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Sample records for advanced lithium-ion cell

  1. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  2. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  3. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing advanced High Energy and Ultra High Energy lithium-ion cells to address these needs. In order to meet the performance goals, advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level. This paper will provide an update on the performance of experimental materials through the completion of two years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  4. Advanced Materials and Component Development for Lithium-Ion Cells for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2012-01-01

    Human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, liberation points, and orbiting structures, will require safe, high specific energy, high energy density batteries to provide new or extended capabilities than are possible with today s state-of-the-art aerospace batteries. The Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project battery development effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is continuing advanced lithium-ion cell development efforts begun under the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide improved performance at the component-level that contributes to performance at the integrated cell level in order to meet the performance goals for NASA s High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells. NASA s overall approach to advanced cell development and interim progress on materials performance for the High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells after approximately 1 year of development has been summarized in a previous paper. This paper will provide an update on these materials through the completion of 2 years of development. The progress of materials development, remaining challenges, and an outlook for the future of these materials in near term cell products will be discussed.

  5. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  6. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  7. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  8. Characterization of Graphite Lithium-Ion Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Figure 46. Dual Pulse 125 Stored Energy Resistance Welding Power Supply.................75 Figure 47. Thin-Line Model 88F Parallel Gap Welder...problem is lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries, with their high energy density, can provide a means for reducing spacecraft weight and...and discharge rates will be twice what they were in the previous test. This amounts to the same energy in and out of the cell during an orbit. The

  9. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  10. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  11. A Summary on Progress in Materials Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the-art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance future human missions to Near Earth Objects, such as asteroids, planets, moons, libration points, and orbiting structures. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This paper on interim progress of the development efforts will present performance of materials and cell components and will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities and proposed strategies to overcome technical issues.

  12. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  13. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  14. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  15. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  16. Storage Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Blosiu, J. O.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion cells are being developed under the NASA/Air Force Consortium for the upcoming aerospace missions. First among these missions are the Mars 2001 Lander and Mars 2003 Lander and Rover missions. Apart from the usual needs of high specific energy, energy density and long cycle life, a critical performance characteristic for the Mars missions is low temperature performance. The batteries need to perform well at -20 C, with at least 70% of the rated capacity realizable at moderate discharge rates (C/5). Several modifications have been made to the lithium ion chemistry, mainly with respect to the electrolyte, both at JPL' and elsewhere to achieve this. Another key requirement for the battery is its storageability during pre-cruise and cruise periods. For the Mars programs, the cruise period is relatively short, about 12 months, compared to the Outer Planets missions (3-8 years). Yet, the initial results of our storage studies reveal that the cells do sustain noticeable permanent degradation under certain storage conditions, typically of 10% over two months duration at ambient temperatures, attributed to impedance buildup. The build up of the cell impedance or the decay in the cell capacity is affected by various storage parameters, i.e., storage temperature, storage duration, storage mode (open circuit, on buss or cycling at low rates) and state of charge. Our preliminary studies indicate that low storage temperatures and states of charge are preferable. In some cases, we have observed permanent capacity losses of approx. 10% over eight-week storage at 40 C, compared to approx. 0-2% at O C. Also, we are attempting to determine the impact of cell chemistry and design upon the storageability of Li ion cells.

  17. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  18. Degradation diagnostics for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkl, Christoph R.; Roberts, Matthew R.; McTurk, Euan; Bruce, Peter G.; Howey, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery cells is the result of a complex interplay of a host of different physical and chemical mechanisms. The measurable, physical effects of these degradation mechanisms on the cell can be summarised in terms of three degradation modes, namely loss of lithium inventory, loss of active positive electrode material and loss of active negative electrode material. The different degradation modes are assumed to have unique and measurable effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV) of Li-ion cells and electrodes. The presumptive nature and extent of these effects has so far been based on logical arguments rather than experimental proof. This work presents, for the first time, experimental evidence supporting the widely reported degradation modes by means of tests conducted on coin cells, engineered to include different, known amounts of lithium inventory and active electrode material. Moreover, the general theory behind the effects of degradation modes on the OCV of cells and electrodes is refined and a diagnostic algorithm is devised, which allows the identification and quantification of the nature and extent of each degradation mode in Li-ion cells at any point in their service lives, by fitting the cells' OCV.

  19. Circuit for Full Charging of Series Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E.; Saunders, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced charger has been proposed for a battery that comprises several lithium-ion cells in series. The proposal is directed toward charging the cells in as nearly an optimum manner as possible despite unit-to-unit differences among the nominally identical cells. The particular aspect of the charging problem that motivated the proposal can be summarized as follows: During bulk charging (charging all the cells in series at the same current), the voltages of individual cells increase at different rates. Once one of the cells reaches full charge, bulk charging must be stopped, leaving other cells less than fully charged. To make it possible to bring all cells up to full charge once bulk charging has been completed, the proposed charger would include a number of top-off chargers one for each cell. The top-off chargers would all be powered from the same DC source, but their outputs would be DC-isolated from each other and AC-coupled to their respective cells by means of transformers, as described below. Each top-off charger would include a flyback transformer, an electronic switch, and an output diode. For suppression of undesired electromagnetic emissions, each top-off charger would also include (1) a resistor and capacitor configured to act as a snubber and (2) an inductor and capacitor configured as a filter. The magnetic characteristics of the flyback transformer and the duration of its output pulses determine the energy delivered to the lithium-ion cell. It would be necessary to equip the cell with a precise voltage monitor to determine when the cell reaches full charge. In response to a full-charge reading by this voltage monitor, the electronic switch would be held in the off state. Other cells would continue to be charged similarly by their top-off chargers until their voltage monitors read full charge.

  20. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  1. Electroanalytical Evaluation of Lithium Ion Batteries and Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Daniel Jacob

    Efficient solar energy conversion and electrical energy storage have been studied widely for decades. However, as materials development and process engineering for these devices have advanced through the years, some of the traditional characterization techniques have gradually fallen short of providing quantitative information that is necessary for further significant advancements in these fields. In this work a modern electroanalytical framework for characterization of silicon solar cells and lithium ion batteries is presented. Electroanalytical characterization of lithium ion battery electrodes is achieved through a strategic combination of the D.C. techniques of slow scan cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, Ragone Analysis with the A.C. technique of impedance spectroscopy (IS) coupled with complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) analysis of impedance spectra. Primarily this investigation focuses on characterization of intercalating composite electrodes where the active material is either lithium manganese oxide (cathode,LiMn2O4) or lithium titanate (anode, Li4Ti5O12). Aspects of high power limitations are studied in detail to elucidate physical parameters that control electrode performance under rapid charge/discharge conditions. Electroanalytical evaluation of the p-n junction silicon solar cell with a back surface field (BSF) is accomplished through the use of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and IS combined with CNLS analysis. Although LSV has been previously used for characterization of silicon solar cells the use of impedance techniques is relatively new. Temperature and voltage dependence of the series resistance (Rs), diode quality factor (m), minority carrier lifetime and BSF electrical parameters obtained through IS are examined. The temperature dependence of results obtained from LSV such as the open circuit potential (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency are also explored. Finally, a parative

  2. Advances in Wearable Fiber-Shaped Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-06-01

    It is highly desirable to develop flexible and efficient energy-storage systems for widely used wearable electronic products. To this end, fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) attract increasing interest due to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, compared with conventional bulky and planar structures. Recent advances in the fabrication, structure, mechanism, and properties of fiber-shaped LIBs are summarized here, with a focus on the electrode material. Remaining challenges and future directions are also highlighted to provide some useful insights from the viewpoint of practical applications.

  3. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  4. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  5. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  6. Characteristics and Behavior of Cycled Aged Lithium Ion Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    service cycle and provide the cornerstone for safety analysis. 18650 Cells with representative chemistry of cells contained in current Army procured...their relevance to this effort warrants inclusion. 1-3 EXPERIMENTAL Representative 18650 cells were cycled at different rates and environmental...conditions. The 18650 chemistry used in this effort is a LiCoO2 lithium ion electrochemical cell. The bulk of this effort was conducted with 1.5 Amp-hr

  7. Thermal Characterization Study of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Miller, Thomas B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    The primary challenge in designing a full scale lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system is safety under both normal operating as well as abusive conditions. The normal conditions involve expected charge/discharge cycles and it is known that heat evolves in batteries during those cycles. This is a major concern in the design for high power applications and careful thermal management is necessary to alleviate this concern. An emerging thermal measurement technology, such as the electrochemical calorimetric of batteries, will aid in the development of advanced, safe battery system. To support this technology, several "commercial-off-the-shelf" (COTS) Li-ion cells with different chemistries and designs are being evaluated for different cycling regimes at a given operating temperature. The Accelerated Rate Calorimeter (ARC)-Arbin cycler setup is used to measure the temperature, voltage, and current of the cells at different charge/discharge rates. Initial results demonstrated good cell cyclability. During the cycle testing, the cell exhibited an endothermic cooling in the initial part of the charge cycle. The discharge portion of the cycle is exothermic during the entire discharge period. The presence of an endothermic reaction indicates a significant entropy effect during the beginning of charge cycle. Further studies will be performed to understand the thermal characteristics of the Li-ion cells at the different operating conditions. The effects on the thermal response on cell aging and states-of-charge will also be identified.

  8. Effects of vibrations and shocks on lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Martin J.; Schuster, Simon F.; Bach, Tobias; Fleder, Elena; Stelz, Manfred; Gläser, Simon; Müller, Jana; Sextl, Gerhard; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly used in mobile applications where mechanical vibrations and shocks are a constant companion. This work shows how these mechanical loads affect lithium-ion cells. Therefore pouch and cylindrical cells are stressed with vibrational and shock profiles according to the UN 38.3 standard. Additionally, a vibration test is set up to reflect stress in real-world applications and is carried out for 186 days. The effects of the load profiles on the tested cells are investigated by capacity measurement, impedance spectroscopy, micro-X-ray computed tomography and post mortem analyses. The mechanical stress has no effect on the investigated pouch cells. Although all tested cylindrical cells would pass the standard tests, in certain cells stressed in a vertical position the mandrel dispatched itself and struck against internal components. This caused bruised active materials, short circuits, a damaged current collector and current interrupt device. The investigations are not directly transferrable to all pouch or cylindrical cells but show that the mechanical cell design, especially the fixation of the internal components, determines whether a cell withstands vibrations and shocks. Depending on the cell design and the loading direction, long-term vibrational loads can have additional detrimental effects on lithium-ion cells compared to standard tests.

  9. Lithium-ion cell technology demonstration for future NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.; Dalton, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Due to their attractive performance characteristics, lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications, including planetary orbiters, rovers and landers. For example, under the Mars Surveyor Program MSP 01 lithium-ion batteries were developed by Lithion (each being 28 V, 25 Ah, 8-cells. and 9 kg) and fully qualified prior to mission cancellation. In addition to the requirement of being able to supply at least 90 cycles on the surface of Mars, the battery demonstrated operational capability (both charge and discharge) over a large temperature range (-2O'C to +4OoC), with tolerance to non-operational excursions to -30nd 50Currently, JPL is implementing lithium-ion technology on the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), which will be coupled with a solar array. This mission has similar performance requirements to that of the 2001 Lander in that high energy density and a wide operating temperature range are necessitated. In addition to planetary rover and lander applications, we are also engaged in determining the viability of using lithium-ion technology for orbiter applications that require exceptionally long life (>20,000 cydes at partial depth of discharge). To assess the viabili of lithium-ion cells for these applications, a number of performance characterization tests have been performed (at the cell and battery level) on state-of-art prototype lihium- ion cells, induding: assessing the cycle life performance (at varying DODs), life characteristics at extreme temperatures (< -10nd >+4OoC), rate capability as a function of temperature (-30' to 4OoC), pulse capability, self-discharge and storage characteristics, as well as, mission profile capability. This paper will describe the current and

  10. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James.; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  11. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  12. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  13. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  14. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  15. Modeling capacity fade in lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Jungst, Rudolph George

    2003-09-01

    Battery life is an important, yet technically challenging, issue for battery development and application. Adequately estimating battery life requires a significant amount of testing and modeling effort to validate the results. Integrated battery testing and modeling is quite feasible today to simulate battery performance, and therefore applicable to predict its life. A relatively simple equivalent-circuit model (ECM) is used in this work to show that such an integrated approach can actually lead to a high-fidelity simulation of a lithium-ion cell's performance and life. The methodology to model the cell's capacity fade during thermal aging is described to illustrate its applicability to battery calendar life prediction.

  16. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH4–air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells pose a CH4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level. PMID:26166911

  17. Diagnosis of power fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. H.; Hyung, Y. E.; Stoll, M.; Elsen, N.; MacLaren, S.; Twesten, R.; Haasch, R.; Sammann, E.; Petrov, I.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G.

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  18. Pulse Performance of Small Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric C.; Cowles, Philip R.

    2002-01-01

    Five types of small commercial cells were subject to capacity and resistance measurements under pulsed conditions and under a worst case application conditions. Results indicate that an 82S-102P array of 18650 cells will exceed the power/energy requirements for a proposed Space Shuttle EAPU battery system.

  19. Thermal Aspects of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Shakkottai, P.; Bugga, R.; Smart, M.; Huang, C. K.; Timmerman, P.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development of a thermal model of Li-ion cells in terms of heat generation, thermal mass, and thermal resistance. Intended for incorporation into battery model. The approach was to estimate heat generation: with semi-theoretical model, and then to check accuracy with efficiency measurements. Another objective was to compute thermal mass from component weights and specific heats, and to compute the thermal resistance from component dimensions and conductivities. Two lithium batteries are compared, the Cylindrical lithium battery, and the prismatic lithium cell. It reviews methodology for estimating the heat generation rate. Graphs of the Open-circuit curves of the cells and the heat evolution during discharge are given.

  20. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, S.; White, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells performance.

  1. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  3. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  4. Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.M.; Hellen, R.M.; Reddy, T.B.

    1997-12-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO{sub 2} based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel based cathode material should be much less costly and safer than LiCoO{sub 2} based cells. Performance data from prismatic design cells which use a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based cathode material is presented and shown to meet many military performance criteria. The most significant drawback of this technology, at the present time, is the short cycle life.

  5. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Babinec, Susan

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  6. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    The 18650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 m Omega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39 percent. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55 percent state-of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cc. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  7. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao. Gopalskrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1999-01-01

    The 18,650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 mOmega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25 C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39%. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55% state- of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cu cm. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  8. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; ...

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  9. Quantification of Lithium-ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is known about lithium-ion cell thermal runaway energetics has been measured and extrapolated from data acquired on relatively small cells (< 3 Ah). This work is aimed at understanding the effects of cell size on thermal runaway energetics on cells from 3 to 50 Ah of both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) chemistries. Results show that for both LFP and NCA cells, the normalized heating rate (W/Ah) increases roughly linearly for cells from 3-38 Ah while the normalized total heat released (kJ/Ah) is relatively constant over that cell size range. The magnitude of the normalized heating rate is on the order of 2x greater for NCA relative to LFP chemistries for 2-3 Ah cells, while that difference is on the order of 10x for 30-40 Ah cells. The total normalized heat release is ~ 15-20% greater for NCA relative to LFP cells across the entire size range studied 3-38 Ah.

  10. Anode Design Based on Microscale Porous Scaffolds for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeji; Choi, Hyelim; Nam, Kyungju; Lee, Sukyung; Um, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyungbae; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub; Choe, Heeman

    2017-01-01

    Considering the increasing demands for advanced power sources, present-day lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) must provide a higher energy and power density and better cycling stability than conventional LIBs. This study suggests a promising electrode design solution to this problem using Cu, Co, and Ti scaffolds with a microscale porous structure synthesized via freeze-casting. Co3O4 and TiO2 layers are uniformly formed on the Co and Ti scaffolds, respectively, through a simple thermal heat-treatment process, and a SnO2 layer is formed on the Cu scaffold through electroless plating and thermal oxidation. This paper characterizes and evaluates the physical and electrochemical properties of the proposed electrodes using scanning electron microscopy, four-point probe and coin-cell tests to confirm the feasibility of their potential use in LIBs.

  11. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  12. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  13. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  14. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon

  15. Demonstration of Experimental Infrastructure for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-11

    Love, C. T.; Swider-Lyons, K. “Impedance diagnostic for overcharged lithium -ion batteries.” Electrochem. Solid -State Lett. 15 (2012) A53-A56. [21...Failure Propagation in Lithium -ion Batteries September 11, 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Christopher r. Field Mark h...for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium -ion Batteries Christopher R. Field, Mark H. Hammond, Steven G. Tuttle, Bradley A. Williams

  16. Performance of SONY 18650-HC Lithium-Ion Cells for Various Cycling Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-15

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-2010(8550)-5 Performance of SONY 18650 -HC Lithium-Ion Cells for Various Cycling Rates 15 January 2010 Albert H...SONY 18650 -HC Lithium-Ion Cells for Various Cycling Rates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-09-C-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20100310195 14. ABSTRACT Five different life tests of SONY 18650 -HC lithium

  17. Novel in situ cell for Raman diagnostics of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gross, T; Giebeler, L; Hess, C

    2013-07-01

    A novel in situ cell for Raman diagnostics of working lithium-ion batteries is described. The design closely mimics that of standard battery testing cells and therefore allows to obtain Raman spectra under representative electrochemical conditions. Both cathode and anode materials can be studied. First results on the intercalation of a Li1-xCoO2 cathode material demonstrate the potential of the experimental approach for structural studies and underline the importance of studying lithium-ion batteries at work.

  18. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  19. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  20. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  1. Performance degradation of high-power lithium-ion cells-Electrochemistry of harvested electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J. L.; Dees, D. W.; Bloom, I.; Christophersen, J. P.

    The performance of 18650-type high-power lithium-ion cells is being evaluated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. In this article, we present accelerated aging data acquired on 18650-cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2- or LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2-based positive electrodes, MAG-10 graphite-based negative electrodes, and 1.2-M LiPF 6 in EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) electrolyte. Capacity and impedance data acquired on electrodes harvested from these cells highlight the contributions of the positive and negative electrodes to the degradation of cell performance. We also describe test methodologies used to examine the electrochemical characteristics of the harvested electrodes. Identifying and optimizing cell components responsible for performance degradation should enable the development of new lithium-ion cell chemistries that will meet the 15-year cell calendar life goal established by DOEs FreedomCar initiative.

  2. A reduced order electrochemical thermal model for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhire, Priya; Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2015-09-01

    A reduced order model (ROM) is proposed for accurate prediction of electrochemical and thermal response of lithium ion cells. The order reduction is carried on the coupled partial differential equations (PDE) of the electrochemical thermal model by consistent volume averaging of local heat generation and spatial temperature variation. The model is validated with experimental data for temperatures ranging from 253 K-333 K. It is seen that modification of ROM to account for low electronic conductivity results in accurate voltage estimation of cells with lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (LNCO) cathodes. A detailed parametric sensitivity to operating conditions is provided. The utility of ROM for on-board state estimation is demonstrated by applying to realistic drive cycle protocols such as the Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) data. The electrochemical structure of ROM enables identification of controlling processes, and analysis of HPPC results reveal that Ohmic drop of cathode is controlling at high rates and the electrolyte potential during rest phase. Based on accurate voltage prediction, computational speed and physical insights, it can be concluded that the proposed ROM is an adequate state estimation and a cell design tool.

  3. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  4. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  5. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  6. Thermal stability of electrodes in Lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to identify thermal reactions in Sony-type lithium-ion cells and to correlate these reactions with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. An electrochemical half-cell was used to cycle the anode and cathode materials and to set the state-of-charge (SOC). Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the SOC (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 80 C involving decomposition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/1M LiPF{sub 6}) was seen to play an essential role in this reaction. DSC analysis of the anodes from disassembled Sony cells showed similar behavior to the half-cell anodes with a strong exotherm beginning in the 80 C--90 C range. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF binder. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the SOC (decreasing Li content in the cathode). No thermal reactions were seen at lower temperatures suggesting that thermal runaway reactions in this type of cell are initiated at the anode. An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) was used to perform measurements of thermal runaway on commercial Sony Li-ion cells as a function of SOC. The cells showed sustained thermal output as low as 80 C in agreement with the DSC observations of anode materials but the heating rate was strongly dependent on the SOC.

  7. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  8. Accelerated calendar and pulse life analysis of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Case, Herbert L.; Liaw, Bor Yann; Urbina, Angel; Paez, Thomas L.; Doughty, Daniel H.

    Sandia National Laboratories has been studying calendar and pulse discharge life of prototype high-power lithium-ion cells as part of the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. One of the goals of ATD is to establish validated accelerated life test protocols for lithium-ion cells in the hybrid electric vehicle application. In order to accomplish this, aging experiments have been conducted on 18650-size cells containing a chemistry representative of these high-power designs. Loss of power and capacity are accompanied by increasing interfacial impedance at the cathode. These relationships are consistent within a given state-of-charge (SOC) over the range of storage temperatures and times. Inductive models have been used to construct detailed descriptions of the relationships between power fade and aging time and to relate power fade, capacity loss and impedance rise. These models can interpolate among the different experimental conditions and can also describe the error surface when fitting life prediction models to the data.

  9. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  10. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  11. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 GDR Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; Gary L. Henriksen; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed the performance evaluation of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). This report documents the testing and analysis of the Gen 2 GDR cells, which were used to learn and debug the newly developed Technology Life Verification Test Manual. The purpose of the manual is to project a 15-year, 150,000 mile battery life capability with a 90% confidence interval using predictive models and short-term testing. The GDR cells were divided into two different matrices. The core-life test matrix consisted of calendar- and cycle-life cells with various changes to the four major acceleration factors (temperature, state-of-charge, throughput, and power rating). The supplemental-life test matrix consisted of cells subjected either to a path dependence study, or a comparison between the standard hybrid pulse power characterization test and the newly-developed minimum pulse power characterization test. Resistance and capacity results are reported.

  12. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  13. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  14. Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2011-08-01

    Lithium-ion cell field failures due to internal short circuits are a significant concern to the entire lithium-ion cell market from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. While the probability of these failure events occurring is estimated to be very low (1 in 5-10 million), the consequences of a cell failure due to an internal short in a high energy battery system have the potential to be catastrophic. The statistical probability of one of these events is very low and they are difficult to predict and simulate in a laboratory using some external test; which makes cell failure due to an internal short circuit a unique challenge to overcome. Several of the experiments designed to simulate internal shorts have been adopted as testing protocols across the industry; in general, they do not accurately simulate an internal short. This work highlights our efforts to experimentally trigger an internal short circuit in a lithium-ion cell.

  15. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  16. Evaluation and Testing of Commercially-Available Carbon Nanotubes as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) battery technology offers significant performance advantages over the nickel-based technologies used for energy storage for the majority of NASA's missions. Specifically Li-ion technology offers a threefold to fourfold increase in gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and produces voltages in excess of three times the value of typical nickel-based battery systems. As part of the Advanced Battery Technology program at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a program on the evaluation of anodes for Li-ion cells and batteries was conducted. This study focused on the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes as anodes in Li-Ion cells. Candidate materials from multiple sources were evaluated. Their performance was compared to a standard anode comprised of mesocarbon microbeads. In all cases, the standard MCMB electrode exhibited superior performance. The details and results of the study are presented.

  17. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  18. An Advanced Battery Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    preliminary cycle life data of the 18650 1100 mAh, and 26650 2200 mAh Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) cells from Tenergy Battery Corp. (Manufacturer...10 shows how the data might be used to estimate SOL of a 18650 cell. The plot shows the analytical life cycle curve (blue) superimposed on actual...of equation 3 result with real 18650 Tenergy cell cycle life data. REFERENCES [1] Z. Filipi, L. Louca, A. Stefanopoulou, J. Pukrushpan, B

  19. Innovation Meets Performance Demands of Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in high capacity and low density battery technologies have led to a growing need for battery materials with greater charge capacity and therefore stability. NREL's developments in ALD and molecular layer MLD allow for thin film coatings to battery composite electrodes, which can improve battery lifespan, high charge capacity, and stability. Silicon, one of the best high-energy anode materials for Li-ion batteries, can experience capacity fade from volumetric expansion. Using MLD to examine how surface modification could stabilize silicon anode material in Li-ion batteries, researchers discovered a new reaction precursor that leads to a flexible surface coating that accommodates volumetric expansion of silicon electrodes.

  20. COMPASS Final Report: Advanced Lithium Ion Venus Explorer (ALIVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Paul, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The COncurrent Multi-disciplinary Preliminary Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) Team partnered with the Applied Research Laboratory to perform a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program study to evaluate chemical based power systems for keeping a Venus lander alive(power and cooling) and functional for a period of days. The mission class targeted was either a Discovery ($500M) or New Frontiers ($750M to $780M) class mission. Historic Soviet Venus landers have only lasted on the order of 2 hours in the extreme Venus environment: temperatures of 460 C and pressures of 93 bar. Longer duration missions have been studied using plutonium powered systems to operate and cool landers for up to a year. However, the plutonium load is very large. This NIAC study sought to still provide power and cooling but without the plutonium.

  1. Advanced Lithium Ion Systems for Military Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    High Power and Very High Power Cell technology will be shown, in addition to recent applications of LiFePO4 materials into Saft’s High Power cell...upon, temperature, SOC, and prior usage conditions. Iron Phosphate and Saft’s VL-V Power Technology The LiFePO4 chemistry is interesting for...certain applications, as the improved thermal stability of the LiFePO4 design allows for even more tolerance to extreme abuse conditions. Recent

  2. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

  3. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  4. Comparison between cylindrical and prismatic lithium-ion cell costs using a process based cost model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    The relative size and age of the US electric vehicle market means that a few vehicles are able to drive market-wide trends in the battery chemistries and cell formats on the road today. Three lithium-ion chemistries account for nearly all of the storage capacity, and half of the cells are cylindrical. However, no specific model exists to examine the costs of manufacturing these cylindrical cells. Here we present a process-based cost model tailored to the cylindrical lithium-ion cells currently used in the EV market. We examine the costs for varied cell dimensions, electrode thicknesses, chemistries, and production volumes. Although cost savings are possible from increasing cell dimensions and electrode thicknesses, economies of scale have already been reached, and future cost reductions from increased production volumes are minimal. Prismatic cells, which are able to further capitalize on the cost reduction from larger formats, can offer further reductions than those possible for cylindrical cells.

  5. Advanced electrolyte/additive for lithium-ion batteries with silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-08-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  6. Carbonaceous materials containing silicon as anodes for lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.M.; Dahn, J.R.; Xue, J.S.; Gao, Y.; Feng, X.H.

    1995-12-31

    Graphite and pregraphitic carbons capable of reversibly reacting with lithium ions are hosts commonly used in Li-ion cells. As a continuation of previous work, the authors have used chemical vapor deposition of benzene and silicon-containing precursors to prepare carbons containing nanodispersed silicon. The silicon resides within the unorganized regions in the pregraphitic carbons. These materials reversibly react with lithium in electrochemical cells and the reversible specific capacity has been known to increase from {approximately}300 mAhg{sup {minus}1}, in the absence of silicon, to near 500 mAhg{sup {minus}1} as silicon is added. The authors also report on Si-O-C materials which have been shown to reversibly react with Li in electrochemical cells with reversible specific capacities as high as 770 mAhg{sup {minus}1}. These materials have been made by thermal pyrolysis of siloxane polymers and epoxy-silane composites prepared from hardened mixtures of epoxy novolac resin and epoxy-functional silane. These materials all show promise for use as anode materials in advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

  7. High-capacity lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsaki, Takahisa; Kanda, Motoya; Aoki, Yoshiyasu; Shiroki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shintaro

    We have developed high-capacity lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber (MCF) as an anode material. The graphitized MCF is a highly graphitized carbon fiber with a radial-like texture in the cross section. This structure contributes to the rapid diffusion of lithium ions inside the carbon fiber. The diffusion coefficient of lithium ions in the graphitized MCF was one order of magnitude larger than those for graphite, resulting in an excellent high-rate performance of the carbon electrode. The graphitized MCF anode showed larger capacity, a higher rate capability, and better reversibility than the graphite anode. The 863448 size (8.6 mm × 34 mm × 48 mm) prismatic cell with the graphitized MCF anode exhibited a large capacity of > 1000 mAh. At 3 A discharge, the prismatic cell had 95% of its capacity at 0.5 A discharge with a mid-discharge voltage of 3.35 V. The cell maintained > 85% of its initial capacity after 500 cycles and showed high capacity at -20 °C. It has thus been demonstrated that the prismatic cell using the graphitized MCF anode has excellent performance, and is an attractive choice for the power sources of cellular phones and other appliances.

