fractions from human plasma. In summary, numerous different expression systems for mAbs are available and also under scientific investigation. However, CHO cells are the most frequently investigated cell lines and remain the workhorse for mAb production until today. PMID:26936774

  3. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.

  4. Prediction of Limit Strains in Limiting Dome Height Formability Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadpoor, Amir A.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the Marciniak-Kunczynski (MK) method is combined with the Storen-Rice analysis in order to improve accuracy of the predicted limit strains in Limiting Dome Height (LDH) test. FEM simulation is carried out by means of a commercial FEM code (ABAQUS) and FEM results are postprocessed by using an improved MK code. It has been shown that while original MK method considerably misspredicts the limit strains, a combination of MK method and Storen-Rice analysis can predict the dome height with a very good accuracy.

  5. Advanced wind turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, P.M.; Jaffrey, A.

    1995-09-01

    Garrad Hassan have a project in progress funded by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to assess the prospects and cost benefits of advanced wind turbine design. In the course of this work, a new concept, the coned rotor design, has been developed. This enables a wind turbine system to operate in effect with variable rotor diameter augmenting energy capture in light winds and shedding loads in storm conditions. Comparisons with conventional design suggest that a major benefit in reduced cost of wind generated electricity may be possible.

  6. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  7. Advanced SCADA concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sciacca, S.C. ); Block, W.R. )

    1995-01-01

    The typical utility system planner faces a wide variety of concepts and applications to consider when procuring a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The system's performance requirements are influenced by an arena of rapidly advancing technologies and a highly competitive business environment. Unlike other elements of the electric utility industry, these changes are not evolving specifically for the SCADA industry; they are being driven by other technology forums, with a profound impact on the SCADA system of the future. This article explores some of these concepts and suggests technology and business issues to consider when planning for the SCADA system of tomorrow.

  8. Advanced turboprop project

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, R.D.; Vrabel, D.

    1988-01-01

    At the direction of Congress, a task force headed by NASA was organized in 1975 to identify potential fuel saving concepts for aviation. The result was the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program implemented in 1976. An important part of the program was the development of advanced turboprop technology for Mach 0.65 to 0.85 applications having the potential fuel saving of 30 to 50 percent relative to existing turbofan engines. A historical perspective is presented of the development and the accomplishments that brought the turboprop to successful flight tests in 1986 and 1987.

  9. Advances in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Prakashchand; Jindal, Ankita; Saini, V.K.; Jindal, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of long-term diabetes mellitus (DM). Over the last 2 decades lot of work has been on early diagnosis of DR and screening programs have been designed to help the masses. Large numbers of clinical studies have been done for patients of diabetes and DR wherein the role of blood sugar control, metabolic control, role of oral medicines for DR, role of imaging, fluorescein angiography, and retinal photocoagulation has been studied. Newer treatment modalities are being devised and studied for better patient care. We discuss these issues in our review highlight and newer advances over the last few years. PMID:25364670

  10. Advanced composites technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. Critical technology issues that must be addressed and solved to develop composite primary structures for transport aircraft are delineated. The program schedule and milestones are included. Work completed in the first 3 years of the program indicates the potential for achieving composite structures that weigh less and are cost effective relative to conventional aluminum structure. Selected technical accomplishments are noted. Readers who are seeking more in-depth technical information should study the other papers included in these proceedings.

  11. [Advance in imaging spectropolarimeter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-quan; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Jin-song; Jing, Juan-juan

    2011-07-01

    Imaging spectropolarimeter (ISP) is a type of novel photoelectric sensor which integrated the functions of imaging, spectrometry and polarimetry. In the present paper, the concept of the ISP is introduced, and the advances in ISP at home and abroad in recent years is reviewed. The principles of ISPs based on novel devices, such as acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), are illustrated. In addition, the principles of ISPs developed by adding polarized components to the dispersing-type imaging spectrometer, spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, and computer tomography imaging spectrometer are introduced. Moreover, the trends of ISP are discussed too. PMID:21942063

