Science.gov

Sample records for advanced lithium ion

  1. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  2. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  3. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  4. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  5. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  6. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  7. Advanced carbon anode materials for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Hideto; Imoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shin'ichiro; Sekai, Koji

    Three kinds of carbon have been used for commercial cells: graphite, soft carbon and hard carbon. The difference in the structures of these three kinds of carbon is shown clearly using our new model for soft and hard carbon structure. The lithium-doped state of these three kinds of carbon is discussed using the new structural model and published 7Li NMR data. A large reversible capacity is demonstrated in the hard carbons derived from some vegetable fibers. Two mechanisms—one enhancing the adsorbing force of pseudo-metallic lithium atoms and one reducing the repulsion force between doped lithium atoms—which together produce a high reversible capacity, are explained.

  8. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  9. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Nanowires as Advanced Conductive Agents for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Xinyi; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai

    2015-09-01

    Copper nanowires (CuNW) are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method and test as advanced conductive agents for lithium ion batteries. Anode prepared with CuNW and graphite show improved rate ability and excellent cycling stability even at high rate. AC-impedance of CuNW added electrode is much lower than that of electrodes containing carbon black only. This implies the CuNW could lower the electronical resistance. PMID:26716306

  10. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  11. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  12. COMPASS Final Report: Advanced Lithium Ion Venus Explorer (ALIVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Paul, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The COncurrent Multi-disciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive(power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission. Historic Soviet Venus landers have only lasted on the order of 2 hours in the extreme Venus environment: temperatures of 460 C and pressures of 93 bar. Longer duration missions have been studied using plutonium powered systems to operate and cool landers for up to a year. However, the plutonium load is very large. This NIAC study sought to still provide power and cooling but without the plutonium.

  13. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  14. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  15. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  16. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  17. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  18. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  19. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, A.; Gu, M.; Colby, R.; Yan, P.; Wang, C. M.; Zheng, J. M.; Xiao, J.; Genc, A.; Zhang, J. G.; Belharouak, I.; Wang, D.; Amine, K.; Thevuthasan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cations in Li-ion battery cathodes as a function of cycling is a pivotal characteristic of battery performance. The transition metal cation distribution has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical imaging techniques. Here laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) is used to map the three-dimensional distribution of Li at a sub-nanometre spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. As-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions. Cycled material has an overall loss of Li in addition to Ni-, Mn- and Li-rich regions. Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. APT results were compared to energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping with a scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm the transition metal cation distribution. PMID:26272722

  20. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  1. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  2. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Embedded MoS2 Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Donghuang; Zhong, Yu; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    Rational design and synthesis of advanced anode materials are extremely important for high-performance lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is developed for fabrication of N-C@MoS2 microspheres with the help of polyurethane as carbon and nitrogen sources. The MoS2 microspheres are composed of MoS2 nanoflakes, which are wrapped by an N-doped carbon layer. Owing to its unique structural features, the N-C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit greatly enhanced lithium- and sodium-storage performances including a high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Additionally, the developed polyurethane-assisted hydrothermal method could be useful for the construction of many other high-capacity metal oxide/sulfide composite electrode materials for energy storage.

  4. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  5. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  6. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  7. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  8. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials. PMID:27377263

  9. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  10. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  11. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:27120336

  12. Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler

    This dissertation presents a series of studies aimed towards the development of a compelling and commercially viable Li-ion battery containing a non-flammable room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte. Each study builds upon the previous, culminating in the demonstration of a high energy Li-ion system approaching the 700 Wh/L energy density benchmark. We begin by tackling several major issues associated with RTIL compatibility with the battery's passive, non- electroactive components, engineering solutions to each and enabling the utilization of certain RTIL materials in high voltage Li-ion systems. Since enabling the simple use of our RTIL electrolytes, we have been able to explore RTIL compatibility with a number of attractive, next-generation electrode chemistries including the high capacity silicon (Si) anode and high voltage, high capacity lithium- manganese-rich (LMR) cathode. Each of these studies contributes to a deeper understanding of the interfacial mechanisms occurring between the RTIL materials and various electrode surfaces, in several cases resulting in unprecedented half- and full-cell performance. The accomplishments presented herein represent important progress in working towards a safer, higher performance Li-ion system.

  13. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  14. A Summary on Progress in Materials Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the-art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance future human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This paper on interim progress of the development efforts will present performance of materials and cell components and will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities and proposed strategies to overcome technical issues.

  15. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  16. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  17. Facile synthesis of nanocage Co3O4 for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Baofeng; Xiao, Feng; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Yijing; Richardson, Christopher; Chen, Zhixin; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-12-01

    A facile two-step annealing process is applied to synthesize nanocage Co3O4, using cobalt-based metal-organic framework as precursor and template. The as-obtained nanocages are composed of numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the as-obtained Co3O4 has a porous structure with a favorable surface area of 110.6 m2 g-1. Electrochemical tests show that nanocage Co3O4 is a potential candidate as anode for lithium-ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 810 mAh g-1 was obtained after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 500 mA g-1. The material also displays good rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 1069, 1063, 850, and 720 mAh g-1 at specific current of 100, 200, 800, and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. The good electrochemical performance of nanocage Co3O4 can be attributed to its unique hierarchical hollow structure, which is maintained during electrochemical cycling.

  18. Recent advances in nanocrystalline intermetallic tin compounds for the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, Ricardo; Nwokeke, Uche G.; Nacimiento, Francisco; Lavela, Pedro; Tirado, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Intermetallic compounds of tin and first-row transition metals have been considered as potential anode materials for Li-ion batteries that could improve the performance of pure tin. Particularly, the solids dispersed at the nano scale provide interesting behavior. Thus CoSn, FeSn2 and CoSn3 nanocrystalline samples have been obtained at low temperatures. As compared with micrometric particles of CoSn, significantly higher reversible capacities are found for nanocrystalline CoSn. For nanocrystalline CoSn3 maximum reversible capacities of 690 mAh g-1 were observed in lithium test cells. Nanocrystalline products in the series CoSn2-FeSn2 could be prepared by chemical reduction in polyol solvents using a "one-pot" method. Superparamagnetic nanocrystalline FeSn2 delivers reversible capacities of ca. 600 mAhg-1 by the formation of LixSn phases and superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles. A comparison between the properties of nano- FeSn2 and micro-FeSn2 shows a significantly better electrochemical behavior and electrode stability for the nanocrystalline material. For Fe1-xCoxSn2 solid solutions with x= 0.25, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8, particle diameters of about 20 nm and different morphologies were obtained. The substitution of iron by cobalt induces a contraction of the unit cell volume and the hyperfine parameters of the 57Fe Mössbauer spectra reveal a superparamagnetic behavior. The intermediate compositions exhibit better electrochemical performance than the limit compositions CoSn2 and FeSn2. To improve the performance of CoSnx intermetallics, composites in which the nanocrystalline intermetallic material is embedded in an amorphous layer based on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer were used. The PAN shell contributes to stabilize the intermetallic phases upon electrochemical cycling.

  19. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  20. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability.

  1. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability. PMID:25251871

  2. Three-Dimensional Branched TiO2 Architectures in Controllable Bloom for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaofu; Qu, Dandan; Jiang, Yun; Xiong, Wan-Sheng; Sang, Hong-Qian; He, Rong-Xiang; Tai, Qidong; Chen, Bolei; Liu, Yumin; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-08-10

    Three-dimensional branched TiO2 architectures (3D BTA) with controllable morphologies were synthesized via a facile template-free one-pot solvothermal route. The volume ratio of deionized water (DI water) and diethylene glycol in solvothermal process is key to the formation of 3D BTA assembled by nanowire-coated TiO2 dendrites, which combines the advantages of 3D hierarchical structure and 1D nanoscale building blocks. Benefiting from such unique structural features, the BTA in full bloom achieved significantly increased specific surface areas and shortened Li(+) ion/electrons diffusion pathway. The lithium-ion batteries based on BTA in full bloom exhibited remarkably enhanced reversible specific capacity and rate performance, attributing to the high contact area with the electrolyte and the short solid state diffusion pathway for Li(+) ion/electrons promoting lithium insertion and extraction. PMID:27420343

  3. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  4. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs. PMID:27015357

  5. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  6. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  7. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  9. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  10. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  11. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  12. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James.; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  13. Lithium-Ion Cell Storage Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues concerning storage of lithium ion batteries. The presentation outlines tests used to establish a best long term storage for the lithium ion cells. Another objective of the study was to determine the preferred solstice condition for the lithium ion chemistry (polymer and liquid electrolyte). It also compared voltage clamped with trickle charge storage. The tests and results are reviewed

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  15. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  16. Single electrospun porous NiO-ZnO hybrid nanofibers as anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Wang, Xinghui; Qiao, Li; Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Xiuwan; Zheng, Yunxian; He, Deyan

    2013-04-01

    Porous NiO-ZnO hybrid nanofibers were prepared by a single-nozzle electrospinning technique combined with subsequent heating treatment. The resultant nanofibers are composed of interconnected primary nanocrystals and numerous nanopores with heterostructures between NiO and ZnO. Such characteristics of the structure can lead to excellent electrochemical performances when the nanofiber was evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The porous NiO-ZnO nanofiber electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 949 mA h g(-1) after 120 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1), and maintains around 707 mA h g(-1) at a current density as high as 3.2 A g(-1). Even after cycling at high rates, the electrode still retains a high discharge capacity of up to 1185 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1).

  17. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g-1 with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  19. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  20. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  1. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2- vacancies (vs. all O2- ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g-1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g-1 and 74.7%.

  2. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O(2-) vacancies (vs. all O(2-) ions). The electronic conductivity and Li(+)ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g(-1) and charge capacity of 286 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g(-1) with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g(-1) and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  3. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  4. Solvothermal preparation of tin phosphide as a long-life anode for advanced lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Hongzhe; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Lanbing; Chen, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) nanoparticles with different sizes are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method at 180 °C for 10 h. The as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have an average size of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, their size could be easily controlled by the solvent ratio. The long cycle stability and rate performance of the as-obtained Sn4P3 nanoparticles have been tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. Electrochemical measurements show that the Sn4P3 nanoparticles with a smallest size give the best cycling and rate performances. They deliver a discharge capacity of 612 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles and could still maintain 442 mAh g-1 after 320 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1 within voltage limit of 0.01-3.0 V. Even after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the specific capacity still could be remained at 315 mAh g-1. The improved electrochemical performances of Sn4P3 electrode might be largely attributed to their small-size. Furthermore, the as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have also been tested as an anode material for Na-ion batteries, this Sn4P3 anode can deliver a reversible capacity of 305 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g-1.

  5. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  6. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  7. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  8. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  9. Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1998-05-08

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  10. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  11. Performance and Safety of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report evaluates the performance and safety of Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) cells when used in batteries. Issues discussed include the cycle life, energy efficiency, tolerance to higher charge voltage, tolerance to extended tapered charge voltage, charge on cycling, specific energy, low temperature discharge, low temperature charge, various charge characteristics, storage characteristics, and more of Li-Ion cells.

  12. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Li2FeSiO4/C composite as a high performance cathode for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhengping; Liu, Jiatu; Ji, Ran; Zeng, Xiaohui; Yang, Shuanglei; Pan, Anqiang; Ivey, Douglas G.; Wei, Weifeng

    2016-10-01

    Li2MSiO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, et al.) has received great attention because of the theoretical possibility to reversibly deintercalate two Li+ ions from the structure. However, the silicates still suffer from low electronic conductivity, sluggish lithium ion diffusion and structural instability upon deep cycling. In order to solve these problems, a "hard-soft" templating method has been developed to synthesize three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Li2FeSiO4/C composites. The 3DOM Li2FeSiO4/C composites show a high reversible capacity (239 mAh g-1) with ∼1.50 lithium ion insertion/extraction, a capacity retention of nearly 100% after 420 cycles and excellent rate capability. The enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the interconnected carbon framework that improves the electronic conductivity and the 3DOM structure that offers short Li ion diffusion pathways and restrains volumetric changes.

  13. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-01

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries. PMID:26278438

  14. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  15. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  16. Interfacial transport in lithium-ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaofei, Wang; Liquan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Physical models of ion diffusion at different interfaces are reviewed. The use of impedance spectroscopy (IS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques are also discussed. The diffusion of ions is fundamental to the operation of lithium-ion batteries, taking place not only within the grains but also across different interfaces. Interfacial ion transport usually contributes to the majority of the resistance in lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the interfacial diffusion of ions is crucial to improving battery performance. Project supported by the Beijing S&T Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 11234013) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900).

  17. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  18. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  19. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  20. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  1. Modeling Diffusion Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu Huang, Cheng-Kai

    Advancing lithium-ion battery technology is of paramount importance for satisfying the energy storage needs in the U.S., especially for the application in the electric vehicle industry. To provide a better acceleration for electric vehicles, a fast and repeatable discharging rate is required. However, particle fractures and capacity loss have been reported under high current rate (C-rate) during charging/discharging and after a period of cycling. During charging and discharging, lithium ions extract from and intercalate into electrode materials accompanied with the volume change and phase transition between Li-rich phase and Li-poor phase. It is suggested that the diffusion-induced-stress is one of the main reasons causing capacity loss due to the mechanical degradation of electrode particles. Therefore, there is a fundamental need to provide a mechanistic understanding by considering the structure-mechanics-property interactions in lithium-ion battery materials. Among many cathode materials, the olivine-based lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) with an orthorhombic crystal structure is one of the promising cathode materials for the application in electric vehicles. In this research we first use a multiphysic approach to investigate the stress evolution, especially on the phase boundary during lithiation in single LiFePO4 particles. A diffusion-controlled finite element model accompanied with the experimentally observed phase boundary propagation is developed via a finite element package, ANSYS, in which lithium ion concentration-dependent anisotropic material properties and volume misfits are incorporated. The stress components on the phase boundary are used to explain the Mode I, Mode II, and Mode III fracture propensities in LiFePO4 particles. The elastic strain energy evolution is also discussed to explain why a layer-by-layer lithium insertion mechanism (i.e. first-order phase transformation) is energetically preferred. Another importation issue is how current

  2. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  3. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  4. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  5. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  6. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-07-01

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  7. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  8. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  9. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  10. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  11. Managing voids of Si anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-10-01

    The implementation of silicon (Si) in practical lithium ion battery electrodes has been hindered due to its large volume change and consequent structural and interfacial instabilities. Coating nanostructured Si with a second phase (e.g., carbon (C)) represents a very promising strategy for dealing with these critical issues facing Si-based electrodes. In this review article, we will outline recent advances in coating Si with engineered C matrices. By exemplifying hollow core-shell, core-hollow shell, and core-shell structured Si-C hybrid nanomaterials, we aim to highlight the importance of managing voids in designing such Si-C hybrid electrodes, and provide some scientific insights into the development of advanced Si-based anodes for next-generation lithium ion batteries.

  12. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-01

    In the work, a facile and green two-step synthetic strategy was purposefully developed to efficiently fabricate hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 microrods (MRs) with a high tap density of ∼0.85 g cm(3) , which were assembled by 1D nanofiber (NF) subunits, and further utilized as a long-life anode for advanced Li-ion batteries. The significant role of the mixed solvent of glycerin and water in the formation of such hierarchical mesoporous MRs was systematically investigated. After 488 cycles at a large current rate of 1000 mA g(-1) , the resulting ZnFe2 O4 MRs with high loading of ∼1.4 mg per electrode still preserved a reversible capacity as large as ∼542 mAh g(-1) . Furthermore, an initial charge capacity of ∼1150 mAh g(-1) is delivered by the ZnFe2 O4 anode at 100 mA g(-1) , resulting in a high Coulombic efficiency of ∼76 % for the first cycle. The superior Li-storage properties of the as-obtained ZnFe2 O4 were rationally associated with its mesoprous micro-/nanostructures and 1D nanoscaled building blocks, which accelerated the electron transportation, facilitated Li(+) transfer rate, buffered the large volume variations during repeated discharge/charge processes, and provided rich electrode-electrolyte sur-/interfaces for efficient lithium storage, particularly at high rates.

  13. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  14. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  15. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  16. Heavily Cr3+-modified Li4Ti5O12: An advanced anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Liang, Guisheng; Gao, Jinxiang; Deng, Shengjue; Lin, Shiwei; Li, Jianbao

    2016-11-01

    Heavily Cr3+-modified Li4Ti5O12 powders with a designed nominal composition of Li3Cr7Ti2O16 have been prepared by one-step solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with Rietveld refinement indicates that these powders contain 96.5wt.% spinel Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 and 3.5wt.% Cr2O3. Due to the combination of Ti3+/Ti4+ and Cr2+/Cr3+ redox couples in Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 and the existence of Cr2O3, the composite exhibits a large first-cycle discharge capacity of 315mAhṡg-1 at a small current density of 62.5mAṡg-1. Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 shows an improved Li+ ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity, respectively arising from the small O2- ion fractional coefficient and unpaired 3d electrons in Cr3+ ions. The majority of Cr2O3 is reduced to Cr after the first two lithiation processes, which benefits the electrical conduction between the Li0.759Cr1.724Ti0.517O4 particles. Consequently, the composite exhibits a good rate performance and cyclability. Its capacity at 1000mAṡg-1 is as large as 141mAhṡg-1 with large retention of 90.1% after 100 cycles.

  17. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-01

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g-1, a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1. Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices.We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as

  18. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  19. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material. PMID:26726470

  20. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described. PMID:22524506

  1. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W H

    1998-04-01

    The motivation for lithium battery development and a discussion of ion conducting polymers as separators begin this review, which includes a short history of polymer electrolyte research, a summary of the major parameters that determine lithium ion transport in polymer matrices, and consequences for solid polymer electrolyte development. Two major strategies for the application of ion conducting polymers as separators in lithium batteries are identified: One is the development of highly conductive materials via the crosslinking of mobile chains to form networks, which are then swollen by lithium salt solutions ("gel electrolytes"). The other is the construction of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with supramolecular architectures, which intrinsically give rise to much enhanced mechanical strength. These materials as yet exhibit relatively common conductivity levels but may be applied as very thin films. Molecular composites based on poly(p-phenylene)- (PPP)-reinforced SPEs are a striking example of this direction. Neither strategy has as yet led to a "breakthrough" with respect to technical application, at least not for electrically powered vehicles. Before being used as separators, the gel electrolytes must be strengthened, while the molecularly reinforced solid polymer electrolytes must demonstrate improved conductivity.

  2. Thermal Aspects of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Shakkottai, P.; Bugga, R.; Smart, M.; Huang, C. K.; Timmerman, P.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development of a thermal model of Li-ion cells in terms of heat generation, thermal mass, and thermal resistance. Intended for incorporation into battery model. The approach was to estimate heat generation: with semi-theoretical model, and then to check accuracy with efficiency measurements. Another objective was to compute thermal mass from component weights and specific heats, and to compute the thermal resistance from component dimensions and conductivities. Two lithium batteries are compared, the Cylindrical lithium battery, and the prismatic lithium cell. It reviews methodology for estimating the heat generation rate. Graphs of the Open-circuit curves of the cells and the heat evolution during discharge are given.

  3. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  4. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  5. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  6. Electrostatic spray deposition based lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Richa; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Chunlei

    2016-05-01

    Conventional Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are well suited as power devices that can provide large bursts of energy in short time periods. However, their relatively inferior energy densities as compared to their secondary battery counterparts limit their application in devices that require simultaneous supply of both high energy and high power. In the wake of addressing this shortcoming of EDLCs, the concept of hybridization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs has attracted significant scientific interest in recent years. Such a device, generally referred to as the "lithium-ion capacitor" typically utilizes a lithium intercalating electrode along with a fast charging capacitor electrode. Herein we have constructed a lithium hybrid electrochemical capacitor comprising a Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 (LTO-TiO2) anode and a reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite cathode using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the individual electrodes and the full hybrid cells.