  8. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-03-01

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More experimental details and characterization. See DOI: 10

  9. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-03-01

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g‑1, long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials.

  10. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-03-15

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g(-1), long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials.

  11. Mixed Molybdenum Oxides with Superior Performances as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Shen, Rui; Yang, Rong; Ji, Wenxu; Jiang, Meng; Ding, Weiping; Peng, Luming

    2017-01-01

    A simple and effective carbon-free strategy is carried out to prepare mixed molybdenum oxides as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The new material shows a high specific capacity up to 930.6 mAh·g−1, long cycle-life (>200 cycles) and high rate capability. 1D and 2D solid-state NMR, as well as XRD data on lithiated sample (after discharge) show that the material is associated with both insertion/extraction and conversion reaction mechanisms for lithium storage. The well mixed molybdenum oxides at the microscale and the involvement of both mechanisms are considered as the key to the better electrochemical properties. The strategy can be applied to other transition metal oxides to enhance their performance as electrode materials. PMID:28294179

  12. Non-aqueous Electrode Processing and Construction of Lithium-ion Coin Cells.

    PubMed

    Stein, Malcolm; Chen, Chien-Fan; Robles, Daniel J; Rhodes, Christopher; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    Research into new and improved materials to be utilized in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) necessitates an experimental counterpart to any computational analysis. Testing of lithium-ion batteries in an academic setting has taken on several forms, but at the most basic level lies the coin cell construction. In traditional LIB electrode preparation, a multi-phase slurry composed of active material, binder, and conductive additive is cast out onto a substrate. An electrode disc can then be punched from the dried sheet and used in the construction of a coin cell for electrochemical evaluation. Utilization of the potential of the active material in a battery is critically dependent on the microstructure of the electrode, as an appropriate distribution of the primary components are crucial to ensuring optimal electrical conductivity, porosity, and tortuosity, such that electrochemical and transport interaction is optimized. Processing steps ranging from the combination of dry powder, wet mixing, and drying can all critically affect multi-phase interactions that influence the microstructure formation. Electrochemical probing necessitates the construction of electrodes and coin cells with the utmost care and precision. This paper aims at providing a step-by-step guide of non-aqueous electrode processing and coin cell construction for lithium-ion batteries within an academic setting and with emphasis on deciphering the influence of drying and calendaring.

  13. Rechargeable lithium-ion cells using graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Norio; Satoh, Asako; Hara, Michikazu; Ohsaki, Takahisa

    1995-08-01

    The electrochemistry of lithium intercalation into a graphitized mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber with a radial-like texture used as the anode material in rechargeable lithium-ion cells was characterized. The radial-like texture in the cross section of the carbon fiber contributed to the rapid diffusion of lithium ions, resulting in the high rate capability. The anode performance of the graphitized carbon fiber was superior to that of the graphite. Experimental flat-plate C/LiCoO{sub 2} lithium-ion cells using the graphitized carbon fiber anode exhibited a high mid-discharge voltage of 3.7 V, a high rate capability, and a long cycle life of more than 400 cycles at 2 mA/cm{sup 2} mA/cm{sup 2} during charge-discharge cycling between 4.2 and 2.7 V. The long cycle life obtained for the cell was due to no significant change in resistance associated with the passivating films on the graphitized carbon fiber with extended cycles. It was also demonstrated that A size C/LiCoO{sub 2} cells using the graphitized carbon fiber anode have excellent rate performance at discharge currents between 0.25 and 3 A, a large discharge capacity of 0.95 Ah, and a high energy density of 310 Wh/dm{sup 3} and 120 Wh/kg.

  14. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  15. Evaluation of Performance and Safety of Electrofuel Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Bragg, Bobby J.; Tracinski, Walter A.

    2002-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries of the conventional and polymer type are being used widely for cellular phones, cameras, camcorders, personal computers, PDAs and in several other portable electronic equipment. The Electrofuel 11-ion polymer battery is one of the first available polymer batteries to be used for commercial applications. In our study, the tests carried out on these cells were aimed at determining if these batteries can be used in extravehicular activity tools for both Shuttle and International Space Station

  16. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  17. Lithium-ion cell-to-cell variation during battery electric vehicle operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Simon F.; Brand, Martin J.; Berg, Philipp; Gleissenberger, Markus; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    484 new and 1908 aged lithium-ion cells out of two identical battery electric vehicles (i.e. 954 cells each) were characterized by capacity and impedance measurements to yield a broad set of data for distribution fit analysis. Results prove alteration from normal to Weibull distribution for the parameters of lithium-ion cells with the progress of aging. Cells with abnormal characteristics in the aged state mostly exhibit lower capacities as compared to the distribution mode which is typical for the left-skewed Weibull shape. In addition, the strength of variation and the amount of outliers both are generally increased with the aging progress. Obtained results are compared to vehicles' operational data to provide recommendations with the aim to minimize the increasing parameter spread. However, neither temperature gradients in the battery pack nor an insufficient balancing procedure were determined. As the appearance of cells with suspicious parameters could not be assigned to local weak spots of the battery pack, a random and inevitable type of origin is assumed. Hence, the battery management system must ensure to detect outliers in a reliable manner and to balance resulting drifts of cells' states of charge to guarantee a safe battery storage operation.

  18. Material requirements for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, L.; Fouchard, D.; Megahed, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lithium-ion (or rocking-chair) batteries with lithiated oxide cathodes and carbon anodes are finding increasing acceptance in many electronic applications including low rates (e.g., memory backup, real time clock, bridge function) and high rates (e.g, laptop computers, cellular phones, camcorders, etc.). This technology offers significant improvements in safety relative to cells using lithium metal anodes, with only a modest reduction in energy density. In general, materials for lithium-ion cells are chosen to minimize the energy density penalties associated with replacing the lithium electrode with an intercalation electrode. In this review paper, the authors describe the properties of the cathode, anode and electrolyte, and discuss requirements for improved materials for advanced lithium-ion systems. Consideration is given to energy density, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability.

  19. Series-connected multi-cell operation of lithium-ion cells by floating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Katsuhito; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Kumai, Kazuma; Terada, Nobuyuki; Iwahori, Toru; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    The resistance to damage during overcharge and overdischarge of a single cell and the possibility of series-connected multi-cell operation have been investigated using a commercialized lithium-ion cell. The single cell showed sufficient cycleability in overcharge up to 4.5 V and small reversible capacity in overdischarge under 2.5 V. An overdischarged cell below 0 V did not generate subsequent electromotive force and behaved like a resistor of an electron conductor. Multi-cell operations including imbalanced cells both in a preshifted state-of-charge between +30 and -5% and in various ambient temperatures were performed for over 1000 cycles of charge/discharge by the floating method.

  20. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Performance and Safety Evaluations of Moli Spinel Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevarajan, Judith; Cook, Joseph S.; Collins, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The current spike obtained during the hard external short test is small (8.2 A) compared to those obtained from a LiCoO2 system (60 to 80 A). The simulated internal short did not result in an explosion or fire as it does with the LiCoO2 systems. The temperatures obtained during the heat-to-vent test are not very high compared to the cobaltate cells. The cells do not retain capacity very well, but the capacity can be recovered with cycling. The spinel cells are much safer under abuse conditions than the lithium-ion cells with other transition metal oxides.

  2. Rate dependence of cell-to-cell variations of lithium-ion cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Fuqiang; Chen, Lufan; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells are commonly used in a multicell configuration in power devices and electric vehicles, making the cell-to-cell variation (CtCV) a key factor to consider in system design and management. Previous studies on CtCV have two major limitations: the number of cells is usually less than one hundred, and the cells are usually commercial cells already subjected to cell-screenings. In this article, we first make a statistical analysis on the CtCV of 5473 fresh cells from an automotive battery manufacturer before the cell-screening process. Secondly, 198 cells are randomly selected from these 5473 cells and the rate dependence of the CtCV is examined, focusing on the correlations of capacity versus weight and capacity versus resistance, corresponding to thermodynamic and kinetic factors, respectively. The rate dependence of these two correlations is explained from a phenomenological model. Finally, eight cells from the 198 cells are further characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to elucidate the kinetic origins of the CtCV. PMID:27725767

  3. Rate dependence of cell-to-cell variations of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fuqiang; Chen, Lufan; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion cells are commonly used in a multicell configuration in power devices and electric vehicles, making the cell-to-cell variation (CtCV) a key factor to consider in system design and management. Previous studies on CtCV have two major limitations: the number of cells is usually less than one hundred, and the cells are usually commercial cells already subjected to cell-screenings. In this article, we first make a statistical analysis on the CtCV of 5473 fresh cells from an automotive battery manufacturer before the cell-screening process. Secondly, 198 cells are randomly selected from these 5473 cells and the rate dependence of the CtCV is examined, focusing on the correlations of capacity versus weight and capacity versus resistance, corresponding to thermodynamic and kinetic factors, respectively. The rate dependence of these two correlations is explained from a phenomenological model. Finally, eight cells from the 198 cells are further characterized with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to elucidate the kinetic origins of the CtCV.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Process for Lower Cost Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries for DOD Including the BB2590

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-30

    Nickelate in 18650 Cell 24 8. Installation of Resistance Welder 25 9. Bi-Cell Vacuum Dryer and with Activation Box 26 10. Semi...DOD lithium-ion rechargeable cells/batteries are composed of combinations using Asian 18650 cells including the BB2590. This dependence is due to the...much lower cost of the Asian and particularly the Chinese 18650 cells which are made on very large scale and also with lower labor costs. LithChem

  5. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Hans-Georg; Obeidi, Ossama; Komesker, Oliver; Raschke, André; Schiemann, Michael; Zehner, Christian; Gehnen, Markus; Keller, Michael; Birke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current) methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods. PMID:22219678

  6. Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, Paul; Zheng, Honghe; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangun; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Charest, Patrick; Zaghib, Karim; Battaglia, Vincent

    2009-06-15

    Graphites MCMB-2810 and OMAC-15 (made by Osaka Gas Inc.), and SNG12 (Hydro Quebec, Inc.) were evaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) as anode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Though the reversible capacity obtained for SNG was slightly higher than that of OMAC or MCMB, its 1st cycle efficiency was lower. Voltage vs capacity plots of cycling data show that the discharge and charge limits shift to higher capacity values due to continuation of anode side reactions. Varying the cycle charge and discharge limits was found to have no significant effect on fractional capacity shift per cycle.

  7. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  8. Extension of Lithium Ion Cell Model to Include Transient and Low-Temperature Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, G.

    2014-08-01

    Current-interruption resistance measurements have been analysed in detail allowing the ESTEC lithium ion cell electrical/thermal model to be extended to allow modelling of cell voltage in response to imposed current changes at low temperatures and short time scales where activation polarisation becomes important. Whilst an unnecessary complication in most cases, this extension is needed under certain circumstances such as the simulation of Mars rover batteries forced to operate at low temperature and possible effects of battery voltage transients on battery-bus power subsystems. Comparison with test data show that the model is capable of giving a good fit in these circumstances.

  9. Overcharge studies of carbon fiber composite-based lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S.; Kim, Y.-K.; Saleh, Y.; Loutfy, R.

    Prototype lithium-ion pouch cells of 5.5 Ah have been fabricated with carbon fiber composite anodes, LiCoO 2 cathodes, and LiPF 6 electrolyte to investigate the overcharge characteristics of these cells at the 1 C rate. The cells were made with anode to cathode capacity (A/C) ratios of 1.0 and 1.1. The cells were first examined for charge-discharge characteristics at different rates in order to determine the delivered capacity, specific energy and energy density and rate capability, and to ensure that the cells are suitable for overcharge studies. The current, voltage, and temperature responses during overcharge to 12 V were recorded. Maximum temperatures of 65 and 85 °C were observed with the cells with A/C equal to 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. The overcharged cells were dissected in an inert atmosphere and their components were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. It is believed that a relatively low amount of heat is generated with carbon fiber composite-based lithium-ion cells and a separator shutdown mechanism is operative in the cell system which prevents fire or explosion during overcharge.

  10. Development towards cell-to-cell monolithic integration of a thin-film solar cell and lithium-ion accumulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbo, Solomon N.; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Yu, Shicheng; Tempel, Hermann; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Rau, Uwe; Astakhov, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    This work focuses on the potentials of monolithic integrated thin-film silicon solar cell and lithium ion cell in a simple cell-to-cell integration without any control electronics as a compact power solution for portable electronic devices. To demonstrate this we used triple-junction thin-film silicon solar cell connected directly to a lithium ion battery cell to charge the battery and in turn discharge the battery through the solar cell. Our results show that with appropriate voltage matching the solar cell provides efficient charging for lab-scale lithium ion storage cell. Despite the absence of any control electronics the discharge rate of the Li-ion cell through the non-illuminated solar cell can be much lower than the charging rate when the current voltage (IV) characteristics of the solar cell is matched properly to the charge-discharge characteristics of the battery. This indicates good sustainability of the ultimately simple integrated device. At the maximum power point, solar energy-to-battery charging efficiency of 8.5% which is nearly the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was obtained indicating potential for loss-free operation of the photovoltaic (PV)-battery integration. For the rest of the charging points, an average of 8.0% charging efficiency was obtained.

  11. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  12. Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Roth, E. P.; Kostecki, R.; McCarthy, K.; MacLaren, S.; Doughty, D. H.

    The inherent thermal instability of lithium-ion cells is a significant impediment to their widespread commercialization for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells containing conventional organic electrolyte-based chemistries are prone to thermal runaway at temperatures around 180 °C. We conducted accelerating rate calorimetry measurements on high-power 18650-type lithium-ion cells in an effort to decipher the sequence of events leading to thermal runaway. In addition, electrode and separator samples harvested from a cell that was heated to 150 °C then air-quenched to room temperature were examined by microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction techniques. Self-heating of the cell began at 84 °C. The gases generated in the cell included CO 2 and CO, and smaller quantities of H 2, C 2H 4, CH 4, and C 2H 6. The main changes on cell heating to 150 °C were observed on the anode surface, which was covered by a thick layer of surface deposits that included LiF and inorganic and organo-phosphate compounds. The sources of gas generation and the mechanisms leading to the formation of compounds observed on the electrode surfaces are discussed.

  13. Progress of Ongoing NASA Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Testing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara I.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2008-01-01

    A Lithium-ion Verification and Validation Program with the purpose to assess the capabilities of current aerospace lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cells to perform in a low-earth-orbit (LEO) regime was initiated in 2002. This program involves extensive characterization and LEO life testing at ten different combinations of depth-of-discharge, temperature, and end-of-charge voltage. The test conditions selected for the life tests are defined as part of a statistically designed test matrix developed to determine the effects of operating conditions on performance and life of Li-ion cells. Results will be used to model and predict cell performance and degradation as a function of test operating conditions. Testing is being performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Crane Division in Crane, Indiana. Testing was initiated in September 2004 with 40 Ah cells from Saft and 30 Ah cells from Lithion. The test program has been expanded with the addition of modules composed of 18650 cells from ABSL Power Solutions in April 2006 and the addition of 50 Ah cells from Mine Safety Appliances Co. (MSA) in June 2006. Preliminary results showing the average voltage and average available discharge capacity for the Saft and Lithion packs at the test conditions versus cycles are presented.

  14. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  15. Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Zhang, Chao; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Models capture the force response for single-cell and cell-string levels to within 15%-20% accuracy and predict the location for the origin of failure based on the deformation data from the experiments. At the module level, there is some discrepancy due to poor mechanical characterization of the packaging material between the cells. The thermal response (location and value of maximum temperature) agrees qualitatively with experimental data. In general, the X-plane results agree with model predictions to within 20% (pending faulty thermocouples, etc.); the Z-plane results show a bigger variability both between the models and test-results, as well as among multiple repeats of the tests. The models are able to capture the timing and sequence in voltage drop observed in the multi-cell experiments; the shapes of the current and temperature profiles need more work to better characterize propagation. The cells within packaging experience about 60% less force under identical impact test conditions, so the packaging on the test articles is robust. However, under slow-crush simulations, the maximum deformation of the cell strings with packaging is about twice that of cell strings without packaging.

  16. Safety Limitations Associated with Commercial 18650 Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade, NASA-JSC battery group has carried out several tests on the safety of li-ion cells, modules and battery packs. The hazards associated with using commercial li-ion cells in high voltage and high capacity batteries have been determined to be different from those associated with the use of the same cells in low voltage, low capacity packs (less than 15 V and 60 Wh). Tests carried out included overcharge, overdischarge, external and internal short circuits with destructive physical analysis included in most cases. Chemical analysis, X-rays and in some cases CT scans were used for post-test analysis.

  17. Cell balancing considerations for lithium-ion battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, W.F.

    1997-12-01

    Charge algorithms for Li-Ion batteries require that charging current stop once a maximum voltage threshold is reached. Each battery in a Li-Ion pack must be individually monitored for this condition, so charging of the entire pack ceases as soon as one cell reaches this voltage limitation. Cell balancing algorithms seek to remove charge from the offending cell to equalize voltage and enable additional charging of the pack. This paper considers the technical merits of this approach and the issues associated with its implementation.

  18. Experimental modal analysis of lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James

    2015-07-01

    If future electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries are to be designed such that the impact of vibration induced resonance is minimized, engineers tasked with the design of the vehicle's energy storage system must have a rigorous understanding of key system attributes such as the natural frequencies of the cell, the level of damping present and the mode shapes induced within the battery under mechanical load. This paper describes the underpinning theory and experimental method employed when using the impulse excitation technique to quantify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a commercially available 25 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Laminate Pouch Cell. Experimental results are presented for fifteen cells at five different values of state of charge (SOC). The results indicate that irrespective of the energy content within the cell, the same four modes of vibration (torsion and bending) exist within a frequency range of 191 Hz-360 Hz. This is above the frequency range (0-150 Hz) typically associated with road-induced vibration. The results also indicate that the cell's natural frequencies of vibration and damping do not vary with changing values of SOC.

  19. A multi scale multi-dimensional thermo electrochemical modelling of high capacity lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourani, Abbas; White, Peter; Ivey, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium manganese oxide (LMO) are competitive and complementary to each other as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, especially for use in electric vehicles. A multi scale multi-dimensional physic-based model is proposed in this paper to study the thermal behaviour of the two lithium-ion chemistries. The model consists of two sub models, a one dimensional (1D) electrochemical sub model and a two dimensional (2D) thermo-electric sub model, which are coupled and solved concurrently. The 1D model predicts the heat generation rate (Qh) and voltage (V) of the battery cell through different load cycles. The 2D model of the battery cell accounts for temperature distribution and current distribution across the surface of the battery cell. The two cells are examined experimentally through 90 h load cycles including high/low charge/discharge rates. The experimental results are compared with the model results and they are in good agreement. The presented results in this paper verify the cells temperature behaviour at different operating conditions which will lead to the design of a cost effective thermal management system for the battery pack.

  20. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF{sub 6}-bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C.

  1. Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Chris; Curzon, David; Blackmore, Paul; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) provides adequate sustained hard short protection for AEA batteries with up to 8 cells in series. PTC cannot protect against sustained hard short in AEA batteries with 10 cells or more in series. Protective fused connector is a proven way to protect larger batteries from hard short damage: a) Hard short not credible in unmanned missions; b) However, recommended during ground handling; c) Inexpensive item. Preliminary diode protection scheme has passed manned space safety requirements for high voltage batteries. SCM confirmed fused connector did not affect battery health, however, this affect of hard short on the its long calendar and cycle life performance needs to be verified.

  2. Recent advances in first principles computational research of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying Shirley; Arroyo-de Dompablo, M Elena

    2013-05-21

    To meet the increasing demands of energy storage, particularly for transportation applications such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, researchers will need to develop improved lithium-ion battery electrode materials that exhibit high energy density, high power, better safety, and longer cycle life. The acceleration of materials discovery, synthesis, and optimization will benefit from the combination of both experimental and computational methods. First principles (ab Initio) computational methods have been widely used in materials science and can play an important role in accelerating the development and optimization of new energy storage materials. These methods can prescreen previously unknown compounds and can explain complex phenomena observed with these compounds. Intercalation compounds, where Li(+) ions insert into the host structure without causing significant rearrangement of the original structure, have served as the workhorse for lithium ion rechargeable battery electrodes. Intercalation compounds will also facilitate the development of new battery chemistries such as sodium-ion batteries. During the electrochemical discharge reaction process, the intercalating species travel from the negative to the positive electrode, driving the transition metal ion in the positive electrode to a lower oxidation state, which delivers useful current. Many materials properties change as a function of the intercalating species concentrations (at different state of charge). Therefore, researchers will need to understand and control these dynamic changes to optimize the electrochemical performance of the cell. In this Account, we focus on first-principles computational investigations toward understanding, controlling, and improving the intrinsic properties of five well known high energy density Li intercalation electrode materials: layered oxides (LiMO2), spinel oxides (LiM2O4), olivine phosphates (LiMPO4), silicates-Li2MSiO4, and the tavorite-LiM(XO4)F (M = 3d

  3. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  4. Stochastic spectral projection of electrochemical thermal model for lithium-ion cell state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagade, Piyush; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin

    2017-03-01

    A novel approach for integrating a pseudo-two dimensional electrochemical thermal (P2D-ECT) model and data assimilation algorithm is presented for lithium-ion cell state estimation. This approach refrains from making any simplifications in the P2D-ECT model while making it amenable for online state estimation. Though deterministic, uncertainty in the initial states induces stochasticity in the P2D-ECT model. This stochasticity is resolved by spectrally projecting the stochastic P2D-ECT model on a set of orthogonal multivariate Hermite polynomials. Volume averaging in the stochastic dimensions is proposed for efficient numerical solution of the resultant model. A state estimation framework is developed using a transformation of the orthogonal basis to assimilate the measurables with this system of equations. Effectiveness of the proposed method is first demonstrated by assimilating the cell voltage and temperature data generated using a synthetic test bed. This validated method is used with the experimentally observed cell voltage and temperature data for state estimation at different operating conditions and drive cycle protocols. The results show increased prediction accuracy when the data is assimilated every 30s. High accuracy of the estimated states is exploited to infer temperature dependent behavior of the lithium-ion cell.

  5. Safety and Long-Term Performance of Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the highest energy density of the batteries available in the commercial market today. Although most lithium-ion cell designs use a metal can design, this has changed significantly in recent years. Cell designs are offered in the pouch format as they offer better volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and in some cases, higher tolerance to abuse or off-nominal conditions. In the past decade, several state-of-the-art lithium-ion pouch cell designs have been tested. The pouch cell designs have become more robust in the past two years but there are still a few issues that need to be looked into for optimization. The pouch cells seem to have a tendency to swell when left in storage under ambient conditions. The cells also swell under overvoltage and undervoltage conditions. A significant issue that has been observed is the swelling of the cells under a vacuum condition which could lead to deformation of the cell pouch after this exposure. This last factor would be very critical in the use of these cell designs for space applications as vacuum exposure is used to check for cell and battery leaks before it is flown into space. In rare cases, corrosion of the aluminum layer of the pouches has been observed in stored cells. Pouch material analysis has been carried out in an effort to understand the strength of the pouches and determine if this is a factor in the corrosion as well as unsafe condition of the cells as deformation of the inner layers of the pouch could occur when the cells swell under the various conditions described above. Pouch materials are typically aluminized plastic, made up of a layer of Al sandwiched between one or more layers of polymeric material. Deformations or cell manufacturing processes could lead to a compromise of the inner polymeric layer/s of the pouch leading to the corrosion of the Al layer in the aluminized pouch material. The safety of the pouch cell designs has been determined for cells from various

  6. An explicit algebraic reduced order algorithm for lithium ion cell voltage prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, V.; Gambhire, Priya; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Khandelwal, Ashish; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Oh, Dukjin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2014-02-01

    The detailed isothermal electrochemical model for a lithium ion cell has ten coupled partial differential equations to describe the cell behavior. In an earlier publication [Journal of Power Sources, 222, 426 (2013)], a reduced order model (ROM) was developed by reducing the detailed model to a set of five linear ordinary differential equations and nonlinear algebraic expressions, using uniform reaction rate, volume averaging and profile based approximations. An arbitrary current profile, involving charge, rest and discharge, is broken down into constant current and linearly varying current periods. The linearly varying current period results are generic, since it includes the constant current period results as well. Hence, the linear ordinary differential equations in ROM are solved for a linearly varying current period and an explicit algebraic algorithm is developed for lithium ion cell voltage prediction. While the existing battery management system (BMS) algorithms are equivalent circuit based and ordinary differential equations, the proposed algorithm is an explicit algebraic algorithm. These results are useful to develop a BMS algorithm for on-board applications in electric or hybrid vehicles, smart phones etc. This algorithm is simple enough for a spread-sheet implementation and is useful for rapid analysis of laboratory data.

  7. Thermal behavior and electrochemical heat generation in a commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Elke; Ziebert, Carlos; Melcher, Andreas; Rohde, Magnus; Seifert, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative data on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under charging and discharging conditions are essential for designing thermal management systems and improving battery safety. In this work, commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cells with Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes were tested under isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter at different charging/discharging currents from 5 A to 40 A. Adiabatic tests simulate the worst-case scenario of a battery pack without cooling. For charging and discharging an overall exothermic behavior was found and a total temperature increase for one half cycle between 3 and 11 K. Isoperibolic tests simulate a single cell under constant environmental temperature. Here an exothermic behavior for discharging and an endothermic behavior for charging were observed. To transfer the measured temperature changes into heat data, the effective specific heat capacity and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. For the first time the heat generation data for a large format pouch cell have been determined using both isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions. These data were compared with the total heat data calculated as the sum of reversible and irreversible heat that were measured by potentiometric and current interruption techniques respectively. A good agreement was found between all three heat generation determination methods.

  8. Hazards Due to Overdischarge in Lithium-ion Cylindrical Cells in Multi-cell Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Strangways, Brad; Nelson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Lithium-ion cells in the cylindrical Commercial-off-the-shelf 18650 design format were used to study the hazards associated with overdischarge. The cells in series or in parallel configurations were subjected to different conditions of overdischarge. The cells in parallel configurations were all overdischarged to 2.0 V for 75 cycles with one cell removed at 25 cycles to study the health of the cell. The cells in series were designed to be in an unbalanced configuration by discharging one cell in each series configuration before the start of test. The discharge consisted of removing a pre-determined capacity from the cell. This ranged from 50 to 150 mAh removal. The cells were discharged down to a predetermined end-of-discharge voltage cutoff which allowed the cell with lower capacity to go into an overdischarge mode. The cell modules that survived the 75 cycles were subjected to one overvoltage test to 4.4 V/cell.

  9. Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/GSFC is interested in flying lithium ion cells for geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. To determine the preferred solstice storage conditions for the lithium ion chemistry, we have been studying either a constant current storage with a maximum voltage clamp or storage with only a voltage clamp. The cells used for this study are two 4Ah SAFT cylindrical lithium ion cells, two 1.5Ah Wilson Great Batch lithium ion cells, and one 8Ah Lithium Technology lithium polymer cell. In each pair, one cell is clamped at 4V, and the other is trickle charged at C/500 with a 4.lV clamp. The Lithium Technology cell is only undergoing voltage clamped storage testing. After each storage period the cells are subjected to a capacity test (C/2 discharge, C/10 charge) and a charge retention test at room temperature. Results after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of storage testing will be presented here.