  12. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  13. Advances in Therapeutic Cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Renata Nobre; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, cholangioscopy is an established modality in diagnostic and treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. The more widespread use and the recent development of new technologies and accessories had renewed the interest of endoscopic visualization of the biliary tract, increasing the range of indications and therapeutic procedures, such as diagnostic of indeterminate biliary strictures, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative techniques for intraductal malignancies, removal of foreign bodies and gallbladder drainage. These endoscopic interventions will probably be the last frontier in the near future. This paper presents the new advances in therapeutic cholangioscopy, focusing on the current clinical applications and on research areas. PMID:27403156

  14. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  15. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  16. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  17. Advanced Turboprop Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Roy D.; Vrabel, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    At the direction of Congress, a task force headed by NASA was organized in 1975 to identify potential fuel saving concepts for aviation. The result was the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program implemented in 1976. An important part of the program was the development of advanced turboprop technology for Mach 0.65 to 0.85 applications having the potential fuel saving of 30 to 50 percent relative to existing turbofan engines. A historical perspective is presented of the development and the accomplishments that brought the turboprop to successful flight tests in 1986 and 1987.

  18. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Vaderhobli, Ram M

    2011-07-01

    The use of materials to rehabilitate tooth structures is constantly changing. Over the past decade, newer material processing techniques and technologies have significantly improved the dependability and predictability of dental material for clinicians. The greatest obstacle, however, is in choosing the right combination for continued success. Finding predictable approaches for successful restorative procedures has been the goal of clinical and material scientists. This article provides a broad perspective on the advances made in various classes of dental restorative materials in terms of their functionality with respect to pit and fissure sealants, glass ionomers, and dental composites. PMID:21726695

  19. Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  20. Advanced information society (10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Informationalization in Japan has spread among various fields of industrial and social life in wide and depth by drastic advancement in technology and networking. Looking at the change in industrial structure as well as international trend in information the Japanese Government regards the role of information and communication technology as infrastructure to be important, and is under the way of constructing various measures with ministries and agencies concerned with them. This paper describes how administrative agencies involved in information and communication such as Ministry of Postal Services, Ministry of International Trade and Industry cope with informationalization, and mentions future direction in information policies.

  1. Mandibular Advancement Splints.

    PubMed

    Bamagoos, Ahmad A; Sutherland, Kate; Cistulli, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    Although mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are not as efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing obstructive respiratory events, patient adherence and preference are greater than CPAP. Additionally, the effectiveness of both treatments on general health outcomes, cognitive function, and quality of life appears to be equivalent. The main barrier for the implementation of MAS treatment in clinical practice is the interindividual variability in response to MAS treatment. Several prediction tools have been proposed to enhance patient selection for MAS treatment. Phenotyping obstructive sleep apnea patients may reveal patient characteristics that enable the prediction of response to MAS treatment. PMID:27542880

  2. Advanced radiographic imaging techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, J. B.; Brown, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Examination of the nature and operational constraints of conventional X-radiographic and neutron imaging methods, providing a foundation for a discussion of advanced radiographic imaging systems. Two types of solid-state image amplifiers designed to image X rays are described. Operational theory, panel construction, and performance characteristics are discussed. A closed-circuit television system for imaging neutrons is then described and the system design, operational theory, and performance characteristics are outlined. Emphasis is placed on a description of the advantages of these imaging systems over conventional methods.

  3. Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1997-01-01

    The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.

  4. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.

  5. Balanced homodyne readout for quantum limited gravitational wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Fritschel, Peter; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valery

    2014-02-24

    Balanced homodyne detection is typically used to measure quantum-noise-limited optical beams, including squeezed states of light, at audio-band frequencies. Current designs of advanced gravitational wave interferometers use some type of homodyne readout for signal detection, in part because of its compatibility with the use of squeezed light. The readout scheme used in Advanced LIGO, called DC readout, is however not a balanced detection scheme. Instead, the local oscillator field, generated from a dark fringe offset, co-propagates with the signal field at the anti-symmetric output of the beam splitter. This article examines the alternative of a true balanced homodyne detection for the readout of gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Several practical advantages of the balanced detection scheme are described. PMID:24663746