  7. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells. PMID:27420388

  8. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  9. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  10. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  11. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability.

  12. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  13. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    high-power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

  14. Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prabir Kumar; Seidl, Peter A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.; Mazaheri, Kavous

    2009-11-01

    We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E < 5 MeV) kinetic energy singly ionized lithium beam and a thin target. Two kinds of lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate ion sources, β-spodumene and β-eucryptite, each of area 0.31 cm2, have been fabricated for ion emission measurements. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1200 to 1300 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Tight process controls were necessary in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the porous tungsten substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. Current density limit of the two kinds have been measured, and ion species identification of possible contaminants has been verified with a Wien (E x B) filter.

  15. Doping-Enhanced Lithium Diffusion in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Shunnian; Wu, Ping

    2011-09-01

    We disclose a distortion-assisted diffusion mechanism in Li3N and Li2.5Co0.5N by first-principles simulations. A B2g soft mode at the Γ point is found in α-Li3N, and a more stable α'-Li3N (P3¯m1) structure, which is 0.71 meV lower in energy, is further derived. The same soft mode is inherited into Li2.5Co0.5N and is enhanced due to Co doping. Consequently, unlike the usual Peierls spin instability along Co-N chains, large lithium-ion displacements on the Li-N plane are induced by a set of soft modes. Such a distortion is expected to offer Li atoms a route to bypass the high diffusion barrier and promote Li-ion conductivity. In addition, we further illustrate abnormal Born effective charges along Co-N chains which result from the competition between the motions of electrons and ion cores. Our results provide future opportunities in both fundamental understanding and structural modifications of Li-ion battery materials.

  16. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  17. Scanning ion microscopy with low energy lithium ions.

    PubMed

    Twedt, Kevin A; Chen, Lei; McClelland, Jabez J

    2014-07-01

    Using an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms, we have developed a scanning ion microscope with probe sizes of a few tens of nanometers and beam energies from 500eV to 5keV. These beam energies are much lower than the typical operating energies of the helium ion microscope or gallium focused ion beam systems. We demonstrate how low energy can be advantageous in ion microscopy when detecting backscattered ions, due to a decreased interaction volume and the potential for surface sensitive composition analysis. As an example application that demonstrates these advantages, we non-destructively image the removal of a thin residual resist layer during plasma etching in a nano-imprint lithography process.

  18. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the NASA/OAST sponsored program on the development of ambient-temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications is to develop cells with a 100 W h/kg specific energy and capable of 1000 cycles at 50-percent depth of discharge. This paper examines the performance potentials of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13, and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems at ambient temperature, together with cycle life and safety characteristics. Of these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advances made on the development of secondary lithium cells, which are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly, are summarized.

  19. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  20. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  1. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  2. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  3. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  4. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. PMID:26293692

  5. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions.

  6. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  7. Phase-change enabled 2D Li3V2(PO4)3/C submicron sheets for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Ni, Xiao; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-09-01

    The exploration of cathode materials with high capacity and power, fast charge/discharge rate, long lifespan and broad temperature adaptability is a challenge for the practical application of lithium ion batteries. Here, submicro-sheet Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) cathode materials have been successfully synthesized via a simple and universal phase-change method. This designed melting process increases the crystallinity and decreases the Li+ diffusion distance, which effectively enhances the cycling stability and rate performances of the LVP/C cathode materials. The LVP/C cathode materials exhibit high discharge specific capacity of 130 mAh g-1 in the first cycle. The capacity retention is almost 100% after 100 cycles. In addition, at 10 C, more than 80% of initial discharge capacity is retained after 800 cycles, indicating excellent cycle performance at high rate. Moreover, the synthesized LVP/C materials perform excellent low-temperature properties. At -20 °C, the specific capacity can reach 105 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C. This study provides a novel template-free synthesis method for nano/micro materials.

  8. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm−3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g−1 at a specific current of 200 mA g−1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g−1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g−1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc. PMID:26754468

  9. A general method of fabricating flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite aerogels as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guobo; Shi, Nan; Hess, Michael; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Wei; Fan, Tongxiang; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-04-28

    High-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), such as spinel-type metal oxides, generally suffer from poor Li(+) and e(-) conductivities. Their drastic crystal structure and volume changes, as a result of the conversion reaction mechanism with Li, severely impede the high-rate and cyclability performance toward their practical application. In this article, we present a general and facile approach to fabricate flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels as binder-free anodes where the spinel nanoparticles (NPs) are integrated in an interconnected rGO network. Benefiting from the hierarchical porosity, conductive network and mechanical stability constructed by interpenetrated rGO layers, and from the pillar effect of NPs in between rGO sheets, the hybrid system synergistically enhances the intrinsic properties of each component, yet is robust and flexible. Consequently, the spinel/rGO composite aerogels demonstrate greatly enhanced rate capability and long-term stability without obvious capacity fading for 1000 cycles at high rates of up to 4.5 A g(-1) in the case of CoFe2O4. This electrode design can successfully be applied to several other spinel ferrites such as MnFe2O4, Fe3O4, NiFe2O4 or Co3O4, all of which lead to excellent electrochemical performances.

  10. Coated/Sandwiched rGO/CoSx Composites Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks/GO as Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongming; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Feifei; Qin, Yuling; Na, Zhaolin; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Rational composite materials made from transition metal sulfides and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are highly desirable for designing high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, rGO-coated or sandwiched CoSx composites are fabricated through facile thermal sulfurization of metal-organic framework/GO precursors. By scrupulously changing the proportion of Co(2+) and organic ligands and the solvent of the reaction system, we can tune the forms of GO as either a coating or a supporting layer. Upon testing as anode materials for LIBs, the as-prepared CoSx -rGO-CoSx and rGO@CoSx composites demonstrate brilliant electrochemical performances such as high initial specific capacities of 1248 and 1320 mA h g(-1) , respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , and stable cycling abilities of 670 and 613 mA h g(-1) , respectively, after 100 charge/discharge cycles, as well as superior rate capabilities. The excellent electrical conductivity and porous structure of the CoSx /rGO composites can promote Li(+) transfer and mitigate internal stress during the charge/discharge process, thus significantly improving the electrochemical performance of electrode materials.

  11. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm-3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 200 mA g-1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g-1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g-1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g-1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  12. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-12

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm(-3)), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g(-1) at a specific current of 200 mA g(-1). Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g(-1), about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g(-1)) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  13. Storage Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Blosiu, J. O.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion cells are being developed under the NASA/Air Force Consortium for the upcoming aerospace missions. First among these missions are the Mars 2001 Lander and Mars 2003 Lander and Rover missions. Apart from the usual needs of high specific energy, energy density and long cycle life, a critical performance characteristic for the Mars missions is low temperature performance. The batteries need to perform well at -20 C, with at least 70% of the rated capacity realizable at moderate discharge rates (C/5). Several modifications have been made to the lithium ion chemistry, mainly with respect to the electrolyte, both at JPL' and elsewhere to achieve this. Another key requirement for the battery is its storageability during pre-cruise and cruise periods. For the Mars programs, the cruise period is relatively short, about 12 months, compared to the Outer Planets missions (3-8 years). Yet, the initial results of our storage studies reveal that the cells do sustain noticeable permanent degradation under certain storage conditions, typically of 10% over two months duration at ambient temperatures, attributed to impedance buildup. The build up of the cell impedance or the decay in the cell capacity is affected by various storage parameters, i.e., storage temperature, storage duration, storage mode (open circuit, on buss or cycling at low rates) and state of charge. Our preliminary studies indicate that low storage temperatures and states of charge are preferable. In some cases, we have observed permanent capacity losses of approx. 10% over eight-week storage at 40 C, compared to approx. 0-2% at O C. Also, we are attempting to determine the impact of cell chemistry and design upon the storageability of Li ion cells.

  14. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The goal is to develop secondary lithium cells with a 100 Wh/kg specific energy capable of 1000 cycles at 50 percent DOD. The approach towards meeting this goal initially focused on several basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advancements to date in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. A summary is given of these advances.

  15. Lithium/water battery with lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Takashi; Inda, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kousuke; Ye, Rongbin; Baba, Mamoru

    Lithium/water batteries have attracted considerable attention as high power supply devices because they use high energy density lithium metal as an anode and water as a cathode. In this study, we investigate the use of lithium/water batteries that use a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte. A lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics plate has no through-holes and does not exhibit moisture permeation. Such a plate has stable ionic conductivity in water. Lithium/water batteries that used a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte had a long and stable discharge for 50 days at room temperature when the lithium metal was prevented from coming into contact with water. Lithium/seawater batteries using a glass-ceramics plate as an electrolyte also operated well in the 10-70 °C temperature range.

  16. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  18. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.

  19. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  20. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  1. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  2. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  3. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  4. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  5. Lithium storage mechanisms in purpurin based organic lithium ion battery electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chumyim, Porramate; Gowda, Sanketh R.; Pradhan, Padmanava; Jadhav, Swapnil R.; Dubey, Madan; John, George; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Current lithium batteries operate on inorganic insertion compounds to power a diverse range of applications, but recently there is a surging demand to develop environmentally friendly green electrode materials. To develop sustainable and eco-friendly lithium ion batteries, we report reversible lithium ion storage properties of a naturally occurring and abundant organic compound purpurin, which is non-toxic and derived from the plant madder. The carbonyl/hydroxyl groups present in purpurin molecules act as redox centers and reacts electrochemically with Li-ions during the charge/discharge process. The mechanism of lithiation of purpurin is fully elucidated using NMR, UV and FTIR spectral studies. The formation of the most favored six membered binding core of lithium ion with carbonyl groups of purpurin and hydroxyl groups at C-1 and C-4 positions respectively facilitated lithiation process, whereas hydroxyl group at C-2 position remains unaltered. PMID:23233879

  6. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  7. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  8. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  9. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  10. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  11. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  12. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  13. Long cycle life lithium ion battery with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Xiong, L.; He, C.

    2014-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM) cathode were characterized by extensive cycling (>2000 cycles), discharge rate test, hybrid pulse power characterization test (HPPC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The crystal structure, morphology and particle size of cathode materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that the rate performance and cycle life of battery are closely related to the cathode material composition and electrode design. With proper selection of cathode composition and electrode design, the lithium ion battery cell achieved close to 3500 cycles with 85% capacity retention at 1C current.

  14. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  15. Development of a lithium liquid metal ion source for MeV ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.M.; Maskrey, J.T.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lithium liquid metal ion sources are an attractive complement to the existing gaseous ion sources that are extensively used for ion beam analysis. This is due in part to the high brightness of the liquid metal ion source and in part to the availability of a lithium ion beam. High brightness is of particular importance to MeV ion microprobes which are now approaching current density limitations on targets determined by the ion source. The availability of a lithium beam provides increased capabilities for hydrogen profiling and high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. This paper describes the design and performance of a lithium liquid metal ion source suitable for use on a 5MV Laddertron accelerator. Operational experience with the source and some of its uses for ion beam analysis are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Surface and interface engineering of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Xue; Li, Xin-Hao; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2015-01-21

    Lithium-ion batteries are regarded as promising energy storage devices for next-generation electric and hybrid electric vehicles. In order to meet the demands of electric vehicles, considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of advanced electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy and power densities. Although significant progress has been recently made in the development of novel electrode materials, some critical issues comprising low electronic conductivity, low ionic diffusion efficiency, and large structural variation have to be addressed before the practical application of these materials. Surface and interface engineering is essential to improve the electrochemical performance of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. This article reviews the recent progress in surface and interface engineering of electrode materials including the increase in contact interface by decreasing the particle size or introducing porous or hierarchical structures and surface modification or functionalization by metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon materials, polymers, and other ionic and electronic conductive species.

  17. Evaluation of the low temperature performance of lithium manganese oxide/lithium titanate lithium-ion batteries for start/stop applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kebin; Yu, Zhiqiang; Deng, Shawn; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Jianxin; Zeng, Xiaoqin

    2015-03-01

    The start/stop technology requires the battery to provide high cold cranking power at low temperatures. In this report, the low temperature performance of LMO/LTO (lithium manganese oxide/lithium titanate) lithium ion batteries with three different electrolytes were studied on pouch cells incorporated with the reference electrode (RE). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis in conjunction with the reference electrode was applied to unravel the influence of electrolyte and individual electrodes on the battery's low temperature performance. Results demonstrate that it is the LMO electrode that limits the cell discharge performance at -30 °C and an electrolyte with a considerable amount of ester as co-solvent delivers the best low temperature performance. The LMO/LTO battery with the optimal electrolyte passes the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) cold cranking test at -30 °C using an assumed 40 Ah battery pack.

  18. Meso-scale characterization of lithium distribution in lithium-ion batteries using ion beam analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Fujita, K.; Mima, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Kamiya, T.; Orikasa, Y.; Uchimoto, Y.; Sawada, H.; Okuda, C.; Kato, Y.; Perlado, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a Li-ion battery (LIB) is mainly governed by the diffusion capabilities of lithium in the electrodes. Thus, for LIB improvement it is essential to characterize the lithium distribution. Most of the traditionally used techniques for lithium characterization give information about the local scale or in the macroscopic scale. However, the lithium behavior at the local scale is not mirrored at the macroscopic scale. Therefore, the lithium characterization in the mesoscopic scale would be of help to understand and to connect the mechanisms taking place in the two spatial scales. In this paper, we show a general description of the capabilities and limitations of ion beam analysis techniques to study the distributions of lithium and other elements present in the electrodes in the mesoscopic scale. The potential of the 7Li(p,α0)4He nuclear reaction to non-invasively examine the lithium distribution as a function of depth is illustrated. The lithium spatial distribution is characterized using particle induced γ-ray (μ-PIGE) spectroscopy. This technique allows estimating the density of the active particles in the electrode effectively contributing to the Li intercalation and/or de-intercalation. The advantages of the use of ion beam analysis techniques in comparison to more traditional techniques for electrode characterization are discussed.

  19. Thermal Characterization Study of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Miller, Thomas B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    The primary challenge in designing a full scale lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system is safety under both normal operating as well as abusive conditions. The normal conditions involve expected charge/discharge cycles and it is known that heat evolves in batteries during those cycles. This is a major concern in the design for high power applications and careful thermal management is necessary to alleviate this concern. An emerging thermal measurement technology, such as the electrochemical calorimetric of batteries, will aid in the development of advanced, safe battery system. To support this technology, several "commercial-off-the-shelf" (COTS) Li-ion cells with different chemistries and designs are being evaluated for different cycling regimes at a given operating temperature. The Accelerated Rate Calorimeter (ARC)-Arbin cycler setup is used to measure the temperature, voltage, and current of the cells at different charge/discharge rates. Initial results demonstrated good cell cyclability. During the cycle testing, the cell exhibited an endothermic cooling in the initial part of the charge cycle. The discharge portion of the cycle is exothermic during the entire discharge period. The presence of an endothermic reaction indicates a significant entropy effect during the beginning of charge cycle. Further studies will be performed to understand the thermal characteristics of the Li-ion cells at the different operating conditions. The effects on the thermal response on cell aging and states-of-charge will also be identified.

  20. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  1. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  2. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  3. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  4. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source.

    PubMed

    Okamura, M; Palm, K; Stifler, C; Steski, D; Ikeda, S; Kumaki, M; Kanesue, T

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam. PMID:26931962

  5. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  6. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  7. Nanoscale mapping of ion diffusion in a lithium-ion battery cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, N.; Jesse, S.; Morozovska, A.; Eliseev, E.; Chung, D.; Kim, Y.; Adamczyk, L.; Garcia, R.

    2010-08-29

    The movement of lithium ions into and out of electrodes is central to the operation of lithium-ion batteries. Although this process has been extensively studied at the device level, it remains insufficiently characterized at the nanoscale level of grain clusters, single grains and defects. Here, we probe the spatial variation of lithium-ion diffusion times in the battery-cathode material LiCoO{sub 2} at a resolution of ~100 nm by using an atomic force microscope to both redistribute lithium ions and measure the resulting cathode deformation. The relationship between diffusion and single grains and grain boundaries is observed, revealing that the diffusion coefficient increases for certain grain orientations and single-grain boundaries. This knowledge provides feedback to improve understanding of the nanoscale mechanisms underpinning lithium-ion battery operation.

  8. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  9. Porous nano-structured Co3O4 anode materials generated from coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Danhua; Geng, Hongbo; Wang, Jiaqing; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Cao, Xueqin; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-21

    A simple and scalable coordination-derived method for the synthesis of porous Co3O4 hollow nanospheres is described here. The initially formed coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates (CDSAAs) could act as the precursor followed by calcination treatment. Then the porous hollow Co3O4 nanospheres are obtained, in which the primary Co3O4 nanoparticles are inter-dispersed. When the nanospheres are used as anode materials for lithium storage, they show excellent coulombic efficiency, high lithium storage capacity and superior cycling performance. In view of the facile synthesis and excellent electrochemical performance obtained, this protocol to fabricate special porous hollow frameworks could be further extended to other metal oxides and is expected to improve the practicality of superior cycle life anode materials with large volume excursions for the development of the next generation of LIBs.

  10. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  11. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  12. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  13. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode. PMID:26389522

  14. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Engineering; IIT

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes [1]. Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley [2]. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation [3]. The resulting system of differential

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  16. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    DOE PAGES

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-04-27

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  17. A stable fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt for lithium ion battery application.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-06-18

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1 : 2 by wt). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  18. Stability of aluminum substrates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Plichta, Edward J.

    The stability of aluminum positive electrode substrates in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries was investigated in solutions of lithium imide salt in ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (20:20:60 vol.%) using the technique of controlled potential coulometry. It was found that the protective surface film formed on aluminum in these solutions breaks down at potentials above 3.5 V during the charging of lithium-ion cells resulting in the corrosion of aluminum substrates and the premature failure of these cells. It was also found that the use of lithium tetrafluoroborate as an electrolyte additive prevents the breakdown of the protective film on aluminum substrates and prevents their corrosion at potentials above 3.5 V. In contrast to the lithium imide solutions, the aluminum substrates were found to be quite stable in lithium methide electrolyte solutions and did not undergo any significant corrosion at potentials up to about 4.25 V vs. the lithium reference electrode.

  19. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  20. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  1. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  2. Virus-enabled synthesis and assembly of nanowires for lithium ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Tae; Kim, Dong-Wan; Yoo, Pil J; Chiang, Chung-Yi; Meethong, Nonglak; Hammond, Paula T; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Belcher, Angela M

    2006-05-12

    The selection and assembly of materials are central issues in the development of smaller, more flexible batteries. Cobalt oxide has shown excellent electrochemical cycling properties and is thus under consideration as an electrode for advanced lithium batteries. We used viruses to synthesize and assemble nanowires of cobalt oxide at room temperature. By incorporating gold-binding peptides into the filament coat, we formed hybrid gold-cobalt oxide wires that improved battery capacity. Combining virus-templated synthesis at the peptide level and methods for controlling two-dimensional assembly of viruses on polyelectrolyte multilayers provides a systematic platform for integrating these nanomaterials to form thin, flexible lithium ion batteries.