  10. Diagnostic studies on lithium-ion cells at Argonne National Laboratory: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Daniel P.

    2010-04-01

    High-power and high-energy lithium-ion cells are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. Cells ranging in capacity from 1 mAh to 1Ah, and containing a variety of electrodes and electrolytes, are examined to determine suitable material combinations that will meet and exceed the FCVT performance, cost, and safety targets. In this article, accelerated aging of 18650-type cells, and characterization of components harvested from these cells, is described. Several techniques that include electrochemical measurements, analytical electron microscopy, and x-ray spectroscopy were used to study the various cell components. Data from these studies were used to identify the most likely contributors to property degradation and determine mechanisms responsible for cell capacity fade and impedance rise.

  11. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  12. Neutron Depth Profiling benchmarking and analysis of applications to lithium ion cell electrode and interfacial studies research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Scott M.

    The role of the lithium ion cell is increasing with great intensity due to global concerns for the decreased use of fossil fuels as well as the growing popularity of portable electronics. With the dramatic increase in demand for these cells follows an outbreak of research to optimize the lithium ion cells in terms of safety, cost, and also performance. The work shown in this dissertation sets out to distinguish the role of Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) in the expanding research of lithium ion cells. Lithium ions play the primary role in the performance of lithium ion batteries. Moving from anode to cathode, and cathode to anode, the lithium ions are constantly being disturbed during the cell's operation. The ability to accurately determine the lithium's behavior within the electrodes of the cell after different operating conditions is a powerful tool to better understand the faults and advantages of particular electrode compositions and cell designs. NDP has this ability through the profiling of 6Li. This research first validates the ability of The University of Texas NDP (UT-NDP) facility to accurately profile operated lithium ion cell electrodes to a precision within 2% over 10 mum for concentration values, and with a precision for depth measurements within 77 nm. The validation of the UT-NDP system is performed by comparing UT-NDP profiles to those from the NIST-NDP system, from the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) technique, and also from Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNPX) code simulations. All of the comparisons confirmed that the UT-NDP facility is fully capable of providing accurate depth profiles of lithium ion cell electrodes in terms of depth, shape of distribution, and concentration. Following the validation studies, this research investigates three different areas of lithium ion cell research and provides analysis based on NDP results. The three areas of investigation include storage of cells at temperature, cycling of cells, and the charging of cells

  13. Engineering and Abuse Testing of Panasonic Lithium-Ion Battery and Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the performance testing of Lithium Ion batteries and cells under different conditions of charge and discharge. The tests show that the 0.5 C rate of charge and discharge might be the ideal condition for long term cycling. It reviews the issues of overcharge and overdischarge of the cells. The cells and the battery have adequate protection under both conditions to prevent any catastrophic occurrences. Temperatures above 150 C are required to vent the cells or cause a thermal runaway, Since this situation is non-credible in the cabin of the Space Shuffle or ISS this should not pose a problem. The presentation includes graphs and charts showing the charge and discharge capacities of the battery and also the current and voltage profiles. A view of a circuit board which contains the controlling mechanism for the battery is also shown.

  14. Temperature propagation in prismatic lithium-ion-cells after short term thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Pamina; Liebig, Gerd; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a 3D model based on the thermal material characteristics of an automotive prismatic Li-NiMnCoO2 (NMC) cell was created in COMSOL Multiphysics® in order to simulate the temperature propagation in the cell during short term thermal stress. The thermal characteristics of the battery components were experimentally determined via laser flash analysis (LFA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and used as an input parameter for the models. In order to validate the modelling approach, an experimental setup was built to measure the temperature propagation during thermal stresses within a dummy cell, equipped with temperature sensors. After validating, the model is used to describe the temperature propagation after a short-term temperature stress on automotive prismatic lithium-ion cells, simulating welding of the contact leads.

  15. Organic solvents, electrolytes, and lithium ion cells with good low temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Multi-component organic solvent systems, electrolytes and electrochemical cells characterized by good low temperature performance are provided. In one embodiment, an improved organic solvent system contains a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate. In other embodiments, quaternary systems include a fourth component, i.e, an aliphatic ester, an asymmetric alkyl carbonate or a compound of the formula LiOX, where X is R, COOR, or COR, where R is alkyl or fluoroalkyl. Electrolytes based on such organic solvent systems are also provided and contain therein a lithium salt of high ionic mobility, such as LiPF.sub.6. Reversible electrochemical cells, particularly lithium ion cells, are constructed with the improved electrolytes, and preferably include a carbonaceous anode, an insertion type cathode, and an electrolyte interspersed therebetween.

  16. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2015-10-11

    Lithium-ion cells provide the highest specific energy (>280 Wh/kg) and energy density (>600 Wh/L) rechargeable battery building block to date with the longest life. Electrode/electrolyte thermal instability and flammability of the electrolyte of Li-ion cells make them prone to catastrophic thermal runaway under some rare internal short circuit conditions. Despite extensive QC/QA, standardized industry safety testing, and over 18 years of manufacturing experience, major recalls have taken place and incidents still occur. Many safety incidents that take place in the field originate due to an internal short that was not detectable or predictable at the point of manufacture. The Internal Short-Circuit Instigator can be used to study types of separators, non-flammable electrolytes, electrolyte additives, fusible tabs, propagation studies, and gas generation within a cell.

  17. A thermodynamic and crystal structure study of thermally aged lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kenza; Yazami, Rachid

    2014-09-01

    Lithium ion batteries in the coin-cell form factor (2032) initially charged to 4.2 V at ambient temperature are stored at 60 °C and 70 °C for up to 8 weeks. The cells discharge capacity (Qd) and thermodynamic properties, including open-circuit potential (OCP), entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) are measured after each completed ageing week. Post-mortem analysis of aged anodes and cathodes is investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman Scattering spectrometry (RS) in an attempt to correlate thermodynamic data to changes in the crystal structure characteristics. It is found that degradation of the electrode materials' crystal structure accounts for most of the observed changes in the cells' thermodynamics with well quantified and distinct contributions from anode and cathode.

  18. Physical and chemical analysis of lithium-ion battery cell-to-cell failure events inside custom fire chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Field, Christopher R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Williams, Bradley A.; Myers, Kristina M.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-04-01

    A 5-cubic meter decompression chamber was re-purposed as a fire test chamber to conduct failure and abuse experiments on lithium-ion batteries. Various modifications were performed to enable remote control and monitoring of chamber functions, along with collection of data from instrumentation during tests including high speed and infrared cameras, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, real-time gas analyzers, and compact reconfigurable input and output devices. Single- and multi-cell packages of LiCoO2 chemistry 18650 lithium-ion batteries were constructed and data was obtained and analyzed for abuse and failure tests. Surrogate 18650 cells were designed and fabricated for multi-cell packages that mimicked the thermal behavior of real cells without using any active components, enabling internal temperature monitoring of cells adjacent to the active cell undergoing failure. Heat propagation and video recordings before, during, and after energetic failure events revealed a high degree of heterogeneity; some batteries exhibited short burst of sparks while others experienced a longer, sustained flame during failure. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were detected via gas analysis, and the presence of these species was consistent throughout all failure events. These results highlight the inherent danger in large format lithium-ion battery packs with regards to cell-to-cell failure, and illustrate the need for effective safety features.

  19. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with low ethylene carbonate content electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.; Crott, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for various aerospace applications under a NASA-DoD interagency program. For the projected missions, lithium ion batteries need to be further improved, i.e., low temperature performance for Mars Landers, Rovers, and Penetrators and cycle life for the Orbiters and LEO and GEO satellites.

  20. Overcharge Protection And Cell Voltage Monitoring For Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, George; Salim, Abbas

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a new Battery Interface and Electronics (BIE) assembly used to monitor battery and cell voltages, as well as provide overvoltage (overcharge) protection for Lithium Ion batteries with up to 8-cells in series. The BIE performs accurate measurement of the individual cell voltages, the total battery voltage, and the individual cell temperatures. In addition, the BIE provides an independent over-charge protection (OCP) circuit that terminates the charging process by isolating the battery from the charging source in the event that the voltage of any cell exceeds a preset limit of +4.500V. The OCP circuit utilizes dual redundancy, and is immune to single-point failures in the sense that no single-point failure can cause the battery to become isolated inadvertently. A typical application of the BIE in a spacecraft electrical power subsystem is shown in Figure 1. The BIE circuits have been designed with Chip On Board (COB) technology. Using this technology, integrated circuit die, Field Effect Transistors (FETs) and diodes are mounted and wired directly on a multi-layer printed wiring board (PWB). For those applications where long term reliability can be achieved without hermeticity, COB technology provides many benefits such as size and weight reduction while lowering production costs. The BIE was designed, fabricated and tested to meet the specifications provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for use with Lithium-Ion batteries in the Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS). COTS will be used to deliver cargo to the International Space Station at low earth orbit (LEO). Aeroflex has completed the electrical and mechanical design of the BIE and fabricated and tested the Engineering Model (EM), as well as the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM). Flight units have also been fabricated, tested and delivered to OSC.

  1. Silicon and Carbon Nanocomposite Spheres with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Full Cell Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Li, Changling; Liu, Chueh; Ye, Rachel; Fu, Chengyin; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Guo, Juchen; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, facile synthesis of monodisperse silicon and carbon nanocomposite spheres (MSNSs) is achieved via a simple and scalable surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction with subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) were fabricated to test the utility of MSNSs as an anode material. LIB anodes based on MSNSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3207 mAh g‑1, superior rate performance, and excellent cycling stability. Furthermore, the performance of full cell LIBs was evaluated by using MSNS anode and a LiCoO2 cathode with practical electrode loadings. The MSNS/LiCoO2 full cell demonstrates high gravimetric energy density in the order of 850 Wh L‑1 with excellent cycling stability. This work shows a proof of concept of the use of monodisperse Si and C nanocomposite spheres toward practical lithium-ion battery applications.

  2. Silicon and Carbon Nanocomposite Spheres with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Full Cell Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Li, Changling; Liu, Chueh; Ye, Rachel; Fu, Chengyin; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Guo, Juchen; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, facile synthesis of monodisperse silicon and carbon nanocomposite spheres (MSNSs) is achieved via a simple and scalable surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction with subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) were fabricated to test the utility of MSNSs as an anode material. LIB anodes based on MSNSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3207 mAh g−1, superior rate performance, and excellent cycling stability. Furthermore, the performance of full cell LIBs was evaluated by using MSNS anode and a LiCoO2 cathode with practical electrode loadings. The MSNS/LiCoO2 full cell demonstrates high gravimetric energy density in the order of 850 Wh L−1 with excellent cycling stability. This work shows a proof of concept of the use of monodisperse Si and C nanocomposite spheres toward practical lithium-ion battery applications. PMID:28322285

  3. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-07

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  4. Stochastic microstructure modeling and electrochemical simulation of lithium-ion cell anodes in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Simon; Feinauer, Julian; Westhoff, Daniel; Manke, Ingo; Schmidt, Volker; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-12-01

    Thermodynamically consistent transport theory is used to compare 3D images of real anode microstructures from lithium-ion batteries to virtual ones created by a parametric stochastic 3D microstructure model. Half-cell simulations in 3D with spatially resolved microstructures at different applied currents show that for low currents the deviations between various electrochemical quantities like current density or overpotential are negligibly small. For larger currents small differences become more pronounced. Qualitative and quantitative differences of these features are discussed with respect to the microstructure and it is shown that the real and virtual structures behave similar during electrochemical simulations. Extensions of the stochastic microstructure model, which overcome small differences in electrochemical behavior, are proposed.

  5. Single lithium-ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes: advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Li, Chunmei; Piszcz, Michal; Coya, Estibaliz; Rojo, Teofilo; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Armand, Michel; Zhou, Zhibin

    2017-02-06

    Electrochemical energy storage is one of the main societal challenges to humankind in this century. The performances of classical Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have made great advances in the past two decades, but the intrinsic instability of liquid electrolytes results in safety issues, and the energy density of the state-of-the-art LIBs cannot satisfy the practical requirement. Therefore, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been intensively investigated considering the high theoretical capacity of lithium metal and its low negative potential. However, the progress in the field of non-aqueous liquid electrolytes for LMBs has been sluggish, with several seemingly insurmountable barriers, including dendritic Li growth and rapid capacity fading. Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) offer a perfect solution to these safety concerns and to the enhancement of energy density. Traditional SPEs are dual-ion conductors, in which both cations and anions are mobile and will cause a concentration polarization thus leading to poor performances of both LIBs and LMBs. Single lithium-ion (Li-ion) conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SLIC-SPEs), which have anions covalently bonded to the polymer, inorganic backbone, or immobilized by anion acceptors, are generally accepted to have advantages over conventional dual-ion conducting SPEs for application in LMBs. A high Li-ion transference number (LTN), the absence of the detrimental effect of anion polarization, and the low rate of Li dendrite growth are examples of benefits of SLIC-SPEs. To date, many types of SLIC-SPEs have been reported, including those based on organic polymers, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers and anion acceptors. In this review, a brief overview of synthetic strategies on how to realize SLIC-SPEs is given. The fundamental physical and electrochemical properties of SLIC-SPEs prepared by different methods are discussed in detail. In particular, special attention is paid

  6. An Update on the Lithium-Ion Cell Low-Earth-Orbit Verification Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William

    2007-01-01

    A Lithium-Ion Cell Low-Earth-Orbit Verification Test Program is being conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center to assess the performance of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells over a wide range of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. The data generated will be used to build an empirical model for Li-ion batteries. The goal of the modeling will be to develop a tool to predict the performance and cycle life of Li-ion batteries operating at a specified set of mission conditions. Using this tool, mission planners will be able to design operation points of the battery system while factoring in mission requirements and the expected life and performance of the batteries. Test conditions for the program were selected via a statistical design of experiments to span a range of feasible operational conditions for LEO aerospace applications. The variables under evaluation are temperature, depth-of-discharge (DOD), and end-of-charge voltage (EOCV). The baseline matrix was formed by generating combinations from a set of three values for each variable. Temperature values are 10 C, 20 C and 30 C. Depth-of-discharge values are 20%, 30% and 40%. EOCV values are 3.85 V, 3.95 V, and 4.05 V. Test conditions for individual cells may vary slightly from the baseline test matrix depending upon the cell manufacturer s recommended operating conditions. Cells from each vendor are being evaluated at each of ten sets of test conditions. Cells from four cell manufacturers are undergoing life cycle tests. Life cycling on the first sets of cells began in September 2004. These cells consist of Saft 40 ampere-hour (Ah) cells and Lith ion 30 Ah cells. These cells have achieved over 10,000 cycles each, equivalent to about 20 months in LEO. In the past year, the test program has expanded to include the evaluation of Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) 50 Ah cells and ABSL battery modules. The MSA cells will begin life cycling in October 2006. The ABSL battery modules consist of commercial Sony hard carbon 18650 lithium-ion

  7. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  8. Lithium-ion polymer cells assembled with a reactive composite separator containing vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Won-Kyung; Koo, Sang Man; Kim, Dong-Won

    2015-11-01

    Vinyl-functionalized SiO2 particles of different sizes are synthesized and coated onto both sides of a polyethylene separator to prepare a reactive composite separator for lithium-ion polymer cells. The SiO2-coated composite separators exhibit excellent thermal stability due to the presence of heat-resistant silica particles. By using these reactive composite separators and a gel electrolyte precursor, lithium-ion polymer cells composed of a graphite negative electrode and a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 positive electrode are assembled by in-situ chemical cross-linking, and their cycling performance is evaluated. The cells assembled with a reactive composite separator exhibit superior cycling performance to cell prepared with a conventional polyethylene separator due to the strong interfacial adhesion between the electrodes and separator, as well as suppression of deleterious reactions during cycling.

  9. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Croft, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enable future missions involving the exploration of the surface of Mars with Landers and Rovers, NASA desires long life, high energy density rechargeable batteries which can operate well at very low temperature (down to 40(deg)C). Lithium-ion technology has been identified as being the most promising chemistry, due to high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, as well as, long life characteristics. However, the state-of-art (SOA) technology is not sufficient to meet the needs of many applications that require excellent low temperature capabilities. To further improve this technology, work at JF'L has been focused upon developing electrolytes that result in lithium-ion cells with wider temperature ranges of operation. These efforts have led to the identification of a number of ternary and quaternary, all carbonate-based electrolytes that have been demonstrated to result in improved low temperature performance in experimental three-electrode MCMB carbon/LiNio.sCoo.zOz cells. A number of electrochemical characterization techniques were performed on these cells (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further enhance our understanding of the performance limitations at low temperature. The most promising electrolyte formulations, namely 1 .O M LiPF6EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1 : 1: 1 :2 v/v) and 1 .O M LiPF6 EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1 : 1 : 1 :3 v/v), were incorporated into SAFT prototype DD-size (9 Ahr) lithium- cells for evaluation. A number of electrical tests were performed on these cells, including rate characterization as a function of temperature, cycle life characterization at different temperatures, as well as, many mission specific characterization test to determine their viability to enable future missions to Mars. Excellent performance was observed with the prototype DD-size cells over a wide temperature range (-50 to 4OoC), with high specific energy being delivered at very

  10. A physics based reduced order aging model for lithium-ion cells with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhire, Priya; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Khandelwal, Ashish; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical model has the potential to provide a robust and accurate battery management system, but is not the preferred choice as it involves solving non-linear, coupled partial differential equations. In the present work, a model order reduction of the complete electrochemical model for a lithium ion cell with phase change electrodes is carried out. The phase change phenomenon is described using a simple, concentration-dependent diffusivity derived from mixture rules. This reduced order model (ROM) is validated with experimental data from literature. The applicability of the model to capture the atypical behavior of the phase change electrode system is demonstrated. Using the cell response from ROM, charge-discharge asymmetry and path dependence in a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cell are explored in detail. In addition, side reaction kinetics and solid electrolyte interphase formation are included in the ROM framework to enhance its capability to predict cell aging. The model is used to investigate capacity losses occurring in a phase change electrode cell. Insights from these results are used to suggest cell operating guidelines for maximizing utilization.

  11. Transition metal dissolution, ion migration, electrocatalytic reduction and capacity loss in Lithium-ion full cells

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, James A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-01-05

    Continuous operation of full cells with layered transition metal (TM) oxide positive electrodes (NCM523) leads to dissolution of TM ions and their migration and incorporation into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of the graphite-based negative electrode. These processes correlate with cell capacity fade and accelerate markedly as the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) exceeds 4.30 V. At voltages ≥ 4.4 V there is enhanced fracture of the oxide during cycling that creates new surfaces and causes increased solvent oxidation and TM dissolution. Despite this deterioration, cell capacity fade still mainly results from lithium loss in the negative electrode SEI. Among TMs,more » Mn content in the SEI shows a better correlation with cell capacity loss than Co and Ni contents. As Mn ions become incorporated into the SEI, the kinetics of lithium trapping change from power to linear at the higher UCVs, indicating a large effect of these ions on SEI growth and implicating (electro)catalytic reactions. Lastly, we estimate that each MnII ion deposited in the SEI causes trapping of ~102 additional Li+ ions thereby hastening the depletion of cyclable lithium ions. Using these results, we sketch a mechanism for cell capacity fade, emphasizing the conceptual picture over the chemical detail.« less

  12. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  13. A novel thermal swelling model for a rechargeable lithium-ion battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal swelling of rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. The thermal swelling shows significant dependency on the state of charge and the charge rate. The thermal swelling follows a quadratic form at low temperatures, and shows linear characteristics with respect to temperature at high temperatures in free-swelling conditions. Moreover, the equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion is much larger than that of each electrode and host materials, suggesting that the separator and the complex shape of the cell play a critical role in thermal expansion. Based on the experimental characterization, a novel thermal swelling model is proposed. The model introduces an equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion for the cell and also considers the temperature distribution throughout the battery by using heat transfer theory. The comparison between the proposed model and experiments demonstrates that the model accurately predicts thermal swelling at a variety of charge/discharge rates during operation and relaxation periods. The model is relatively simple yet very accurate. Hence, it can be useful for battery management applied to prolong the cycle life of cells and packs.

  14. Correlation between capacity and impedance of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Simon F.; Brand, Martin J.; Campestrini, Christian; Gleissenberger, Markus; Jossen, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Conventional capacity measurement techniques are time-consuming and thus expensive. But to know the capacity of battery units is necessary, e.g. to select most equal cells for battery pack assembly or to decide whether single units of an aged battery pack are worthy to be reused in a 2nd-life application. So, a quick and easy approach to refer to the actual capacity is of great technical and economic interest. In this paper, the correlation between capacity and impedance of lithium-ion cells during calendar and cycle life is analyzed and assessed, whether it can serve as a base for capacity quick tests. Therefore, new cells, cells aged in the laboratory and those out of two identical electric vehicles are characterized to yield a broad set of data. Results of this work imply the feasibility of correlation based capacity quick tests. However, parameterization of needed functional dependencies between capacity and impedance must be done with laboratory aging data similar to the practical use as a strong dependency of the correlation behavior from the operational and storage conditions is observed. Especially high temperature leads to strong deviation which could be linked to the layered structure of the solid electrolyte interphase.

  15. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  16. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  17. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  18. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.

  19. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Pesaran, A.

    2016-07-28

    Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.

  20. Impact modeling of cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells: a heterogeneous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilaki, Mehdi; Avdeev, Ilya

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a heterogeneous finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA to investigate lateral impact on 6P cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells manufactured by Johnson Controls Inc. The results were compared to those from a homogenized model previously reported by the authors and also experimental data and showed a good agreement. In order to find the stress-strain curves needed for the finite element simulations, compression tests were conducted on stacks of jellyroll's individual layers, i.e. coated aluminum, coated copper and separator. It was found that the load carrying capacity of the jellyroll comes primarily from the coated aluminum layers. SEM images of the separator layers showed their trilayer structure and how they collapse under excessive compressive loads. Compression experiments were also performed on flattened jellyroll samples after being soaked in electrolyte for 24 h. The measured stress-strain relations showed a very good agreement with the results from a similar set of experiments on dry jellyrolls. This suggested that characterizing dry cells could predict how live cells would react under compression/crash tests without dealing with all the safety provisions needed for those experiments.

  1. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  2. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  3. Bayesian calibration for electrochemical thermal model of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagade, Piyush; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Basu, Suman; Verma, Mohan Kumar Singh; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-07-01

    Pseudo-two dimensional electrochemical thermal (P2D-ECT) model contains many parameters that are difficult to evaluate experimentally. Estimation of these model parameters is challenging due to computational cost and the transient model. Due to lack of complete physical understanding, this issue gets aggravated at extreme conditions like low temperature (LT) operations. This paper presents a Bayesian calibration framework for estimation of the P2D-ECT model parameters. The framework uses a matrix variate Gaussian process representation to obtain a computationally tractable formulation for calibration of the transient model. Performance of the framework is investigated for calibration of the P2D-ECT model across a range of temperatures (333 Ksbnd 263 K) and operating protocols. In the absence of complete physical understanding, the framework also quantifies structural uncertainty in the calibrated model. This information is used by the framework to test validity of the new physical phenomena before incorporation in the model. This capability is demonstrated by introducing temperature dependence on Bruggeman's coefficient and lithium plating formation at LT. With the incorporation of new physics, the calibrated P2D-ECT model accurately predicts the cell voltage with high confidence. The accurate predictions are used to obtain new insights into the low temperature lithium ion cell behavior.

  4. Electrochemical Characteristics of Tin Oxide-Graphite as Anode Material for Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanaly, Siti Munirah

    2010-03-01

    Tin oxide anode materials used in lithium-ion cells experience large volume changes during charging and discharging which cause substantial losses in capacity. In this work, the tin oxide-graphite composite is proposed as an alternative anode material to overcome this problem. The composite was synthesised from a solution of tin chloride dihydrate and graphite powders with citric acid as the chelating agent. In this sol-gel method, a solid phase is formed through a chemical reaction in a liquid phase at moderate temperature. The technique offers several advantages compared to the solid state synthesis technique such as the ability to maintain the homogeneous mixture of precursors during synthesis and to produce small particles. The electrochemical behaviour of the anode material was investigated by means of galvanostatic charge discharge technique. An initial reversible capacity of 748 mAh/g is obtained and nearly 600 mAh/g was retained upon the reaching the fifth cycle. This study shows that the presence of graphite is able to minimise the agglomeration of tin particles that causes large volume changes during cycling, thereby improving cyclability of the anode material.

  5. Instability of Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polymeric Binder in Lithium-Ion Cells: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Tallant, D.R.; Roth, E.P.

    1999-05-01

    Thermal instabilities were identified in SONY-type lithium-ion cells and correlated with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the state of charge (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 100 degree C involving the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and the LiPF(6) salt in the electrolyte (EC-PC:DEC/IM LiPF(6)). These reactions could account for the thermal runaway observed in these cells beginning at 100 degree C. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 degree C to 300 degree C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF(6) salt, and the PVDF. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 degree C to 400 degree C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. The solvent was not directly involved in these reactions but served as a moderator and transport medium. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 degree C and increased with the state of charge (decreasing Li content). The stability of the PVDF binder as a function of electrochemical cycling was studied using FTIR. The infrared spectra from the extracts of both electrodes indicate that PVDF is chemically modified by exposure to the lithium cell electrolyte (as well as electrochemical cycling) in conjunction with NMP extraction. Preconditioning of PVDF to dehydrohalogenation, which may be occurring by reaction with LiPf(6), makes the PVDF susceptible to attack by a range of nucleophiles.

  6. The Effect of Cathode Composition on the Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    The specific thermal capacity and heat dissipation rate for lithium ion cells containing LiNiO2 and mixed oxide (75%LiCoO2+ 25%LiNiO2) as cathode materials are compared. The experimental measurements were made using a radiative calorimeter consisting of a copper chamber maintained at -168 C by circulating liquid nitrogen and enclosed in a vacuum bell jar. The specific thermal capacity was determined based on warm-up and cool-down transients. The heat dissipation rate was calculated from the values measured for heat radiated and stored, and the resulting values were corrected for conductive heat dissipation through the leads. The specific heat was 1.117 J/ C-g for the LiNiO2 cell and 0.946 J/ C-g for the 75%LiCoO2,25%LiNiO2 cell. Endothermic cooling at the beginning of charge was very apparent for the cell containing 75%LiCoO2,25%LiNiO2 as the cathode. Exothermic heating began at a higher state of charge for the cell with the 75%LiCoO2,25%LiNiO2 cathode compared to the LiNiO2 cathode cell. During discharge, the rate of heat dissipation increased with increase in the discharge current for both types of cells. The maximum heat dissipated at C/5 discharge was 0.065 W and 0.04 W for the LiNiO2 and 75%LiCoO2,25%LiNiO2 cells, respectively, The thermoneutral potential showed variability toward the end of discharge. The plateau region of the curves was used to calculate average thermoneutral potentials of 3.698 V and 3.837 V for the LiNiO2 cell and the 75%LiCoO2,25%LiNiO2 cell, respectively.

  7. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  8. Changes of the balancing between anode and cathode due to fatigue in commercial lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Karin; Jakes, Peter; Scharner, Sebastian; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    The electrode balancing defines the state of charge (SoC) of a lithium-ion cell and is a crucial point considering lifetime and safe operation. The electrode balancing varies during fatigue which results in changes of the individual electrode potentials for fixed (dis-)charge voltages of the full-cell. Therefore the materials are cycled closer or beyond their electrochemical (meta-)stability window. This leads to accelerated degradation reactions or even to safety problems. The origin of the changes in the cell balancing is the limited amount of mobile lithium, which decreases during cycling due to the loss of lithiated active material a), the reduction of accessible lattice sites in the active materials b) and the loss of active lithium outside the electrodes c). In most of the commercial cells a) and b) can be attributed to the cathode, c) occurs due to reactions on the anode surface. Changes in the electrode balancing of three differently fatigued 7 Ah lithium-ion cells are investigated by electrochemical cycling of full- and half-cells, assembled from cell components of the fatigued 7 Ah cells. Based on these results the observed performance drop is assigned to a), b) or c) mentioned above and the capacity losses are quantified.