  6. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  7. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  8. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  9. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  10. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  11. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  12. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  13. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  14. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  15. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  16. Advanced Geosynchronous Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    For improved understanding of chaotic processes and the diurnal cycle, an advanced GOES imager must also have the multi-spectral spectral bands used by low earth orbit (LEO) imagers, with on-orbit calibration for all bands. A synergy between GEO and LEO radiometry would enable earth system scientists to fuse the remote sensing data from all the spaceborne platforms. These additional radiometric capabilities are designed to observe important physical processes that vary rapidly and unpredicably: smoke, fires, precipitation, ozone, volcanic ash, cloud phase and height, and surface temperature. We believe the technology now exists to develop an imaging system that can meet future weather reporting and earth system science needs. To meet this need, we propose a design for a comprehensive geosynchronous atmospheric imager. This imager is envisioned to fly on a GOES-N class spacecraft, within the volume, weight and power constraints of a platform similar to GOES-N while delivering 100 times more data and radiometric quality than the GOES-N imager. The higher data rate probably requires its own ground station, which could serve as a systems prototype for NOAA's next generation of operational satellites. For operational compatibility, our proposed advanced GOES imaging system contains the GOES-R requirements as a subset, and the GOES-N imager capabilities (and the sounder's imaging channels) as a further subset.

  17. Strengthening laboratory systems in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Olmsted, Stuart S; Moore, Melinda; Meili, Robin C; Duber, Herbert C; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Sama, Preethi; Mundell, Ben; Hilborne, Lee H

    2010-09-01

    Considerable resources have been invested in recent years to improve laboratory systems in resource-limited settings. We reviewed published reports, interviewed major donor organizations, and conducted case studies of laboratory systems in 3 countries to assess how countries and donors have worked together to improve laboratory services. While infrastructure and the provision of services have seen improvement, important opportunities remain for further advancement. Implementation of national laboratory plans is inconsistent, human resources are limited, and quality laboratory services rarely extend to lower tier laboratories (eg, health clinics, district hospitals). Coordination within, between, and among governments and donor organizations is also frequently problematic. Laboratory standardization and quality control are improving but remain challenging, making accreditation a difficult goal. Host country governments and their external funding partners should coordinate their efforts effectively around a host country's own national laboratory plan to advance sustainable capacity development throughout a country's laboratory system. PMID:20716792

  18. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  19. Formal evaluation of the ADVANCE targeted deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.; Belella, P.A.; Koppelman, F.S.; Schofer, J.L.; Sen, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept (ADVANCE) advanced traveler information system (ATIS) demonstration project in northeastern Illinois was re-scoped in late 1994 from its originally-planned deployment of 3,000--5,000 in-vehicle navigation units to a so-called ``targeted`` deployment in which up to 75 vehicles were equipped with devices enabling them to receive real-time traffic information. These devices included (1) global positioning system (GPS) transmitters/receivers that enabled the vehicles while in the ADVANCE study area to serve as dynamic traffic probes as well as recipients of location data; and (2) navigation units that employed a comprehensive map data base and average (static) link travel times by time of day, stored on CD-ROM, which together computed efficient (least duration) routes between any origin and destination in the northwest portion of the Chicago metropolitan area. Experiments were designed to dispatch these equipped vehicles along links at headways or frequencies comparable to what would have been observed had full deployment actually occurred. Thus, within the limitations of this controlled environment, valuative experiments were conducted to assess the quality of several of the key sub-systems of ADVANCE in the context of structured performance hypotheses. Focused on-road tests began on June 1 and continued through December 14, 1995, followed by a period of data evaluation, documentation of results, and development of conclusions about the findings and usefulness of the project. This paper describes the tests, discusses development of the overall evaluation plan and the evaluation management concept which guided them, and reports on issuses and results of data analysis known at time of writing.

  20. A study of fundamental limitations of small antennas: MIMO approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattigiri, S.; Warty, C.

    In this area of high performance systems and sophistication, the antenna size is shrinking drastically. This paper reviews the fundamental limitations in electrically instigated small antennas and their implications on multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. An optimum performance of the antenna can be obtained by considering three main factors. (1) maximum gain for given frequency (2) minimum Q factor (3) maximum ratio of G/Q. It is essential to understand the basic concepts of these small antennas to counter the limitations for next generational systems. In this paper works of three prominent scientists like Wheeler, Hansen and Chu have been studied to understand these limitations. This study can be further expanded to accumulate various space time diverse MIMO systems specified in long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) standards. The impact of limitations of small antennas can be very significant on the performance of the given node.