  3. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  4. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  5. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  6. Engineering nanostructures and surface chemistry of efficient lithium ion intercalation electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dawei

    Lithium ion batteries have been one of the major power supplies for small electronic devices since last century. However, with the rapid advancement of electronics and the increasing demand for clean sustainable energy, newer lithium ion batteries with higher energy density, higher power density, and better cyclic stability are needed. In addition, newer generation of lithium ion batteries must meet the requirements of low and easy fabrication cost and free of toxic materials. Nanostructured electrodes are seemingly the most promising candidate for future lithium ion batteries. In our experiments, mesoporous MnO2 nanowall arrays were fabricated through water electrolysis induced precipitation. Thus-fabricated arrays delivered capacities upto 256 mAhg-1, nearly double the theoretical value of 140 mAhg -1 from bulk MnO2. Modification of nanostructured electrode surface chemistry was found to contribute to lithium ion intercalation rate capability. Anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays after annealing in CO at 400°C, with TiC and Ti3+ species present on the surface, exhibited a much enhanced rate capability as compared with arrays without noticeable surface defects. Manipulating the crystallinity of electrodes could be another method to improve the intercalation capability. V2O5 xerogel films with less crystallized structure exhibited higher intercalation capacity and better cyclic stability than well crystallized counterpart. Materials possessing nanostructures, surface and bulk defects and in poor crystallinity or amorphous state are all away from equilibrium state. The electrodes away from equilibrium state have demonstrated favorable lithium ion intercalation properties. The contribution of non-equilibrium state lies in three aspects: (1) enhancing the storage capacity by shifting the phase transition boundary; (2) improving the rate capability by introducing fast mass and charge transport path; and (3) allowing longer cyclic stability by permitting more freedom for

  7. The ion transport mechanism of lithium polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongli

    Lithium polymer electrolytes are of great interest for use in polymer-electrolyte rechargeable batteries. However, the lithium transport mechanism in the polymer electrolyte has not been fully understood, due partly to the lack of a means to characterize a key lithium transport property, the transference number, correctly and efficiently. This research pioneered the use of the electrophoretic nuclear magnetic resonance technique to measure the lithium transference number (TsbLi) of polymer electrolytes. The development of this technique is described. It is shown that the technique is strictly valid regardless of the degree of dissociation of the electrolyte and the measurement protocol is relatively straightforward. As a result, the accuracy of the technique is high compared to existing techniques. The lithium transport mechanism in polymer gel electrolytes are investigated systematically with complementary techniques including vibrational spectroscopy (Raman scattering), nuclear magnetic resonance, and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The characteristic lithium transport behavior as a function of the temperature, the salt concentration, the anion type, and the polymer matrices is established. Perfluoroimide and perfluoromethide lithium salts always lead to a larger lithium transference number compared to conventional lithium salts. In poly(vinylidene fluororide-hexfloropropylene) based gel electrolytes, the perfluoroimide anion, (CFsb3SOsb3)sb2Nsp-, results in a nearly invariant TsbLi over a wide salt concentration range. In contrast, the CFsb3SOsb3sp- anion results in TsbLi decreasing monotonically with increasing salt concentration. In poly(acrylonitrile), which binds with Lisp+, the TsbLi versus LiCFsb3SOsb3 concentration curve is nearly parabolic. A qualitative model is proposed which defines the important molecular interactions underlying the lithium transport behavior and extends the Fuoss and Onsager theory to systems with extensive ion complexation.

  8. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. PMID:27268064

  9. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  10. Solvation of lithium ion in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    Solvation of the lithium ion (Li+) in dimethoxyethane (DME) and propylene carbonate (PC) is of scientific significance and urgency in the context of lithium-ion batteries. I report PM7-MD simulations on the composition of Li+ solvation shells (SH) in a few DME/PC mixtures. The equimolar mixture features preferential solvation by PC, in agreement with classical MD studies. However, one DME molecule is always present in the first SH, supplementing the cage formed by five PC molecules. As PC molecules get removed, DME gradually substitutes vacant places. In the PC-poor mixtures, an entire SH is populated by five DME molecules.

  11. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  12. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  13. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs. PMID:25640923

  14. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted on a ring cusp magnetic field ion thruster; in which the anode, cathode and discharge chamber backplate were moved relative to the magnetic cusp; are described. Optimum locations for the anode, cathode and backplate which yield the lowest energy cost per plasma ion and highest extracted ion fraction are identified. The results are discussed in terms of simple physical models. The results of preliminary experiments into the operation of hollow cathodes on nitrogen and xenon over a large pressure range (0.1 to 100 Torr) are presented. They show that the cathode discharge transfers from the cathode insert to the exterior edge of the orifice plate as the interelectrode pressure is increased. Experimental evidence showing that a new ion extractor grid concept can be used to stabilize the plasma sheath at the screen grid is presented. This concept, identified by the term constrained sheath optics, is shown to hold ion beamlet divergence and impingement characteristics to stable values as the beamlet current and the net and total accelerating voltages are changed. The current status of a study of beamlet vectoring induced by displacing the accelerator and/or decelerator grids of a three grid ion extraction system relative to the screen grid is discussed.

  15. Nanostructured lithium-aluminum alloy electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, Nicholas S.; Huber, Dale L.

    2010-12-01

    Electrodeposited aluminum films and template-synthesized aluminum nanorods are examined as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-aluminum alloying reaction is observed electrochemically with cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in lithium half-cells. The electrodeposition reaction is shown to have high faradaic efficiency, and electrodeposited aluminum films reach theoretical capacity for the formation of LiAl (1 Ah/g). The performance of electrodeposited aluminum films is dependent on film thickness, with thicker films exhibiting better cycling behavior. The same trend is shown for electron-beam deposited aluminum films, suggesting that aluminum film thickness is the major determinant in electrochemical performance regardless of deposition technique. Synthesis of aluminum nanorod arrays on stainless steel substrates is demonstrated using electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates followed by template dissolution. Unlike nanostructures of other lithium-alloying materials, the electrochemical performance of these aluminum nanorod arrays is worse than that of bulk aluminum.

  16. Development of Lithium-ion Battery as Energy Storage for Mobile Power Sources Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Ali; Hasan, Hasimah

    2009-09-01

    In view of the need to protect the global environment and save energy, there has been strong demand for the development of lithium-ion battery technology as a energy storage system, especially for Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) and electric vehicles (EV) applications. The R&D trend in the lithium-ion battery development is toward the high power and energy density, cheaper in price and high safety standard. In our laboratory, the research and development of lithium-ion battery technology was mainly focus to develop high power density performance of cathode material, which is focusing to the Li-metal-oxide system, LiMO2, where M=Co, Ni, Mn and its combination. The nano particle size material, which has irregular particle shape and high specific surface area was successfully synthesized by self propagating combustion technique. As a result the energy density and power density of the synthesized materials are significantly improved. In addition, we also developed variety of sizes of lithium-ion battery prototype, including (i) small size for electronic gadgets such as mobile phone and PDA applications, (ii) medium size for remote control toys and power tools applications and (iii) battery module for high power application such as electric bicycle and electric scooter applications. The detail performance of R&D in advanced materials and prototype development in AMREC, SIRIM Berhad will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara; Manzo, Michelle; Miller, Thomas; Reid, Concha; Bennett, William; Gemeiner, Russel

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the capabilities of current aerospace lithium-ion cells to perform long-term NASA missions, low-earth-orbits (LEO) testing to evaluate long-term cycle life was initiated. A flexible program was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to enable assessment of technology developments as they occur as well as provide information about different cell vendors and cell designs. Following extensive characterization testing, cells are tested using LEO charge and discharge profiles under ten different combinations of test conditions that were statistically chosen to determine the effects of depth-of-discharge, temperature, and end-of-charge voltage on LEO cycle life. Four cells from each vendor are tested at each specific combination of conditions. Conditions included in the test matrix are depth-of-discharges of 20%, 30, 35%, and 40%; temperatures of 20, 30, and 40 C; and end-of-charge voltages of 3.85 V, 3.95 V, and 4.05 V. Cells are randomly assigned to packs and packs are randomly assigned to test conditions. The capacity of the cells to 3.0 V at the conditions of the test is being periodically measured. The results of this testing will be used to model cell performance and degradation as a function of test operating conditions. Cells are being evaluated in 4-cell series strings with charge voltage limits being applied to individual cells by charge control units designed and built at NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing is being performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Crane Division in Crane, IN. Testing was initiated in September 2004 with 40 Ah cells from Saft and 30 Ah cells from Lithion. The test program is being expanded with the addition of cells from MSA and the addition of small cell modules is being considered. Preliminary results showing voltage, temperature, usable capacity per unit mass, and voltage dispersion as their changes over time for the cells at 20 C is presented.

  18. Lithium ion phase-transfer reaction at the interface between the lithium manganese oxide electrode and the nonaqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-14

    The lithium ion phase-transfer reaction between the spinel lithium manganese oxide electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte was investigated by the ac impedance spectroscopic method. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the electrochemical potential of the lithium ion in the electrode, the lithium salt concentration in the electrolyte, the kind of solvent, and the measured temperature were examined. Nyquist plots, obtained from the impedance measurements, consist of two semicircles for high and medium frequency and warburg impedance for low frequency, indicating that the reaction process of two main steps for high and medium frequency obey the Butler-Volmer type equation and could be related to the charge-transfer reaction process accompanied with lithium ion phase-transfer at the interface. The dependency on the solvent suggests that both steps in the lithium ion phase-transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface include the desolvation process and have high activation barriers. PMID:16852662

  19. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes.

  20. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  1. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes. PMID:26799574

  2. Advanced ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple model describing the discharge chamber performance of high strength, cusped magnetic field ion thrusters is developed. The model is formulated in terms of the energy cost of producing ions in the discharge chamber and the fraction of ions produced in the discharge chamber that are extracted to form the ion beam. The accuracy of the model is verified experimentally in a series of tests wherein the discharge voltage, propellant, grid transparency to neutral atoms, beam diameter and discharge chamber wall temperature are varied. The model is exercised to demonstrate what variations in performance might be expected by varying discharge chamber parameters. The results of a study of xenon and argon orificed hollow cathodes are reported. These results suggest that a hollow cathode model developed from research conducted on mercury cathodes can also be applied to xenon and argon. Primary electron mean free paths observed in argon and xenon cathodes that are larger than those found in mercury cathodes are identified as a cause of performance differences between mercury and inert gas cathodes. Data required as inputs to the inert gas cathode model are presented so it can be used as an aid in cathode design.

  3. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  4. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  5. Flame-retardant additives for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Yoo E.; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    To enhance the resistance of lithium-ion battery components to ignition and to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte with minimal effect on performance, we added flame-retardant additives to the electrolyte. The flame retardants were selected from a group of organic phosphate compounds, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and tributylphosphate (TBP), to provide superior thermal safety in lithium-ion cells at the fully charged state. The cycling characteristics of the lithium-ion cells containing flame-retardant additives were found to be similar or superior to the cells that contained no additives. Horizontal burning tests of electrolytes were carried out in a flame test chamber referenced by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) test standard 94 (UL 94) and ASTM D4986-98 to evaluate the electrolyes' flammability characteristics. The thermal stability characteristics of the electrodes and electrolytes with and without flame-retardant additives were investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Negative electrode samples with electrolytes containing flame-retardant additives revealed less heat generation and higher-onset decomposition temperatures. The results disclose that the thermal safety of lithium-ion cells can be improved by incorporating small amounts of suitable additives such as triphenylphosphate and tributylphosphate to the electrolyte.

  6. Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

  7. Crystal structure of advanced lithium titanate with lithium oxide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Kimio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-04-01

    Li 2TiO 3 is one of the most promising candidates among solid breeder materials proposed for fusion reactors. However, the mass of Li 2TiO 3 was found to decrease with time in the sweep gas mixed with hydrogen. This mass change indicates that the oxygen content of the sample decreased, suggesting the change from Ti 4+ to Ti 3+. In the present paper, the crystal structure and the non-stoichiometry of Li 2TiO 3 added with Li 2O have been extensively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry. In the case of the Li 2TiO 3 samples used in the present study, LiO-C 2H 5 or LiO-i-C 3H 7 and Ti(O-i-C 3H 7) 4 were mixed in the proportion corresponding to the molar ratio Li 2O/TiO 2 of either 2.00 or 1.00. In thermogravimetry, the mass of this sample decreased with time due to lithium deficiency, where no presence of oxygen deficiency was indicated.

  8. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  9. Erbium ions in congruent and stoichiometric lithium niobate. Searching for a clue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrable, Ian; Grachev, Valentin; Meyer, Martin; Kokanyan, Edward; Malovichko, Galina

    2011-10-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) doped with Er^3+ ions is of great interest for both fundamental science and advanced applications: lasers with frequency conversion, elements of all-optical telecommunication network and quantum cryptography. According to the EXAFS and RBS data, trivalent ions substitute for Li^+ and should create similar centers with charge compensation by lithium vacancies. The EPR studies confirmed this conclusion for Cr, Fe, Nd, and Yb Their most intense lines belong to axial centers with C3 symmetry. Distant lithium vacancies cause a line broadening, but do not change the C3 symmetry of observed spectra. Our EPR study of Er^3+ in stoichiometric LN has unexpectedly shown that all observed Er^3+ centers have C1 symmetry. Therefore, models with cation vacancies cannot describe our experimental data for LN:Er, and we have to consider complexes which excludes the existence of axial centers: erbium substituted for lithium or incorporated in octahedral or tetrahedral structural vacancy plus interstitial oxygen ion as a charge compensator, erbium substituted for niobium and oxygen vacancy as compensator of excessive negative charges. Re-investigating congruent samples of LN:Er, we did not find undisputable evidences of the existence of axial Er^3+ centers.

  10. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  11. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  12. Anodic oxidation of sulfide ions in molten lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C.L.; Gilbert, J.B. II . Applied Research Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    The study of sulfur and sulfide oxidation in molten salt systems is of current interest in high energy battery, and metallurgical applications. Cyclic voltammetry experiments have been performed on lithium sulfide in a lithium fluoride electrolyte at 1,161 K using a graphite working electrode and a platinum quasi-reference electrode. Two distinct oxidation mechanisms are observed for the sulfide ions. The first oxidation produces sulfur and at a higher potential a disulfide species is proposed to have formed. Both oxidations appear to be reversible and diffusion controlled.

  13. Computational Electrochemistry. Voltages of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Luo, Sijie; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical studies on the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries provide information on the structural changes during the charging and discharging processes. In the present study, we tested the M06-L and N12 exchange-correlation functionals on some well-studied lithium-containing materials. These functionals, which have already shown good performance for a variety of databases, outperform the widely used PBE functional for reproducing the experimental structures and averaged intercalation potentials. It is especially noteworthy that the M06-L functional gives voltages as accurate as those provided by the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional, but with less computational cost. PMID:26046813

  14. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  15. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  16. Magnetic relaxation dispersion of lithium ion in solutions of DNA.

    PubMed

    Victor, Ken G; Teng, Ching-Ling; Dinesen, T R D; Korb, Jean-Pierre; Bryant, Robert G

    2004-06-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate constant defines the magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) and provides a direct characterization of the molecular dynamics that cause fluctuations in the magnetic couplings in the system and may also indicate the dimensional constraints on the motion. The counterion cloud surrounding a linear polyelectrolyte ion, such as DNA in solution, provides an interesting opportunity for ion confinement that helps in understanding the thermodynamics and the dynamics of the interactions between the polyion and other solutes. The MRD profiles of lithium ion and tetramethylammonium ion were recorded in dilute aqueous solutions of native calf thymus DNA, which provides a long, charged rod that reorients slowly. The 7Li ion relaxes through the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling and the proton-lithium dipole-dipole coupling; the protons of the tetramethylammonium ion relax by dipole-dipole coupling. MRD profiles of the 7Li+ ion are dominated by transient interactions with the DNA that yield a linear dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate constant on the logarithm of the Larmor frequency. This magnetic field dependence is consistent with diffusive ion motions that modulate two spatial coordinates that characterize the relaxation couplings in the vicinity of the polyion. Motions around the rod and fluctuations in the ion distance from the rod are consistent with these constraints for lithium. The magnetic field dependence of the tetramethylammonium ion proton relaxation rate constant is weak, but also approximately a linear function of the logarithm of the Larmor frequency, which implies that the field dependence is caused in part by local order in the DNA solution.

  17. KOH etched graphite for fast chargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Qian; Yuge, Ryota; Nakahara, Kentaro; Tamura, Noriyuki; Miyamoto, Shigeyuki

    2015-06-01

    Graphite is the most widely used anode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, although it has limited power performance at high charging rates (Li-ion input). Alternative materials such as silicon and tin alloys, however, have an even more inferior rate capability. We describe here a multi-channel structure with a graphite surface etched with pores that can greatly increase the number of sites for Li-ion intercalation/de-intercalation and reduce the Li-ion diffusion distance for fast chargeable Li-ion batteries by etching the graphite surface with pores. As a result, the multi-channel structure graphite anode shows better charging and discharging rate capability, cyclability, and higher coulombic efficiency than pristine graphite materials. The multi-channel anode material is proposed for use in fast chargeable Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  18. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  19. Focused ion beam milling of microchannels in lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Manoj; Maurya, Devendra K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for focused ion beam (FIB) milling of microchannels in lithium niobate in this paper. We investigate two different cuts of lithium niobate, Y- and Z-cuts, and observe that the experimental material removal rate in the FIB for both Y-cut and Z-cut samples was 0.3 μm3/nC, roughly two times greater than the material removal rate previously reported in the literature but in good agreement with the value we obtain from stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) simulations. Further, we investigate the FIB milling rate and resultant cross-sectional profile of microchannels at various ion beam currents and find that the milling rate decreases as a function of ion dose and correspondingly, the cross-sectional profiles change from rectangular to V-shaped. This indicates that material redeposition plays an important role at high ion dose or equivalently, high aspect ratio. We find that the experimental material removal rate decreases as a function of aspect ratio of the milled structures, in good agreement with our simulation results at low aspect ratio and in good agreement with the material removal rates previously reported in the literature at high aspect ratios. Our results show that it is indeed easier than previously assumed to fabricate nanochannels with low aspect ratio directly on lithium niobate using the FIB milling technique. PMID:22662086

  20. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Highly Cross-Linked Polymer Films for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngmin; Kim, Byung Gon; Pak, Kwanyong; Han, Sung Jae; Song, Heon-Sik; Choi, Jang Wook; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-08-26

    We report an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process to coat polyethylene (PE) separators in Li-ion batteries with a highly cross-linked, mechanically strong polymer, namely, polyhexavinyldisiloxane (pHVDS). The highly cross-linked but ultrathin pHVDS films can only be obtained by a vapor-phase process, because the pHVDS is insoluble in most solvents and thus infeasible with conventional solution-based methods. Moreover, even after the pHVDS coating, the initial porous structure of the separator is well preserved owing to the conformal vapor-phase deposition. The coating thickness is delicately controlled by deposition time to the level that the pore size decreases to below 7% compared to the original dimension. The pHVDS-coated PE shows substantially improved thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. After incubation at 140 °C for 30 min, the pHVDS-coated PE causes only a 12% areal shrinkage (versus 90% of the pristine separator). The superior wettability results in increased electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, leading to significantly improved rate performance. The current approach is applicable to a wide range of porous polymeric separators that suffer from thermal shrinkage and poor electrolyte wetting.

  2. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  3. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-27

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications.