  9. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Sung

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge

  10. A novel mechanistic modeling framework for analysis of electrode balancing and degradation modes in commercial lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Stefan; Danzer, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at a long-term stable and safe operation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells, elementary design aspects and degradation phenomena have to be considered depending on the specific application. Among the degrees of freedom in cell design, electrode balancing is of particular interest and has a distinct effect on useable capacity and voltage range. Concerning intrinsic degradation modes, understanding the underlying electrochemical processes and tracing the overall degradation history are the most crucial tasks. In this study, a model-based, minimal parameter framework for combined elucidation of electrode balancing and degradation pathways in commercial lithium-ion cells is introduced. The framework rests upon the simulation of full cell voltage profiles from the superposition of equivalent, artificially degraded half-cell profiles and allows to separate aging contributions from loss of available lithium and active materials in both electrodes. A physically meaningful coupling between thermodynamic and kinetic degradation modes based on the correlation between altered impedance features and loss of available lithium as well as loss of active material is proposed and validated by a low temperature degradation profile examined in one of our recent publications. The coupled framework is able to determine the electrode balancing within an error range of < 1% and the projected cell degradation is qualitatively and quantitatively in line with experimental observations.

  11. Lithium rich cathode/graphite anode combination for lithium ion cells with high tolerance to near zero volt storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, K. R.; Staub, J. W.; Hladky, M. P.; Landi, B. J.

    2017-03-01

    Management of reversible lithium is an advantageous approach to design lithium ion cells that are tolerant to near zero volt (NZV) storage under fixed resistive load towards highly controllable, enhanced user-inactive safety. Presently, the first cycle loss from a high energy density Li-rich HE5050 cathode is used to provide excess reversible lithium when paired with an appropriately capacity matched mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode. Cells utilizing 1.2 M LiPF6 3:7 v/v ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte and a lithium reference were used for 3-electrode testing. After conditioning, a fixed resistive load was applied to 3-electrode cells for 72 or 168-h during which the anode potential and electrode asymptotic potential (EAP) remained less than the copper dissolution potential. After multiple storage cycles (room temperature or 40 °C), the NZV coulombic efficiency (cell reversibility) exceeded 97% and the discharge capacity retention was >98%. Conventional 2-electrode HE5050/MCMB pouch cells stored at NZV or open circuit for 3 days had nearly identical rate capability (up to 5C) and discharge performance stability (for 500 cycles under a 30% depth of discharge low-earth-orbit regime). Thus, lithium ion cells with appropriately capacity matched HE5050/MCMB electrodes have excellent tolerance to prolonged NZV storage, which can lead to enhanced user-inactive safety.

  12. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  13. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  14. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Sazhin, Sergiy V.; Jamison, David K.; Michelbacher, Christopher J.; Liaw, Bor Yann; Dubarry, Matthieu; Cugnet, Mikael

    There is a growing need to explore path dependence of aging processes in batteries developed for long-term usage, such as lithium-ion cells used in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) applications that may then be "retired" to be utilized in grid applications. To better understand the foremost influences on path dependence in the PHEV context, this work aims to bridge the gap between ideal laboratory test conditions and PHEV field conditions by isolating the predominant aging factors in PHEV service, which would include, for example, the nature and frequency of duty cycles, as well as the frequency and severity of thermal cycles. These factors are studied in controlled and repeatable laboratory conditions to facilitate mechanistic evaluation of aging processes. This work is a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI). Commercial lithium-ion cells of the Sanyo Y type (18650 configuration) are used in this work covering two initial independent studies of path dependence issues. The first study considers how the magnitude of power pulses and charging rates affect the aging rate, while the second seeks to answer whether thermal cycling has an accelerating effect on cell aging. While this work is in early stages of testing, initial data trends show that cell aging is indeed accelerated under conditions of high discharge pulse power, higher charge rates, and thermal cycling. Such information is useful in developing accurate predictive models for estimating end-of-life conditions.

  15. Effect of impurities and moisture on lithium bisoxalatoborate (LiBOB) electrolyte performance in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Furczon, M. M.; Xiao, A.; Lucht, B. L.; Zhang, Z.; Abraham, D. P.

    Electrolytes containing LiB(C 2O 4) 2 (LiBOB) salts are of increasing interest for lithium-ion cells for several reasons that include their ability to form a stable solid electrolyte interphase on graphite electrodes. However, cells containing these electrolytes often show inconsistent performance because of impurities in the LiBOB salt. In this work we compare cycling and impedance data from cells containing electrolytes with LiBOB that was obtained commercially and LiBOB purified by a rigorous recrystallization procedure. We relate the difference in performance to a lithium oxalate impurity that may be a residual from the salt manufacturing process. We also examine the reaction of LiBOB with water to determine the effect of salt storage in high-humidity environments. Although LiBOB electrolytes containing trace amounts (∼100 ppm) of moisture appear relatively stable, higher moisture contents (∼1 wt%) lead to observable salt decomposition resulting in the generation of B(C 2O 4)(OH) and LiB(C 2O 4)(OH) 2 compounds that do not dissolve in typical carbonate solutions and impair lithium-ion cell performance.

  16. Optimization of Acetylene Black Conductive Additive andPolyvinylidene Difluoride Composition for High Power RechargeableLithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Battaglia, V.S.; Simens, A.S.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.

    2007-07-01

    Fundamental electrochemical methods were applied to study the effect of the acetylene black (AB) and the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) polymer binder on the performance of high-power designed rechargeable lithium ion cells. A systematic study of the AB/PVDF long-range electronic conductivity at different weight ratios is performed using four-probe direct current tests and the results reported. There is a wide range of AB/PVDF ratios that satisfy the long-range electronic conductivity requirement of the lithium-ion cathode electrode; however, a significant cell power performance improvement is observed at small AB/PVDF composition ratios that are far from the long-range conductivity optimum of 1 to 1.25. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that the interfacial impedance decreases significantly with increase in binder content. The hybrid power pulse characterization results agree with the EIS tests and also show improvement for cells with a high PVDF content. The AB to PVDF composition plays a significant role in the interfacial resistance. We believe the higher binder contents lead to a more cohesive conductive carbon particle network that results in better overall all local electronic conductivity on the active material surface and hence reduced charge transfer impedance.

  17. Hierarchical micro-lamella-structured 3D porous copper current collector coated with tin for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeji; Um, Ji Hyun; Choi, Hyelim; Yoon, Won-Sub; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman

    2017-03-01

    A Novel 3D porous Sn-Cu architecture is prepared as an anode material for use in an advanced lithium-ion battery. Micro-lamellar-structured 3D porous Cu foam, which is electroless-plated with Sn as an active material, is used as anode current collector. Compared to Sn-coated Cu foil, the 3D Sn-Cu foam exhibits superior Li-ion capacity and stable capacity retention, demonstrating the advantage of 3D porous architecture by preserving its structural integrity. In addition, the effect of heat-treatment after Sn plating is investigated. Sn/Sn6Cu5 and SnO2/Cu10Sn3 were formed on and in the 3D Sn-Cu foam under the heat-treatment at 150 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The development of Cu10Sn3 in the 3D Sn-Cu foam heat-treated at 500 °C can be a key factor for the enhanced cyclic stability because the Cu10Sn3 inactively reacts with Li-ion and alleviates the volume expansion of SnO2 as an inactive matrix.

  18. Exploring hierarchical FeS2/C composite nanotubes arrays as advanced cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, G. X.; Cao, F.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    Rational construction of advanced FeS2 cathode is one of research hotspots, and of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report a facile hydrolysis-sulfurization method for fabrication of FeS2/C nanotubes arrays with the help of sacrificial Co2(OH)2CO3 nanowires template and glucose carbonization. Self-supported FeS2/C nanotubes consist of interconnected nanoburrs of 5-20 nm, and show hierarchical porous structure. The FeS2/C nanotubes arrays are demonstrated with enhanced cycling life and noticeable high-rate capability with capacities ranging from 735 mAh g-1 at 0.25 C to 482 mAh g-1 at 1.5 C, superior to those FeS2 counterparts in the literature. The composite nanotubes arrays architecture plays positive roles in the electrochemical enhancement due to combined advantages of large electrode-electrolyte contact area, good strain accommodation, improved electrical conductivity, and enhanced structural stability.

  19. Online management of lithium-ion battery based on time-triggered controller area network for fuel-cell hybrid vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangjun; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Lin, Chengtao

    This paper introduces a state of charge (SOC) estimation algorithm that was implemented for an automotive lithium-ion battery system used in fuel-cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs). The proposed online control strategy for the lithium-ion battery, based on the Ah current integration method and time-triggered controller area network (TTCAN), incorporates a signal filter and adaptive modifying concepts to estimate the Li 2MnO 4 battery SOC in a timely manner. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm, road test experimentation was conducted with an FCHV using the proposed SOC estimation algorithm. It was confirmed that the control technique can be used to effectively manage the lithium-ion battery and conveniently estimate the SOC.

  20. Simulation of capacity loss in carbon electrode for lithium-ion cells during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    A mathematical model was developed which simulates the self-discharge capacity losses in the carbon anode for a SONY 18650 lithium-ion battery. The model determines the capacity loss during storage on the basis of a continuous reduction of organic solvent and de-intercalation of lithium at the carbon/electrolyte interface. The state of charge, open circuit potential, capacity loss and film resistance on the carbon electrode were calculated as a function of storage time using different values of rate constant governing the solvent reduction reaction.

  1. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  2. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  3. On-Orbit Demonstration of a Lithium-Ion Capacitor and Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Yuki; Sakai, Tomohiko; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yu; Murashima, Mio; Uno, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration of the Next-generation Small Satellite Instrument for Electric power systems (NESSIE) on which an aluminum- laminated lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) and a lightweight solar panel called KKM-PNL, which has space solar sheets using thin-film multijunction solar cells, were installed. The flight data examined in this paper covers a period of 143 days from launch. We verified the integrity of an LIC constructed using a simple and lightweight mounting method: no significant capacitance reduction was observed. We also confirmed that inverted metamorphic multijunction triple-junction thin-film solar cells used for evaluation were healthy at 143 days after launch, because their degradation almost matched the degradation predictions for dual-junction thin-film solar cells.

  4. Probing multiscale transport and inhomogeneity in a lithium-ion cells using in-situ neutron methods

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Hui; An, Ke; Allu, Srikanth; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate for the first time the lithiation process in graphitic anodes using insitu neutron radiography in a pouch cell format. The neutron absorption contrast shows a direct correlation between degree of lithiation and the discharge voltage plateau. Furthermore, we provide a semi-quantitative comparison between the observed spatial variations of neutron attenuation line profile across the graphite electrode and the calculated lithium concentration profiles computed under similar electrochemical discharge conditions. In conjunction, in situ neutron diffraction of a similar pouch cell under identical test protocol was carried to obtain information about the local phase changes upon lithiation. Combined in-situmore » radiography and diffraction opens up a powerful nondestructive method to understand the multi-scale nature of lithium transport and degradation in practical lithium-ion cells.« less

  5. Probing multiscale transport and inhomogeneity in a lithium-ion cells using in-situ neutron methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hui; An, Ke; Allu, Srikanth; Pannala, Sreekanth; Li, Jianlin; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Martha, Surendra; Nanda, Jagjit

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate for the first time the lithiation process in graphitic anodes using insitu neutron radiography in a pouch cell format. The neutron absorption contrast shows a direct correlation between degree of lithiation and the discharge voltage plateau. Furthermore, we provide a semi-quantitative comparison between the observed spatial variations of neutron attenuation line profile across the graphite electrode and the calculated lithium concentration profiles computed under similar electrochemical discharge conditions. In conjunction, in situ neutron diffraction of a similar pouch cell under identical test protocol was carried to obtain information about the local phase changes upon lithiation. Combined in-situ radiography and diffraction opens up a powerful nondestructive method to understand the multi-scale nature of lithium transport and degradation in practical lithium-ion cells.

  6. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  7. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  9. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  10. Improved performance and safety of lithium ion cells with the use of fluorinated carbonate-based electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ryan, V. S.; Surampudi, S.; Prakashi, G. K. S.; Hu, J.; Cheung, I.

    2002-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in developing lithium-ion electrolytes that possess enhanced safety characteristics, while still able to provide the desired stability and performance. Toward this end, our efforts have been focused on the development of lithium-ion electrolytes which contain partially and fully fluorinated carbonate solvents. The advantage of using such solvents is that they possess the requisite stability demonstrated by the hydrocarbon-based carbonates, while also possessing more desirable physical properties imparted by the presence of the fluorine substituents, such as lower melting points, increased stability toward oxidation, and favorable SEI film forming Characteristics on carbon. Specifically, we have demonstrated the beneficial effect of electrolytes which contain the following fluorinated carbonate-based solvents: methyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (MTFEC), ethyl-2,2,2 trifluoroethyl carbonate (ETFEC), propyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (PTFEC), methyl-2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (MHFPC), ethyl- 2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (EHFPC), and di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC). These solvents have been incorporated into multi-component ternary and quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes and evaluated in lithium-carbon and carbon-LiNio.8Coo.202 cells (equipped with lithium reference electrodes). In addition to determining the charge/discharge behavior of these cells, a number of electrochemical techniques were employed (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further characterize the performance of these electrolytes, including the SEI formation characteristics and lithium intercalatiodde-intercalation kinetics. In addition to their evaluation in experimental cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and conductivity measurements were performed on select electrolyte formulations to further our understanding of the trends

  11. Nanoscale mapping of lithium-ion diffusion in a cathode within an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2013-02-26

    High-resolution real-space mapping of Li-ion diffusion in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ cathode within an all-solid-state thin film Li-ion battery has been conducted using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely, band excitation electrochemical strain microscopy (BE-ESM) and conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, local variations of the electrochemical response in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ thin film cathode at different cycling stages have been investigated. This work demonstrates the unique feature and applications of the BE-ESM technique on battery research. The results allow us to establish a direct relationship of the changes in ionic mobility as well as the electrochemical activity at the nanoscale with the numbers of charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, various factors influencing the BE-ESM measurements, including sample mechanical properties (e.g., elastic and dissipative properties) as well as surface electrical properties, have also been studied to investigate the coupling effects on the electrochemical strain. The study on the relationships between the Li-ion redistribution and microstructure of the electrode materials within thin film Li-ion battery will provide further understanding of the electrochemical degradation mechanisms of Li-ion rechargeable batteries at the nanoscale.

  12. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  13. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  14. Advanced Separators for Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review of Recent Progress.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yinyu; Li, Junsheng; Lei, Jiaheng; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhizhong; Qu, Deyu; Li, Ke; Deng, Tengfei; Tang, Haolin

    2016-11-09

    Li-ion and Li-S batteries find enormous applications in different fields, such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. A separator is an indispensable part of the battery design, which functions as a physical barrier for the electrode as well as an electrolyte reservoir for ionic transport. The properties of the separators directly influence the performance of the batteries. Traditional polyolefin separators showed low thermal stability, poor wettability toward the electrolyte, and inadequate barrier properties to polysulfides. To improve the performance and durability of Li-ion and Li-S batteries, development of advanced separators is required. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the fabrication and application of novel separators, including the functionalized polyolefin separator, polymeric separator, and ceramic separator, for Li-ion and Li-S batteries. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of these separators are discussed. A brief outlook for the future directions of the research in the separators is also provided.

  15. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  16. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; ...

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  17. Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries with High Specific Energy and Improved Safety for Nasa's Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Smart, Marshall; Soler, Jess; Krause, Charlie; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Materials ( Cathodes, anodes and high voltage and safe electrolyte are required to meet the needs of the future space missions. A. Cathodes: The layered layered composites of of Li2MnO3 and LiMO2 are promising Power capability of the materials, however requires further improvement. Suitable morphology is critical for good performance and high tap (packing) density. Surface coatings help in the interfacial kinetics and stability. B. Electrolytes: Small additions of Flame Retardant Additives improves flammability without affecting performance (Rate and cycle life). 1.0 M in EC+EMC+TPP was shown to have good performance against the high voltage cathode; Performance demonstrated in large capacity prototype MCMB- LiNiCoO2 Cells. Formulations with higher proportions are looking promising. Still requires further validation through abuse tests (e.g., on 18650 cells).

  18. Commercial cokes and graphites as anode materials for lithium - ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Derwin, D J; Kinoshita, K; Tran, T D; Zaleski, P

    2000-10-26

    Several types of carbonaceous materials from Superior Graphite Co. were investigated for lithium ion intercalation. These commercially available cokes, graphitized cokes and graphites have a wide range of physical and chemical properties. The coke materials were investigated in propylene carbonate based electrolytes and the graphitic materials were studied in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl solutions to prevent exfoliation. The reversible capacities of disordered cokes are below 230 mAh/g and those for many highly ordered synthetic (artificial) and natural graphites approached 372 mAh/g (LiC{sub 6}). The irreversible capacity losses vary between 15 to as much as 200% of reversible capacities for various types of carbon. Heat treated cokes with the average particle size of 10 microns showed marked improvements in reversible capacity for lithium intercalation. The electrochemical characteristics are correlated with data obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET surface area analysis. The electrochemical performance, availability, cost and manufacturability of these commercial carbons will be discussed.

  19. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH4)-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH4-air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH4-air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure. PMID:27695201

  20. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods.

    PubMed

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2016-09-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH4)-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH4-air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH4-air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure.

  1. The effect of charging rate on the graphite electrode of commercial lithium-ion cells: A post-mortem study

    DOE PAGES

    Somerville, L.; Bareno, J.; Trask, S.; ...

    2016-10-22

    Increased charging rates negatively affect the lifetime of lithium-ion cells by increasing cell resistance and reducing capacity. This work is a post-mortem study of 18650 cells subjected to charge rates of 0.7-, 2-, 4-, and 6-C. For cells charged at 0.7-C to 4-C, this performance degradation is primarily related to surface film thickness with no observable change in surface film chemical composition. However, at charge rates of 6-C, the chemical composition of the surface film changes significantly, suggesting that this change is the reason for the sharper increase in cell resistance compared to the lower charge rates. In addition, wemore » found that surface film formation was not uniform across the electrode. Surface film was thicker and chemically different along the central band of the electrode “jelly roll”. This result is most likely attributable to an increase in temperature that results from non-uniform electrode wetting during manufacture. As a result, this non-uniform change further resulted in active material delamination from the current collector owing to chemical changes to the binder for the cell charged at 6-C.« less

  2. The effect of charging rate on the graphite electrode of commercial lithium-ion cells: A post-mortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, L.; Bareno, J.; Trask, S.; Jennings, P.; McGordon, A.; Lyness, C.; Bloom, Ira

    2016-10-22

    Increased charging rates negatively affect the lifetime of lithium-ion cells by increasing cell resistance and reducing capacity. This work is a post-mortem study of 18650 cells subjected to charge rates of 0.7-, 2-, 4-, and 6-C. For cells charged at 0.7-C to 4-C, this performance degradation is primarily related to surface film thickness with no observable change in surface film chemical composition. However, at charge rates of 6-C, the chemical composition of the surface film changes significantly, suggesting that this change is the reason for the sharper increase in cell resistance compared to the lower charge rates. In addition, we found that surface film formation was not uniform across the electrode. Surface film was thicker and chemically different along the central band of the electrode “jelly roll”. This result is most likely attributable to an increase in temperature that results from non-uniform electrode wetting during manufacture. As a result, this non-uniform change further resulted in active material delamination from the current collector owing to chemical changes to the binder for the cell charged at 6-C.

  3. The effect of charging rate on the graphite electrode of commercial lithium-ion cells: A post-mortem study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, L.; Bareño, J.; Trask, S.; Jennings, P.; McGordon, A.; Lyness, C.; Bloom, I.

    2016-12-01

    Increased charging rates negatively affect the lifetime of lithium-ion cells by increasing cell resistance and reducing capacity. This work is a post-mortem study of 18650-type cells subjected to charge rates of 0.7-, 2-, 4-, and 6-C. For cells charged at 0.7-C to 4-C, this performance degradation is primarily related to surface film thickness with no observable change in surface film chemical composition. However, at charge rates of 6-C, the chemical composition of the surface film changes significantly, suggesting that this change is the reason for the sharper increase in cell resistance compared to the lower charge rates. In addition, we found that surface film formation was not uniform across the electrode. Surface film was thicker and chemically different along the central band of the electrode "jelly roll". This result is most likely attributable to an increase in temperature that results from non-uniform electrode wetting during manufacture. This non-uniform change further resulted in active material delamination from the current collector owing to chemical changes to the binder for the cell charged at 6-C.

  4. Fast and slow ion diffusion processes in lithium ion pouch cells during cycling observed with fiber optic strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Lars Wilko; Kiesel, Peter; Ganguli, Anurag; Lochbaum, Alexander; Saha, Bhaskar; Schwartz, Julian; Bae, Chang-Jun; Alamgir, Mohamed; Raghavan, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Cell monitoring for safe capacity utilization while maximizing pack life and performance is a key requirement for effective battery management and encouraging their adoption for clean-energy technologies. A key cell failure mode is the build-up of residual electrode strain over time, which affects both cell performance and life. Our team has been exploring the use of fiber optic (FO) sensors as a new alternative for cell state monitoring. In this present study, various charge-cycling experiments were performed on Lithium-ion pouch cells with a particular class of FO sensors, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), that were externally attached to the cells. An overshooting of the volume change at high SOC that recovers during rest can be observed. This phenomenon originates from the interplay between a fast and a slow Li ion diffusion process, which leads to non-homogeneous intercalation of Li ions. This paper focuses on the strain relaxation processes that occur after switching from charge to no-load phases. The correlation of the excess volume and subsequent relaxation to SOC as well as temperature is discussed. The implications of being able to monitor this phenomenon to control battery utilization for long life are also discussed.

  5. Novel 18650 lithium-ion battery surrogate cell design with anisotropic thermophysical properties for studying failure events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Hinnant, Katherine M.; Mazurick, Ryan; Brandon, Andrew; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2016-04-01

    Cylindrical 18650-type surrogate cells were designed and fabricated to mimic the thermophysical properties and behavior of active lithium-ion batteries. An internal jelly roll geometry consisting of alternating stainless steel and mica layers was created, and numerous techniques were used to estimate thermophysical properties. Surrogate cell density was measured to be 1593 ± 30 kg/m3, and heat capacity was found to be 727 ± 18 J/kg-K. Axial thermal conductivity was determined to be 5.1 ± 0.6 W/m-K, which was over an order of magnitude higher than radial thermal conductivity due to jelly roll anisotropy. Radial heating experiments were combined with numerical and analytical solutions to the time-dependent, radial heat conduction equation, and from the numerical method an additional estimate for heat capacity of 805 ± 23 J/kg-K was found. Using both heat capacities and analysis techniques, values for radial thermal conductivity were between 0.120 and 0.197 W/m-K. Under normal operating conditions, relatively low radial temperature distributions were observed; however, during extreme battery failure with a hexagonal cell package, instantaneous radial temperature distributions as high as 43-71 °C were seen. For a vertical cell package, even during adjacent cell failure, similar homogeneity in internal temperatures were observed, demonstrating thermal anisotropy.

  6. Empirical analysis of contributing factors to heating in lithium-ion cells: Anode entropy versus internal resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Rengaswamy; Carkhuff, Bliss G.

    2013-11-01

    Charging a battery beyond its maximum capacity can lead both to cell overheating and to the venting of gasses. A fundamental understanding of cell heating could lead to the development of real-time sensors that anticipate and avert catastrophic battery failure. Joule heating (also called ohmic or resistive heating) from cell internal resistance (Rint) dominates the overall thermal energy (ΔQ) generated during charging. Contrary to prior hypotheses, though, Joule heating does not appear to contribute to venting observed during overcharging. In this manuscript, we examine an alternate hypothesis, that heat released by the entropy change in the anode (ΔSanode) and the concomitant increase in the anode temperature (Tanode) triggers the venting. Using our recently developed non-invasive battery internal temperature (BIT) sensor to monitor Tanode, we separated the contributions of ΔSanode, Rint and the anode resistance (Ranode) to ΔQ. These quantities were tracked during constant current charging of a 18650 Lithium-ion cell, from zero state of charge (SoC) to overcharge. The resulting analysis suggests that anode entropy change is more important than resistive heating resulting from Ranode to the overall thermal energy. Anode entropy measurements, enabled by the BIT sensor, might serve as an alternative or adjunct method for anticipating and avoiding cell venting events.

  7. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  8. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  9. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Weige; Mi, Chunting Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to provide more realistic and accurate State of Health estimations for batteries in electric vehicles. Thus, it is necessary to research various lithium-ion cell aging processes, including cell degradation and related path dependence. This paper focuses on quantitative analyses of cell aging path dependence in a repeatable laboratory setting, considering the influence of duty cycles, depth of discharge (DOD), and the frequency and severity of the thermal cycle, as reflected in pure electric buses operated in Beijing. Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and differential voltage analysis (DVA) are applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms and quantify the attributions to capacity fade. It was observed that the cells experienced a higher rate of aging at 80% DOD and an accelerated aging at 40 °C in the thermal cycling, as a result of possible loss of active material (LAM) in both electrodes, in addition to the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and inhibited kinetics. The slight capacity fade from low-temperature extremes likely caused by LLI due to lithium plating, whereas the noticeable fade after the high-temperature excursion was likely caused by LAM and hindrance to kinetics. These results may lead to improved battery management in EV applications.

  10. Influence of temperature and upper cut-off voltage on the formation of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Florian; Hintennach, Andreas; LaCroix, Annette; Thiemig, Denny; Oswald, Steffen; Scheiba, Frieder; Hoffmann, Michael J.; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The influences of temperature on the formation losses and subsequent electrical performance of Lix(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)yO2 (NCM)/graphite lithium-ion cells were investigated. It was shown that the total capacity loss during formation of a full cell at 25 °C consists of losses on the positive and negative electrode to about one half each. The losses of the negative electrode (ca. 10%) are due to solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on graphite but are masked by the losses of the positive side (ca. 20%) which are mainly caused by a kinetic inhibition of NCM and are theoretically reversible when the cell is discharged to very low potentials. The total loss of a full cell fits with the loss of the positive electrode. With increased temperature the ratio of losses on positive and negative electrode decreases as the diffusion coefficient of lithium in NCM increases. In total, an elevated formation temperature leads to increased irreversible losses on both electrodes and significantly lower cell performance of graphite. The upper cut-off voltage has an influence on the positive electrode formation losses in a reversible manner. The constituents of the SEI identified via the combination of XPS and FTIR are mainly RCH2OCO2Li, RCOOLi and LiF for the outer SEI and mainly Li2CO3, Li2O and LiF for the inner SEI.

  11. Impact of Selected LiPF6 Hydrolysis Products on the High Voltage Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Korth, Martin; Streipert, Benjamin; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Gallus, Dennis R; Brox, Sebastian; Amereller, Marius; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin

    2016-11-16

    Diverse LiPF6 hydrolysis products evolve during lithium-ion battery cell operation at elevated operation temperatures and high operation voltages. However, their impact on the formation and stability of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is not yet investigated and understood. In this work, literature-known hydrolysis products of LiPF6 dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were synthesized and characterized. The use of DMFP and DEFP as electrolyte additive in 1 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (1:1, by wt) was investigated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/Li half cells. When charged to a cutoff potential of 4.6 V vs Li/Li(+), the additive containing cells showed improved cycling stability, increased Coulombic efficiencies, and prolonged shelf life. Furthermore, low amounts (1 wt % in this study) of the aforementioned additives did not show any negative effect on the cycling stability of graphite/Li half cells. DMFP and DEFP are susceptible to oxidation and contribute to the formation of an effective cathode/electrolyte interphase as confirmed by means of electrochemical stability window determination, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of pristine and cycled electrodes, and they are supported by computational calculations.