  1. The burden of pulmonary hypertension in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Gidwani, Suman; Nair, Ajith

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) is a significant global health problem and accounts for a substantial portion of cardiovascular disease in the developing world. Although there have been considerable advances in therapeutics for pulmonary arterial hypertension, over 97% of the disease burden lies within the developing world where there is limited access to health care and pharmaceuticals. The causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension differ between industrialized and developing nations. Infectious diseases-including schistosomiasis human immunodeficiency virus, and rheumatic fever-are common causes of PVD, as are hemoglobinopathies, and untreated congenital heart disease. High altitude and exposure to household air pollutants also contribute to a significant portion of PVD cases. Although diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension requires the use of imaging and invasive hemodynamics, access to equipment may be limited. PVD therapies may be prohibitively expensive and limited to a select few. Prevention is therefore important in limiting the global PVD burden. PMID:25667181

  2. Physics issues in diffraction limited storage ring design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wei; Bai, ZhengHe; Gao, WeiWei; Feng, GuangYao; Li, WeiMin; Wang, Lin; He, DuoHui

    2012-05-01

    Diffraction limited electron storage ring is considered a promising candidate for future light sources, whose main characteristics are higher brilliance, better transverse coherence and better stability. The challenge of diffraction limited storage ring design is how to achieve the ultra low beam emittance with acceptable nonlinear performance. Effective linear and nonlinear parameter optimization methods based on Artificial Intelligence were developed for the storage ring physical design. As an example of application, partial physical design of HALS (Hefei Advanced Light Source), which is a diffraction limited VUV and soft X-ray light source, was introduced. Severe emittance growth due to the Intra Beam Scattering effect, which is the main obstacle to achieve ultra low emittance, was estimated quantitatively and possible cures were discussed. It is inspiring that better performance of diffraction limited storage ring can be achieved in principle with careful parameter optimization.

  3. Quasi-Static Hydrodynamic Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Masi, Anna; Olla, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    We consider hydrodynamic limits of interacting particles systems with open boundaries, where the exterior parameters change in a time scale slower than the typical relaxation time scale. The limit deterministic profiles evolve quasi-statically. These limits define rigorously the thermodynamic quasi static transformations also for transitions between non-equilibrium stationary states. We study first the case of the symmetric simple exclusion, where duality can be used, and then we use relative entropy methods to extend to other models like zero range systems. Finally we consider a chain of anharmonic oscillators in contact with a thermal Langevin bath with a temperature gradient and a slowly varying tension applied to one end.

  4. Expenditure limits and cost containment.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, P B

    1993-01-01

    The Clinton administration's proposal for health care reform would tie limits on premiums and, indirectly, provider payment rates to a national health care budget. An expenditure limit (or global budget) is a mechanism to calibrate the parameters of underlying cost containment policies. This article analyzes provider rate setting and managed competition and discusses how they can be guided by expenditure limits. Particular attention is paid to health systems that include elements of both traditional fee-for-service insurance and organized systems of care. Success in containing costs also will require additional policies that can supplement rate setting and managed competition to achieve specific goals to slow spending growth. PMID:8288402

  5. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  6. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  7. Design of the digitizing beam position limit detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Merl, R.

    1998-05-27

    The Digitizing Beam Position Limit Detector (DBPLD) is designed to identify and react to beam missteering conditions in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The high power of the insertion devices requires these missteering conditions to result in a beam abort in less than 2 milliseconds. Commercially available beam position monitors provide a voltage proportional to beam position immediately upstream and downstream of insertion devices. The DBPLD is a custom VME board that digitizes these voltages and interrupts the heartbeat of the APS machine protection system when the beam position exceeds its trip limits.

  8. Pushing high-heat-load optics to the limit

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, P. B.

    1999-11-08

    A cryogenically cooled silicon monochromator and a water-cooled diamond monochromator have been tested under twice the standard power load conditions at the Advanced Photon Source. Both monochromators performed satisfactorily under these extreme power loads (several hundred watts of incident power and up to 300 W/mm{sup 2} of incident normal peak power density). The experimental data and the parameters derived to predict the performance limits of the cryogenic silicon monochromator are presented.