  4. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-27

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications. PMID:26627913

  5. Identifying fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Sammann, E.; Haasch, R.; Twesten, R. D.; MacLaren, S.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  6. Tannic-Acid-Coated Polypropylene Membrane as a Separator for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Wang, Haibin; Wu, Chaolumen; Liao, Chenbo; Li, Lei

    2015-07-29

    To solve the wetting capability issue of commercial polypropylene (PP) separators in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we developed a simple dipping surface-coating process based on tannic acid (TA), a natural plant polyphenol. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron measurements indicate that the TA is coated successfully on the PP separators. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the TA coating does not destroy the microporous structure of the separators. After being coated with TA, the PP separators become more hydrophilic, which not only enhances the liquid electrolyte retention ability but also increases the ionic conductivity. The battery performance, especially for power capability, is improved after being coated with TA. It indicates that this TA-coating method provides a promising process by which to develop an advanced polymer membrane separator for lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  8. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  9. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  10. Binding of ether and carbonyl oxygens to lithium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Blint, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    The electrolyte for a lithium battery is a lithium salt (e.g. lithium Perchlorate) dissolved in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvents. The conductivity in these electrolytes is ionic and needs to be as high as possible to efficiently remove energy from the battery. The diffusion coefficient of the solvated ion in liquid electrolytes is inversely dependent on the radius of the salvation sphere. Consequently conductivity will increase with a decrease in the size of the salvation shell. The size of the salvation shell is determined by the size and coordination number of the solvent molecules. The types of organic solvents in electrolytes used in lithium battery applications are usually differentiated based on their perceived solvation properties. These solvents are often small, oxygen containing organic molecules which move with the Li{sup +} ions. This paper calculates the binding energies of some of these solvents to Li{sup +} using molecular quantum mechanics (MQM) techniques. The binding energies of the various solvents to Li{sup +} may determine which solvents will be preferentially bound to the ion. In liquid organic electrolytes, then, it will be the identity of the solvent and the coordination number which most affect the conductivity; the binding energies determine both of these properties. Carbonyl oxygens which occur in formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate have different Li{sup +} bonding properties than do the ether oxygens which occur in water, dimethyl ether and diethyl ether. Polymer solvents for the lithium salts such as the polyethers have chains which are too long to move with the binding energies then serve as the basis for a different Li{sup +} transport. Dimethyl ether and diethyl ether serve both as solvents and models for the polyethers.

  11. Evaluation and Testing of Commercially-Available Carbon Nanotubes as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) battery technology offers significant performance advantages over the nickel-based technologies used for energy storage for the majority of NASA's missions. Specifically Li-ion technology offers a threefold to fourfold increase in gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and produces voltages in excess of three times the value of typical nickel-based battery systems. As part of the Advanced Battery Technology program at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a program on the evaluation of anodes for Li-ion cells and batteries was conducted. This study focused on the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes as anodes in Li-Ion cells. Candidate materials from multiple sources were evaluated. Their performance was compared to a standard anode comprised of mesocarbon microbeads. In all cases, the standard MCMB electrode exhibited superior performance. The details and results of the study are presented.

  12. Single-ion BAB triblock copolymers as highly efficient electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Renaud; Maria, Sébastien; Meziane, Rachid; Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Lienafa, Livie; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Trang N. T.; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Devaux, Didier; Denoyel, Renaud; Armand, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges of this century. The performances of classical lithium-ion technology based on liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues. Solid polymer electrolytes would be a perfect solution to those safety issues, miniaturization and enhancement of energy density. However, as in liquids, the fraction of charge carried by lithium ions is small (<20%), limiting the power performances. Solid polymer electrolytes operate at 80 °C, resulting in poor mechanical properties and a limited electrochemical stability window. Here we describe a multifunctional single-ion polymer electrolyte based on polyanionic block copolymers comprising polystyrene segments. It overcomes most of the above limitations, with a lithium-ion transport number close to unity, excellent mechanical properties and an electrochemical stability window spanning 5 V versus Li+/Li. A prototype battery using this polyelectrolyte outperforms a conventional battery based on a polymer electrolyte.

  13. Single-ion BAB triblock copolymers as highly efficient electrolytes for lithium-metal batteries.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Renaud; Maria, Sébastien; Meziane, Rachid; Aboulaich, Abdelmaula; Lienafa, Livie; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Trang N T; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Devaux, Didier; Denoyel, Renaud; Armand, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges of this century. The performances of classical lithium-ion technology based on liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues. Solid polymer electrolytes would be a perfect solution to those safety issues, miniaturization and enhancement of energy density. However, as in liquids, the fraction of charge carried by lithium ions is small (<20%), limiting the power performances. Solid polymer electrolytes operate at 80 °C, resulting in poor mechanical properties and a limited electrochemical stability window. Here we describe a multifunctional single-ion polymer electrolyte based on polyanionic block copolymers comprising polystyrene segments. It overcomes most of the above limitations, with a lithium-ion transport number close to unity, excellent mechanical properties and an electrochemical stability window spanning 5 V versus Li(+)/Li. A prototype battery using this polyelectrolyte outperforms a conventional battery based on a polymer electrolyte.

  14. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion.

  15. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion. PMID:24615890

  16. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  17. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  18. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  19. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  20. Pyrrole copolymers with enhanced ion diffusion rates for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, P.; Gardlund, Z.; Huntoon, T.; Hall, H.K.; Padias, A.

    1998-07-01

    Copolymers of pyrrole with a polyether-substituted pyrrole were tested as cathodes for lithium batteries. The charge and discharge characteristics showed that anion transport was much faster in the copolymer than in polypyrrole. As a result these electrodes store and release much more charge at higher current densities but are similar to polypyrrole at low currents. Pulse and relaxation measurements of the ion diffusion showed that this difference was due to a ten-fold increase in the anion diffusion coefficient.

  1. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  2. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  3. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  4. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  5. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  6. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  7. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  8. Effects of vibrations and shocks on lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Martin J.; Schuster, Simon F.; Bach, Tobias; Fleder, Elena; Stelz, Manfred; Gläser, Simon; Müller, Jana; Sextl, Gerhard; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly used in mobile applications where mechanical vibrations and shocks are a constant companion. This work shows how these mechanical loads affect lithium-ion cells. Therefore pouch and cylindrical cells are stressed with vibrational and shock profiles according to the UN 38.3 standard. Additionally, a vibration test is set up to reflect stress in real-world applications and is carried out for 186 days. The effects of the load profiles on the tested cells are investigated by capacity measurement, impedance spectroscopy, micro-X-ray computed tomography and post mortem analyses. The mechanical stress has no effect on the investigated pouch cells. Although all tested cylindrical cells would pass the standard tests, in certain cells stressed in a vertical position the mandrel dispatched itself and struck against internal components. This caused bruised active materials, short circuits, a damaged current collector and current interrupt device. The investigations are not directly transferrable to all pouch or cylindrical cells but show that the mechanical cell design, especially the fixation of the internal components, determines whether a cell withstands vibrations and shocks. Depending on the cell design and the loading direction, long-term vibrational loads can have additional detrimental effects on lithium-ion cells compared to standard tests.

  9. Safety focused modeling of lithium-ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, S.; Marlair, G.; Lecocq, A.; Petit, M.; Sauvant-Moynot, V.; Huet, F.

    2016-02-01

    Safety issues pertaining to Li-ion batteries justify intensive testing all along their value chain. However, progress in scientific knowledge regarding lithium based battery failure modes, as well as remarkable technologic breakthroughs in computing science, now allow for development and use of prediction tools to assist designers in developing safer batteries. Subsequently, this paper offers a review of significant modeling works performed in the area with a focus on the characterization of the thermal runaway hazard and their relating triggering events. Progress made in models aiming at integrating battery ageing effect and related physics is also discussed, as well as the strong interaction with modeling-focused use of testing, and the main achievements obtained towards marketing safer systems. Current limitations and new challenges or opportunities that are expected to shape future modeling activity are also put in perspective. According to market trends, it is anticipated that safety may still act as a restraint in the search for acceptable compromise with overall performance and cost of lithium-ion based and post lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of the future. In that context, high-throughput prediction tools capable of screening adequate new components properties allowing access to both functional and safety related aspects are highly desirable.

  10. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  11. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  12. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  13. Germanium anode with excellent lithium storage performance in a germanium/lithium-cobalt oxide lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuwan; Yang, Zhibo; Fu, Yujun; Qiao, Li; Li, Dan; Yue, Hongwei; He, Deyan

    2015-02-24

    Germanium is a highly promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries as a consequence of its large theoretical specific capacity, good electrical conductivity, and fast lithium ion diffusivity. In this work, Co3O4 nanowire array fabricated on nickel foam was designed as a nanostructured current collector for Ge anode. By limiting the voltage cutoff window in an appropriate range, the obtained Ge anode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance in half- and full-cells, which can be mainly attributed to the designed nanostructured current collector with good conductivity, enough buffering space for the volume change, and shortened ionic transport length. More importantly, the assembled Ge/LiCoO2 full-cell shows a high energy density of 475 Wh/kg and a high power density of 6587 W/kg. A high capacity of 1184 mA h g(-1) for Ge anode was maintained at a current density of 5000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles.

  14. Impact of Charge Methodology Upon the Performance of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L.; Chin, K.; Surampudi, S.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph gives an overview on the impact of charge methodology upon the performance of lithium ion cells. Charge characteristics are given on the following: (1) lithium ion prototype cells, including charge rate characteristics at different temperatures, the effect of charge methodology upon cycle life performance, the effect of charge voltage upon cell performance; (2) three-electrode cells; and (3) lithium-ion eight-cell batteries.

  15. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Manis Kumar Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  16. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  17. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  18. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  19. Lithium Ion Batteries Used for Nuclear Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Stapels, Christopher J.; Chen, X. Jie; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Christian, James F.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear forensics includes the study of materials used for the attribution a nuclear event. Analysis of the nuclear reaction products resulting both from the weapon and the material in the vicinity of the event provides data needed to identify the source of the nuclear material and the weapon design. The spectral information of the neutrons produced by the event provides information on the weapon configuration. The lithium battery provides a unique platform for nuclear forensics, as the Li-6 content is highly sensitive to neutrons, while the battery construction consists of various layers of materials. Each of these materials represents an element for a threshold detector scheme, where isotopes are produced in the battery components through various nuclear reactions that require a neutron energy above a fundamental threshold energy. This study looks into means for extracting neutron spectral information by understanding the isotopic concentration prior to and after exposure. The radioisotopes decay through gamma and beta emission, and radiation spectrometers have been used to measure the radiation spectra from the neutron exposed batteries. The batteries were exposed to various known neutron fields, and analysis was conducted to reconstruct the incident neutron spectra. This project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, grant number HDTRA1-11-1-0028.

  20. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  1. Lithium ion diffusion through glassy carbon plate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, M.; Nohmi, S.; Funabiki, A.; Abe, T.; Ogumi, Z.

    1998-07-01

    The electrochemical permeation method was applied to the determination of the diffusion coefficient of Li{sup +} ion (D{sub Li{sup +}}) in a glassy carbon (GC) plate. The cell was composed of two compartments, which were separated by the GC plate. Li{sup +} ions were inserted electrochemically from one face, and extracted from the other. The flux of the permeated Li{sup +} ions was monitored as an oxidation current at the latter face. The diffusion coefficient was determined by fitting the transient current curve with a theoretical one derived from Fick's law. When the potential was stepped between two potentials in the range of 0 to 0.5 V, transient curves were well fitted with the theoretical one, which gave D{sub Li{sup +}} values on the order of 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. In contrast, when the potential was stepped between two potentials across 0.5 V, significant deviation was observed. The deviation indicated the presence of trap sites as well as diffusion sites for Li{sup +} ions, the former of which is the origin of the irreversible capacity of GC.

  2. Nanodiamonds: a critical component of anodes for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanpeng; Li, Hongdong; Wang, Liying; Qiu, Dongchao; Ma, Yibo; Pei, Kai; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Kaifeng

    2016-08-18

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) have been introduced into a carbonaceous anode for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The lithium storage capacity, cycling performance and stability of the LIBs are increased and this is related to the DNDs' unique characteristics of chemical inertness, a larger surface area, low expansion, and high lithium adsorption capacity. PMID:27488679

  3. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  4. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized π electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-π type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  5. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-01

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles. PMID:26061529

  6. Improved carbon anode materials for lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Marsh, C.

    1998-07-01

    Several carbon materials have been studied for suitability as anode materials in lithium-ion cells. Carbons that have been included in this evaluation are three grades of commercially available mesophase carbon microbeads (MCMB) 6-28, 10-28 and 25-28, two specially prepared mesophase fibers (Amoco), a foreign mesophase fiber and KS-15 graphite (Lonza). Differences in cycling behavior between the three types of MCMB material are shown. Data of full lithium-ion cells demonstrate the effect that the choice of carbon material has on the cell discharge voltage and capacity. Lithium reference electrode experiments in full cells (3.0--4.0Ah capacity), elucidate the dynamics under several charge/discharge regimes and provide a comparison between the performance of carbon fiber and graphite anode materials. These test results indicate that the fibers can be charged at significantly higher rates than graphite without showing polarization at the anode. Full and half cell data also demonstrates the high coulombic efficiencies of the mesophase materials and first cycle efficiencies as compared to graphite. A comparison of two mesophase materials with different textures in full cells under strenuous cycling conditions shows significant differences in capacity retention. SEM photos of fibers showing the different textures are also presented.

  7. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  8. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  9. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH4–air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells pose a CH4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level. PMID:26166911

  10. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  11. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  12. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  13. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  14. A lithium-ion sulfur battery using a polymer, polysulfide-added membrane.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-05

    In this paper we report the performances of a lithium-ion sulfur battery characterized by a polymer configuration. The cell, based on a sulfur-carbon cathode, a Li-Sn-C nanostructured anode and a PEO-based, polysulfide-added electrolyte, shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of stability and delivered capacity. The remarkable cell performances are ascribed to the mitigation of the cathode dissolution process due to the buffer action ensured by the polysulfide added to the polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte configuration allows the achievement of a stable capacity ranging from 500 to 1500 mAh gS(-1), depending on the cycling rate. The use of a polymer electrolyte and the replacement of the lithium metal with a Li-Sn-C nanostructured alloy are expected to guarantee high safety content, thus suggesting the battery here studied as advanced energy storage system.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Anodes Being Evaluated for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Gennett, Tom; VanderWal, Randy L.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is evaluating the use of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for thin-film lithium-ion (Li) batteries. The motivation for this work lies in the fact that, in contrast to carbon black, directed structured nanotubes and nanofibers offer a superior intercalation media for Li-ion batteries. Carbon lamellas in carbon blacks are circumferentially oriented and block much of the particle interior, rendering much of the matrix useless as intercalation material. Nanofibers, on the other hand, can be grown so as to provide 100-percent accessibility of the entire carbon structure to intercalation. These tubes can be visualized as "rolled-up" sheets of carbon hexagons (see the following figure). One tube is approximately 1/10,000th the diameter of a human hair. In addition, the high accessibility of the structure confers a high mobility to ion-exchange processes, a fundamental for the batteries to respond dynamically because of intercalation.

  16. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  17. Thermal Aspects of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Shakkottai, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Huang, C. K.; Timmerman, P.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective of this investigation is to provide the necessary inputs for a thermal model of the Li-ion battery for the Mars 2001 Lander. Two alternate configurations of this battery are under development: a) prismatic parallel plate, and b) cylindrical spiral wound. Required thermal inputs for both consist of the following: a) heat generation rates, b) thermal mass, and c) thermal conductivity. Thermal mass and conductivity were computed on the basis of known properties and configuration of the cell components. The heat generation rates were taken as the product of current and difference between open circuit voltage (OCV) and operating voltages (CCV) at a given state-of charge (SOC). Herein, it was assumed that the enthalpy voltage was equal to the OCV. OCV vs SOC data were obtained experimentally and CCV vs SOC were taken from previously obtained discharge data.

  18. A review of nanostructured lithium ion battery materials via low temperature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajun

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured materials afford us new opportunities to improve the current technology for synthesizing Li ion batteries. Generating nanomaterials with new properties via an inexpensive approach offers a tremendous potential for realizing high performance Li-ion batteries. In this review, I mainly summarize some of the recent progress made, and describe the patents awarded on synthesizing nanostructured cathode materials for these batteries via low temperature wet- chemistry methods. From an economical view, such syntheses, especially hydrothermal synthesis, may offer the opportunities for significantly lowering the cost of manufacturing battery materials, while conferring distinct environmental advantages. Recent advances in in-situ (real time) X-ray diffraction for studying hydrothermal synthesis have great potential for bettering the rational design of advanced lithium-electrode materials. The development of this technique also will be discussed.

  19. Mesoporous TiO2-B Microspheres with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hansan; Bi, Zhonghe; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Unocic, Raymond R; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous TiO2-B microsperes with a favorable material architecture are designed and synthesized for high power lithium ion batteries. This material, combining the advantages of fast lithium transport with a pseudocapacitive mechanism, adequate electrode-electrolyte contact and compact particle packing in electrode layer, shows superior high-rate charge-discharge capability and long-time cyclability for lithium ion batteries.

  20. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium ion batteries using organic citric acid as leachant.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ge, Jing; Wu, Feng; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Shi; Wu, Borong

    2010-04-15

    In this work, a hydrometallurgical process based on leaching is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Citric acid and hydrogen peroxide are introduced as leaching reagents and the leaching of cobalt and lithium with a solution containing C(6)H(8)O(7) x H(2)O is investigated. When both C(6)H(8)O(7) x H(2)O and H(2)O(2) are used an effective recovery of Li and Co as their respective citrates is possible. The leachate is characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The proposed procedure includes the mechanical separation of metal-containing particles and a chemical leaching process. Conditions for achieving a recovery of more than 90% Co and nearly 100% Li are achieved experimentally by varying the concentrations of leachant, time and temperature of the reaction as well as the starting solid-to-liquid ratio. Leaching with 1.25 M citric acid, 1.0 vol.% hydrogen peroxide and a S:L of 20 g L(-1) with agitation at 300 rpm in a batch extractor results in a highly efficient recovery of the metals within 30 min of the processing time at 90 degrees C. This hydrometallurgical process is found to be simple, environmentally friendly and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LIBs.

  1. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  2. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  3. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  4. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-06-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

  5. Determination of the lithium ion diffusion coefficient in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.; Popov, B.N.; Ritter, J.A.; White, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    A complex impedance model for spherical particles was used to determine the lithium ion diffusion coefficient in graphite as a function of the state of charge (SOC) and temperature. The values obtained range from 1.12 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} to 6.51 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s at 25 C for 0 and 30% SOC, respectively, and for 0% SOC, the value at 55 C was 1.35 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/s. The conventional potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT) and Warburg impedance approaches were also evaluated, and the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques were exposed.

  6. Testing Update on 20 and 25-Ah Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Gregg C.; Mardikian, Pamella; Edwards, Sherri; Bugga, Kumar; Chin, Keith; Smart, Marshall; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2003-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Energy Products has worked on lithium ion batteries for approximately 8 years. During that period EPEPC developed and delivered several cell sizes on a program funded by the USAF and Canadian DND. Designs are wound cylindrical cells from 7 to 40-Ah. Most cells delivered were approximately 25-Ah due to requirements of Mars missions. Several iterations of cells were manufactured and delivered for evaluation. The first design was 20-Ah, Design I, and the second was a 25-Ah, Design II.

  7. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  8. Dynamically compacted all-ceramic lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jak, Michiel J. G.; Ooms, Frans G. B.; Kelder, Erik M.; Legerstee, Waiter J.; Schoonman, Joop; Weisenburger, Alfons

    This paper deals with a cell design and a unique manufacturing process for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Detailed analyses of the manufacturing of the components for such a battery and the compaction of the green battery are presented. The electrodes were made of coatings of LiMn 2O 4 on metal foils. The electrolyte was a free-standing foil of the ceramic electrolyte Li-doped BPO 4 in a polymer matrix. The different layers were wound and compacted by using magnetic pulse compaction. Several characteristics of the compacted batteries are presented.

  9. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  10. A long-life lithium ion sulfur battery exploiting high performance electrodes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Noelia; Agostini, Marco; Caballero, Alvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-01

    A novel lithium ion sulfur battery is formed by coupling an activated ordered mesoporous carbon-sulfur (AOMC-S) cathode and a nanostructured tin-carbon anode. The lithium ion cell has improved reversibility, high energy content and excellent cycle life.