  12. Computational, electrochemical and {sup 7}Li NMR studies of lithiated disordered carbons electrodes in lithium ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, G.; Gerald, R., II; Scanlon, L. G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.

    1998-01-07

    Disordered carbons that deliver high reversible capacity in electrochemical cells have been synthesized by using inorganic clays as templates to control the pore size and the surface area. The capacities obtained were much higher than those calculated if the resultant carbon had a graphitic-like structure. Computational chemistry was used to investigate the nature of lithium bonding in a carbon lattice unlike graphite. The lithium intercalated fullerene Li{sub n}-C{sub 60} was used as a model for our (non-graphitic) disordered carbon lattice. A dilithium-C{sub 60} system with a charge and multiplicity of (0,1) and a trilithium-C{sub 60} system with a charge and multiplicity of (0,4) were investigated. The spatial distribution of lithium ions in an electrochemical cell containing this novel disordered carbon material was investigated in situ by Li-7 NMR using an electrochemical cell that was incorporated into a toroid cavity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imager. The concentration of solvated Li{sup +} ions in the carbon anode appears to be larger than in the bulk electrolyte, is substantially lower near the copper/carbon interface, and does not change with cell charging.

  13. An extended polarization model to study the influence of current collector geometry of large-format lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, Stephan; Rheinfeld, Alexander; Erhard, Simon V.; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, depth-of-discharge and temperature distribution of a large-format lithium-ion pouch cell are examined by means of a two-dimensional electro-thermal polarization model. A method of improving the dynamic behavior of the model while maintaining its accuracy under constant current loads by applying intermittent charge and discharge data is given. The model is validated with the aid of experimental data gained from dynamic and constant current discharge profiles applied to a commercial 40 Ah Li-ion pouch cell. Two major design studies are carried out focusing on a variation of geometrical parameters, namely the size and the positioning of the cell tabs. For each design, the influence of current collector thickness on the uniformity of the temperature and depth-of-discharge distribution is investigated during a 4C constant current discharge operation. Simulation results show that reducing the current collector thickness results in a moderate increase of 3 °C in maximum temperature and 1.5% in depth-of-discharge imbalance if the tab size is increased. In consequence, lowering the share of inactive components within a lithium-ion cell by optimizing the thickness of the current collector foils should be further considered to enhance the performance of typical lithium-ion cell designs.

  14. Prospects for spinel-stabilized, high-capacity lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croy, Jason R.; Park, Joong Sun; Shin, Youngho; Yonemoto, Bryan T.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Long, Brandon R.; Ren, Yang; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report early results on efforts to optimize the electrochemical performance of a cathode composed of a lithium- and manganese-rich "layered-layered-spinel" (LLS) material for lithium-ion battery applications. Pre-pilot scale synthesis leads to improved particle properties compared with lab-scale efforts, resulting in high capacities (∼200 mAh g-1) and good energy densities (>700 Wh kgoxide-1) in tests with lithium-ion cells. Subsequent surface modifications give further improvements in rate capabilities and high-voltage stability. These results bode well for advances in the performance of this class of lithium- and manganese-rich cathode materials.

  15. Laser-adjusted three-dimensional Li-Mn-O cathode architectures for secondary lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Bruns, M.; Przybylski, M.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional cathode architectures for rechargeable lithium-ion cells can provide better Li-ion diffusion due to larger electrochemical active surface area and therefore, may stabilize the cycling behaviour of an electrochemical cell. This features show great importance when aiming for long-life batteries, e.g. in stationary or portable power devices. In this study, lithium manganese oxide thin films were used as cathode material with the goal to stabilize their cycling behavior and to counter degradation effects which come up within the lithium manganese oxide system. Firstly, appropriate laser ablation parameters were selected in order to achieve defined three-dimensional structures with features sizes down to micro- and sub-micrometer scale by using mask imaging technique. Laser annealing was also applied onto the laser structured material in a second step in order to form an electrochemically active phase. Process development led to a laser annealing strategy for a flexible adjustment of crystallinity and grain size. Laser annealing was realized using a high power diode laser system operating at a wavelength of 940 nm. Information on the surface composition, chemistry and topography as well as studies on the crystalline phase of the material were obtained by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical activity of the laser modified lithium manganese oxide cathodes was explored by cyclic voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic testing by using a lithium anode and standard liquid electrolyte.

  16. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO2 cells pose a CH4-air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant. PMID:26139958

  17. A PSPICE macromodel for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.

    1997-12-01

    Battery models for simulation are useful for estimating operating life, stability, transient response, and related characteristics in circuits and systems. This paper presents a parametric PSPICE macromodel for simulating Lithium-Ion batteries. Comparisons of the simulation with experimental data from 1.25 Ah Lithium-Ion cells are then made.

  18. Light-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-04-10

    Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar energy in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-ion materials to investigate light-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium ion battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei

    2017-01-01

    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li3V2(PO4)3 particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g-1 for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Low-temperature study of lithium-ion cells using a Li ySn micro-reference electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.; Abraham, Daniel P.; Amine, Khalil; Henriksen, Gary L.

    Lithium-ion batteries are considered to be the next battery system for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to their high power density. However, their power is severely limited at -30 °C and the concern exists that lithium metal could plate on the negative electrode during regen (charge) pulses. The goal of this work is to determine the reason for this poor low-temperature performance using an in situ Li ySn micro reference electrode (RE) over a wide temperature range of 30 °C to -30 °C. A variety of negative and positive electrode materials with unique morphologies was used in this work to help elucidate the dominant low-temperature mechanism. In this work, it was observed that the potential of graphite negative electrodes does dip below lithium potentials not only during charge pulses, but also under normal charging if the cell cutoff voltage is not reduced from its room-temperature setting of 4.1 V, whereas hard carbon electrodes do not because they operate further from lithium potential. The most surprising finding from this work was that a second impedance mechanism dominates below 0 °C that affects the positive and negative electrodes almost equally. This suggests that the responsible phenomenon is independent of the active material and is most likely a pure electrolyte-interface effect.

  1. Coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling for short-circuit prediction in a lithium-ion cell under mechanical abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-09-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, electrical and thermal response is presented for predicting short-circuit under external crush. The combined mechanical-electrical-thermal response is simulated in a commercial finite element software LS-DYNA® using a representative-sandwich finite-element model, where electrical-thermal modeling is conducted after an instantaneous mechanical crush. The model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under quasi-static indentation. Model predictions show good agreement with experiments: the fracture of the battery structure under an indentation test is accurately predicted. The electrical-thermal simulation predicts the current density and temperature distribution in a reasonable manner. Whereas previously reported models consider the mechanical response exclusively, we use the electrical contact between active materials following the failure of the separator as a criterion for short-circuit. These results are used to build a lumped representative sandwich model that is computationally efficient and captures behavior at the cell level without resolving the individual layers.

  2. Tuning charge-discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-12-18

    For LiMO2 (M=Co, Ni, Mn) cathode materials, lattice parameters, a(b), contract during charge. Here we report such changes in opposite directions for lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3). A ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is proposed based on crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxides during charge-discharge. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of the metal-metal bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking metal-oxygen bond as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of molybdenum ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in the early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results may open a new strategy for designing layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; ...

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials.more » The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  5. Development of High Conductivity Lithium-Ion Electrolytes for Low Temperature Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    NASA has continued interest in developing power sources which are capable of operating at low temperatures (-20 C and below) to enable future missions, such as the Mars Rover and Lander. Thus, under a program sponsored by the Mars Exploration Program, we have been involved in developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance. To accomplish this task, the focus of the research has been upon the development of advanced electrolyte systems with improved low temperature properties. This had led to the identification of a carbonate-based electrolyte, consisting of 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC + DEC + DMC (33:33:34), which has been shown to have excellent performance at -20 C in Li-ion AA-size prototype cells. Other groups are also actively engaged in developing electrolytes which can result in improved low temperature performance of Li-ion cells, including Polystor, Yardney, and Covalent. In addition to developing cells capable of operation at -20 C, there is continued interest in systems which can successfully operate at even lower temperatures (less than -30 C) and at high discharge rates (greater than C/2). Thus, we are currently focusing upon developing advanced electrolytes which are highly conductive at low temperatures and will result in cells capable of operation at -40 C. One approach to improve the low temperature conductivity of ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes involves adding co-solvents which will decrease the viscosity and extend the liquid range. Candidate solvent additives include formates, acetates, cyclic and aliphatic ethers, lactones, as well as other carbonates. Using this approach, we have prepared a number of electrolytes which contain methyl formate (MF), methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl proprionate (EP), and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), some of which have been characterized and reported. Other groups have also reported electrolytes based on mixtures of carbonates and acetates. In the present study, electrolytes which

  6. Determination of Tolerance to Internal Shorts and Its Screening in Lithium-ion Cells NASA - JSC Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the method developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine tolerances to internal shorts and screening for problems in commercial off the shelf (COTS) Lithium-ion batteries. The test apparatus is shown and several examples of the usage and results of the test are discussed.

  7. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  8. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  9. The impact of calendar aging on the thermal stability of a LiMn2O4-Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2/graphite lithium-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Patrick; Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Baba, Nilüfer; Lagaly, Paul; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Aging of lithium-ion cells is an inevitable phenomenon limiting the lifetime. Undesirable side reactions during cycle or calendar aging may affect the performance of all components of the lithium-ion cell. This results in a decreased capacity and an increase in the overall cell impedance. Based on electrochemical and physical characterization methods, the aging behavior during calendar aging of a 18650-cell, containing a blend of LiMn2O4 and Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) as cathode material and graphite as anode material was systematically investigated. To understand how the safety behavior of a lithium-ion cell changes with aging, accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied. With these methods the thermal stability behavior of the complete lithium-ion cell and its respective cathode and anode material were investigated. The focus of this work was it to generate first cause-effect relations between the aging under one exemplary aging condition and the thermal stability of a lithium-ion battery both on cell and material level.

  10. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  11. Development of a 10 Ah, Prismatic, Lithium-Ion Cell for NASA/GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Brian; Baker, John W.; George, Douglas S.; Isaacs, Nathan D.; Shah, Pinakin M.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    MSA's 10 Ah Li-ion cell is a rugged design suitable for the stringent requirements of aerospace applications. Eighteen cells demonstrate consistent cycling performance over a wide range of rates and temperatures. The cell passes qualification requirements for vibration survivability technology improvements at MSA continue to enhance cell performance.

  12. Free-standing CuO nanoflake arrays coated Cu foam for advanced lithium ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanfeng; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Wensheng; Dong, Chaoqun; Cheng, Guanhua; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-11-01

    For lithium ion batteries (LIBs), low electronic conductivity of CuO leads to rapid capacity decay and poor structural stability. Herein, we successfully fabricate three-dimensional CuO nanoflake arrays coated Cu foam by facile and efficient electrochemical oxidation. When being applied as anode material for LIBs, the CuO electrodes deliver stable reversible capacities of 523.9 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, 376.1 mA h g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 and 322.7 mA h g-1 at 2.0 A g-1 with high coulombic efficiency (>99%) after 100 cycles. A long cycle life of up to 400 cycles at 2.0 A g-1 is also achieved with the retention capacity of 193.5 mA h g-1. Moreover, the electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and can regain its original capacities as reversing to the low current densities. Noticeably, on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry and in situ Raman measurements confirm the formation of solid electrolyte interface film and the conversion mechanism for the CuO electrodes, respectively. The superior lithium storage performance can be attributed to the favorable nanoflake structures with high surface area and the perfect electrical contact between CuO and Cu substrate.

  13. Evaluation of Saft Ultra High Power Lithium Ion Cells (VL5U)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Engineering Center Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...evaluated Saft Ultra High Power ( UHP ) cells (Saft designation VL5U) to determine their rate capability, low temperature performance, storage, and cycle...Figures Figure 1. Configuration of Saft UHP cell during discharge. The cell was discharged inside an environmental chamber and the exterior temperature

  14. Performance and Safety Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Arranged in a Matrix Design Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Tracinski, Walt

    2010-01-01

    Matrix Packs display large variations in cell bank voltages at the charge and discharge current (C/2) used in this test program. The voltage difference is larger at the end of discharge than at the end of charge under the conditions studied. Disconnection of a cell from the pack leads to a larger voltage difference during discharge (greater than 2.0 V) between the bank that has one less cell and the other banks. Thermal profile does not show any significant changes or increase in temperature after one cell was disconnected from the bank in spite of falling to very low voltages at the end of discharge. All tests on the matrix pack with the HAM displayed lower max in general due to the placement of thermocouple on the outside of the HAM rather than on the cells. Disconnection of cells has almost no influence on the performance of the packs and does not show any abnormal thermal changes for the 100 cycles obtained in this test program. Longer cycle life may influence the performance especially if the low voltage cell goes into reversal. Overcharge leads to CID activation of cells. If the matrix configuration has a larger number of cells in series, (more than 5 S configuration), the limitations of protective devices may manifest itself irrespective of it being in a matrix configuration. External short circuit causes a fire with expulsion of content from some cells. The fire does not propagate itself laterally, but if there was cell module stacking, then the fire would cause the cells above it to also go into flames/thermal runaway. Limitations of protective devices are observed in this case as the PTCs in the cells did not protect under this abusive condition. Matrix configurations seem to provide protection against lateral propagation of fire and flame. Matrix pack configuration seems to provide good performance in spite of losing cell connections; at least for the configuration tested under this program.

  15. Modelling and experimental evaluation of parallel connected lithium ion cells for an electric vehicle battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, Thomas; Marco, James

    2016-04-01

    Variations in cell properties are unavoidable and can be caused by manufacturing tolerances and usage conditions. As a result of this, cells connected in series may have different voltages and states of charge that limit the energy and power capability of the complete battery pack. Methods of removing this energy imbalance have been extensively reported within literature. However, there has been little discussion around the effect that such variation has when cells are connected electrically in parallel. This work aims to explore the impact of connecting cells, with varied properties, in parallel and the issues regarding energy imbalance and battery management that may arise. This has been achieved through analysing experimental data and a validated model. The main results from this study highlight that significant differences in current flow can occur between cells within a parallel stack that will affect how the cells age and the temperature distribution within the battery assembly.

  16. VES100/140 Lithium-Ion Cells LEO Life-Test Results & Protheus Flight Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.; Massot, J.; Tastet, P.; Simon, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper assesses from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) life tests results the influence of the cycling parameters such as Depth Of Discharge (DOD), End Of Charge Voltage (EOCV) & charge current on VES100/140 cell electrical performances. It also demonstrates a good correlation between the cells ageing predicted by the Saft Li-Ion Model (SLIM) tool and the real behavior of these cells under life-tests or in flight on board "Calipso" satellite after more than 5 years in orbit.

  17. A Novel Lithium-ion Laminated Pouch Cell Tested For Performance And Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Inoue, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A new Li-ion 4.0 Ah pouch cell from GS Yuasa has been tested to determine its performance and safety. The cell is of a laminate pouch design with liquid electrolyte. The rate, thermal and vacuum performance capabilities have been tested to determine the optimum parameters. Under vacuum conditions, the cells were cycled under restrained and unrestrained configurations. The burst pressure of the laminate pouch was also determined. The overcharge, overdischarge into reversal and external short circuit safety tests were also performed to determine the cell s tolerance to abuse. Key Words: Li-ion, safety, vacuum test, abuse, COTS batteries, rate capability

  18. Homogenized mechanical properties for the jellyroll of cylindrical Lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Sahraei, Elham

    2013-11-01

    A hybrid experimental/analytical approach was developed for extracting the average mechanical properties of cylindrical Li-ion cells. By using the principle of virtual work, and estimating the load transfer mechanism inside the cell, the stress-strain relation for the jellyroll was calculated for the case where the cell was crushed between two flat plates. The procedure was illustrated on an example of a commercial 18650 cell. A finite element model of the cell was then developed using the crushable foam material in LS Dyna. The model calibrated with this method closely predicts kinematic of the cell during two different load cases used for validation. These cases include local crush by a hemispherical punch and indentation by a rigid rod. The load and displacement during deformation, as well as onset of electric short circuit observed from experiments were closely predicted from simulations. It was found that the resistance of the cell comes primarily from the jellyroll. Additional analytical calculations showed that the shell casing and the end-caps provide little contribution to the overall crash resistance of the cell in the loading cases studied in this paper.

  19. A Comparison of Two Panasonic Lithium-Ion Batteries and Cells for the IBM Thinkpad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Cook, Joseph S.; Davies, Francis J.; Collins, Jacob; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2003-01-01

    The IBM Thinkpad 760XD has been used in the Orbiter and International Space Station since 2000. The Thinkpad is powered by a Panasonic Li-ion battery that has a voltage of 10.8 V and 3.0 Ah capacity. This Thinkpad is now being replaced by the IBM Thinkpad A31P which has a Panasonic Li-ion battery that has a voltage of 10.8 V and 4.0 Ah capacity. Both batteries have protective circuit boards. The Panasonic battery for the Thinkpad 760XD had 12 Panasonic 17500 cells of 0.75 Ah capacity in a 4P3S cOnfiguration. The new Panasonic battery has 6 Panasonic 18650 cells of 2.0 Ah capacity in a 2P3S configuration. The batteries and cells for both models have been evaluated for performance and safety. A comparison of the cells under similar test conditions will be presented. The performance of the cells has been evaluated under different rates of charge and discharge and different temperatures. The cells have been tested under abuse conditions and the safety features in the cells evaluated. The protective circuit board in the battery was also tested under conditions of overcharge, overdischarge, short circuit and unbalanced cell configurations. The results of the studies will be presented in this paper.

  20. Heat transfer enhancement in a lithium-ion cell through improved material-level thermal transport

    SciTech Connect

    Vishwakarma, Vivek; Waghela, Chirag; Wei, Zi; Prasher, Ravi; Nagpure, Shrikant C.; Li, Jianlin; Liu, Fuqiang; Daniel, Claus; Jain, Ankur

    2016-09-25

    We report that while Li-ion cells offer excellent electrochemical performance for several applications including electric vehicles, they also exhibit poor thermal transport characteristics, resulting in reduced performance, overheating and thermal runaway. Inadequate heat removal from Li-ion cells originates from poor thermal conductivity within the cell. This paper identifies the rate-limiting material-level process that dominates overall thermal conduction in a Li-ion cell. Results indicate that thermal characteristics of a Li-ion cell are largely dominated by heat transfer across the cathode-separator interface rather than heat transfer through the materials themselves. This interfacial thermal resistance contributes around 88% of total thermal resistance in the cell. Measured value of interfacial resistance is close to that obtained from theoretical models that account for weak adhesion and large acoustic mismatch between cathode and separator. Further, to address this problem, an amine-based chemical bridging of the interface is carried out. This is shown to result in in four-times lower interfacial thermal resistance without deterioration in electrochemical performance, thereby increasing effective thermal conductivity by three-fold. This improvement is expected to reduce peak temperature rise during operation by 60%. Finally, by identifying and addressing the material-level root cause of poor thermal transport in Li-ion cells, this work may contribute towards improved thermal performance of Li-ion cells.

  1. Differential voltage analyses of high-power, lithium-ion cells. 1. Technique and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Abraham, Daniel P.; Knuth, Jamie; Jones, Scott A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Henriksen, Gary L.

    The C/25 discharge data from 18650-size cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2 cathode and graphite anode laminates were analyzed through the use of the differential voltage, d V/d Q, curves. Using half-cell data, the peaks in the d V/d Q curve of the full cell data were assigned. Analysis of the relative peak shifts allowed for the determination of the source of capacity fade. For cells formed and aged at 45 °C for 40 weeks (capacity fade = 7.5%), the analysis indicated negligible loss of accessible material at the anode and at the cathode. Capacity loss of the cell could be accounted for, largely, by side reactions at the anode. This type of analysis can be used when the introduction of a reference electrode is difficult or impractical.

  2. On-Orbit Demonstration Of Thin-Film Multi-Junction Solar Cells And Lithium-Ion Capacitors As Bus Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Yuki; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Uno, Masatoshi; Shimada, Takanobu

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration plan for a lightweight solar panel using thin-film multi-junction (MJ) solar cells and aluminum-laminated lithium-ion capacitors (LICs). Thin-film MJ solar cells such as inverted metamorphic InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 3J cells have flexibility as well as conversion efficiencies superior to conventional rigid 3J solar cells. A substantial reduction of satellite mass is achieved by the combination of thin-film MJ solar cells and light flexible paddles. An LIC is a hybrid-type capacitor that uses activated carbon as the cathode and carbon material pre-doped with lithium ion as the anode. LICs can be rapidly charged and discharged, and can operate in a wide temperature range for long periods. LICs are therefore suitable for long-term missions such as planetary explorations. Although these devices are very promising, so far there has been no opportunity to demonstrate their use in orbit. A lightweight thin solar panel with thin-film MJ solar cells will be installed on the Small Scientific Satellite Platform for Rapid Investigation and Test-A (SPRINT-A) satellite, which will be launched on the Epsilon launch vehicle in 2013. Utilizing the capacitor-like voltage behavior of LICs, we will employ a simple constant-power charging circuit without feedback control.

  3. Performance and degradation evaluation of five different commercial lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; Shim, Joongpyo

    2004-04-20

    The initial performance of five different types of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, from Quallion Corp, UltraLife Battery and Toshiba, was measured and compared. Cell characterization included variable-rate constant-current cycling, various USDOE pulse-test protocols and full-spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Changes in impedance and capacity were monitored during electrochemical cycling under various conditions, including constant-current cycling over 100 percent DOD at a range of temperature and pulse profile cycling over a very narrow range of DOD at room temperature. All cells were found to maintain more than 80 percent of their rated capacity for more than 400 constant current 100 percent DOD cycles. The power fade (or impedance rise) of the cells varied considerably. New methods for interpreting the pulse resistance data were evaluated for their usefulness in interpreting performance mechanism as a function of test protocol and cell design.

  4. Carbons for lithium ion cells prepared using sepiolite as an inorganic template.

    SciTech Connect

    Sandi, G.

    1998-12-09

    Carbon anodes for Li ion cells have been prepared by the in situ polymerization of olefins such as propylene and ethylene in the channels of sepiolite clay mineral. Upon dissolution of the inorganic framework, a disordered carbon was obtained. The carbon was tested as anode in coin cells, yielding a reversible capacity of 633 mAh/g, 1.70 times higher than the capacity delivered by graphitic carbon, assuming 100% efficiency. The coulombic efficiency was higher than 90%.

  5. Temperature dependency of state of charge inhomogeneities and their equalization in cylindrical lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osswald, P. J.; Erhard, S. V.; Rheinfeld, A.; Rieger, B.; Hoster, H. E.; Jossen, A.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of cell temperature on the current density distribution and accompanying inhomogeneities in state of charge (SOC) during cycling is analyzed in this work. To allow for a detailed insight in the electrochemical behavior of the cell, commercially available 26650 cells were modified to allow for measuring local potentials at four different, nearly equidistant positions along the electrodes. As a follow-up to our previous work investigating local potentials within a cell, we apply this method for studying SOC deviations and their sensitivity to cell temperature. The local potential distribution was studied during constant current discharge operations for various current rates and discharge pulses in order to evoke local inhomogeneities for temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 40 °C. Differences in local potentials were considered for estimating local SOC variations within the electrodes. It could be observed that even low currents such as 0.1C can lead to significant inhomogeneities, whereas a higher cell temperature generally results in more pronounced inhomogeneities. A rapid SOC equilibration can be observed if the variation in the SOC distribution corresponds to a considerable potential difference defined by the open circuit voltage of either the positive or negative electrode. With increasing temperature, accelerated equalization effects can be observed.

  6. Failure statistics for commercial lithium ion batteries: A study of 24 pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.; Harris, David J.; Li, Chen

    2017-02-01

    There are relatively few publications that assess capacity decline in enough commercial cells to quantify cell-to-cell variation, but those that do show a surprisingly wide variability. Capacity curves cross each other often, a challenge for efforts to measure the state of health and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual cells. We analyze capacity fade statistics for 24 commercial pouch cells, providing an estimate for the time to 5% failure. Our data indicate that RUL predictions based on remaining capacity or internal resistance are accurate only once the cells have already sorted themselves into ;better; and ;worse; ones. Analysis of our failure data, using maximum likelihood techniques, provide uniformly good fits for a variety of definitions of failure with normal and with 2- and 3-parameter Weibull probability density functions, but we argue against using a 3-parameter Weibull function for our data. pdf fitting parameters appear to converge after about 15 failures, although business objectives should ultimately determine whether data from a given number of batteries provides sufficient confidence to end lifecycle testing. Increased efforts to make batteries with more consistent lifetimes should lead to improvements in battery cost and safety.

  7. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; ...

    2016-01-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicatemore » that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.« less

  8. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2016-01-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicate that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.

  9. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  10. Degradation analysis of 18650-type lithium-ion cells by operando neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiotani, Shinya; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Ukyo, Yoshio; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-09-01

    In-situ and operando neutron diffraction are used to analyze the degradation of 18650-type Li-ion cells. Structural characterization of the electrode materials is performed by applying the Rietveld refinement technique to the in-situ data. The structural refinement of both electrodes in the degraded cells indicates that the amount of active Li-ions is reduced by 14.4% and 13.7% in the cathode and anode, respectively. This reduction is good in agreement with the capacity loss determined electrochemically. The results suggest that capacity loss might be mainly caused by loss of active Li-ions due to side reactions such as solid electrolyte interface (SEI) growth. Furthermore, operando measurements are performed to examine the deterioration of the electrode and active materials. Because the structural evolution depending on capacity is increased in the cathode of degraded cells, it is presumed that the cathode active material has deteriorated due to phase transitions.

  11. Some Lewis acid-base adducts involving boron trifluoride as electrolyte additives for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Mengyun; Madec, L.; Xia, J.; Hall, D. S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Three complexes with boron trifluoride (BF3) as the Lewis acid and different Lewis bases were synthesized and used as electrolyte additives in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite and Li[Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16]O2/graphite pouch cells. Lewis acid-base adducts with a boron-oxygen (Bsbnd O) bond were trimethyl phosphate boron trifluoride (TMP-BF) and triphenyl phosphine oxide boron trifluoride (TPPO-BF). These were compared to pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF) which has a boron-nitrogen (Bsbnd N) bond. The experimental results showed that cells with PBF had the least voltage drop during storage at 4.2 V, 4.4 V and 4.7 V at 40 °C and the best capacity retention during long-term cycling at 55 °C compared to cells with the other additives. Charge-hold-discharge cycling combined with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that impedance growth in TMP-BF and TPPO-BF containing cells was faster than cells containing 2%PBF, suggesting that PBF is useful for impedance control at high voltages (>4.4 V). XPS analysis of the SEI films highlighted a specific reactivity of the PBF-derived SEI species that apparently hinders the degradation of both LiPF6 and solvent during formation and charge-hold-discharge cycling. The modified SEI films may explain the improved impedance, the smaller voltage drop during storage and the improved capacity retention during cycling of cells containing the PBF additive.