  9. Targeting angiogenesis in advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Ramez N; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2014-11-01

    Patients with advanced stage or recurrent cervical cancer represent a population with limited chemotherapeutic options. More specifically, patients with recurrent disease have a poor salvage rate, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. This year, the first prospective phase III clinical trial exploring the anti-angiogenic agent, bevacizumab, was published, meeting its primary endpoint, with a significant improvement in overall survival. As such, a review of anti-angiogenic therapy in the treatment of this disease is warranted. PMID:25364393

  10. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  11. Flywheel energy storage advances using HTS bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T. M.

    1998-09-11

    High-Temperature-Superconducting (HT) bearings have the potential to reduce idling losses and make flywheel energy storage economical. Demonstration of large, high-speed flywheels is key to market penetration. Toward this goal, a flywheel system has been developed and tested with 5-kg to 15-kg disk-shaped rotors. Rlm speeds exceeded 400 mls and stored energies were >80 W-hr. Test implementation required technological advances in nearly all aspects of the flywheel system. Features and limitations of the design and tests are discussed, especially those related to achieving additional energy storage.

  12. Advanced Theory of Deep Geomagnetic Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    Advanced Theory of Deep Geomagnetic Sounding is a specialized treatise that covers recent work, mostly from the Soviet Union, on the theory, analysis, and interpretation of natural source electromagnetic induction processes in complex geological structures, with an emphasis on subsurface conductive anomalies. The scope of the book is limited, as suggested by the title, and the authors stress the application of electromagnetic principles to the study of regional geology and deep earth structure rather than surface exploration. The book is clearly aimed at the practicing specialist rather than the graduate student attempting to learn about the broader field of electromagnetic geophysics.

  13. Applications and limitations of radiomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Stephen S. F.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.

    2016-07-01

    Radiomics is an emerging field in quantitative imaging that uses advanced imaging features to objectively and quantitatively describe tumour phenotypes. Radiomic features have recently drawn considerable interest due to its potential predictive power for treatment outcomes and cancer genetics, which may have important applications in personalized medicine. In this technical review, we describe applications and challenges of the radiomic field. We will review radiomic application areas and technical issues, as well as proper practices for the designs of radiomic studies.

  14. Applications and limitations of radiomics.

    PubMed

    Yip, Stephen S F; Aerts, Hugo J W L

    2016-07-01

    Radiomics is an emerging field in quantitative imaging that uses advanced imaging features to objectively and quantitatively describe tumour phenotypes. Radiomic features have recently drawn considerable interest due to its potential predictive power for treatment outcomes and cancer genetics, which may have important applications in personalized medicine. In this technical review, we describe applications and challenges of the radiomic field. We will review radiomic application areas and technical issues, as well as proper practices for the designs of radiomic studies. PMID:27269645

  15. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  16. Subdiffraction-limited focusing lens.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Cottrell, D M; Maley, C A; Crivello, M R

    1994-07-01

    We describe techniques for making a diffractive optical element that produces a subdiffraction-limited spot size. We provide experimental verification, using a diffraction optical element that is constructed on a magneto-optic spatial light modulator. PMID:20935762

  17. Pumped limiter development on ISX

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1981-01-01

    Pumped limiter configurations are being suggested for FED and INTOR for helium ash exhaust and fuel particle control. The goal of the pump limiter studies in ISX is the selection of the most promising concept and its evaluation in the ISX-C device under the following conditions: (1) quasi steady state operation (less than or equal to 30s), (2) high edge power densities, and (3) particle control by means of mechanical devices. We are considering various options, including particle scraper and ballistic particle collection concepts as well as the current FED design. In ISX-B we will test a full-size pump limiter and directly compare the heat removal and particle control capabilities with a bundle divertor. In ISX-C the steady state operation characteristics of pump limiters will be explored.

  18. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.

  19. The Real Limits to Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental conservation principles indicate existence of a limit to growth operative in the near future. General properties of geometric growth are presented with timescales showing population increases. Projections for natural and energy resource consumption are examined. (BP)

  20. Limit cycle vibrations in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    The focus is on an examination of rotordynamic systems which are simultaneously susceptible to limit cycle instability and subharmonic response. Characteristics of each phenomenon are determined as well as their interrelationship. A normalized, single mass rotor model is examined as well as a complex model of the high pressure fuel turbopump and the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Entrainment of limit cycle instability by subharmonic response is demonstrated for both models. The nonuniqueness of the solution is also demonstrated.