  11. Novel materials for negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Nathalie

    Carbonaceous materials are currently utilized as negative electrodes in commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, their low capacity prompted the search for alternative materials of higher capacity and good cycling stability in order to maximize the battery energy density and cycle life. Lithium alloys have long been considered as alternative negative electrode materials to substitute for the carbonaceous materials currently used in commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, they suffer from cracking caused by the large volume changes occurring during lithiation and delithiation. To better understand the alloys failure mechanism, various elements were tested and those that can alloy with lithium electrochemically were identified. Silicon showed extremely high capacity but poor cycle life. To investigate to which extent multiphase materials may improve cycle life, several binary metal-silicides were explored in search for improved cycling stability. Mg 2Si was the only compound of high capacity but it exhibited poor cycle life. Both addition of a matrix and decrease in particle size have been demonstrated to improve cycle life. Each effect has been investigated separately. Using tin-based powders of different size oxidized to various extent, we showed an increase in oxygen content, a particle size decrease and the formation of converted Sn-Sb compounds improved cycling stability. The effect of the matrix nature on the electrochemical properties was explored using Zn-based conversion materials. Upon reaction with lithium, ZnO and ZnS electrodes generated LiZn and a Li2O and Li2S matrix, respectively. The reversible process was identified as the Li-Zn alloying reaction, as obtained in pure metallic Zn electrodes. ZnO and ZnS failure mechanisms were also similar to metallic Zn. However, ZnS showed improved cycle life. LiZnN has been isolated by way of an electrochemical conversion reaction of Zn3N2 with lithium. We showed Zn3N 2 reversibly reacts with

  12. Understanding and improving lithium ion batteries through mathematical modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Rutooj D.

    There is an intense, worldwide effort to develop durable lithium ion batteries with high energy and power densities for a wide range of applications, including electric and hybrid electric vehicles. For improvement of battery technology understanding the capacity fading mechanism in batteries is of utmost importance. Novel electrode material and improved electrode designs are needed for high energy- high power batteries with less capacity fading. Furthermore, for applications such as automotive applications, precise cycle-life prediction of batteries is necessary. One of the critical challenges in advancing lithium ion battery technologies is fracture and decrepitation of the electrodes as a result of lithium diffusion during charging and discharging operations. When lithium is inserted in either the positive or negative electrode, there is a volume change associated with insertion or de-insertion. Diffusion-induced stresses (DISs) can therefore cause the nucleation and growth of cracks, leading to mechanical degradation of the batteries. With different mathematical models we studied the behavior of diffusion induces stresses and effects of electrode shape, size, concentration dependent material properties, pre-existing cracks, phase transformations, operating conditions etc. on the diffusion induced stresses. Thus we develop tools to guide the design of the electrode material with better mechanical stability for durable batteries. Along with mechanical degradation, chemical degradation of batteries also plays an important role in deciding battery cycle life. The instability of commonly employed electrolytes results in solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Although SEI formation contributes to irreversible capacity loss, the SEI layer is necessary, as it passivates the electrode-electrolyte interface from further solvent decomposition. SEI layer and diffusion induced stresses are inter-dependent and affect each-other. We study coupled chemical

  13. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  14. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation... design feature associated with Lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...) T00012WI for installation of Lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. The Model 680 is a twin-engine,...

  15. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  16. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  17. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. PMID:27118069

  18. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  19. Thermal stability of electrodes in Lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to identify thermal reactions in Sony-type lithium-ion cells and to correlate these reactions with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. An electrochemical half-cell was used to cycle the anode and cathode materials and to set the state-of-charge (SOC). Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the SOC (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 80 C involving decomposition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/1M LiPF{sub 6}) was seen to play an essential role in this reaction. DSC analysis of the anodes from disassembled Sony cells showed similar behavior to the half-cell anodes with a strong exotherm beginning in the 80 C--90 C range. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF binder. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the SOC (decreasing Li content in the cathode). No thermal reactions were seen at lower temperatures suggesting that thermal runaway reactions in this type of cell are initiated at the anode. An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) was used to perform measurements of thermal runaway on commercial Sony Li-ion cells as a function of SOC. The cells showed sustained thermal output as low as 80 C in agreement with the DSC observations of anode materials but the heating rate was strongly dependent on the SOC.

  20. Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

    Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

  1. Memory effect in a lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Ukyo, Yoshio; Novák, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Memory effects are well known to users of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride batteries. If these batteries are recharged repeatedly after being only partially discharged, they gradually lose usable capacity owing to a reduced working voltage. Lithium-ion batteries, in contrast, are considered to have no memory effect. Here we report a memory effect in LiFePO4—one of the materials used for the positive electrode in Li-ion batteries—that appears already after only one cycle of partial charge and discharge. We characterize this memory effect of LiFePO4 and explain its connection to the particle-by-particle charge/discharge model. This effect is important for most battery uses, as the slight voltage change it causes can lead to substantial miscalculations in estimating the state of charge of batteries.

  2. High Energy Lithium-Ion VES Cells And Batteries Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castric, A.-F.; Lawson, S.; Borthomieu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    b Saft's Space VES range of lithium-ion cells have been designed specifically to meet the satellites on-board power need, while meeting the legitimate high levels of requirements for space products. The purpose of the paper is to develop how the VES batteries designs have progressively evolved in order to accommodate the needs, requirements and constraints evolutions. The following topics will be presented: - Description of the main design features of the VES Li- ion batteries. - How the optimised battery configuration is selected against the required EOL power need or other constraints. - Presentation of the batteries performances (electrical, mechanical, thermal, interface, weight, ...). - Measures implemented in order to maintain these performances, and to guarantee the best product quality as per space standards.

  3. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  4. Electrode architectures for enhanced lithium ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Sharon Loeffler

    Increasing prevalence of portable electronic devices and growing concern over the consumption of fossil fuels have led to a growing demand for more efficient energy storage options. Lithium ion chemistry has grown to dominate the battery market, but still requires improvement to meet the increasing need for smaller, cheaper, better performing batteries. The use of nanomaterials has garnered much attention in recent years as a potential way of improving battery performance while decreasing the size. However, new problems are introduced with these materials such as low packing density and high reactivity with the electrolyte. This research focuses on the development of an electrode architecture using nanomaterials which will decrease lithium ion transport distance while enhancing electrical conductivity within the cell. The proposed architecture consists of a stacked, 2D structure composed of layers of carbon nanotubes and active material particles, and can be applied to both the anode and the cathode. The process also has the advantage of low cost because it can be performed under normal laboratory conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) and easily adapted to a commercial scale.

  5. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1)), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g(-1) at 10 A g(-1)). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes. PMID:27479691

  6. Solar photovoltaic charging of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Thomas L.; Kelly, Nelson A.

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) charging of batteries was tested by using high efficiency crystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules to recharge lithium-ion battery modules. This testing was performed as a proof of concept for solar PV charging of batteries for electrically powered vehicles. The iron phosphate type lithium-ion batteries were safely charged to their maximum capacity and the thermal hazards associated with overcharging were avoided by the self-regulating design of the solar charging system. The solar energy to battery charge conversion efficiency reached 14.5%, including a PV system efficiency of nearly 15%, and a battery charging efficiency of approximately 100%. This high system efficiency was achieved by directly charging the battery from the PV system with no intervening electronics, and matching the PV maximum power point voltage to the battery charging voltage at the desired maximum state of charge for the battery. It is envisioned that individual homeowners could charge electric and extended-range electric vehicles from residential, roof-mounted solar arrays, and thus power their daily commuting with clean, renewable solar energy.

  7. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  9. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; et al

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-levelmore » outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less

  10. Cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow spheres for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yufei; Sun, Chencheng; Yan, Qingyu; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of cobalt silicate novel hierarchical hollow spheres via a facile hydrothermal method is presented. With a unique hollow structure, the Co2SiO4 provides a large surface area, which can shorten the lithium ions diffusion length and effectively accommodate the volumetic variation during the lithiation/de-lithiation process. Serving as an anode material in lithium-ion battery application, the Co2SiO4 electrode demonstrates a high reversible specific capacity (first-cycle charge capacity of 948.6 mAh g‑1 at 100 mA g‑1), a cycling durability (specific capacity of 791.4 mAh g‑1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g‑1), and a good rate capability (specific capacity of 349.4 mAh g‑1 at 10 A g‑1). The results indicate that the cobalt silicate hierarchical hollow sphere holds the potential applications in energy storage electrodes.

  11. Bismuth Oxide: A New Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuling; Trujillo, Matthias A.; Fu, Engang; Patterson, Brian; Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Deng, Shuguang; Smirnov, Sergei; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth oxide directly grown on nickel foam (p-Bi2O3/Ni) was prepared by a facile polymer-assisted solution approach and was used directly as a lithium-ion battery anode for the first time. The Bi2O3 particles were covered with thin carbon layers, forming network-like sheets on the surface of the Ni foam. The binder-free p-Bi2O3/Ni shows superior electrochemical properties with a capacity of 668 mAh/g at a current density of 800 mA/g, which is much higher than that of commercial Bi2O3 powder (c-Bi2O3) and Bi2O3 powder prepared by the polymer-assisted solution method (p-Bi2O3). The good performance of p-Bi2O3/Ni can be attributed to higher volumetric utilization efficiency, better connection of active materials to the current collector, and shorter lithium ion diffusion path. PMID:24416506

  12. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  14. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg−1 at the current density 500 mAg−1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability. PMID:27725701

  15. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-10-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg‑1 at the current density 500 mAg‑1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability.

  16. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate: a model lithium ion battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacob W; Lam, Royce K; Sheardy, Alex T; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2014-11-21

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li(+) ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li(+)-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li(+)-solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  17. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  18. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  19. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  20. Olivine-type nanosheets for lithium ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Lu, Ziyang; Tan, Huiteng; Sim, Daohao; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yazami, Rachid; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2013-06-25

    Olivine-type LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) has become of great interest as cathodes for next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, this family of compounds suffers from poor electronic conductivities and sluggish lithium diffusion in the [010] direction. Here, we develop a liquid-phase exfoliation approach combined with a solvothermal lithiation process in high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) supercritical fluids for the fabrication of ultrathin LiMPO4 nanosheets (thickness: 3.7-4.6 nm) with exposed (010) surface facets. Importantly, the HPHT solvothermal lithiation could produce monodisperse nanosheets while the traditional high-temperature calcination, which is necessary for cathode materials based on high-quality crystals, leads the formation of large grains and aggregation of the nanosheets. The as-synthesized nanosheets have features of high contact area with the electrolyte and fast lithium transport (time diffusion constant in at the microsecond level). The estimated diffusion time for Li(+) to diffuse over a [010]-thickness of <5 nm (L) was calculated to be less than 25, 2.5, and 250 μs for LiFePO4, LiMnPO4, and LiCoPO4 nanosheets, respectively, via the equation of t = L(2)/D. These values are about 5 orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding bulk materials. This results in high energy densities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g., 18 kW kg(-1) and 90 Wh kg(-1) at a 80 C rate for LiFePO4 nanosheets).

  1. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Babinec, Susan

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  2. Air Force/Ion Physics hardened lithium doped solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A.; Bartels, F.; Carnes, C.; Ho, J.; Smith, D.

    1971-01-01

    Introduction of lithium by ion implantation eliminates reproducibility and surface problem deficiencies of other introduction techniques. Implantation has been demonstrated to make possible a degree of control over the cell lithium content which has not previously been available. Front barrier development remains to be completed. Successful development of the barrier will make available the freedom to select optimum lithium concentration throughout the cell, including in the vicinity of the junction.

  3. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge.

  4. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsi

    The rapidly increasing markets of portable electronic devices and electric/hybrid vehicles have raised worldwide R&D efforts in developing high-energy rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. High performance intercalation cathodes are key to the success of these batteries. The nanotechnology has endowed the electrode materials with a variety of improved features as well as unique characteristics. Synthesis approaches were designed in this thesis work to utilize these advantages and investigate the exceptional phenomena raised by the nanostructured materials. A novel sol-gel method was designed for the synthesis of carbon-coated phase-pure lithium iron phosphate with submicron particle sizes and uniform size distribution. The surface carbon coating was formed in-situ through pyrolysis of the precursor gel, which improved the apparent electronic conductivity of the as prepared material to 10-2 S/cm compared with 10-9-10-10 S/cm of the pristine LiFePO 4. The favorable physical characteristics of the synthesized LiFePO 4 particles and the improved electronic conductivity through the carbon coating led to electrochemical properties comparable to the best performances reported so far. Amorphous manganese oxide cryogels with nanoarchitecture were obtained by freeze-drying Mn (IV) oxide hydrogels. The combination of the advantages of the amorphous structure and the nano-architecture of the materials gave high capacities and excellent rate capabilities. This work led to the finding of a nanocrystalline Li2MnO3-like compound with a surprising electrochemical activity, which is in sharp contrast to the microcrystalline rock-salt Li2MnO3 that has been known to be electrochemically inactive. The study highlights the possibility of qualitative difference in intercalation behavior of nanostructured intercalation compounds compared with their microcrystalline counterparts. Bismuth and copper modified amorphous manganese oxides were synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation

  6. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  7. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  8. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  9. Lithium-Ion Battery Cycling for Magnetism Control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyun; Luo, Xi; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Lifang; Khalid, Bilal; Gong, Jianghong; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-13

    Magnetization and electric-field coupling is fundamentally interesting and important. Specifically, current- or voltage-driven magnetization switching at room temperature is highly desirable from scientific and technological viewpoints. Herein, we demonstrate that magnetization can be controlled via the discharge-charge cycling of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) with rationally designed electrode nanomaterials. Reversible manipulation of magnetism over 3 orders of magnitude was achieved by controlling the lithiation/delithiation of a nanoscale α-Fe2O3-based electrode. The process was completed rapidly under room-temperature conditions. Our results indicate that in addition to energy storage LIBs, which have been under continuous development for several decades, provide exciting opportunities for the multireversible magnetization of magnetic fields.

  10. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao. Gopalskrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1999-01-01

    The 18,650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 mOmega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25 C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39%. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55% state- of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cu cm. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  11. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    The 18650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 m Omega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39 percent. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55 percent state-of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cc. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  12. Silicon Nanowire Fabric as a Lithium Ion Battery Electrode Material

    SciTech Connect

    Chockla, Aaron M.; Harris, Justin T.; Akhavan, Vahid A.; Bogart, Timothy D.; Holmberg, Vincent C.; Steinhagen, Chet; Mullins, C. Buddie; Stevenson, Keith J.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2011-11-09

    A nonwoven fabric with paperlike qualities composed of silicon nanowires is reported. The nanowires, made by the supercritical-fluid–liquid–solid process, are crystalline, range in diameter from 10 to 50 nm with an average length of >100 μm, and are coated with a thin chemisorbed polyphenylsilane shell. About 90% of the nanowire fabric volume is void space. Thermal annealing of the nanowire fabric in a reducing environment converts the polyphenylsilane coating to a carbonaceous layer that significantly increases the electrical conductivity of the material. This makes the nanowire fabric useful as a self-supporting, mechanically flexible, high-energy-storage anode material in a lithium ion battery. Anode capacities of more than 800 mA h g{sup –1} were achieved without the addition of conductive carbon or binder.

  13. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  14. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg‑1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  15. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  16. Oral Exposure of a Child to a Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Curran, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Battery exposure has the potential for severe morbidity and possible mortality. Accidental exposure is rising with the increased use of button batteries, and young children and older adults are at highest risk for accidental exposure. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of mouth exposure to a lithium ion battery in a boy. A review of the current literature on incidence, diagnosis, and outcomes of battery exposure is presented. When symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal distress of non-specific origin are present, battery ingestion should be included in the differential diagnosis. Dentists may be the first health professionals to encounter battery exposure, especially in the case of mouth exposures. Knowledge of signs and symptoms are necessary to properly diagnose and refer for medical management.

  17. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-22

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today's society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg(-1). It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  18. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg−1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects. PMID:27328707

  19. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  20. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  1. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  2. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  3. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  4. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  5. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O.; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2014-07-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  6. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  7. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  8. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  9. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  10. Natural sisal fibers derived hierarchical porous activated carbon as capacitive material in lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhewei; Guo, Huajun; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Yan, Zhiliang; Wang, Yansen

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a novel advanced electrochemical energy storage (EES) system bridging gap between lithium ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (ECC). In this work, we report that sisal fiber activated carbon (SFAC) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by KOH activation and served as capacitive material in LIC for the first time. Different particle structure, morphology, specific surface area and heteroatoms affected the electrochemical performance of as-prepared materials and corresponding LICs. When the mass ratio of KOH to char precursor was 2, hierarchical porous structured SFAC-2 was prepared and exhibited moderate specific capacitance (103 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), superior rate capability and cyclic stability (88% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A g-1). The corresponding assembled LIC (LIC-SC2) with optimal comprehensive electrochemical performance, displayed the energy density of 83 Wh kg-1, the power density of 5718 W kg-1 and superior cyclic stability (92% energy density retention after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). It is worthwhile that the source for activated carbon is a natural and renewable one and the synthesis method is eco-friendly, which facilitate that hierarchical porous activated carbon has potential applications in the field of LIC and other energy storage systems.

  11. Low-temperature charging of lithium-ion cells Part II: Model reduction and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmlinger, Jürgen; Tippmann, Simon; Buchholz, Michael; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-ion cells, especially when used in electric vehicles at varying operation conditions, require a sophisticated battery management to ensure an optimal operation regarding operation limits, performance, and maximum lifetime. In some cases, the best trade-off between these conflictive goals can only be reached by considering internal, non-measurable cell characteristics. This article presents a data-driven model-reduction method for a strict electrochemical model. The model describes the charging process of a lithium-ion cell and possibly occurring degradation effects in a large temperature range and is presented in Part I of this contribution. The model-reduction process is explained in detail, and the gained model is compared to the original electrochemical model showing a very high approximation quality. This reduced model offers a very low computation complexity and is therefore suitable for the implementation in a battery management system (BMS). Based on this model, an advanced charging strategy is presented and evaluated for possible reductions in charging times especially at low temperatures.

  12. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  13. Anisotropic Lithium Ion Conductivity in Single-Ion Diblock Copolymer Electrolyte Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Aissou, Karim; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Usluer, Özlem; Pécastaings, Gilles; Portale, Giuseppe; Fleury, Guillaume; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-02-01

    Well-defined single-ion diblock copolymers consisting of a Li-ion conductive poly(styrenesulfonyllithium(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) (PSLiTFSI) block associated with a glassy polystyrene (PS) block have been synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 1000 has been achieved from PS-b-PSLiTFSI thin films by comparing Li-ion conductivities of out-of-plane (aligned) and in-plane (antialigned) cylinder morphologies at 40 °C. Blending of PS-b-PSLiTFSI thin films with poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer (hPEO) enables a substantial improvement of Li-ion transport within aligned cylindrical domains, since hPEO, preferentially located in PSLiTFSI domains, is an excellent lithium-solvating material. Results are also compared with unblended and blended PSLiTFSI homopolymer (hPSLiTFSI) homologues, which reveals that ionic conductivity is improved when thin films are nanostructured.

  14. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Boehmer, H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.

    2007-01-15

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mA/cm{sup 2} range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 km/s are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  15. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Boehmer, H; Heidbrink, W W; McWilliams, R; Leneman, D; Vincena, S

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mAcm(2) range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 kms are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  16. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  17. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  18. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  19. High power and high energy lithium-ion batteries for under-water applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitzendanner, R.; Puglia, F.; Martin, C.; Carmen, D.; Jones, E.; Eaves, S.

    Lithium-ion batteries have demonstrated excellent energy density, reliability, and life in commercial applications. Several new Navy and undersea applications are emerging that need the high energy density and high power capabilities that the lithium-ion technology offers. Such applications have historically utilized silver-zinc technology for their power source. However, life cycle costs, maintenance and logistics issues, and wet-life limitations are true detriments in these applications. Lithium-ion technology has demonstrated the energy and power density of silver-zinc, but with much improved cycle life, shelf life, and low maintenance properties. For these reasons, and others, many under water applications are looking to lithium-ion to provide the performance of the silver-zinc system, but at a greatly reduced life-cycle cost.