  12. Expansion of Lithium Ion Pouch Cell Batteries: Observations from Neutron Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-21

    low C-rates the measured battery thickness was a function of State of Charge (SOC) and independent of a small external clamping force. A 0.3...Lee et al. in [4] measured the dimensional changes in lithium cobalt oxide pouch cells during cycling using a specialized dilatometer setup. They...and rates on electrode expansion was investigated. At low C-rates the measured battery thickness was a function of State of Charge (SOC) and independent

  13. Recursive Bayesian filtering framework for lithium-ion cell state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagade, Piyush; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Gambhire, Priya; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-02-01

    Robust battery management system is critical for a safe and reliable electric vehicle operation. One of the most important functions of the battery management system is to accurately estimate the battery state using minimal on-board instrumentation. This paper presents a recursive Bayesian filtering framework for on-board battery state estimation by assimilating measurables like cell voltage, current and temperature with physics-based reduced order model (ROM) predictions. The paper proposes an improved Particle filtering algorithm for implementation of the framework, and compares its performance against the unscented Kalman filter. Functionality of the proposed framework is demonstrated for a commercial NCA/C cell state estimation at different operating conditions including constant current discharge at room and low temperatures, hybrid power pulse characterization (HPPC) and urban driving schedule (UDDS) protocols. In addition to accurate voltage prediction, the electrochemical nature of ROM enables drawing of physical insights into the cell behavior. Advantages of using electrode concentrations over conventional Coulomb counting for accessible capacity estimation are discussed. In addition to the mean state estimation, the framework also provides estimation of the associated confidence bounds that are used to establish predictive capability of the proposed framework.

  14. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  15. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-12-01

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large-scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit. In this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describe the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cells under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.

  16. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  17. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-08-29

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical abuse induced short circuit. Here in this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneous coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describe the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cell under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Lastly, numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.

  18. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; ...

    2015-08-29

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical abuse induced short circuit. Here in this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneous coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describemore » the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cell under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Lastly, numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.« less

  19. Ceramic Lithium Ion Conductor to Solve the Anode Coking Problem of Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yubo; Qu, Jifa; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-09-07

    For practical solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operated on hydrocarbon fuels, the facile coke formation over Ni-based anodes has become a key factor that limits their widespread application. Modification of the anodes with basic elements may effectively improve their coking resistance in the short term; however, the easy loss of basic elements by thermal evaporation at high temperatures is a new emerging problem. Herein, we propose a new design to develop coking-resistant and stable SOFCs using Li(+) -conducting Li0.33 La0.56 TiO3 (LLTO) as an anode component. In the Ni/LLTO composite, any loss of surface lithium can be efficiently compensated by lithium diffused from the LLTO bulk under operation. Therefore, the SOFC with the Ni/LLTO anode catalyst layer yields excellent power outputs and operational stability. Our results suggest that the simple adoption of a Li(+) conductor as a modifier for Ni-based anodes is a practical and easy way to solve the coking problem of SOFCs that operate on hydrocarbons.

  20. Electrochemical stiffness in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassol, Hadi; Jones, Elizabeth M. C.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Although lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous in portable electronics, increased charge rate and discharge power are required for more demanding applications such as electric vehicles. The high-rate exchange of lithium ions required for more power and faster charging generates significant stresses and strains in the electrodes that ultimately lead to performance degradation. To date, electrochemically induced stresses and strains in battery electrodes have been studied only individually. Here, a new technique is developed to probe the chemomechanical response of electrodes by calculating the electrochemical stiffness via coordinated in situ stress and strain measurements. We show that dramatic changes in electrochemical stiffness occur due to the formation of different graphite-lithium intercalation compounds during cycling. Our analysis reveals that stress scales proportionally with the lithiation/delithiation rate and strain scales proportionally with capacity (and inversely with rate). Electrochemical stiffness measurements provide new insights into the origin of rate-dependent chemomechanical degradation and the evaluation of advanced battery electrodes.

  1. Power fade and capacity fade resulting from cycle-life testing of Advanced Technology Development Program lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Christophersen, J. P.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Battaglia, V. S.; Barnes, J. A.; Duong, T. Q.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and analysis of the power and capacity fade resulting from the cycle-life testing using PNGV (now referred to as FreedomCAR) test protocols at 25 and 45 °C of 18650-size Li-ion batteries developed by the US Department of Energy sponsored Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. Two cell chemistries were studied, a Baseline chemistry that had a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 with binders, that was cycle-life tested at 25 and 45 °C, and a Variant C chemistry with a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.10Al 0.10O 2 with binders, that was tested only at 45 °C. The 300 Wh power, and % power fade were determined as a function of test time, i.e. the number of test cycles for up to 44 weeks (369,600 test cycles) for the Baseline cells, and for 24 weeks (201,600 test cycles) for the Variant C cells. The C/1 and C/25 discharge capacity and capacity fade were also determined during the course of these studies. The results of this study indicate that the 300 Wh power for the Baseline cells tested at 25 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) decreased as a linear function of test time. The % power fade for these cells increased as a linear function of test time. The Baseline cells tested at 45 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) displayed a decrease in their power proportional to the square root of the test time, with a faster rate of decrease of the power occurring at ˜28 weeks of testing. The % power fade for these cells also increased as the square root of the test time, and exhibited an increase in the % power fade rate at ˜28 weeks of testing. The 45 °C tested Baseline cells' power decreased, and their % power fade increased at a greater rate than the 25 °C tested Baseline cells. The power fade was greater for the Variant C cells. The power of the Variant C cells (tested at 45 °C) decreased as the square root of the test time, and their % power fade was also found to be a function of the square root of the test time

  2. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  3. The Role of Electrolyte Upon the SEI Formation Characteristics and Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells With Graphite Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Greenbaum, S.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Quarternary lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions containing ester co-solvents in mixtures of carbonates have been demonstrated to have high conductivity at low temperatures (< -20C). However, in some cases the presence of such co-solvents does not directly translate into improved low temperature cell performance, presumably due to the formation of ionically resistive surface films on carbonaceous anodes. In order to understand this behavior, a number of lithium-graphite cells have been studied containing electrolytes with various ester co-solvents, including methyl acetate (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), ethyl propionate (EP), and ethyl butyrate (EB). The charge/discharge characterization of these cells indicates that the higher molecular weight esters result in electrolytes which possess superior low temperature performance in contrast to the lower molecular weight ester-containing solutions, even though these solutions display lower conductivity values.

  4. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-01

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g-1, a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1. Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices.We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as

  5. Pulse-fitting - A novel method for the evaluation of pulse measurements, demonstrated for the low frequency behavior of lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jan Philipp; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    The impedance of a commercial lithium ion cell (2 Ah) is evaluated over a wide frequency range of 10-5 Hz < f < 102 Hz using a new approach. The so-called pulse-fitting method (PFM) derives the cell impedance from time domain measurements, which are transferred into frequency data by a using a newly developed evaluation algorithm in combination with the distribution of relaxation times (DRT). The time constants of the individual polarization processes taking place during charging/discharging were analyzed at 20 different state-of-charge levels at 23 °C in a wide frequency range spanning from 10-5 Hz < f < 102 Hz. The pulse-fitting method seems to be especially useful for monitoring the change of individual polarization losses in the course of time, as self-discharge effects can be sorted out.

  6. Investigations on the electrochemical decomposition of the electrolyte additive vinylene carbonate in Li metal half cells and lithium ion full cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yunxian; Schultz, Carola; Niehoff, Philip; Schwieters, Timo; Nowak, Sascha; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the decomposition of vinylene carbonate (VC) additive and its effect on the aging behavior is investigated in Li metal half cells and lithium ion full cells. Four electrolyte systems, the reference electrolyte with three VC additive amounts, i.e., 1, 5 and 10 vol% are examined with commercial LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC 111) cathode material and mesophase carbon microbeads (MCMB) anode material. The thickness changes of the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) and of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) after 5 constant current cycles at 0.1C and 200 constant current/constant voltage (potential) cycles at 1C are investigated for cells containing different amounts of VC. With the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a correlation between CEI thickness change and electrolyte decomposition is figured out. The addition of VC leads to a thin CEI layer and a high capacity retention in a lithium metal half cell. A strong dependence of the performance on the VC concentration is found for half cells that results from the continuous consumption of electrolyte and the electrolyte additive at the Li metal counter electrode. In contrast, for full cells, even 1 vol% of VC helps to form both a stable CEI and SEI, while a larger amount of VC increases the CEI thickness, electric contact loss and the internal resistance.

  7. Combined State of Charge and State of Health estimation over lithium-ion battery cell cycle lifespan for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuan; Hu, Xiaosong; Ma, Hongmin; Li, Shengbo Eben

    2015-01-01

    A combined SOC (State Of Charge) and SOH (State Of Health) estimation method over the lifespan of a lithium-ion battery is proposed. First, the SOC dependency of the nominal parameters of a first-order RC (resistor-capacitor) model is determined, and the performance degradation of the nominal model over the battery lifetime is quantified. Second, two Extended Kalman Filters with different time scales are used for combined SOC/SOH monitoring: the SOC is estimated in real-time, and the SOH (the capacity and internal ohmic resistance) is updated offline. The time scale of the SOH estimator is determined based on model accuracy deterioration. The SOC and SOH estimation results are demonstrated by using large amounts of testing data over the battery lifetime.

  8. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  9. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  10. Correlation of Arrhenius behaviors in power and capacity fades with cell impedance and heat generation in cylindrical lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Roth, E. Peter; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Case, Herbert L.; Doughty, Daniel H.

    A series of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion cells with an MAG-10|1.2 M LiPF 6 ethylene carbonate (EC):ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (w:w=3:7)|Li xNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 configuration were made and tested for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications under various aging conditions of temperature and state-of-charge (SOC). The cells were intermittently characterized for changes in power capability, rate capacity, and impedance as aging progressed. The changes of these properties with temperature, as depicted by Arrhenius equations, were analyzed. We found that the degradation in power and capacity fade seems to relate to the impedance increase in the cell. The degradation follows a multi-stage process. The initial stage of degradation has an activation energy of the order of 50-55 kJ/mol, as derived from power fade and C1 capacity fade measured at C/1 rate. In addition, microcalorimetry was performed on two separate unaged cells at 80% SOC at various temperatures to measure static heat generation in the cells. We found that the static heat generation has an activation energy of the order of 48-55 kJ/mol, similar to those derived from power and C1 capacity fade. The correspondence in the magnitude of the activation energy suggests that the power and C1 capacity fades were related to the changes of the impedance in the cells, most likely via the same fading mechanism. The fading mechanism seemed to be related to the static heat generation of the cell.

  11. On-line equalization for lithium-ion battery packs based on charging cell voltages: Part 1. Equalization based on remaining charging capacity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Han, Xuebing; Xu, Liangfei

    2014-02-01

    Because of the inevitable inconsistency during manufacture and use of battery cells, cell variations in battery packs have significant impacts on battery pack capacities, durability and safety for electric vehicles (EVs). To reduce cell variations and increase pack capacity, cell equalization is essentially required. In the series of two papers, we discover that dissipative cell equalization (DCE) using dissipative resistances is a feasible on-line equalization method for battery packs in EVs. We subsequently propose on-line equalization algorithms for lithium-ion battery packs based on charging cell voltage curves (CCVCs). The objective of these algorithms is to maximize pack capacities by conditioning CCVCs. As the first paper of the series, we first briefly review equalization topologies and algorithms. We discover cell remaining charging capacity (RCC) can be on-line estimated and further propose DCE algorithm based on remaining charging capacity estimation (RCCE). We establish a pack model with 8 cells in series and simulate 4 scenes with different cell variations. RCCE-DCE algorithm is proved to be effective by comparing pack capacities with/without RCCE-DCE algorithm. The equalization capability and over-equalization prevention are further examined, and the result shows that RCCE-DCE algorithm is suitable for on-line equalization in EVs.

  12. Influence of temperature on the aging behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: A comprehensive approach combining electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Alex; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Börner, Markus; Haetge, Jan; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The understanding of the aging behavior of lithium ion batteries in automotive and energy storage applications is essential for the acceptance of the technology. Therefore, aging experiments were conducted on commercial 18650-type state-of-the-art cells to determine the influence of the temperature during electrochemical cycling on the aging behavior of the different cell components. The cells, based on Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2 (NCM532)/graphite, were aged at 20 °C and 45 °C to different states of health. The electrochemical performance of the investigated cells shows remarkable differences depending on the cycling temperature. At contrast to the expected behavior, the cells cycled at 45 °C show a better electrochemical performance over lifetime than the cells cycled at 20 °C. Comprehensive post-mortem analyses revealed the main aging mechanisms, showing a complex interaction between electrodes and electrolyte. The main aging mechanisms of the cells cycled at 45 °C differ strongly at contrast to cells cycled at 20 °C. A strong correlation between the formed SEI, the electrolyte composition and the electrochemical performance over lifetime was observed.

  13. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  14. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  15. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; ...

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  16. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  17. Electrospun Nanofiber-Coated Membrane Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hun

    separator membranes and the nanoscale fibrous polymer coatings. The polyolefin microporous membranes serve as the supporting substrate which provides the required mechanical strength for the assembling process of lithium-ion batteries. The electrospun nanofiber coatings improve the wettability of the composite membrane separators to the liquid electrolyte, which is desirable for the lithium-ion batteries with high kinetics and good cycling performance. The results show that the nanofiber-coated membranes have enhanced adhesion properties to the battery electrode which can help prevent the formation of undesirable gaps between the separators and electrodes during prolonged charge-discharge cycles, especially in large-format batteries. The improvement on adhesive properties of nanofiber-coated membranes was evaluated by peel test. Nanofiber coatings applied to polyolefin membrane substrates improve the adhesion of separator membranes to battery electrodes. Electrolyte uptakes, ionic conductivities and interfacial resistances of the nanofiber-coated membrane separators were studied by soaking the membrane separators with a liquid electrolyte solution of 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethylcarbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate (1:1:1 vol). The nanofiber coatings on the surface of the membrane substrates increase the electrolyte uptake capacity due to the high surface area and capillary effect of nanofibers. The nanofiber-coated membranes soaked in the liquid electrolyte solution exhibit high ionic conductivities and low interfacial resistances to the lithium electrode. The cells containing LiFePO 4 cathode and the nanofiber-coated membranes as the separator show high discharge specific capacities and good cycling stability at room temperature. The nanofiber coatings on the membrane substrates contribute to high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. Therefore, these nanofiber-coated composite membranes can

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    SciTech Connect

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  19. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  20. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Engineering; IIT

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes [1]. Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley [2]. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation [3]. The resulting system of differential

  1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for lithium-ion cells: Test equipment and procedures for aging and fast characterization in time and frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Nils; Weßkamp, Patrick; Haußmann, Peter; Melbert, Joachim; Musch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    New test equipment and characterization methods for aging investigations on lithium-ion cells for automotive applications are presented in this work. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a well-established method for cell characterization and analyzing electrochemical processes. In order to integrate this method into long-term aging studies with real driving currents, new test equipment is mandatory. The presented test equipment meets the demands for high current, wide bandwidth and precise measurement. This allows the cells to be cycled and characterized without interruption for changing the test device. The characterization procedures must be of short duration and have a minimum charge-throughput for negligible influence on the aging effect. This work presents new methods in the time and the frequency domain for obtaining the impedance spectrum which allow a flexible trade-off between measurement performance, time consumption and charge-throughput. In addition to sinusoidal waveforms, rectangular, Gaussian and sin(x)/x pulses are applied for EIS. The performance of the different methods is discussed. Finally, the time domain analysis is applied with real driving currents which provides impedance spectra for state of charge estimation considering aging effects in the car.

  2. Design optimization of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells based on simulation and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appiah, Williams Agyei; Park, Joonam; Song, Seonghyun; Byun, Seoungwoo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-07-01

    LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes of different thicknesses and porosities are prepared and tested, in order to optimize the design of lithium-ion cells. A mathematical model for simulating multiple types of particles with different contact resistances in a single electrode is adopted to study the effects of the different cathode thicknesses and porosities on lithium-ion transport using the nonlinear least squares technique. The model is used to optimize the design of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells by employing it to generate a number of Ragone plots. The cells are optimized for cathode porosity and thickness, while the anode porosity, anode-to-cathode capacity ratio, thickness and porosity of separator, and electrolyte salt concentration are held constant. Optimization is performed for discharge times ranging from 10 h to 5 min. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt method as a fitting technique, accounting for multiple particles with different contact resistances, and employing a rate-dependent solid-phase diffusion coefficient results in there being good agreement between the simulated and experimentally determined discharge curves. The optimized parameters obtained from this study should serve as a guide for the battery industry as well as for researchers for determining the optimal cell design for different applications.

  3. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  5. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  6. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  7. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Truchot, Cyril; Cugnet, Mikaël; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gering, Kevin; Sazhin, Sergiy; Jamison, David; Michelbacher, Christopher

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising {LiMn 1/3Ni 1/3Co 1/3O 2 + LiMn 2O 4} is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  8. Characterization of commercially available lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; White, Ralph E.

    With the aggressive growth of the lithium-ion battery market, several companies have recently offered their version of the lithium-ion battery for consumer purchase. This paper describes the physical design, rate, cycle-lifetime, and self-discharge performance of cells from Sony, Matsushita, A&T, Moli, and Sanyo lithium-ion batteries. The study used a total of 85 lithium-ion cells from these manufacturers. All cells performed as indicated by manufacturers' specifications and the performance and design differences are discussed. The design differences include discussion of gas chrornatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the electrolytes, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of separators, the activation of a positive temperature coefficient (PTC), and a comparison of the basic physical parameters of each cell. Performance characterization shows an excellent high discharge rale performance of the A&T and Matsushita cells, an excellent cycle-lifetime performance for Sony cells, and negligible effects of self-discharge.

  9. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  10. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  11. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  12. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  13. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  14. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.

  15. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  16. Mesoporous MnCo2O4 with a flake-like structure as advanced electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Su, Dawei; Chen, Shuangqiang; Ung, Alison; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-19

    A mesoporous flake-like manganese-cobalt composite oxide (MnCo2O4) is synthesized successfully through the hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase and morphology of the materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods. The flake-like MnCo2O4 is evaluated as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Owing to its mesoporous nature, it exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1066 mA h g(-1), good rate capability, and superior cycling stability. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, the flake-like MnCo2O4 also demonstrates a high supercapacitance of 1487 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and an exceptional cycling performance over 2000 charge/discharge cycles.

  17. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  18. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  19. Development of a Constitutive Model Predicting the Point of Short-Circuit Within Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    24 3. Description of the Testing Program on 18650 Cylindrical Cells...39 5. Finite Element Analysis Results for 18650 Cylindrical Cells and Pouch/Prismatic Cells ... 40 Estimation...Construction ...................................................................... 12 Figure 3: 18650 Discharge Characteristics

  20. LiPF 6 and lithium oxalyldifluoroborate blend salts electrolyte for LiFePO 4/artificial graphite lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Xujie; Li, Fanqun; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Liu, Ping; Wang, Xinyu

    The electrochemical behaviors of LiPF 6 and lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) blend salts in ethylene carbonate + propylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate (EC + PC + DMC, 1:1:3, v/v/v) for LiFePO 4/artificial graphite (AG) lithium-ion cells have been investigated in this work. It is demonstrated by conductivity test that LiPF 6 and LiODFB blend salts electrolytes have superior conductivity to pure LiODFB-based electrolyte. The results show that the performances of LiFePO 4/Li half cells with LiPF 6 and LiODFB blend salts electrolytes are inferior to pure LiPF 6-based electrolyte, the capacity and cycling efficiency of Li/AG half cells are distinctly improved by blend salts electrolytes, and the optimum LiODFB/LiPF 6 molar ratio is around 4:1. A reduction peak is observed around 1.5 V in LiODFB containing electrolyte systems by means of CV tests for Li/AG cells. Excellent capacity and cycling performance are obtained on LiFePO 4/AG 063048-type cells tests with blend salts electrolytes. A plateau near 1.7-2.0 V is shown in electrolytes containing LiODFB salt, and extends with increasing LiODFB concentration in charge curve of LiFePO 4/AG cells. At 1 C discharge current rate, the initial discharge capacity of 063048-type cell with the optimum electrolyte is 376.0 mAh, and the capacity retention is 90.8% after 100 cycles at 25 °C. When at 65 °C, the capacity and capacity retention after 100 cycles are 351.3 mAh and 88.7%, respectively. The performances of LiFePO 4/AG cells are remarkably improved by blending LiODFB and LiPF 6 salts compared to those of pure LiPF 6-based electrolyte system, especially at elevated temperature to 65 °C.

  1. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  2. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  3. Managing voids of Si anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-10-07

    The implementation of silicon (Si) in practical lithium ion battery electrodes has been hindered due to its large volume change and consequent structural and interfacial instabilities. Coating nanostructured Si with a second phase (e.g., carbon (C)) represents a very promising strategy for dealing with these critical issues facing Si-based electrodes. In this review article, we will outline recent advances in coating Si with engineered C matrices. By exemplifying hollow core-shell, core-hollow shell, and core-shell structured Si-C hybrid nanomaterials, we aim to highlight the importance of managing voids in designing such Si-C hybrid electrodes, and provide some scientific insights into the development of advanced Si-based anodes for next-generation lithium ion batteries.

  4. Origami lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K.; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  5. Layered oxide, graphite and silicon-graphite electrodes for Lithium-ion cells: Effect of electrolyte composition and cycling windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, Matilda; Gilbert, James A.; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Trask, Stephen E.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-10-14

    The electrochemical performance of cells with a Li1.03(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)0.97O2 (NCM523) positive electrode and a blended silicon-graphite (Si-Gr) negative electrode are investigated using various electrolyte compositions and voltage cycling windows. Voltage profiles of the blended Si-Gr electrode show a superposition of graphite potential plateaus on a sloped Si profile with a large potential hysteresis. The effect of this hysteresis is seen in the cell impedance versus voltage data, which are distinctly different for the charge and discharge cycles. We confirm that the addition of compounds, such as vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the baseline 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7 w/w) electrolyte, improves cell capacity retention with higher retention seen at higher additive contents. We show that reducing the lower cutoff voltage (LCV) of full cells to 2.5 V increases the Si-Gr electrode potential to 1.12 V vs. Li/Li+; this relatively-high delithiation potential correlates with the lower capacity retention displayed by the cell. Hence, we show that raising the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) can increase cell energy density without significantly altering capacity retention over 100 charge discharge cycles.

  6. Layered oxide, graphite and silicon-graphite electrodes for Lithium-ion cells: Effect of electrolyte composition and cycling windows

    DOE PAGES

    Klett, Matilda; Gilbert, James A.; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; ...

    2016-10-14

    The electrochemical performance of cells with a Li1.03(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)0.97O2 (NCM523) positive electrode and a blended silicon-graphite (Si-Gr) negative electrode are investigated using various electrolyte compositions and voltage cycling windows. Voltage profiles of the blended Si-Gr electrode show a superposition of graphite potential plateaus on a sloped Si profile with a large potential hysteresis. The effect of this hysteresis is seen in the cell impedance versus voltage data, which are distinctly different for the charge and discharge cycles. We confirm that the addition of compounds, such as vinylene carbonate (VC) and fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the baseline 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylenemore » carbonate (EC): ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7 w/w) electrolyte, improves cell capacity retention with higher retention seen at higher additive contents. We show that reducing the lower cutoff voltage (LCV) of full cells to 2.5 V increases the Si-Gr electrode potential to 1.12 V vs. Li/Li+; this relatively-high delithiation potential correlates with the lower capacity retention displayed by the cell. Hence, we show that raising the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) can increase cell energy density without significantly altering capacity retention over 100 charge discharge cycles.« less

  7. Advanced electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12-based materials for lithium-ion battery: Synergistic effect of doping and compositing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Ding, Bo; Xin, Yuelong; Cheng, Fuquan; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li; Zhou, Henghui

    2014-02-01

    To improve the rate performance of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), we employ a doping-compositing synergistic strategy that utilizes Cu2+ to alter intrinsic property and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to engineer extrinsic conductivity. To realize cost-effective fabrication, solid state processing is adopted in the fabrication of the composite. X-ray diffraction measurement combined with Rietveld refinement shows that all doped samples have a spinel structure with Fd 3 bar m space group without any impurities, and that both lattice parameter and occupancy of non-Li+ ions in 8a sites increase with the amount of Cu2+ dopant. Through the Cu2+ doping, the electronic conductivity and Li+ diffusion coefficient of the particles are improved by at least two orders of magnitude and four times, respectively. Through further CNTs compositing, the electrical conduction between the particles is enhanced. Between 1.0 and 2.5 V vs. Li/Li+, the specific capacity of Li3.8Cu0.3Ti4.9O12/CNTs composite at 10 C is as high as 114 mAh g-1 with little loss after 100 cycles, whereas that of pristine one is only 11 mAh g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to its higher electronic conductivity and enhanced lithium ion conductivity in the particles, as well as its improved electrical conduction between the particles.

  8. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm−3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g−1 at a specific current of 200 mA g−1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g−1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g−1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc. PMID:26754468

  9. Carbon-Free Porous Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers as Advanced Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Huan; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Fan, Chao-Ying; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-11-23

    In this work, carbon-free, porous, and micro/nanostructural Zn2GeO4 nanofibers (p-ZGONFs) have been prepared via a dissolution-recrystallization-assisted electrospinning technology. The successful electrospinning to fabricate the uniform p-ZGONFs mainly benefits from the preparation of completely dissolved solution, which avoids the sedimentation of common Ge-containing solid-state precursors. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the as-prepared p-ZGONFs exhibit superior Li-storage properties in terms of high initial reversible capacity of 1075.6 mA h g(-1), outstanding cycling stability (no capacity decay after 130 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1)), and excellent high-rate capabilities (e.g., still delivering a capacity of 384.7 mA h g(-1) at a very high current density of 10 A g(-1)) when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). All these Li-storage properties are much better than those of Zn2GeO4 nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal process. The much enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to its distinctive structural characteristics including the carbon-free composition, plentiful pores, and macro/nanostructures. Carbon-free composition promises its high theoretical Li-storage capacity, and plentiful pores cannot only accommodate the volumetric variations during the successive lithiation/delithiation but can also serve as the electrolyte reservoirs to facilitate Li interaction with electrode materials.

  10. Coated/Sandwiched rGO/CoSx Composites Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks/GO as Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongming; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Feifei; Qin, Yuling; Na, Zhaolin; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Rational composite materials made from transition metal sulfides and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are highly desirable for designing high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, rGO-coated or sandwiched CoSx composites are fabricated through facile thermal sulfurization of metal-organic framework/GO precursors. By scrupulously changing the proportion of Co(2+) and organic ligands and the solvent of the reaction system, we can tune the forms of GO as either a coating or a supporting layer. Upon testing as anode materials for LIBs, the as-prepared CoSx -rGO-CoSx and rGO@CoSx composites demonstrate brilliant electrochemical performances such as high initial specific capacities of 1248 and 1320 mA h g(-1) , respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , and stable cycling abilities of 670 and 613 mA h g(-1) , respectively, after 100 charge/discharge cycles, as well as superior rate capabilities. The excellent electrical conductivity and porous structure of the CoSx /rGO composites can promote Li(+) transfer and mitigate internal stress during the charge/discharge process, thus significantly improving the electrochemical performance of electrode materials.

  11. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  12. A general method of fabricating flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite aerogels as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guobo; Shi, Nan; Hess, Michael; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Wei; Fan, Tongxiang; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-04-28

    High-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), such as spinel-type metal oxides, generally suffer from poor Li(+) and e(-) conductivities. Their drastic crystal structure and volume changes, as a result of the conversion reaction mechanism with Li, severely impede the high-rate and cyclability performance toward their practical application. In this article, we present a general and facile approach to fabricate flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels as binder-free anodes where the spinel nanoparticles (NPs) are integrated in an interconnected rGO network. Benefiting from the hierarchical porosity, conductive network and mechanical stability constructed by interpenetrated rGO layers, and from the pillar effect of NPs in between rGO sheets, the hybrid system synergistically enhances the intrinsic properties of each component, yet is robust and flexible. Consequently, the spinel/rGO composite aerogels demonstrate greatly enhanced rate capability and long-term stability without obvious capacity fading for 1000 cycles at high rates of up to 4.5 A g(-1) in the case of CoFe2O4. This electrode design can successfully be applied to several other spinel ferrites such as MnFe2O4, Fe3O4, NiFe2O4 or Co3O4, all of which lead to excellent electrochemical performances.

  13. A novel strategy to construct high performance lithium-ion cells using one dimensional electrospun nanofibers, electrodes and separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Shubha, Nageswaran; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    We successfully demonstrated the performance of novel, one-dimensional electrospun nanofibers as cathode, anode and separator-cum-electrolyte in full-cell Li-ion configuration. The cathode, LiMn2O4 delivered excellent cycle life over 800 cycles at current density of 150 mA g-1 with capacity retention of ~93% in half-cell assembly (Li/LiMn2O4). Under the same current rate, the anode, anatase phase TiO2, rendered ~77% initial reversible capacity after 500 cycles in half-cell configuration (Li/TiO2). Gelled electrospun PVdF-HFP exhibits liquid-like conductivity of ~3.2 mS cm-1 at ambient temperature conditions (30 °C). For the first time, a full-cell is fabricated with enitrely electrospun one-dimensional materials by adjusting the mass loading of cathode with respect to anode in the presence of gelled PVdF-HFP membrane as a separator-cum-electrolyte. Full-cell LiMn2O4|gelled PVdF-HFP|TiO2 delivered good capacity characteristics and excellent cyclability with an operating potential of ~2.2 V at a current density of 150 mA g-1. Under harsh conditions (16 C rate), the full-cell showed a very stable capacity behavior with good calendar life. This clearly showed that electrospinning is an efficient technique for producing high performance electro-active materials to fabricate a high performance Li-ion assembly for commercialization without compromising the eco-friendliness and raw material cost.We successfully demonstrated the performance of novel, one-dimensional electrospun nanofibers as cathode, anode and separator-cum-electrolyte in full-cell Li-ion configuration. The cathode, LiMn2O4 delivered excellent cycle life over 800 cycles at current density of 150 mA g-1 with capacity retention of ~93% in half-cell assembly (Li/LiMn2O4). Under the same current rate, the anode, anatase phase TiO2, rendered ~77% initial reversible capacity after 500 cycles in half-cell configuration (Li/TiO2). Gelled electrospun PVdF-HFP exhibits liquid-like conductivity of ~3.2 mS cm-1 at

  14. A novel strategy to construct high performance lithium-ion cells using one dimensional electrospun nanofibers, electrodes and separators.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Kumar, Palaniswamy Suresh; Shubha, Nageswaran; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2013-11-07

    We successfully demonstrated the performance of novel, one-dimensional electrospun nanofibers as cathode, anode and separator-cum-electrolyte in full-cell Li-ion configuration. The cathode, LiMn2O4 delivered excellent cycle life over 800 cycles at current density of 150 mA g(-1) with capacity retention of ~93% in half-cell assembly (Li/LiMn2O4). Under the same current rate, the anode, anatase phase TiO2, rendered ~77% initial reversible capacity after 500 cycles in half-cell configuration (Li/TiO2). Gelled electrospun PVdF-HFP exhibits liquid-like conductivity of ~3.2 mS cm(-1) at ambient temperature conditions (30 °C). For the first time, a full-cell is fabricated with enitrely electrospun one-dimensional materials by adjusting the mass loading of cathode with respect to anode in the presence of gelled PVdF-HFP membrane as a separator-cum-electrolyte. Full-cell LiMn2O4|gelled PVdF-HFP|TiO2 delivered good capacity characteristics and excellent cyclability with an operating potential of ∼2.2 V at a current density of 150 mA g(-1). Under harsh conditions (16 C rate), the full-cell showed a very stable capacity behavior with good calendar life. This clearly showed that electrospinning is an efficient technique for producing high performance electro-active materials to fabricate a high performance Li-ion assembly for commercialization without compromising the eco-friendliness and raw material cost.

  15. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  16. Multifunctional semi-interpenetrating polymer network-nanoencapsulated cathode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Myung; Park, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Chang Kee; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-01-01

    As a promising power source to boost up advent of next-generation ubiquitous era, high-energy density lithium-ion batteries with reliable electrochemical properties are urgently requested. Development of the advanced lithium ion-batteries, however, is staggering with thorny problems of performance deterioration and safety failures. This formidable challenge is highly concerned with electrochemical/thermal instability at electrode material-liquid electrolyte interface, in addition to structural/chemical deficiency of major cell components. Herein, as a new concept of surface engineering to address the abovementioned interfacial issue, multifunctional conformal nanoencapsulating layer based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) is presented. This unusual semi-IPN nanoencapsulating layer is composed of thermally-cured polyimide (PI) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) bearing Lewis basic site. Owing to the combined effects of morphological uniqueness and chemical functionality (scavenging hydrofluoric acid that poses as a critical threat to trigger unwanted side reactions), the PI/PVP semi-IPN nanoencapsulated-cathode materials enable significant improvement in electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24710575

  17. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  18. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  19. Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    This is an introductory paper for the focused session "Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions". This session will concentrate on electrochemical advances in materials and components that have been achieved through efforts sponsored under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). This paper will discuss the performance goals for components and for High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells, advanced lithium-ion cells that will offer a combination of higher specific energy and improved safety over state-of-the-art. Papers in this session will span a broad range of materials and components that are under development to enable these cell development efforts.

  20. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  1. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  2. Impact of cycling at low temperatures on the safety behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: Combined study of mechanical and thermal abuse testing accompanied by post-mortem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Alex; Horsthemke, Fabian; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Brunklaus, Gunther; Krafft, Roman; Börner, Markus; Risthaus, Tim; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of cycling at low temperatures on the thermal and mechanical abuse behavior of commercial 18650-type lithium ion cells was compared to fresh cells. Post-mortem analyses revealed a deposition of high surface area lithium (HSAL) metal on the graphite surface accompanied by severe electrolyte decomposition. Heat wait search (HWS) tests in an accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) were performed to investigate the thermal abuse behavior of aged and fresh cells under quasi-adiabatic conditions, showing a strong shift of the onset temperature for exothermic reactions. HSAL deposition promotes the reduction of the carbonate based electrolyte due to the high reactivity of lithium metal with high surface area, leading to a thermally induced decomposition of the electrolyte to produce volatile gaseous products. Nail penetration tests showed a change in the thermal runaway (TR) behavior affected by the decomposition reaction. This study indicates a greater thermal hazard for LIB cells at higher SOC and experiencing aging at low temperature.

  3. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    SciTech Connect

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  4. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  5. Electrochemical Study of Hollow Carbon Nanospheres as High-Rate and Low Temperature Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jonathan David

    The continued advancements in portable electronics have demanded more advanced power sources. To date, lithium ion batteries have been the state-of-the-art for portable devices. One significant drawback of lithium ion batteries is the slow charging times and their performance at low temperatures. In this dissertation, we explore the electrochemical behavior of a new lithium ion, negative electrode active material, hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNS). HCNS are ˜50 nm in diameter hollow spheres with ˜5 - 10 nm graphic walls which have a nominal reversible capacity of ˜220 mAh/g. We assembled and cycled HCNS as a lithium ion anode material and compared it to graphite, currently used as the anode material in most commercial lithium ion batteries. The charging mechanism of HCNS is an intercalation of the lithium ions into the graphitic walls of the spheres, similar to graphite, determined by diffraction and electroanalytical techniques. However, the HCNS electrodes cycled at much higher charge and discharge rates than graphite. Additionally, we demonstrated HCNS cycling at low temperatures (-20 *C) in electrolytes not obtainable by graphite due to material exfoliation during cycling. Although, due to the large surface area of HCNS, the first cycle coulombic losses are very high. This work has resulted in an understanding of a potentially new lithium ion battery anode material with significantly better cycling attributes than the current anode material.

  6. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described.

  7. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  8. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  9. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  10. Where is the lithium? Quantitative determination of the lithium distribution in lithium ion battery cells: Investigations on the influence of the temperature, the C-rate and the cell type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-04-01

    With lithium being the capacity determining species in lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells, the local quantification is of enormous importance for understanding of the cell performance. The investigation of the lithium distribution in LIB full cells is performed with two different cell types, T-cells of the Swagelok® type and pouch bag cells with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide and mesocarbon microbead graphite as the active materials as well as a lithium hexafluorophosphate based organic carbonate solvent electrolyte. The lithium content of/at the individual components of the cells is analyzed for different states of charge (SOCs) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and the lithium distribution as well as the loss of active lithium within the cells is calculated after cycling. With increasing the SOC, the lithium contents decrease in the cathodes and simultaneously increase in the anodes. The temperature increase shows a clear shift of the lithium content in the direction of the anode for the T-cells. The comparison of the C-rate influence shows that the lower the C-rate, the more the lithium content on the electrodes is shifted into the direction of the anode.

  11. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  12. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  13. Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-05-16

    This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: long calendar life (greater than 10 years); sufficient cycle life; reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures; safe performance under extreme conditions; end-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.

  14. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOEpatents

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  15. Cycle deterioration analysis of 0.6 Ah-class lithium-ion cells with cell chemistry of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2-based/graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Naoki; Seki, Eiji; Konishi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Tatsumi; Takahashi, Shin; Ueda, Atsushi; Horiba, Tatsuo

    2016-11-01

    We applied a thermally stabilized LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2-based cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries, which we had developed by partial substitution of molybdenum for the transition metal, to 0.6 Ah-class single cells. Cycling test of the cell unexpectedly showed capacity retention of 87% after 3000 cycles, which is better than a cell using cathode active material without molybdenum-substitution. Disassembled analyses of the cells cycled for 3000 times definitely demonstrated that no degradation in both the cathodes and anodes of the molybdenum-substituted and non-substituted. However, there was definite potential slippage in both the cells; that of the non-substituted cell was larger than the molybdenum-substituted cell. Analysis showed that very small amount of molybdenum, in the molybdenum-substituted cell, eluted from the cathode and deposited on the surface of the anode. It is speculated that the deposition might suppress the SEI growth on the anode, and restrain the slippage of the operating potentials for the cathode and anode.

  16. Lithium Ion Source for Satellite Charge Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    ePH^TOELE 1a b |, SOLAR PHOTONS PH3TOL ETROtJS ATTRACTED BACK BY THE SURFACE CHARGE Figure 1. Qualitative illustration of the charging : of a surface by...LITHIUM ION SOURCE FOR SATELLITE CHARGE CONTROL 12 Personal Author(s) Song. Tae Ik 13a Type of Report 13b Time Covered Id Date of Report (year, month...if ncvessary and Identify by block number) Field Group Subgroup Lithium Ion Source, Satellite Charge Control 19 Abstract (continue on reverse if

  17. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  18. Cycle life evaluation of 3 Ah Li xMn 2O 4-based lithium-ion secondary cells for low-earth-orbit satellites . I. Full cell results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shelley; Ogawa, Keita; Kumeuchi, Youichi; Enomoto, Shinsuke; Uno, Masatoshi; Saito, Hirobumi; Sone, Yoshitsugu; Abraham, Daniel; Lindbergh, Göran

    Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Cycle life performance under both orbital and terrestrial conditions must be investigated in order to evaluate any inadvertent effects due to the former and the validity of the latter, with a successful comparison allowing for the extension of terrestrial experimental matrices in order to identify the effects of ageing. The orbital performance of Li xMn 2O 4-based pouch cells onboard the microsatellite REIMEI was monitored and compared with terrestrial experiments, with the cells found to be unaffected by orbital conditions. A lifetime matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0, 20, 40%) and temperatures (25, 45 ° C) was undertaken with periodic reference performance tests. A decrease in both the cell end-of-discharge cycling voltage and capacity was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. Impedance spectra measured for all ageing conditions indicated that the increase was small, manifested in a state-of-charge dependent increase of the high-frequency semi-circle and a noticeable increase in the high-frequency real axis intercept. An evaluation of the change of both the resistance and capacity of 3 Ah cells led to the development of a potential prognostic state-of-health indicator. The use of elevated temperatures to accelerate cell ageing was validated.

  19. A lithium-ion sulfur battery using a polymer, polysulfide-added membrane

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the performances of a lithium-ion sulfur battery characterized by a polymer configuration. The cell, based on a sulfur-carbon cathode, a Li-Sn-C nanostructured anode and a PEO-based, polysulfide-added electrolyte, shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of stability and delivered capacity. The remarkable cell performances are ascribed to the mitigation of the cathode dissolution process due to the buffer action ensured by the polysulfide added to the polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte configuration allows the achievement of a stable capacity ranging from 500 to 1500 mAh gS-1, depending on the cycling rate. The use of a polymer electrolyte and the replacement of the lithium metal with a Li-Sn-C nanostructured alloy are expected to guarantee high safety content, thus suggesting the battery here studied as advanced energy storage system. PMID:25558001

  20. Synergistic Effect of Blended Components in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora; von Aspern, Natascha; Imholt, Laura; Kaymaksiz, Serife; Oldiges, Kristina; Rad, Babak Razaei; Winter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Application of different electrolyte components as blends in nonaqueous electrolyte formulations represents a viable approach towards improving the overall performance and reliability of a lithium ion battery cell. By combining the advantages of different electrolyte constituents, cell chemistry can be optimized and tailored for a specific purpose. In this paper, the current progress on possibilities, advantages, as well as limitations of blended nonaqueous electrolyte formulations, including solvent, salt and additive blends is reviewed and discussed. Emphasis is set on the physicochemical, electrochemical, and safety aspects. In addition, the aim of this review is to provide perspective and possible strategy for further and future development of blended nonaqueous electrolytes with long life, high energy density, high power, and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. The provided overview and perspective on blended nonaqueous electrolyte formulations should encourage researchers to proceed with further and deeper investigations in this promising field of advanced batteries.

  1. A lithium-ion sulfur battery using a polymer, polysulfide-added membrane.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Marco; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-01-05

    In this paper we report the performances of a lithium-ion sulfur battery characterized by a polymer configuration. The cell, based on a sulfur-carbon cathode, a Li-Sn-C nanostructured anode and a PEO-based, polysulfide-added electrolyte, shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of stability and delivered capacity. The remarkable cell performances are ascribed to the mitigation of the cathode dissolution process due to the buffer action ensured by the polysulfide added to the polymer electrolyte. This electrolyte configuration allows the achievement of a stable capacity ranging from 500 to 1500 mAh gS(-1), depending on the cycling rate. The use of a polymer electrolyte and the replacement of the lithium metal with a Li-Sn-C nanostructured alloy are expected to guarantee high safety content, thus suggesting the battery here studied as advanced energy storage system.

  2. Heterogeneous current collector in lithium-ion battery for thermal-runaway mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Qiao, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Current collector accounts for more than 90% of the electric conductivity and ˜90% of the mechanical strength of the electrode in lithium-ion battery (LIB). Usually, current collectors are smooth metallic thin films. In the current study, we show that if the current collector is heterogeneous, the heat generation becomes negligible when the LIB cell is subjected to mechanical abuse. The phenomenon is attributed to the guided strain concentration, which promotes the separation of the forward and the return paths of internal short circuit. As the internal impedance drastically increases, the stored electric energy cannot be dissipated as thermal energy. The modification of current collector does not affect the cycling performance of the LIB cell. This finding enables advanced thermal-runaway mitigation techniques for high-energy, large-scale energy storage systems.

  3. In situ tem study on anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wentao

    The growing demand for light-weight, high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for portable electronics, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and stationary energy storage systems has led to intensive research on developing new electrode materials with higher energy density, higher power density, and longer lifetime. However, a major issue with the high-capacity materials such as silicon (Si) is the rapid, irreversible capacity decay and poor cyclability due to the lithiation/delithiation induced mechanical degradation. A fundamental understanding of coupled electro-chemo-mechanical effects on the lithiation/delithiation of anode materials in LIBs is critical important for the development of advanced LIBs. In this thesis, we constructed solid cell and liquid cell nanobatteries inside highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for electrochemical tests and mechanical degradation study of anode materials in LIBs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  4. Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara; Manzo, Michelle; Miller, Thomas; Reid, Concha; Bennett, William; Gemeiner, Russel

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the capabilities of current aerospace lithium-ion cells to perform long-term NASA missions, low-earth-orbits (LEO) testing to evaluate long-term cycle life was initiated. A flexible program was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to enable assessment of technology developments as they occur as well as provide information about different cell vendors and cell designs. Following extensive characterization testing, cells are tested using LEO charge and discharge profiles under ten different combinations of test conditions that were statistically chosen to determine the effects of depth-of-discharge, temperature, and end-of-charge voltage on LEO cycle life. Four cells from each vendor are tested at each specific combination of conditions. Conditions included in the test matrix are depth-of-discharges of 20%, 30, 35%, and 40%; temperatures of 20, 30, and 40 C; and end-of-charge voltages of 3.85 V, 3.95 V, and 4.05 V. Cells are randomly assigned to packs and packs are randomly assigned to test conditions. The capacity of the cells to 3.0 V at the conditions of the test is being periodically measured. The results of this testing will be used to model cell performance and degradation as a function of test operating conditions. Cells are being evaluated in 4-cell series strings with charge voltage limits being applied to individual cells by charge control units designed and built at NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing is being performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Crane Division in Crane, IN. Testing was initiated in September 2004 with 40 Ah cells from Saft and 30 Ah cells from Lithion. The test program is being expanded with the addition of cells from MSA and the addition of small cell modules is being considered. Preliminary results showing voltage, temperature, usable capacity per unit mass, and voltage dispersion as their changes over time for the cells at 20 C is presented.

  5. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  6. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  7. Neutron scattering for analysis of processes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurov, A. M.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Samoylova, N. Yu; Drozhzhin, O. A.; Antipov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The review is concerned with analysis and generalization of information on application of neutron scattering for elucidation of the structure of materials for rechargeable energy sources (mainly lithium-ion batteries) and on structural rearrangements in these materials occurring in the course of electrochemical processes. Applications of the main methods including neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, inelastic neutron scattering, neutron reflectometry and neutron introscopy are considered. Information on advanced neutron sources is presented and a number of typical experiments are outlined. The results of some studies of lithium-containing materials for lithium-ion batteries, carried out at IBR-2 pulsed reactor, are discussed. The bibliography includes 50 references.

  8. The effect of 0.025 Al-doped in Li4Ti5O12 material on the performance of half cell lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyono, Slamet; Triwibowo, Joko; Prihandoko, Bambang

    2016-02-01

    The effect of 0.025 Al-doped Li4Ti5O12 as anode material for Lithium Ion battery had been studied. The pure and 0.025 Al-doped Li4Ti5O12 were synthesized through solid state process in air atmosphere. Physical characteristics of all samples were observed by XRD, FTIR, and PSA. The XRD analysis revealed that the obtained particle was highly crystalline and had a face-centered cubic spinel structure. The XRD pattern also showed that the 0.025 Al-doped on the Li4Ti5O12 did not change crystal structure of Li4Ti5O12. FTIR analysis confirmed that the spinel structure in fingerprint region was unchanged when the structure was doped by 0.025 Al. However the doping of 0.025 Al increased particle size significantly. The electrochemical performance was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge (CD) curves. Electrochemical analysis showed that pure Li4Ti5O12 has higher capacity than 0.025 Al-doped Li4Ti5O12 had. But 0.025 Al-doped Li4Ti5O12 possesses a better cycling stability than pure Li4Ti5O12.

  9. Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, Andrew T.; Holland, Charles E.; White, Ralph E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    Two parameter estimation methods are presented for online determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery. Loss of capacity and resistance increase are both included in the model. The first method is a hybrid combination of batch data reconciliation and moving-horizon parameter estimation. A discussion on the selection of tuning parameters for this method based on confidence intervals is included. The second method uses batch data reconciliation followed by application of discrete filtering of the resulting parameters. These methods are demonstrated using cycling data from an experimental cell with over 1600 charge-discharge cycles.

  10. Coupled Mechanical and Electrochemical Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannarella, John

    Lithium-ion batteries are complee electro-chemo-mechanical systems owing to a number of coupled mechanical and electrochemical phenomena that occur during operation. In this thesis we explore these phenomena in the context of battery degradation, monitoring/diagnostics, and their application to novel energy systems. We begin by establishing the importance of bulk stress in lithium-ion batteries through the presentation of a two-year exploratory aging study which shows that bulk mechanical stress can significantly accelerate capacity fade. We then investigate the origins of this coupling between stress and performance by investigating the effects of stress in idealized systems. Mechanical stress is found to increase internal battery resistance through separator deformation, which we model by considering how deformation affects certain transport properties. When this deformation occurs in a spatially heterogeneous manner, local hot spots form, which accelerate aging and in some cases lead to local lithium plating. Because of the importance of separator deformation with respect to mechanically-coupled aging, we characterize the mechanical properties of battery separators in detail. We also demonstrate that the stress state of a lithium-ion battery cell can be used to measure the cell's state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC)--important operating parameters that are traditionally difficult to measure outside of a laboratory setting. The SOH is shown to be related to irreversible expansion that occurs with degradation and the SOC to the reversible strains characteristic of the cell's electrode materials. The expansion characteristics and mechanical properties of the constituent cell materials are characterized, and a phenomenological model for the relationship between stress and SOH/SOC is developed. This work forms the basis for the development of on-board monitoring of SOH/SOC based on mechanical measurements. Finally we study the coupling between mechanical

  11. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  12. Lithium Storage Mechanisms in Purpurin Based Organic Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    Advances in Lithium-ion batteries (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2002). 7. Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. & Goodenough , J. B. LixCoO2 (0...P. G. & Goodenough , J. B. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from LiMn2O4. Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 461 (1983). 9. Recham, N., Chotard, J. N., Dupont

  13. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  14. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  15. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2015-04-28

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  16. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  17. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-22

    review of thermal issues in lithium-ion batteries.” J. Electrochem . Soc. 158 (2011) R1-R25. 20. Y. Fu, S. Lu, K. Li, C. Liu, X. Cheng and H. Zhang, “An...Larsson and B.-E. Mellander, “Abuse by external heating, overcharge and short circuiting of commercial lithium-ion battery cells.” J. Electrochem . Soc... Electrochem . Soc. 162 (2015) A2789- 2795. 24. S. J. Drake, D. A. Wetz, J. K. Ostanek, S. P. Miller, J. M. Heinzel and A. Jain, “Measurement of anisotropic

  18. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  19. Lithium-ion capacitors using carbide-derived carbon as the positive electrode - A comparison of cells with graphite and Li4Ti5O12 as the negative electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, Taina; Leis, Jaan; Kallio, Tanja; Vuorilehto, Kai

    2016-11-01

    The use of carbide-derived carbon (CDC) as the positive electrode material for lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) is investigated. CDC based LIC cells are studied utilizing two different negative electrode materials: graphite and lithium titanate Li4Ti5O12 (LTO). The graphite electrodes are prelithiated before assembling the LICs, and LTO containing cells are studied with and without prelithiation. The rate capability and cycle life stability during 1000 cycles are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling at current densities of 0.4-4 mA cm-2. The CDC shows a specific capacitance of 120 F g-1 in the organic lithium-containing electrolyte, and the LICs demonstrate a good stability over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. The choice of the negative electrode is found to have an effect on the utilization of the CDC positive electrode during cycling and on the specific energy of the device. The graphite/CDC cell delivers a maximum specific discharge energy of 90 Wh kg-1 based on the total mass of active material in the cell. Both the prelithiated and non-prelithiated LTO/CDC cells show a specific energy of around 30 Wh kg-1.

  20. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  1. Intercalation Dynamics in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    issues, batteries have become much more complex systems. As an illustration, consider the “ voltaic pile ” invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. This was... voltaic pile , practical lithium-ion batteries are necessarily much more complicated. The electrode materials are present in the form of a fine powder...it is shown that the smaller particles tend to phase separate first , a phenomenon seen in experiments but difficult to explain with any other

  2. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  3. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable.

  4. Unraveling transition metal dissolution of Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM 111) in lithium ion full cells by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evertz, Marco; Horsthemke, Fabian; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-10-01

    In this work we investigated the transition metal dissolution of the layered cathode material Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in dependence on the cycle number and cut-off cell voltage during charge by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique for the elemental analysis of the specific lithium ion battery degradation products. We could show that with ongoing cycling transition metal dissolution from the cathode increased over time. However, it was less pronounced at 4.3 V compared to elevated charge cut-off voltages of 4.6 V. After a maximum of 100 cycles, we detected an overall transition metal loss of 0.2 wt‰ in relation to the whole cathode active material for cells cycled to 4.3 V. At an increased charge cut-off voltage of 4.6 V, 4.5 wt‰ transition metal loss in relation to the whole cathode active material could be detected. The corresponding transition metal dissolution induced capacity loss at the cathode could thus be attributed to 1.2 mAh g-1. Compared to the overall capacity loss of 80 mAh g-1 of the complete cell after 100 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles the value is quite low. Hence, the overall full cell capacity fade cannot be assigned exclusively to the transition metal dissolution induced cathode fading.

  5. Visualization of lithium ions by annular bright field imaging.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshifumi; Lee, Soyeon; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2016-10-14

    The detection of lithium ions is required for characterization of lithium ion batteries, since the movement of lithium ions in the battery is one of the key ways to improve the performance. Annular bright field (ABF) imaging enables us to visualize individual lithium atomic columns simultaneously with heavy elements. Furthermore, it has been found that the number of lithium ions at the column is countable when the specimen is thin. These results suggest that movement of lithium ions in the material can be observed by taking consecutive ABF images during operation or in situ ABF observation. Actually, the spinel structure of L2V4O crystals was directly observed to be transformed into the defective NaCl structure at the moment when lithium ions were extracted from the original position during electron beam irradiation. We clarify the features of ABF imaging by comparing it with HAADF imaging in order to understand what information can be obtained by ABF imaging directly.

  6. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  7. Self-Supported CoP Nanorod Arrays Grafted on Stainless Steel as an Advanced Integrated Anode for Stable and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijun; Liu, Jun; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Zhu, Min

    2017-03-05

    To alleviate the capacity degradation of anode materials for Li-ion batteries, caused by serious volume expansion and particle aggregation, intensive attention has been devoted to the rational design and fabrication of novel anode architectures. Herein, self-supported CoP nanorod arrays have been facilely synthesized using hydrothemally deposited Co(CO3 )0.5 (OH)⋅0.11 H2 O nanorod arrays as the precursor, through a gas-phase phosphidation method. As the anode for Li-ion batteries, such 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays show an initial discharge capacity of 1067 mAh g(-1) and a high reversible charge capacity of 737 mAh g(-1) at 0.4 Ag(-1) . After 400 cycles, their specific capacity can reach 510 mAh g(-1) ; even after 900 cycles, they can still deliver a specific capacity of 390 mAh g(-1) . CoP//LiCoO2 full-cells also exhibit a high reversible capacity of 400 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. These unique 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays also show ultrastable cycling performance over 500 cycles when used as the anode in a Na-ion battery.

  8. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  9. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  10. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Electrode architectures for enhanced lithium ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Sharon Loeffler

    Increasing prevalence of portable electronic devices and growing concern over the consumption of fossil fuels have led to a growing demand for more efficient energy storage options. Lithium ion chemistry has grown to dominate the battery market, but still requires improvement to meet the increasing need for smaller, cheaper, better performing batteries. The use of nanomaterials has garnered much attention in recent years as a potential way of improving battery performance while decreasing the size. However, new problems are introduced with these materials such as low packing density and high reactivity with the electrolyte. This research focuses on the development of an electrode architecture using nanomaterials which will decrease lithium ion transport distance while enhancing electrical conductivity within the cell. The proposed architecture consists of a stacked, 2D structure composed of layers of carbon nanotubes and active material particles, and can be applied to both the anode and the cathode. The process also has the advantage of low cost because it can be performed under normal laboratory conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) and easily adapted to a commercial scale.