  20. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. PMID:22163735

  1. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ. PMID:22163735

  2. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles. PMID:26353564

  3. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  4. Effect of lithium-ion diffusibility on interfacial resistance of LiCoO2 thin film electrode modified with lithium tungsten oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Matsuda, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Naoaki; Saruwatari, Motoaki; Furuichi, Yuki; Kurihara, Koji; Kuzuo, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the contribution of lithium-ion diffusibility of lithium tungsten oxides (LWOs) to low interfacial resistance, we fabricate thin-film electrodes of 6Li-enriched LiCoO2 (6LCO) modified with various structure-types of 6Li-enriched LWOs by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. XRD reveals that the LWO layers have Li2WO4 structure with rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries and amorphous states. EIS shows that the lowest interfacial resistance of the positive electrodes is given by the amorphous state, followed in order by the tetragonal and the rhombohedral symmetry, and that the diffusion coefficients of lithium-ions in the electrodes increase in the same order. SIMS demonstrates that the fastest lithium-ion self-diffusibility into the LWOs is found in the amorphous state, followed in order by tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetry. Furthermore, the amorphous state LWO modification shows smooth lithium-ion diffusion between the LWO and LCO layers after the electrochemical test. Conversely, the rhombohedral LWO modification demonstrates congested lithium-ion diffusion between the LWO and LCO layers after the test. Thus, fast lithium-ion self-diffusibility into the LWO-modified LCO contributes to enhancing the diffusion of lithium-ions, resulting in the reduction of interfacial resistance.

  5. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  6. Fumed Silica-Based Single-Ion Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Hu, Heyi; Fu, Yanbao; Baker, Gregory L; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-01

    A composite lithium electrolyte composed of polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) is synthesized and characterized. Polyanions immobilized by the silica nanoparticles have reduced anion mobility. Composite nanoparticles grafted by poly(lithium 4-styrenesulfonate) only have moderate conductivity at 60 °C. Almost an order increase of the conductivity to ∼10(-6) S/cm is achieved by co-polymerization of the poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate with sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, which enhances dissociation between lithium cation and polyanion and facilitates lithium ion transfer from the inner part of the polyelectrolyte layer. This composite electrolyte has the potential to suppress lithium dendrite growth and enable the use of lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries.

  7. Role of surface coating on cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Qin, Y.; Amine, K.; Sun, Y.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface coating of cathode materials has been widely investigated to enhance the life and rate capability of lithium-ion batteries. The surface coating discussed here was divided into three different configurations which are rough coating, core shell structure coating and ultra thin film coating. The mechanism of surface coating in achieving improved cathode performance and strategies to carry out this surface modification is discussed. An outlook on atomic layer deposition for lithium ion battery is also presented.

  8. Ultrafast and directional diffusion of lithium in phosphorene for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-03-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the binding and diffusion behavior of Li in phosphorene. Our studies reveal the following findings: (1) Li atom forms strong binding with phosphorus atoms and exists in the cationic state; (2) the shallow energy barrier (0.08 eV) of Li diffusion on monolayer phosphorene along zigzag direction leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity, which is estimated to be 10(2) (10(4)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature; (3) the large energy barrier (0.68 eV) along armchair direction results in a nearly forbidden diffusion, and such strong diffusion anisotropy is absent in graphene and MoS2; (4) a remarkably large average voltage of 2.9 V is predicted in the phosphorene-based Li-ion battery; and (5) a semiconducting to metallic transition induced by Li intercalation of phosphorene gives rise to a good electrical conductivity, ideal for use as an electrode. Given these advantages, it is expected that phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for applications in novel electronic device and lithium-ion battery with a high rate capability and high charging voltage.

  9. Ultrafast and directional diffusion of lithium in phosphorene for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-03-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the binding and diffusion behavior of Li in phosphorene. Our studies reveal the following findings: (1) Li atom forms strong binding with phosphorus atoms and exists in the cationic state; (2) the shallow energy barrier (0.08 eV) of Li diffusion on monolayer phosphorene along zigzag direction leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity, which is estimated to be 10(2) (10(4)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature; (3) the large energy barrier (0.68 eV) along armchair direction results in a nearly forbidden diffusion, and such strong diffusion anisotropy is absent in graphene and MoS2; (4) a remarkably large average voltage of 2.9 V is predicted in the phosphorene-based Li-ion battery; and (5) a semiconducting to metallic transition induced by Li intercalation of phosphorene gives rise to a good electrical conductivity, ideal for use as an electrode. Given these advantages, it is expected that phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for applications in novel electronic device and lithium-ion battery with a high rate capability and high charging voltage. PMID:25664808

  10. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengwa, R. J.; Dhatarwal, Priyanka; Choudhary, Shobhna

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF4) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10-6 S cm-1 which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  11. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces.

  12. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces. PMID:26842322

  13. Synthesis, strctural and electrochemical characterizations of lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng

    The electrification trend for transportation systems requires alternative cathode materials to LiCoO2 with improved safety, lowered cost and extended cycle life. Lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials, which can be presented in a two component notation as xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO 2, (M= Ni, Co or Mn) have superior cost and energy density advantages. These cathode materials have shown success in laboratory scale experiments, but are still facing challenges such as voltage fade, moderate rate capacity and tap density for commercialization. The synthesis of precursors with high packing density and suitable physical properties is critical to achieve high energy density as well as the other acceptable electrochemical performance for the next generation lithium ion batteries. The aim of this study is to correlate the electrochemical properties of materials to their structural, morphological, and physical properties by coordinating the science of synthesis with the science of function, in order to enable the use of these compounds in vehicle technologies. Three different precursors including carbonate, hydroxide and oxalate were synthesized by co-precipitation reactions using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under various conditions. Research focused on areas such as nucleation and growth mechanisms, synthesis optimizations, and intrinsic limitations of each co-precipitation method. A combination of techniques such as PSA, BET, SEM, EDX FIB, TEM, Raman, FTIR, TGA-DSC, XRD, and ICP-MS, as well as electrochemical test methods such as cycling, CV, EIS and HPPC tests were used in correlation with each other in order to deepen our understanding to these materials. Related topics such as the composite structure formation process during the solid state reaction, lithium and nickel content effects on the cathode properties were also discussed. Additionally, the side reactions between the active materials and electrolyte as a result of the high charge potential were

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  15. Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: surface conductivity vs. bulk ion/electron transport.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B; Subramanya Herle, P; Rho, Y H; Nazar, L F; Dunlap, R; Perry, Laura K; Ryan, D H

    2007-01-01

    Lithium metal phosphates are amongst the most promising cathode materials for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Owing to their inherently low electronic conductivity, it is essential to optimize their properties to minimize defect concentration and crystallite size (down to the submicron level), control morphology, and to decorate the crystallite surfaces with conductive nanostructures that act as conduits to deliver electrons to the bulk lattice. Here, we discuss factors relating to doping and defects in olivine phosphates LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) and describe methods by which in situ nanophase composites with conductivities ranging from 10(-4)-10(-2) S cm(-1) can be prepared. These utilize surface reactivity to produce intergranular nitrides, phosphides, and/or phosphocarbides at temperatures as low as 600 degrees C that maximize the accessibility of the bulk for Li de/insertion. Surface modification can only address the transport problem in part, however. A key issue in these materials is also to unravel the factors governing ion and electron transport within the lattice. Lithium de/insertion in the phosphates is accompanied by two-phase transitions owing to poor solubility of the single phase compositions, where low mobility of the phase boundary limits the rate characteristics. Here we discuss concerted mobility of the charge carriers. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy to pinpoint the temperature at which the solid solution forms, we directly probe small polaron hopping in the solid solution Li(x)FePO4 phases formed at elevated temperature, and give evidence for a strong correlation between electron and lithium delocalization events that suggests they are coupled.

  16. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory. PMID:25977870

  17. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  18. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  19. An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Lu, Song; Li, Kaiyuan; Liu, Changchen; Cheng, Xudong; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of lithium ion battery fires and explosions enhance the need of precise risk assessments on batteries. In the current study, 18650 lithium ion batteries at different states of charge are tested using a cone calorimeter to study the burning behaviors under an incident heat flux of 50 kW m-2. Several parameters are measured, including mass loss rate, time to ignition, time to explosion, heat release rate (HRR), the surface temperature and concentration of toxic gases. Although small quantities of oxygen are released from the lithium ion battery during burning, it is estimated that the energy, consuming oxygen released from the lithium ion battery, accounts for less than 13% of total energy released by a fully charged lithium ion battery. The experimental results show that the peak HRR and concentration of toxic gases rise with the increasing the states of charge, whereas the time to ignition and time to explosion decrease. The test results of the fully charged lithium ion batteries at three different incident heat fluxes show that the peak HRR increases from 6.2 to 9.1 kW and the maximum surface temperature increases from 662 to 934 °C as the incident heat flux increases from 30 to 60 kW m-2.

  20. Ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions in lithium imidazolide electrolytes studied by Raman spectroscopy and DFT models.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Johan; Niedzicki, Leszek; Zukowska, Grażyna Z; Johansson, Patrik; Wieczorek, Władysław; Jacobsson, Per

    2011-06-21

    Molecular level interactions are of crucial importance for the transport properties and overall performance of ion conducting electrolytes. In this work we explore ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions in liquid and solid polymer electrolytes of lithium 4,5-dicyano-(2-trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI)-a promising salt for lithium battery applications-using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. High concentrations of ion associates are found in LiTDI:acetonitrile electrolytes, the vibrational signatures of which are transferable to PEO-based LiTDI electrolytes. The origins of the spectroscopic changes are interpreted by comparing experimental spectra with simulated Raman spectra of model structures. Simple ion pair models in vacuum identify the imidazole nitrogen atom of the TDI anion to be the most important coordination site for Li(+), however, including implicit or explicit solvent effects lead to qualitative changes in the coordination geometry and improved correlation of experimental and simulated Raman spectra. To model larger aggregates, solvent effects are found to be crucial, and we finally suggest possible triplet and dimer ionic structures in the investigated electrolytes. In addition, the effects of introducing water into the electrolytes-via a hydrate form of LiTDI-are discussed.

  1. Epitaxial growth and lithium ion conductivity of lithium-oxide garnet for an all solid-state battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangryun; Hirayama, Masaaki; Taminato, Sou; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-09-28

    Epitaxial thin films of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with a cubic garnet-type structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the lithium ion conduction in grains. Two orientations of the films were obtained depending on the Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) substrate orientation, LLZO(001)/GGG(001) and LLZO(111)/GGG(111). The ionic conductivities in the grains of the (001) and (111) films were 2.5 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 298 K, respectively, which were lower than those of polycrystalline LLZO of over 10(-4) S cm(-1). X-ray reflectometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed a large amount of Al(3+) of over 0.6 moles substituted for Li(+). These results indicate that the Al(3+) substitution in the LLZO lattice decreases the number of movable lithium ions and blocks the three-dimensional lithium migration pathway. The lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate induced the lattice distortion of the LLZO, resulting in different conductivities between the (001) and (111) films. The epitaxial-film model system directly clarified a substantial impact of the Al substitution and the lattice distortion on the lithium ion conductivity in the LLZO. PMID:23877300

  2. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL

  3. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  4. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg(-1)(total electrode) while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg(-1)(total electrode), which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  5. Engineering empty space between Si nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Nian; Carney, Thomas J; Yang, Yuan; Cui, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Silicon is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries yet attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to pulverization of the silicon and unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation during the electrochemical cycles. Despite significant advances in nanostructured Si electrodes, challenges including short cycle life and scalability hinder its widespread implementation. To address these challenges, we engineered an empty space between Si nanoparticles by encapsulating them in hollow carbon tubes. The synthesis process used low-cost Si nanoparticles and electrospinning methods, both of which can be easily scaled. The empty space around the Si nanoparticles allowed the electrode to successfully overcome these problems Our anode demonstrated a high gravimetric capacity (~1000 mAh/g based on the total mass) and long cycle life (200 cycles with 90% capacity retention).

  6. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  7. Multiscale Multiphysics Lithium-Ion Battery Model with Multidomain Modular Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) powering recent wave of personal ubiquitous electronics are also believed to be a key enabler of electrification of vehicle powertrain on the path toward sustainable transportation future. Over the past several years, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed the Multi-Scale Multi-Domain (MSMD) model framework, which is an expandable platform and a generic modularized flexible framework resolving interactions among multiple physics occurring in varied length and time scales in LIB[1]. NREL has continued to enhance the functionality of the framework and to develop constituent models in the context of the MSMD framework responding to U.S. Department of Energy's CAEBAT program objectives. This talk will introduce recent advancements in NREL's LIB modeling research in regards of scale-bridging, multi-physics integration, and numerical scheme developments.

  8. Control of a lithium-ion battery storage system for microgrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegueroles-Queralt, Jordi; Bianchi, Fernando D.; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2014-12-01

    The operation of future microgrids will require the use of energy storage systems employing power electronics converters with advanced power management capacities. This paper presents the control scheme for a medium power lithium-ion battery bidirectional DC/AC power converter intended for microgrid applications. The switching devices of a bidirectional DC converter are commanded by a single sliding mode control law, dynamically shaped by a linear voltage regulator in accordance with the battery management system. The sliding mode controller facilitates the implementation and design of the control law and simplifies the stability analysis over the entire operating range. Control parameters of the linear regulator are designed to minimize the impact of commutation noise in the DC-link voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated by experimental results.

  9. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg−1total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg−1total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices. PMID:24923290

  10. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  11. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  12. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  13. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qizhao, Huang; Qing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e- and h+) and ionic species (Li+) at the electrode-electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li+ storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Project supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Competitive Research Program (CRP Award No. NRF-CRP8-2011-04).

  14. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  15. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L; Isaacson, Mark J; Wong, Michael S; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg(-1) for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  16. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-11-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg-1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries.

  17. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg−1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  18. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-01-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24710575

  19. Monolayer MoS2-Graphene Hybrid Aerogels with Controllable Porosity for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Reversible Capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lianfu; Lin, Binghui; Li, Xiaoming; Song, Xiufeng; Xia, Hui; Li, Liang; Zeng, Haibo

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer MoS2 nanosheets (NSs) are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because all redox reactions take place at the surface without lithium-ion diffusion limit. However, the expanded band gap of monolayer MoS2 NSs (∼1.8 eV) compared to their bulk counterparts (∼1.2 eV) and restacking tendency due to the van der Waals forces result in poor electron transfer and loss of the structure advantage. Here, a facile approach is developed to fabricate the MoS2-graphene aerogels comprising controlled three-dimensional (3D) porous architectures constructed by interconnected monolayer MoS2-graphene hybrid NSs. The robust 3D architectures combining with the monolayer feature of the hybrid NSs not only prevent the MoS2 and graphene NSs from restacking, but also enable fast electrode kinetics due to the surface reaction mechanism and highly conductive graphene matrix. As a consequence, the 3D porous monolayer MoS2-graphene composite aerogels exhibit a large reversible capacity up to 1200 mAh g(-1) as well as outstanding cycling stability and rate performance, making them promising as advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-04-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  2. Chemical and structural stability of lithium-ion battery electrode materials under electron beam.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Doeff, Marca M; Xin, Huolin L

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.18)Ti(0.02)O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results.

  3. Chemical and Structural Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materials under Electron Beam

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results. PMID:25027190

  4. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  5. Sinusoidal current and stress evolutions in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Bauer, Christoph; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical breakdown of graphite materials due to diffusion-induced stress (DIS) is a key aging mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, electrochemical-thermal coupled model along with a DIS model is developed to study the DIS distribution across the anode thickness. Special attention is paid to the evolution behavior of surface tangential stress (STS) in the discharge process for graphite at different locations of the anode. For the first time, we report that the evolution of STS, as well as local current, at all locations of the anode, evolve like sinusoidal waves in the discharge process with several crests and troughs. The staging behavior of graphite active material, in particular the sharp change of open-circuit potential (OCP) of graphite in the region between two plateaus, is found to be the root cause for the sinusoidal patterns of current and stress evolution. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as starting state of charge, discharge C-rate and electrode thickness on the current and stress evolutions are investigated.

  6. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V.

  7. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  8. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  9. Quantification of Lithium-ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is known about lithium-ion cell thermal runaway energetics has been measured and extrapolated from data acquired on relatively small cells (< 3 Ah). This work is aimed at understanding the effects of cell size on thermal runaway energetics on cells from 3 to 50 Ah of both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) chemistries. Results show that for both LFP and NCA cells, the normalized heating rate (W/Ah) increases roughly linearly for cells from 3-38 Ah while the normalized total heat released (kJ/Ah) is relatively constant over that cell size range. The magnitude of the normalized heating rate is on the order of 2x greater for NCA relative to LFP chemistries for 2-3 Ah cells, while that difference is on the order of 10x for 30-40 Ah cells. The total normalized heat release is ~ 15-20% greater for NCA relative to LFP cells across the entire size range studied 3-38 Ah.

  10. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  11. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  12. Optimal charge rates for a lithium ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimian, Saeed Khaleghi; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    The optimum charge rate for a lithium ion cell at each cycle is determined to maximize the useful life of the cell without using optimization algorithms. In previous work, we showed that by applying a dynamic optimization routine the number of cycles can be increased by approximately 29.4% with respect to the case with one optimal charge current [7]. The dynamic optimization results indicated that the optimum charge rates are the minimum currents at which the constraints for the useful life are satisfied. This is due to the minimum charge rate resulting in minimum side reaction rate and capacity fade. Useful cell life is defined as the number of cycles before the end of discharge voltage (EODV) drops below 3.0 V or the cell discharge capacity becomes less than 20% of the original discharge capacity. The new approach presented in this work is able to find the optimal charge rates in a few minutes while the previous optimization algorithm takes at least one day, and improves the useful cell life by approximately 41.6% with respect to using only one optimal charge current.

  13. Particulate inverse opal carbon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Sang-Ok; Chae, Yu Jin; Lee, Joong Kee; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2013-01-29

    Inverse opal carbon materials were used as anodes for lithium ion batteries. We applied particulate inverse opal structures and their dispersion in the formation of anode electrodes via solution casting. We prepared aminophenyl-grafted inverse opal carbons (a-IOC), inverse opal carbons with mesopores (mIOC), and bare inverse opal carbons (IOC) and investigated the electrochemical behavior of these samples as anode materials. Surface modification by aminophenyl groups was confirmed by XPS measurements. TEM images showed mesopores, and the specific area of mIOC was compared with that of IOC using BET analysis. A half-cell test was performed to compare a-IOC with IOC and mIOC with IOC. In the case of the a-IOC structure, the cell test revealed no improvement in the reversible specific capacity or the cycle performance. The mIOC cell showed a reversible specific capacity of 432 mAh/g, and the capacity was maintained at 88%-approximately 380 mAh/g-over 20 cycles.

  14. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  15. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  16. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  17. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  18. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  19. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  20. Carbon nanotube film anodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sora; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Kyung-Won; Cho, Daehwan; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) film anodes are prepared for use in flexible lithium ion batteries, and the electrochemical performance of the CNT film anodes is evaluated. The CNT films are synthesized via chemical vapor deposition and direct spinning. The films are heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to study the effects of heat treatment on the battery performance. The electrodes made with the CNT films are characterized via charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance measurement. The results indicate that batteries with films heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere show a higher capacity, which can be a result of their high crystalline perfection. The impedance analysis shows that a lower resistance at the interface can be obtained by using heat-treated films. The charge-discharge tests are carried out by adjusting the rate from C/2 to 10C, and when the rate slows from 10C to 1C, the capacity of the samples largely recovers. The nitrogen/heat-treated CNT film electrodes present a capacity that is twice as high, such as 2C, 5C, and 10C, than untreated CNT film electrodes. These results indicate that the carbon nanotube film anodes have high potential for use in portable and wearable computers due to their flexibility.

  1. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. The electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 s for all configurations (parallel or series) tested.

  2. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  3. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Trulove, Paul C.; Foley, Matthew P.

    2012-09-30

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  4. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  5. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  6. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the water exchange reactions are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium, and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium. LXD was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  7. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, David M; Manolopoulos, David E; Dang, Liem X

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  8. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  9. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyphosphazene Materials for Advanced Lithium-Water Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme; Mark L. Stone; William F. Bauer

    2007-08-01

    Development of long-lived high-energy lithium-water batteries hinges upon developing solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with the appropriate properties. These polymer membranes paradoxically must allow lithium atoms to pass from the metallic surface, oxidize to the ionic form, and then pass through the membrane to the water outside. At the same time, the membrane must exclude all water, tramp ions, and deleterious gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. SPE membranes are the leading choice for lithium-water batteries however, because current non-membrane approaches being pursued by other research groups suffer from two insurmountable problems - storage and non-productive energy loss via direct lithium/water reaction. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigations into the transport of water and permanent gasses, such as carbon dioxide, through polyphosphazene SPE materials designed to address the challenges inherent in lithium water batteries.

  11. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO2) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests.

  12. Thermo-electrochemical evaluation of lithium-ion batteries for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W.; Yayathi, S.; Shaw, J.; Ardebili, H.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced energy storage and power management systems designed through rigorous materials selection, testing and analysis processes are essential to ensuring mission longevity and success for space exploration applications. Comprehensive testing of Boston Power Swing 5300 lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to power humanoid robot Robonaut 2 (R2) is conducted to support the development of a test-correlated Thermal Desktop (TD) Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) (TD-S) model for evaluation of power system thermal performance. Temperature, current, working voltage and open circuit voltage measurements are taken during nominal charge-discharge operations to provide necessary characterization of the Swing 5300 cells for TD-S model correlation. Building from test data, embedded FORTRAN statements directly simulate Ohmic heat generation of the cells during charge-discharge as a function of surrounding temperature, local cell temperature and state of charge. The unique capability gained by using TD-S is demonstrated by simulating R2 battery thermal performance in example orbital environments for hypothetical extra-vehicular activities (EVA) exterior to a small satellite. Results provide necessary demonstration of this TD-S technique for thermo-electrochemical analysis of Li-ion cells operating in space environments.

  13. An electrochemistry-based impedance model for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengbo Eben; Wang, Baojin; Peng, Huei; Hu, Xiaosong

    2014-07-01

    Accurate models of lithium-ion batteries are important for analyzing and predicting battery dynamics and aging. This paper presents an electrochemistry-based impedance model for lithium-ion batteries to better understand the relationship between battery internal dynamics and external measurement. The proposed impedance model is a modified single particle model which balances between simplicity and accuracy. The model includes electrochemical impedance due to charge-transfer reaction, diffusion dynamics in the electrodes, effects of ion concentration, capacitance dispersion in the double layer, and anode insulating film growth, etc. The impedance tests for model validation were performed on two lithium-ion cells at ambient temperature and at different SOC levels. A particle swarm optimization method is employed to identify model parameters. The model accuracy under different conditions is compared with that of conventional Randles model and the parameter variations at different stage of the aging process are studied.

  14. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  15. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance.

  17. Lithium Ion Materials for Energy Applications: Structural Properties from Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catti, Michele

    Cathode materials and solid electrolytes to be used in lithium batteries require a high ionic mobility of Li^+ species in their crystal structures. This in turn depends on the order-disorder state of lithium and on its bonding environment. Neutron diffraction is the choice technique to study the structural features of polycrystalline lithium materials that control their performance in ion transport processes. The basic principles of ionic mobility in solids and of the Rietveld refinement methods for neutron diffraction data are briefly reviewed. Then two important families of lithium conductors are selected from the literature and thoroughly discussed: the LLTO perovskite-type Li_xLa_{2/3-x/3}TiO_3 system and the Li_{1+x}Me_2(PO_4)_3 Nasicon phases. Accurate neutron diffraction determinations of the corresponding crystal structures have been shown to provide a considerable insight into the mechanisms of Li^+ ion transfer in such materials.

  18. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inda, Yasushi; Katoh, Takashi; Baba, Mamoru

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xSi yP 3- yO 12 with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10 -3 S cm -1 or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO 2 positive electrode, a Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic.

  19. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  20. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-02-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator.

  1. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-21

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  2. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Han, Kee Sung; Baggetto, Loic; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Custelcean, Radu; Lee, Dr. Eun-Sung; Guo, Bingkun; Bi, Zhonghe; Jiang, Deen; Veith, Gabriel M; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Brown, Gilbert M; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    A new orthochelated salt, lithium bis(monofluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB), has been synthesized and purified for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in the borate anion of LiBFMB increases its oxidation potential and also facilitates ion dissociation, as reflected by the ratio of ionic conductivity measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( exp) and that by ion diffusivity coefficients obtained using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) technique ( NMR). Half-cell tests using 5.0 V lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) as a cathode and EC/DMC/DEC as a solvent reveals that the impedance of the LiBFMB cell is much larger than those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based cells, which results in lower capacity and poor cycling performance of the former. XPS spectra of the cycled cathode electrode suggest that because of the stability of the LiBFMB salt, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the cathode surface is significantly different from those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based electrolytes, resulting in more solvent decomposition and thicker SEI layer. Initial results also indicate that using high dielectric constant solvent PC alters the surface chemistry, reduces the interfacial impedance, and enhances the performance of LiBFMB based 5.0V cell.

  4. Raising the cycling stability of aqueous lithium-ion batteries by eliminating oxygen in the electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia-Yan; Cui, Wang-Jun; He, Ping; Xia, Yong-Yao

    2010-09-01

    Aqueous lithium-ion batteries may solve the safety problem associated with lithium-ion batteries that use highly toxic and flammable organic solvents, and the poor cycling life associated with commercialized aqueous rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride systems. But all reported aqueous lithium-ion battery systems have shown poor stability: the capacity retention is typically less than 50% after 100 cycles. Here, the stability of electrode materials in an aqueous electrolyte was extensively analysed. The negative electrodes of aqueous lithium-ion batteries in a discharged state can react with water and oxygen, resulting in capacity fading upon cycling. By eliminating oxygen, adjusting the pH values of the electrolyte and using carbon-coated electrode materials, LiTi(2)(PO(4))(3)/Li(2)SO(4)/LiFePO(4) aqueous lithium-ion batteries exhibited excellent stability with capacity retention over 90% after 1,000 cycles when being fully charged/discharged in 10 minutes and 85% after 50 cycles even at a very low current rate of 8 hours for a full charge/discharge offering an energy storage system with high safety, low cost, long cycling life and appropriate energy density.

  5. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  6. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  7. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  8. [Advances in mechanisms of treatment for spinal cord injury with lithium].

    PubMed

    Duo, Zhang; He, Xi-jing

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord injury is a serious disabling disease caused by a series of internal and external factors in the field of orthopaedics and neuroscience, which is a big problem for doctors all over the world. Lithium has been used to treat dipolar disorder for over 100 years. It has been reported that lithium is benefit for brain neuron. The treatment effect for spinal cord injury gets more and more attention. Researches indicate that lithium is benefit for spinal cord injury by protecting neuron,reducing after-injury inflammation increasing the produce and release of neurotrophins, stimulating neurogenesis, enhancing autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis. This article summaries advances in mechanism of treatment for spinal cord injury with lithium by reviewing and analyzing researches. Therapy combined with lithium has a good application prospect.

  9. Nanoscale Engineering of Heterostructured Anode Materials for Boosting Lithium-Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gen; Yan, Litao; Luo, Hongmei; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-09-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as one of the most important electrochemical energy-storage devices, currently provide the dominant power source for a range of devices, including portable electronic devices and electric vehicles, due to their high energy and power densities. The interest in exploring new electrode materials for LIBs has been drastically increasing due to the surging demands for clean energy. However, the challenging issues essential to the development of electrode materials are their low lithium capacity, poor rate ability, and low cycling stability, which strongly limit their practical applications. Recent remarkable advances in material science and nanotechnology enable rational design of heterostructured nanomaterials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing electrochemical performance. Here, the progress as to how to design new types of heterostructured anode materials for enhancing LIBs is reviewed, in the terms of capacity, rate ability, and cycling stability: i) carbon-nanomaterials-supported heterostructured anode materials; ii) conducting-polymer-coated electrode materials; iii) inorganic transition-metal compounds with core@shell structures; and iv) combined strategies to novel heterostructures. By applying different strategies, nanoscale heterostructured anode materials with reduced size, large surfaces area, enhanced electronic conductivity, structural stability, and fast electron and ion transport, are explored for boosting LIBs in terms of high capacity, long cycling lifespan, and high rate durability. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of future materials design for high-performance LIB anodes are considered. The strategies discussed here not only provide promising electrode materials for energy storage, but also offer opportunities in being extended for making a variety of novel heterostructured nanomaterials for practical renewable energy applications.

  10. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  11. Integrating Si nanoscale building blocks into micro-sized materials to enable practical applications in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ran; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-28

    This article highlights recent advances in micro-sized silicon anode materials composed of silicon nanoscale building blocks for lithium-ion batteries. These materials show great potential in practical applications since they combine good cycling stability, high rate performance, and high volumetric capacity. Different preparation methods are introduced and the features and performance of the resulting materials are discussed. Key take-away points are interspersed through the discussion, including comments on the roles of the nanoscale building blocks. Finally, we discuss current challenges and provide an outlook for future development of micro-sized silicon-based anode materials.

  12. In Situ Analysis of Gas Generation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Different Carbonate-Based Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xin; Zhan, Chun; Bai, Ying; Ma, Lu; Liu, Qi; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Yang, Yusheng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-21

    Gas generation in lithium-ion batteries is one of the critical issues limiting their safety performance and lifetime. In this work, a set of 900 mAh pouch cells were applied to systematically compare the composition of gases generated from a serial of carbonate-based composite electrolytes, using a self-designed gas analyzing system. Among electrolytes used in this work, the composite γ-butyrolactone/ethyl methyl carbonate (GBL/EMC) exhibited remarkably less gassing because of the electrochemical stability of the GBL, which makes it a promising electrolyte for battery with advanced safety and lifetime.

  13. Lithium-ion Battery Demonstration for the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William; Baldwin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in a portable life support system (PLSS) on spacesuit simulators. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, over-discharge and over-temperature. The 500-gram batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 38 watts over 103 minutes of discharge time (130 Wh/kg). Battery design details are described and field and laboratory test results are summarized.

  14. In Situ Analysis of Gas Generation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Different Carbonate-Based Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xin; Zhan, Chun; Bai, Ying; Ma, Lu; Liu, Qi; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Yang, Yusheng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-21

    Gas generation in lithium-ion batteries is one of the critical issues limiting their safety performance and lifetime. In this work, a set of 900 mAh pouch cells were applied to systematically compare the composition of gases generated from a serial of carbonate-based composite electrolytes, using a self-designed gas analyzing system. Among electrolytes used in this work, the composite γ-butyrolactone/ethyl methyl carbonate (GBL/EMC) exhibited remarkably less gassing because of the electrochemical stability of the GBL, which makes it a promising electrolyte for battery with advanced safety and lifetime. PMID:26417916

  15. [Lithium].

    PubMed

    Sparsa, A; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2004-03-01

    The mode of action of the cation lithium is not well known. It is at present used as a topical drug in dermatology. Lithium inhibits many enzymes: Na/K ATPase, adenylcyclase, enzymes of the prostaglandines E1 synthesis, inositol-1-phosphatase. It is active on neutrophils et T lymphocytes, explaining in part its anti-inflammatory activity. It has a dose-dependent action on levures. It has possibly a direct inhibitory activity on DNA synthesis of herpes viruses. Lithium has a good local safety. Percutaneous penetration is weak and plasma concentrations are very much lower than that observed after oral intake. Lithium has been studied in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Its efficacy was primarily observed in psychotic patients. An assay with oral lithium did not confirmed the first observations. Topical lithium was found more efficient. Topical lithium succinate associated with zinc sulfate and lithium gluconate had a greater efficacy than placebo. Comparison with topical ketoconazole showed a non inferiority of lithium gluconate. Oral lithium also showed a reduction of symptoms' duration of herpes simplex. Cutaneous side-effects of oral lithium are frequent and numerous. Some of them may be explained by a lithium pharmacological cell activity (such as psoriasis). Teratogenicity is observed in mice and rats. Drug interactions are not expected after topical application. Irritants side effects are mainly observed after topical application; they are moderate and transitory. Lithium gluconate treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis is a bid application during at least 8 weeks. It may be used in renal insufficiency. It is not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Characterization of Mechanical Stress Effects on Lithium-ion Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peabody, Christina A.

    Lithium-ion batteries are the preferred energy storage devices for a variety of applications from electric vehicles to small scale portable electronics such as laptop computers and cellular telephones. In many of these applications the cycle lifetimes of current lithium-ion technologies are insufficient for the projected lifetime of the device. This is because the energy storage capabilities of batteries degrade over time regardless of usage conditions. The origin of this capacity fade and its corresponding impedance rise is poorly understood, though previous research has attributed it to chemical degradation mechanisms. In this thesis a mechanical mechanism that contributes to the lifetime limiting capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries is characterized. First, the mechanical response of pouch-type lithium-ion batteries is characterized under static and cyclic compressive loading. Using simplified battery systems composed of the polymer separator and foil current collectors in conjunction with viscoelastic creep models, the mechanical response of a battery to a static compressive stress is shown to be dominated by the nonelectroactive battery components. Then the analysis is taken one step further to show that the viscoelastic response of the battery can be attributed to the creep response of the polymer separator. The remainder of this dissertation focuses on characterizing the effects of viscoelastic creep of the polymer separator on the performance of a lithium-ion battery. Mechanical stresses on the polymer separator arise during normal battery operation due to external stresses applied to the cell and also constrained expansion of the electrodes during electrochemical intercalation. The viscoelastic creep of the separator is shown to result in pore closure which limits ion transport in the electrolyte phase of the battery, ultimately causing a rate limited capacity loss. Finally, the effect of separator porosity and composition on this viscoelastic creep

  17. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  18. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles. PMID:26990320

  19. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles.

  20. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    PubMed

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  1. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    PubMed

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-25

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totir, Dana Alexa

    2000-10-01

    Structural changes that occur during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion battery cathode materials have been investigated using in situ spectroscopic techniques. A new method was developed for the preparation of carbon and binder free cathodes utilizing powder materials of interest for commercial batteries. The extraordinary quality of the cyclic voltammetric curves recorded for this type of electrodes during the in situ measurements allows direct correlations to be made between the state of charge of the material and its structural and electronic characteristics. LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.15Ni 0.85O2 electrodes were evaluated using cycling voltammetry and the mean diffusion coefficient for Li-ions in the lattice (DLi) was calculated for LiMn2O4. LiMn2O4 electrodes prepared by this technique have been studied in situ using Mn K-edge XAS. Data analysis for the species formed at different potentials indicated a contraction of the lattice associated with the increase in the oxidation state of manganese. In situ Raman spectra of particles of LiMn2O 4, and LiCoO2 embedded in Au and also of KS-44 graphite and carbon microfibers MCF28 embedded in thermally annealed Ni have been recorded as a function of the applied potential. Fe K-edge XAFS of pyrite electrodes in a Li/PEO(LiClO4)/FeS 2 cell and S K-edge XANES measurements of a FeS2 electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte have been acquired as a function of the state of charge. The studies have clearly evidenced the formation of metallic Fe and Li2S as intermediates after 4 e- discharge and the formation of Li2FeS2 after 2 e- recharge. While Fe K-edge studies have indicated that there is no change in the Fe environment and oxidation state upon 4 e- recharge, the results obtained from S K-edge studies are inconclusive for this stage. Finally, in situ Co K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the first time during the electrochemical cycling of electrodeposited Co(OH) 2 films in alkaline solutions. The results support

  3. Lithium-assisted plastic deformation of silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries: a first-principles theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kejie; Wang, Wei L; Gregoire, John; Pharr, Matt; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2011-07-13

    Silicon can host a large amount of lithium, making it a promising electrode for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Recent experiments indicate that silicon experiences large plastic deformation upon Li absorption, which can significantly decrease the stresses induced by lithiation and thus mitigate fracture failure of electrodes. These issues become especially relevant in nanostructured electrodes with confined geometries. On the basis of first-principles calculations, we present a study of the microscopic deformation mechanism of lithiated silicon at relatively low Li concentration, which captures the onset of plasticity induced by lithiation. We find that lithium insertion leads to breaking of Si-Si bonds and formation of weaker bonds between neighboring Si and Li atoms, which results in a decrease in Young's modulus, a reduction in strength, and a brittle-to-ductile transition with increasing Li concentration. The microscopic mechanism of large plastic deformation is attributed to continuous lithium-assisted breaking and re-forming of Si-Si bonds and the creation of nanopores.

  4. Reaction between Lithium Anode and Polysulfide Ions in a Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-09-01

    The reaction between polysulfides and a lithium anode in a Li-S battery was examined using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the polysulfide species with six sulfur atoms or more were reactive with regard to lithium metal. Although the reaction can be greatly inhibited by the addition of LiNO3 in the electrolyte, LiNO3 cannot form a stable protection layer on the Li anode to prevent the reaction during storage. PMID:27535337

  5. Reaction between Lithium Anode and Polysulfide Ions in a Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-09-01

    The reaction between polysulfides and a lithium anode in a Li-S battery was examined using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the polysulfide species with six sulfur atoms or more were reactive with regard to lithium metal. Although the reaction can be greatly inhibited by the addition of LiNO3 in the electrolyte, LiNO3 cannot form a stable protection layer on the Li anode to prevent the reaction during storage.

  6. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-01

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately.

  8. Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2011-08-01

    Lithium-ion cell field failures due to internal short circuits are a significant concern to the entire lithium-ion cell market from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. While the probability of these failure events occurring is estimated to be very low (1 in 5-10 million), the consequences of a cell failure due to an internal short in a high energy battery system have the potential to be catastrophic. The statistical probability of one of these events is very low and they are difficult to predict and simulate in a laboratory using some external test; which makes cell failure due to an internal short circuit a unique challenge to overcome. Several of the experiments designed to simulate internal shorts have been adopted as testing protocols across the industry; in general, they do not accurately simulate an internal short. This work highlights our efforts to experimentally trigger an internal short circuit in a lithium-ion cell.

  9. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  10. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-02-21

    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  11. 78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain...

  12. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

  13. Microporous carbon derived from polyaniline base as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Huang, Zhengzheng; Shen, Haijie; Tian, Yingying; Xiao, Chengyi; Yang, Jingjing; Mao, Zhaohui

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Nitrogen-containing microporous carbon was prepared from polyaniline base by K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} activation, and used as anode material for lithium ion secondary battery. {yields} K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} activation promotes the formation of amorphous and microporous structure. {yields} High nitrogen content, and large surface area with micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion, and thus improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon with large surface area was prepared from polyaniline base using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as an activating agent. The physicochemical properties of the carbon were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode material in lithium ion secondary battery were evaluated. The first discharge capacity of the microporous carbon was 1108 mAh g{sup -1}, whose first charge capacity was 624 mAh g{sup -1}, with a coulombic efficiency of 56.3%. After 20 cycling tests, the microporous carbon retains a reversible capacity of 603 mAh g{sup -1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup -1}. These results clearly demonstrated the potential role of microporous carbon as anode for high capacity lithium ion secondary battery.

  14. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  15. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  16. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed.

  17. Infrared thermography non-destructive evaluation of lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Qiang

    2011-08-01

    The power lithium-ion battery with its high specific energy, high theoretical capacity and good cycle-life is a prime candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Safety is especially important for large-scale lithium-ion batteries, especially the thermal analysis is essential for their development and design. Thermal modeling is an effective way to understand the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. With the charging and discharging, the internal heat generation of the lithium-ion battery becomes large, and the temperature rises leading to an uneven temperature distribution induces partial degradation. Infrared (IR) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) has been well developed for decades years in materials, structures, and aircraft. Most thermographic methods need thermal excitation to the measurement structures. In NDE of battery, the thermal excitation is the heat generated from carbon and cobalt electrodes in electrolyte. A technique named "power function" has been developed to determine the heat by chemical reactions. In this paper, the simulations of the transient response of the temperature distribution in the lithium-ion battery are developed. The key to resolving the security problem lies in the thermal controlling, including the heat generation and the internal and external heat transfer. Therefore, three-dimensional modelling for capturing geometrical thermal effects on battery thermal abuse behaviour is required. The simulation model contains the heat generation during electrolyte decomposition and electrical resistance component. Oven tests are simulated by three-dimensional model and the discharge test preformed by test system. Infrared thermography of discharge is recorded in order to analyze the security of the lithium-ion power battery. Nondestructive detection is performed for thermal abuse analysis and discharge analysis.

  18. Recent advancements in ion concentration polarization.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Anand, Robbyn K

    2016-06-21

    In this minireview, we discuss advancements in ion concentration polarization (ICP)-based preconcentration, separation, desalination, and dielectrophoresis that have been made over the past three years. ICP as a means of controlling the distribution of the ions and electric field in a microfluidic device has rapidly expanded its areas of application. Recent advancements have focused on the development of ion-permselective materials with tunable dimensions and surface chemistry, adaptation to paper microfluidics, higher-throughput device geometries, and coupling ICP with other separation (isotachophoresis and dielectrophoresis) and fluidic (valve and droplet microfluidic) strategies. These studies have made great strides toward solving real-world problems such as low-cost and rapid analysis, accessible desalination technology, and single-cell research tools.

  19. A comparative study on the lithium-ion storage performances of carbon nanotubes and tube-in-tube carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi-Jun; Liu, Xi; Cui, Guanglei; Zhu, Bo; Weinberg, Gisela; Schlögl, Robert; Maier, Joachim; Su, Dang Sheng

    2010-03-22

    A comparative study of the electrochemical performances of carbon nanotubes and tube-in-tube carbon nanotubes reveals a dependence effect of lithium-ion storage behavior on the detailed nanostructure of carbon nanotubes. In particular, the impurity that graphitic particles or graphene fragments inherently present in carbon nanotubes plays a crucial role in the lithium-ion storage capacity of the carbon nanotubes. Compared to acid-washed carbon nanotubes, the assembly of graphitic impurity fragments in the tube-in-tube structures hinders lithium-ion diffusion, thus drastically decreasing the rate performance of lithium-ion storage. Significantly, our results indicate that the lithium-ion storage capacity of carbon nanotubes as anode electrodes can be improved or controlled by optimizing the microstructure composition of impurity graphitic nanoparticles or graphene fragments in the matrix of the carbon nanotubes.

  20. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  1. Safe lithium-ion battery with ionic liquid-based electrolyte for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, Libero; Lazzari, Mariachiara; Mastragostino, Marina

    2011-10-01

    A lithium-ion battery featuring graphite anode, LiFePO4-C cathode and an innovative, safe, ionic liquid-based electrolyte, was assembled and characterized in terms of specific energy and power after the USABC-DOE protocol for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) application. The test results show that the battery surpasses the energy and power goals stated by USABC-DOE and, hence, this safe lithium-ion battery should be suitable for application in the evolving HEV market.

  2. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials.

  3. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  4. Computational design and refinement of self-heating lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-10-01

    The recently discovered self-heating lithium ion battery has shown rapid self-heating from subzero temperatures and superior power thereafter, delivering a practical solution to poor battery performance at low temperatures. Here, we describe and validate an electrochemical-thermal coupled model developed specifically for computational design and improvement of the self-heating Li-ion battery (SHLB) where nickel foils are embedded in its structure. Predicting internal cell characteristics, such as current, temperature and Li-concentration distributions, the model is used to discover key design factors affecting the time and energy needed for self-heating and to explore advanced cell designs with the highest self-heating efficiency. It is found that ohmic heat generated in the nickel foil accounts for the majority of internal heat generation, resulting in a large internal temperature gradient from the nickel foil toward the outer cell surface. The large through-plane temperature gradient leads to highly non-uniform current distribution, and more importantly, is found to be the decisive factor affecting the heating time and energy consumption. A multi-sheet cell design is thus proposed and demonstrated to substantially minimize the temperature gradient, achieving 30% more rapid self-heating with 27% less energy consumption than those reported in the literature.

  5. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. PMID:26548901

  6. Comparing one- and two-dimensional heteronanostructures as silicon-based lithium ion battery anode materials.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhou, Sa; Wang, Dunwei

    2011-11-22

    The performance of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, such as solar cells, supercapacitors, and lithium (Li) ion batteries, is intimately connected to the electrode design at the nanoscale. To enable significant developments in these research fields, we need detailed information about how the properties of the electrode materials depend on their dimensions and morphologies. This information is currently unavailable, as previous studies have mostly focused on understanding one type of morphology at a time. Here, we report a systematic study to compare the performance of nanostructures enabled by two platforms, one-dimensional nanowires and two-dimensional nanonets. The nanowires and nanonets shared the same composition (titanium disilicide) and similar sizes. Within the framework of Li ion battery applications, they exhibited different stabilities upon lithiation and delithiation (at a rate of 6 A/g), the nanonets-based nanostructures maintaining 90% and the nanowires-based ones 80% of their initial stable capacities after 100 cycles of repeated charge and discharge. The superior stability of the nanonets was ascribed to the two-dimensional connectivity, which afforded better structural stability than nanowires. Information generated by this study should contribute to the design of electrode materials and thereby enable broader applications of complex nanostructures for energy conversion and storage.

  7. Use of Ionic Liquids in Rod-Coil Block Copolyimides for Improved Lithium Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.; Chapin, Kara; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent-free, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to improve safety, increase design flexibility and enhance performance of rechargeable lithium batteries. Solution based electrolytes are flammable and typically incompatible with lithium metal anodes, limiting energy density. We have previously demonstrated use of polyimide rod coil block copolymers doped with lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polyimide rod blocks provide dimensional stability while the polyethylene oxide (PEO) coil portions conduct ions. Phase separation of the rods and coils in these highly branched polymers provide channels with an order of magnitude improvement in lithium conduction over polyethylene oxide itself at room temperature. In addition, the polymers have been demonstrated in coin cells to be compatible with lithium metal. For practical use at room temperature and below, however, at least an order of magnitude improvement in ion conduction is still required. The addition of nonvolatile, room temperature ionic liquids has been shown to improve the ionic conductivity of high molecular weight PEO. Herein we describe use of these molten salts to improve ionic conductivity in the rod-coil block copolymers.

  8. Structurally tailored graphene nanosheets as lithium ion battery anodes: an insight to yield exceptionally high lithium storage performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xifei; Hu, Yuhai; Liu, Jian; Lushington, Andrew; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2013-12-21

    How to tune graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with various morphologies has been a significant challenge for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, three types of GNSs with varying size, edge sites, defects and layer numbers have been successfully achieved. It was demonstrated that controlling GNS morphology and microstructure has important effects on its cyclic performance and rate capability in LIBs. Diminished GNS layer number, decreased size, increased edge sites and increased defects in the GNS anode can be highly beneficial to lithium storage and result in increased electrochemical performance. Interestingly, GNSs treated with a hydrothermal approach delivered a high reversible discharge capacity of 1348 mA h g(-1). This study demonstrates that the controlled design of high performance GNS anodes is an important concept in LIB applications.

  9. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2012-08-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO(2) and CoO directly as CoC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80°C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L(-1) for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO(2) can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Defect silicene and graphene as applied to the anode of lithium-ion batteries: Numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galashev, A. E.; Rakhmanova, O. R.; Zaikov, Yu. P.

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical properties and stability of two layers of defect silicene supported by graphene sheets, between which the lithium ion passes under an electrostatic field, are studied by the molecular dynamics method. Defects are mono-, di-, tri-, and hexavacansies. Graphene and silicene edges are rigidly fixed. Graphene sheets contacting with silicene take a convex shape, deflecting outward. Mono- and divacancies in silicene tend to a size decrease; larger vacancies exhibit better stability. The ion motion control using an electric field becomes possible only using perfect silicene or silicene with mono- and divacancies. The ion penetrated through larger defects, and its motion in the silicene channel becomes uncontrolled. When the ion moves in the channel, the most strong stress spikes appear in silicene containing monovacancies. In the case of fixed edges, perfect silicene intercalated with a lithium ion is inclined to accumulate larger stresses than silicene containing defects.

  11. Single-ion polymer electrolyte membranes enable lithium-ion batteries with a broad operating temperature range.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Yunfeng; Li, Jing; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2014-04-01

    Conductive processes involving lithium ions are analyzed in detail from a mechanistic perspective, and demonstrate that single ion polymeric electrolyte (SIPE) membranes can be used in lithium-ion batteries with a wide operating temperature range (25-80 °C) through systematic optimization of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces, in sharp contrast to other batteries equipped with SIPE membranes that display appreciable operability only at elevated temperatures (>60 °C). The performance is comparable to that of batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic salt, and the batteries exhibit excellent cycle life and rate performance. This significant widening of battery operation temperatures coupled with the inherent flexibility and robustness of the SIPE membranes makes it possible to develop thin and flexible Li-ion batteries for a broad range of applications.

  12. Large reversible Li storage of graphene nanosheet families for use in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, EunJoo; Kim, Jedeok; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Hao-shen; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Honma, Itaru

    2008-08-01

    The lithium storage properties of graphene nanosheet (GNS) materials as high capacity anode materials for rechargeable lithium secondary batteries (LIB) were investigated. Graphite is a practical anode material used for LIB, because of its capability for reversible lithium ion intercalation in the layered crystals, and the structural similarities of GNS to graphite may provide another type of intercalation anode compound. While the accommodation of lithium in these layered compounds is influenced by the layer spacing between the graphene nanosheets, control of the intergraphene sheet distance through interacting molecules such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) or fullerenes (C60) might be crucial for enhancement of the storage capacity. The specific capacity of GNS was found to be 540 mAh/g, which is much larger than that of graphite, and this was increased up to 730 mAh/g and 784 mAh/g, respectively, by the incorporation of macromolecules of CNT and C60 to the GNS.

  13. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  14. Thermo-electrochemical analysis of lithium ion batteries for space applications using Thermal Desktop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W.; Ardebili, H.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are replacing the Nickel-Hydrogen batteries used on the International Space Station (ISS). Knowing that LIB efficiency and survivability are greatly influenced by temperature, this study focuses on the thermo-electrochemical analysis of LIBs in space orbit. Current finite element modeling software allows for advanced simulation of the thermo-electrochemical processes; however the heat transfer simulation capabilities of said software suites do not allow for the extreme complexities of orbital-space environments like those experienced by the ISS. In this study, we have coupled the existing thermo-electrochemical models representing heat generation in LIBs during discharge cycles with specialized orbital-thermal software, Thermal Desktop (TD). Our model's parameters were obtained from a previous thermo-electrochemical model of a 185 Amp-Hour (Ah) LIB with 1-3 C (C) discharge cycles for both forced and natural convection environments at 300 K. Our TD model successfully simulates the temperature vs. depth-of-discharge (DOD) profiles and temperature ranges for all discharge and convection variations with minimal deviation through the programming of FORTRAN logic representing each variable as a function of relationship to DOD. Multiple parametrics were considered in a second and third set of cases whose results display vital data in advancing our understanding of accurate thermal modeling of LIBs.

  15. Plasticized Polymer Composite Single-Ion Conductors for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Asfour, Fadi; Fu, Yanbao; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Bai, Ying; Ling, Min; Hu, Heyi; Baker, Gregory; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-01

    Lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide (TFSI) is a promising electrolyte salt in lithium batteries, due to its good conductivity and high dissociation between the lithium cation and its anion. By tethering N-pentane trifluoromethane sulfonamide (C5NHTf), a TFSI analogue molecule, onto the surface of silica nanoparticle as a monolayer coverage should increase the Li(+) transference number to unity since anions bound to particles have reduced mobilities. Silica polymer composite has better mechanical property than that of the pure PEO. Analogously trifluoromethane sulfonic aminoethyl methacrylate (TfMA), a TFSI analogue vinyl monomer, was polymerized on silica nanoparticle surface as a multilayer coverage. Anchored polyelectrolytes to particle surfaces offer multiple sites for anions, and in principle the carrier concentration would increase arbitrarily and approach the carrier concentration of the bulk polyelectrolyte. Monolayer grafted nanoparticles have a lithium content of 1.2 × 10(-3) g Li/g, and multilayer grafted nanoparticles have a lithium content over an order higher at 2 × 10(-2) g Li/g. Electrolytes made from monolayer grafted particles exhibit a weak conductivity dependence on temperature, exhibiting an ionic conductivity in the range of 10(-6) S/cm when temperatures increase to 80 °C. While electrolytes made from multilayer grafted particles show a steep increase in conductivity with temperature with an ionic conductivity increase to 3 × 10(-5) S/cm at 80 °C, with an O/Li ratio of 32.

  16. Lithium ion solvation by ethylene carbonates in lithium-ion battery electrolytes, revisited by density functional theory with the hybrid solvation model and free energy correction in solution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Lansac, Yves; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae; Jang, Yun Hee

    2016-09-14

    Complex formation between lithium (Li(+)) ions and electrolyte molecules would affect the ionic conductivity through the electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We hence revisit the solvation number of Li(+) in the most commonly used ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte. The solvation number n of Li(+)(EC)n in the first solvation shell of Li(+) is estimated on the basis of the free energy calculated by the density functional theory combined with a hybrid solvation model where the explicit solvation shell of Li(+) is immersed in a free volume of an implicit bulk solvent. This new hybrid solvation (implicit and explicit) model predicts the most probable solvation number (n = 4) and solvation free energy (-91.3 kcal mol(-1)) of Li(+) in a good agreement with those predicted by calculations employing simpler solvation models (either implicit or explicit). The desolvation (n = 2) of Li(0)(EC)n upon reduction near anodes is also well described with this new hybrid model.

  17. Electrolyte and Cathode Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbe, Jonathon

    Lithium ion battery technologies suffer from limitations in performance, such as capacity fading, due in part to degradation of the cathode and electrolyte materials. Quantum chemical simulations were employed to investigate the reactions leading to degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes and the electrolyte molecules. Formation of HF in the electrolyte resulting from reaction between PF5 and H2O impurities was first investigated. This research predicts HF is produced as a result of PF5 complexing with H2O, then reacting through ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH with an activation barrier of 1.18 eV and reaction enthalpy of 0.15 eV. HF undergoes dissociative adsorption at that the (101¯4) surface of LiCoO2 without a barrier, leading to formation of LiF-Li+ precipitates and H 2O on the surface with a reaction energy of -2.41 eV. The formation of H2O is of particular concern because H2O drives further formation of HF in the electrolyte, resulting in an autocatalytic cycle of degradation. These findings indicate that HF initially occurs in low concentrations rapidly increases due to H2O generation upon HF attack. Reduction in capacity fading is observed in alumina ALD coated LiCoO2 cathodes and we have investigated a monolayer alumina coating on the LiCoO2 (101¯4) surface to identify the mechanism by which the alumina coating protects the cathode surface. We have found that HF will preferentially dissociate at the alumina coating with a reaction energy of -2.84 eV and without any resolvable barrier to dissociation. Additionally, our calculations predict that H2O does not form as a result of HF dissociation at the alumina monolayer; instead HF dissociation produces neighboring hydroxyl sites on the alumina surface. Consequently, the alumina coating prevents the autocatalytic degradation of the cathode by sequestering HF impurities in the alumina film. Finally, we found that Lewis acid-base complexation between ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte molecules and PF5 or the Li

  18. A rechargeable lithium-ion battery module for underwater use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David R.; DeMauro, Edward P.; Fletcher, Michael; Stimson, Eric; Mollendorf, Joseph C.

    Portable underwater electrical power is needed for many commercial, recreational and military applications. A battery system is currently not available to meet these needs, which was the aim of this project. Lithium-ion battery cells (Panasonic (CGR18650E)) were chosen, based on their high energy density and availability. To increase their voltage, 8 battery cells were connected in series ("sticks") and protected by encapsulating them into a polycarbonate tube; and 6 sticks were housed inside a triangular aluminum case (module). Testing was performed to determine the consistency of individual cells, sticks and module and during discharge/charging cycles. The effect of ambient temperature (T A) was determined by instrumenting them with thermocouples. In addition, voltage and current were measured and used to determine the heat generated within the battery cell and were compared to theory. From these data, a radial temperature profile was determined for two battery sticks in the battery module. Collapse pressure was determined and compared to theory. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells delivered 2291 mAh each over a wide range of T A and discharge/charge rates. The theoretical and experimental data showed that the temperature within the battery sticks and modules did not rise above or below their operating temperature range (-20 and 60 °C), in agreement with the models. The tubes encapsulating the sticks withstood pressures down to 305 m of sea water (msw) which was predicted by modeling. The Panasonic (CGR18650E) cells, sticks and module demonstrated that they provided sufficient electrical power, reliably and safely to be used in the underwater environment (1800-2000 kPa, 305 msw) over a wide range T A, including high power requirement systems like an active thermal protection system that keeps a diver comfortable in extreme temperature conditions. The concept developed here can be modified to meet specific power requirements by varying the number of cell in series to

  19. An approach to beneficiation of spent lithium-ion batteries for recovery of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, Danai

    Lithium ion batteries are one of the most commonly used batteries. A large amount of these have been used over the past 25 years and the use is expected to rise more due to their use in automotive batteries. Lithium ion batteries cannot be disposed into landfill due to safety reasons and cost. Thus, over the last years, there has been a lot of effort to find ways to recycle lithium ion batteries. A lot of valuable materials are present in a lithium ion battery making their recycling favorable. Many attempts, including pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods, have been researched and some of them are already used by the industry. However, further improvements are needed to the already existing processes, to win more valuable materials, use less energy and be more environmentally benign. The goal of this thesis is to find a low-temperature, low-energy method of recovering lithium from the electrolyte and to develop pathways for complete recycling of the battery. The research consists of the following parts: Pure LiPF6 powder, which is the electrolyte material, was characterized using x- ray diffraction analysis and DSC/TGA analysis. The LiPF6 powder was titrated using acid (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4), bases (NH4 OH) and distilled water. It was concluded that distilled water was the best solvent to selectively leach lithium from lithium-ion batteries. Leaching conditions were optimized including time, temperature, solid/liquid ratio and stirring velocity. All the samples were tested using ICP for chemical composition. Because leaching could be performed at room temperature, leaching was conducted in a flotation machine that was able to separate plastics by creating bubbles with no excess reagents use. The solution that contained lithium had to be concentrated more in order for lithium to be able to precipitate and it was shown that the solution could be concentrated by using the same solution over and over again. The next set of experiments was composed of battery

  20. In situ evaporation of lithium for LEVIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, B.; Lopez, M.; Lamppa, K.; Stearns, W.; Bieg, K.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the In Situ evaporation of pure lithium on the anode of PBFA II which then can be evaporated and ionized by Laser Evaporation and Ionization Source (LEVIS). Included in this report are the necessary calculations, light laboratory experiments and details of the hardware for PBFA II. This report gives all the details of In Situ evaporation for PBFA II so when a decision is made to provide an active lithium source for PBFA II, it can be fielded in a minimum of time.