  12. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  13. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  14. Development of Lithium-ion Battery as Energy Storage for Mobile Power Sources Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Ali; Hasan, Hasimah

    2009-09-01

    In view of the need to protect the global environment and save energy, there has been strong demand for the development of lithium-ion battery technology as a energy storage system, especially for Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) and electric vehicles (EV) applications. The R&D trend in the lithium-ion battery development is toward the high power and energy density, cheaper in price and high safety standard. In our laboratory, the research and development of lithium-ion battery technology was mainly focus to develop high power density performance of cathode material, which is focusing to the Li-metal-oxide system, LiMO2, where M=Co, Ni, Mn and its combination. The nano particle size material, which has irregular particle shape and high specific surface area was successfully synthesized by self propagating combustion technique. As a result the energy density and power density of the synthesized materials are significantly improved. In addition, we also developed variety of sizes of lithium-ion battery prototype, including (i) small size for electronic gadgets such as mobile phone and PDA applications, (ii) medium size for remote control toys and power tools applications and (iii) battery module for high power application such as electric bicycle and electric scooter applications. The detail performance of R&D in advanced materials and prototype development in AMREC, SIRIM Berhad will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Comprehensive Enhancement of Nanostructured Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials via Conformal Graphene Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kan-Sheng; Xu, Rui; Luu, Norman S; Secor, Ethan B; Hamamoto, Koichi; Li, Qianqian; Kim, Soo; Sangwan, Vinod K; Balla, Itamar; Guiney, Linda M; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Yu, Xiankai; Liu, Weiwei; Wu, Jinsong; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P; Barnett, Scott A; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-04-12

    Efficient energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries represent a critical technology across many sectors including consumer electronics, electrified transportation, and a smart grid accommodating intermittent renewable energy sources. Nanostructured electrode materials present compelling opportunities for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, but inherent problems related to the high surface area to volume ratios at the nanometer-scale have impeded their adoption for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate a materials and processing platform that realizes high-performance nanostructured lithium manganese oxide (nano-LMO) spinel cathodes with conformal graphene coatings as a conductive additive. The resulting nanostructured composite cathodes concurrently resolve multiple problems that have plagued nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery electrodes including low packing density, high additive content, and poor cycling stability. Moreover, this strategy enhances the intrinsic advantages of nano-LMO, resulting in extraordinary rate capability and low temperature performance. With 75% capacity retention at a 20C cycling rate at room temperature and nearly full capacity retention at -20 °C, this work advances lithium-ion battery technology into unprecedented regimes of operation.

  16. Graft copolymer-based lithium-ion battery for high-temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qichao; Osswald, Sebastian; Daniel, Reece; Zhu, Yan; Wesel, Steven; Ortiz, Luis; Sadoway, Donald R.

    The use of conventional lithium-ion batteries in high temperature applications (>50 °C) is currently inhibited by the high reactivity and volatility of liquid electrolytes. Solvent-free, solid-state polymer electrolytes allow for safe and stable operation of lithium-ion batteries, even at elevated temperatures. Recent advances in polymer synthesis have led to the development of novel materials that exhibit solid-like mechanical behavior while providing the ionic conductivities approaching that of liquid electrolytes. Here we report the successful charge and discharge cycling of a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE)-based lithium-ion battery at temperatures up to 120 °C. The GCE consists of poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate-g-poly(dimethyl siloxane) (POEM-g-PDMS) doped with lithium triflate. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we analyze the temperature stability and cycling behavior of GCE-based lithium-ion batteries comprised of a LiFePO 4 cathode, a metallic lithium anode, and an electrolyte consisting of a 20-μm-thick layer of lithium triflate-doped POEM-g-PDMS. Our results demonstrate the great potential of GCE-based Li-ion batteries for high-temperature applications.

  17. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  18. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    PubMed

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-25

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  19. Cycling behavior of NCM523/graphite lithium-ion cells in the 3–4.4 V range: Diagnostic studies of full cells and harvested electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, James A.; Bareno, Javier; Spila, Timothy; Trask, Stephen E.; Miller, Dean J.; Polzin, Bryant J.; Jansen, Andrew N.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-09-22

    Energy density of full cells containing layered-oxide positive electrodes can be increased by raising the upper cutoff voltage above the current 4.2 V limit. In this article we examine aging behavior of cells, containing LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523)-based positive and graphite-based negative electrodes, which underwent up to ~400 cycles in the 3-4.4 V range. Electrochemistry results from electrodes harvested from the cycled cells were obtained to identify causes of cell performance loss; these results were complemented with data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. Our experiments indicate that the full cell capacity fade increases linearly with cycle number and results from irreversible lithium loss in the negative electrode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The accompanying electrode potential shift reduces utilization of active material in both electrodes and causes the positive electrode to cycle at higher states-of-charge. Here, full cell impedance rise on aging arises primarily at the positive electrode and results mainly from changes at the electrode-electrolyte interface; the small growth in negative electrode impedance reflects changes in the SEI layer. Our results indicate that cell performance loss could be mitigated by modifying the electrode-electrolyte interfaces through use of appropriate electrode coatings and/or electrolyte additives.

  20. Cycling behavior of NCM523/graphite lithium-ion cells in the 3–4.4 V range: Diagnostic studies of full cells and harvested electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, James A.; Bareno, Javier; Spila, Timothy; ...

    2016-09-22

    Energy density of full cells containing layered-oxide positive electrodes can be increased by raising the upper cutoff voltage above the current 4.2 V limit. In this article we examine aging behavior of cells, containing LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523)-based positive and graphite-based negative electrodes, which underwent up to ~400 cycles in the 3-4.4 V range. Electrochemistry results from electrodes harvested from the cycled cells were obtained to identify causes of cell performance loss; these results were complemented with data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. Our experiments indicate that the full cell capacity fade increases linearly withmore » cycle number and results from irreversible lithium loss in the negative electrode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The accompanying electrode potential shift reduces utilization of active material in both electrodes and causes the positive electrode to cycle at higher states-of-charge. Here, full cell impedance rise on aging arises primarily at the positive electrode and results mainly from changes at the electrode-electrolyte interface; the small growth in negative electrode impedance reflects changes in the SEI layer. Our results indicate that cell performance loss could be mitigated by modifying the electrode-electrolyte interfaces through use of appropriate electrode coatings and/or electrolyte additives.« less

  1. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  2. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  3. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed.

  4. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  5. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  6. Fast formation cycling for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation process for lithium ion batteries typically takes several days or more, and it is necessary for providing a stable solid electrolyte interphase on the anode (at low potentials vs. Li/Li+) for preventing irreversible consumption of electrolyte and lithium ions. An analogous layer known as the cathode electrolyte interphase layer forms at the cathode at high potentials vs. Li/Li+. However, several days, or even up to a week, of these processes result in either lower LIB production rates or a prohibitively large size of charging-discharging equipment and space (i.e. excessive capital cost). In this study, a fast and effective electrolyte interphase formation protocol is proposed and compared with an Oak Ridge National Laboratory baseline protocol. Graphite, NMC 532, and 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate: diethyl carbonate were used as anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes, respectively. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show the new protocol reduced surface film (electrolyte interphase) resistances, and 1300 aging cycles show an improvement in capacity retention.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianxin

    Lithium ion batteries provide a high energy density, higher voltage as well as a long shelf life compared to traditionally used lead acid, NiMH and NiCd batteries. Thus, they are a very promising energy storage system for our daily life. As one of the most important components in a battery, cathode materials have been investigated intensively in recent years as they play a key role in determining the cell voltage and discharge capacity in a battery. Both layered Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O 2 (NCM) and olivine-structured LiFePO4 (LFP) materials are promising cathode candidates. However, these cathodes also have some disadvantages that have hindered further commercialization. The main issue with NCM is its rapid performance decay upon cycling. In addition, LFP is hindered by a low rate capacity and low lithium ion diffusivity. We studied the crystal growth behavior and performance of both Li(Ni 1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 and LiFePO4 cathodes in order to develop synthesis-structure-function relationships. Three different crystal growth behaviors were observed for the NCM annealing process: surface, volume and grain boundary diffusion. Further exploration of the mechanism of NCM performance decay revealed that microstructural changes were related to the strain accommodation ability in this system and that nanostructured materials were more stable during cycling. In the LFP synthesis, we observed both oriented attachment (OA) and Ostwald ripening (OR) during growth in a triethylene-glycol system. Both polycrystalline and single crystalline particles evolved as a function of a time-dependent pH change. Thus, the lithium ion diffusion rate of LiFePO4 was improved by tailoring the morphology and size though our modification of the precursor environment, revealing that polycrystalline LFP displayed better performance than single crystalline particles. Finally, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 was successfully increased via a polymer solution coating method. By producing more uniform

  8. Measurement of interfacial thermal conductance in Lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitonde, Aalok; Nimmagadda, Amulya; Marconnet, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Increasing usage and recent accidents due to Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries exploding or catching on fire has inspired research on the thermal management of these batteries. In cylindrical 18650 cells, heat generated during the charge/discharge cycle must dissipate to the surrounding through its metallic case due to the poor thermal conductivity of the jelly roll, which is spirally wound with many interfaces between electrodes and the polymeric separator. This work develops a technique to measure the thermal resistance across the case-separator interface, which ultimately limits heat transfer out of the jelly roll. Commercial 18650 batteries are discharged and opened using a battery disassembly tool, and the 25 μm thick separator and the 200 μm thick metallic case are harvested to make samples. A miniaturized version of the conventional reference bar method

  9. Thermo-electrochemical evaluation of lithium-ion batteries for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W.; Yayathi, S.; Shaw, J.; Ardebili, H.

    2015-12-01

    Advanced energy storage and power management systems designed through rigorous materials selection, testing and analysis processes are essential to ensuring mission longevity and success for space exploration applications. Comprehensive testing of Boston Power Swing 5300 lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to power humanoid robot Robonaut 2 (R2) is conducted to support the development of a test-correlated Thermal Desktop (TD) Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) (TD-S) model for evaluation of power system thermal performance. Temperature, current, working voltage and open circuit voltage measurements are taken during nominal charge-discharge operations to provide necessary characterization of the Swing 5300 cells for TD-S model correlation. Building from test data, embedded FORTRAN statements directly simulate Ohmic heat generation of the cells during charge-discharge as a function of surrounding temperature, local cell temperature and state of charge. The unique capability gained by using TD-S is demonstrated by simulating R2 battery thermal performance in example orbital environments for hypothetical extra-vehicular activities (EVA) exterior to a small satellite. Results provide necessary demonstration of this TD-S technique for thermo-electrochemical analysis of Li-ion cells operating in space environments.

  10. Dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of lithium ions in lithium bismuthate glasses have been studied in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 2 MHz and in the temperature range from 323 to 543 K. The composition dependence of the dc (direct current) conductivity has been explained in terms of the structure of bismuthate glasses. The activation energy has been analyzed in the framework of the Anderson-Stuart model. An additional energy term arising from the Madelung constant of glasses and the polarizability of the bismuth ions has been suggested to explain the discrepancy between the calculated and experimentally obtained values. The relaxation mechanism of these glasses has been explored by employing the modulus and conductivity formalisms and the microscopic parameters obtained from the analysis have been compared. Furthermore, the stretched exponential relaxation parameter and the dc conductivity have been correlated with the decoupling index.

  11. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  12. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Lithium-ion Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve modelling and its ageing adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, L.; Sabatier, J.; Francisco, J. Mbala; Guillemard, F.; Noury, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a contribution to lithium-ion batteries modelling taking into account aging effects. It first analyses the impact of aging on electrode stoichiometry and then on lithium-ion cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) curve. Through some hypotheses and an appropriate definition of the cell state of charge, it shows that each electrode equilibrium potential, but also the whole cell equilibrium potential can be modelled by a polynomial that requires only one adjustment parameter during aging. An adjustment algorithm, based on the idea that for two fixed OCVs, the state of charge between these two equilibrium states is unique for a given aging level, is then proposed. Its efficiency is evaluated on a battery pack constituted of four cells.

  14. Silicon nanowires used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Rufoloni, Alessandro; Rondino, Flaminia; Santoni, Antonino

    2015-06-23

    In this paper the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires to be used as the anode of a lithium-ion battery cell are reported. The nanowires were synthesized by CVD and characterized by SEM. The nanostructured material was used as an electrode in a lithium cell and its electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at C/10 rate as a function of the cycle number and at various rates as a function of the charge current. The electrode was then coupled with a LiFePO{sub 4} cathode to fabricate a lithium-ion battery cell and the cell performance evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles.

  15. Computational design and refinement of self-heating lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-10-01

    The recently discovered self-heating lithium ion battery has shown rapid self-heating from subzero temperatures and superior power thereafter, delivering a practical solution to poor battery performance at low temperatures. Here, we describe and validate an electrochemical-thermal coupled model developed specifically for computational design and improvement of the self-heating Li-ion battery (SHLB) where nickel foils are embedded in its structure. Predicting internal cell characteristics, such as current, temperature and Li-concentration distributions, the model is used to discover key design factors affecting the time and energy needed for self-heating and to explore advanced cell designs with the highest self-heating efficiency. It is found that ohmic heat generated in the nickel foil accounts for the majority of internal heat generation, resulting in a large internal temperature gradient from the nickel foil toward the outer cell surface. The large through-plane temperature gradient leads to highly non-uniform current distribution, and more importantly, is found to be the decisive factor affecting the heating time and energy consumption. A multi-sheet cell design is thus proposed and demonstrated to substantially minimize the temperature gradient, achieving 30% more rapid self-heating with 27% less energy consumption than those reported in the literature.

  16. Probing lithium-ion batteries' state-of-charge using ultrasonic transmission - Concept and laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Lukas; Bach, Tobias; Virsik, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Angelika; Müller, Jana; Staab, Torsten E. M.; Sextl, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    For electrically powered applications such as consumer electronics and especially for electric vehicles a precise state-of-charge estimation for their lithium-ion batteries is desired to reduce aging, e.g. avoiding detrimental states-of-charge. Today, this estimation is performed by battery management systems that solely rely on charge bookkeeping and cell voltage measurements. In the present work we introduce a new, physical probe for the state-of-charge based on ultrasonic transmission. Within the simple experimental setup raised cosine pulses are applied to lithium-ion battery pouch cells, whose signals are sensitive to changes in porosity of the graphite anode during charging/dis-charging and, therefore, to the state-of-charge. The underlying physical principle can be related to Biot's theory about propagation of waves in fluid saturated porous media and by including scattering by boundary layers inside the cell.

  17. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: new platforms for nanoreactors, drug delivery and lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen; Xing, Xianran; Lu, Gao Qing

    2011-12-21

    Yolk/shell or 'rattle-typed' nanomaterials with nanoparticle cores inside hollow shells are interesting among the complex hollow nanostructures. Yolk/shell nanoparticles (YSNs) are promising functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications such as catalysis, delivery, lithium-ion batteries and biosensors due to their tailorability and functionality in both the cores and hollow shells. This feature article provides an overview of advances in this exciting area of YSNs, covering systematic synthesis approaches and key promising applications based on the literature and our own recent work. We present some strategies for the synthesis of YSNs with controllable sizes, compositions, geometries, structures and functionalities. Applications of these new materials in a wide range of potential areas are discussed including nanoreactors, biomedicine and lithium-ion batteries. Promising future directions of this active research field are also highlighted.

  18. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-27

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications.

  19. Unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature differences among the cells in a lithium-ion battery pack with parallel combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Naixing; Zhang, Xiongwen; Shang, BinBin; Li, Guojun

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the unbalanced discharging and aging due to temperature difference between the parallel-connected cells. A thermal-electrochemical model is developed for the parallel-connected battery pack. The effects of temperature difference on the unbalanced discharging performances are studied by simulations and experiments. For the parallel-connected cells, the cell at higher temperature experiences a larger current in the early discharging process before approximately 75% of depth of discharge (DOD). When the discharge process approaches the voltage turn point of the battery pack, the discharge current through the cell at higher temperature begins to decrease significantly. After the DOD reaches approximately 90%, the discharge current of the cell at higher temperature rises again. Correspondingly, the changes in the discharging current through the cell at lower temperature are opposite to that of the cell at higher temperature. Simulations also show that the temperature difference between the parallel-connected cells greatly aggravates the imbalance discharge phenomenon between the cells, which accelerates the losses of the battery pack capacity. For the parallel-connected battery pack, the capacity loss rate approximately increases linearly as the temperature difference between the cells increases. This trend is magnified with the increase of operating temperature.

  20. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 20 Wh for a lithium ion cell or 100 Wh for a lithium ion battery. After December 31, 2015, each lithium ion battery subject to this provision must be marked with the Watt-hour rating on the outside case... cell and 25 g for a lithium metal battery and 60 Wh for a lithium ion cell or 300 Wh for a lithium......

  1. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  2. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  3. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  4. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; ...

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  5. Cycle life testing of lithium-ion batteries for small satellite LEO space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.T.; Feikert, J.H.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1993-08-16

    In 1990, Sony corporation announced their intention to manufacture a rechargeable lithium ion battery, based on the intercalation of lithium ions into a carbonaceous anode. The cells were first introduced for portable telephone use in June, 1991. (1) A 3.6V average cell voltage (4.1-2.75V range); (2) Excellent cycle life (1200 @ 100% DOD); (3) Good capacity retention (70% after 6 months); (4) Wide temperature range performance ({minus}20 to +60{degrees}C); (5) Excellent Discharge rate (82% capacity at 30 min. discharge rate); (6) Excellent Charge rate (100% Charge in <3 hrs); and (7) High energy density (264 W*hr/1 and 120 Whr/kg for ``D`` size cell. These specifications show significant promise for application of these batteries in low earth orbit (LEO) small satellites, particularly when compared to existing NiH{sub 2} and NiCd technology. The very high energy density and specific energy will reduce power system volume and weight. The wide temperature range enables simpler thermal design, particularly for new, small, high power satellites. The materials used in the lithium ion batteries are relatively inexpensive and benign, so that we expect costs to come down substantially in the future. The specified cycle life at 100% DOD is also 50% longer than most NiCds, so low DOD (depth of discharge) performance could be substantial. This study was undertaken to: (a) assess the feasibility for using lithium ion cells on small satellite LEO missions and (b) verify the claims of the manufacturer. This was accomplished by performing a detailed autopsy and various depth of discharge and rate tests on the cells. Of special interest was the cycle life performance of these cell at various depths of discharge DOD`s, to get an initial measure of the reduction in capacity fade with cycle conditions. Low DOD`s are used to extend the life of all batteries used in a space application.

  6. Characterization of plasticity and fracture of shell casing of lithium-ion cylindrical battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Most of the literature on lithium-ion battery cells is concerned with modeling of jellyroll with little attention to properties of shell casing. However, shell casing provides substantial strength and fracture resistance under mechanical loading and therefore must be an important part of modeling of lithium-ion batteries. The paper reports on a comprehensive test program on commercially available empty shell casing of 18650 lithium-ion cylindrical cells. Part of the tests was used to determine plastic and fracture properties from sub-size specimens cut from lateral part of the cans. The other part served to validate plasticity and fracture models under various loading conditions. The associated flow rule was used to simulate plasticity behavior and Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture model was adopted to predict crack initiation and propagation of shell casing. Simulation results confirmed that present plasticity and fracture models could predict global plastic behavior of the cells under different loading conditions. The jellyroll model with volumetric hardening was introduced to compare the performance of empty shell casing, bare jellyroll and complete battery cell. It was shown that in many loading situations, for example, three point bending of the cylindrical cells, the metallic shell casing provides most of mechanical resistance.

  7. Fail-safe design for large capacity lithium-ion battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Smith, Kandler; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  8. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  9. Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasufumi; Kumatani, Akichika; Munakata, Hirokazu; Inomata, Hirotaka; Ito, Komachi; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Unwin, Patrick R; Korchev, Yuri E; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-11-17

    Intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions at electrode surfaces are central to the operation of lithium-ion batteries. Yet, on the most important composite cathode surfaces, this is a rather complex process involving spatially heterogeneous reactions that have proved difficult to resolve with existing techniques. Here we report a scanning electrochemical cell microscope based approach to define a mobile electrochemical cell that is used to quantitatively visualize electrochemical phenomena at the battery cathode material LiFePO4, with resolution of ~100 nm. The technique measures electrode topography and different electrochemical properties simultaneously, and the information can be combined with complementary microscopic techniques to reveal new perspectives on structure and activity. These electrodes exhibit highly spatially heterogeneous electrochemistry at the nanoscale, both within secondary particles and at individual primary nanoparticles, which is highly dependent on the local structure and composition.

  10. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  11. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  12. Technical Challenges for Vehicle 14V/28V Lithium Ion Battery Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-19

    or lithium iron phosphate ( LiFePO4 ), on a current collector of aluminum foil, (iii) a microporous separator between the electrodes, and (iv) a liquid...with four LiFePO4 lithium ion cells will likely result in a closely matched voltage. However, other types of lithium ion cells also consisting of...20.5 15- 24.6 17.5- 28.7 20- 32.8 22.5- 36.9 Voltage(V) ( LiFePO4 ) 3.3 6.6 9.9 13.2 16.5 19.8 23.1 26.4 29.7 n x 3.3 Voltage range (V

  13. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications: I. Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Owens, B. B.; Coustier, F.

    Rechargeable batteries have been designed for powering hearing aid devices (HAD). The cells, based on the lithium-ion chemistry, were designed in a size that is compatible with the existing HAD. The 10 mA h batteries were tested to characterize the design and the electrochemical performance from the point of view of a typical HAD application. Results are presented for constant-current tests, first-cycle conditions, charge voltage cut-off, rate performance, and cycle life. The pulse capabilities and the preliminary safety tests of the batteries will be presented in a following report. The results of the lithium-ion HAD cells developed in this project are compared with other battery chemistries: lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries and Zn-air primary batteries.

  14. Extending battery life: A low-cost practical diagnostic technique for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merla, Yu; Wu, Billy; Yufit, Vladimir; Brandon, Nigel P.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo F.; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-11-01

    Modern applications of lithium-ion batteries such as smartphones, hybrid & electric vehicles and grid scale electricity storage demand long lifetime and high performance which typically makes them the limiting factor in a system. Understanding the state-of-health during operation is important in order to optimise for long term durability and performance. However, this requires accurate in-operando diagnostic techniques that are cost effective and practical. We present a novel diagnosis method based upon differential thermal voltammetry demonstrated on a battery pack made from commercial lithium-ion cells where one cell was deliberately aged prior to experiment. The cells were in parallel whilst being thermally managed with forced air convection. We show for the first time, a diagnosis method capable of quantitatively determining the state-of-health of four cells simultaneously by only using temperature and voltage readings for both charge and discharge. Measurements are achieved using low-cost thermocouples and a single voltage measurement at a frequency of 1 Hz, demonstrating the feasibility of implementing this approach on real world battery management systems. The technique could be particularly useful under charge when constant current or constant power is common, this therefore should be of significant interest to all lithium-ion battery users.

  15. Calendar and PHEV Cycle Life Aging of High-Energy, Lithium-Ion Cells Containing Blended Spinel and Layered Oxide Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    J. Belt

    2011-12-01

    One hundred seven commercially available, off-the-shelf, 1.2-Ah cells were tested for calendar life and CS cycle- and CD cycle-life using the new USABC PHEV Battery Test Manual. Here, the effects of temperature on calendar life, on CS cycle life, and on CD cycle life; the effects of SOC on calendar life and on CS cycle life; and the effects of rest time on CD cycle life were investigated. The results indicated that the test procedures caused performance decline in the cells in an expected manner, calendar < CS cycling < CD cycling. In some cases, the kinetic law changed with test type, from linear-with-time to about t2. Additionally, temperature was found to stress the cells more than SOC, causing increased changes in performance with increasing temperature.

  16. Calendar and PHEV Cycle Life Aging of High-Energy, Lithium-Ion Cells Containing Blended Spinel and Layered-Oxide Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt; I. Bloom

    2011-12-01

    One hundred seven commercially available, off-the-shelf, 1.2-Ah cells were tested for calendar life and CS cycle- and CD cycle-life using the new USABC PHEV Battery Test Manual. Here, the effects of temperature on calendar life, on CS cycle life, and on CD cycle life; the effects of SOC on calendar life and on CS cycle life; and the effects of rest time on CD cycle life were investigated. The results indicated that the test procedures caused performance decline in the cells in an expected manner, calendar < CS cycling < CD cycling. In some cases, the kinetic law changed with test type, from linear-with-time to about t2. Additionally, temperature was found to stress the cells more than SOC, causing increased changes in performance with increasing temperature.

  17. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  18. Oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized disiloxanes as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; West, Robert; Amine, Khalil

    Functionalized disiloxane compounds were synthesized by attaching oligo(ethylene glycol) chains, -(CH 2CH 2O)- n, n = 2-7, via hydrosilation, dehydrocoupling, and nucleophilic substitution reactions and were examined as non-aqueous electrolyte solvents in lithium-ion cells. The compounds were fully characterized by 1H, 13C, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Upon doping with lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) or LiPF 6, the disiloxane electrolytes showed conductivities up to 6.2 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at room temperature. The thermal behavior of the electrolytes was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, which revealed very low glass transition temperatures before and after LiBOB doping and much higher thermal stability compared to organic carbonate electrolytes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that disiloxane-based electrolytes with 0.8 M LiBOB salt concentration are stable to 4.7 V. The LiBOB/disiloxane combinations were found to be good electrolytes for lithium-ion cells; unlike LiPF 6, LiBOB can provide a good passivation film on the graphite anode. The LiPF 6/disiloxane electrolyte was enabled in lithium-ion cells by adding 1 wt% vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC). Full cell performance tests with LiNi 0.80Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 as the cathode and mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) graphite as the anode show stable cyclability. The results demonstrate that disiloxane-based electrolytes have considerable potential as electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Graphene Oxide-Based Electrode Inks for 3D-Printed Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Wang, Yibo; Yan, Chaoyi; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven; Wang, Yanbin; Wan, Jiayu; Li, Tian; Wang, Zhengyang; Xu, Yue; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-04-06

    All-component 3D-printed lithium-ion batteries are fabricated by printing graphene-oxide-based composite inks and solid-state gel polymer electrolyte. An entirely 3D-printed full cell features a high electrode mass loading of 18 mg cm(-2) , which is normalized to the overall area of the battery. This all-component printing can be extended to the fabrication of multidimensional/multiscale complex-structures of more energy-storage devices.

  20. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the battery’s components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  1. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  2. Performance analysis of lithium-ion battery/electrochemical capacitor hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikha, Godfrey

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors are the most suitable power sources for high powered applications such as electric vehicles, power distribution systems, uninterrupted power supply, hybrid vehicles and other electronic devices due to their high power densities. However, their energy densities are considerably lower than those of high energy battery systems such as Lithium-ion. Although advanced battery systems and double layer electrochemical capacitors contrast with regard to energy-power relationship, in combination they can be utilized as an effective power source for various applications. So a systematic study of the performance of the combination of these energy sources (hybrid system) is indispensable. In this thesis, a hybrid system consisting of a lithium-ion battery coupled with a network of electrochemical capacitors was constructed and investigated in detail under pulse type of discharge. The impact of various operating parameters such as duty ratio, frequency, pulse current amplitude, number of capacitors in the capacitor network on the performance of the hybrid system was studied. To further understand and optimize the hybrid system a mathematical model for a lithium-ion/electrochemical capacitor network hybrid was developed from first principles. The prominent features of the model were its capability to predict the current shared by the battery and the capacitor network during discharge and its versatility to include any number of identical capacitors/batteries in series/parallel configuration. Specific energy and power relationships were simulated to identify the regime where the performance of the hybrids was better than the battery on a mass basis. The validity of the model was also tested against experimental data obtained from a Sony US 18650 lithium-ion battery/Maxwell PC100F electrochemical capacitor hybrid system. Finally a case study on the performance of the battery-alone system against a hybrid system was done for two different high

  3. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25907411

  4. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  5. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  7. Radiolysis as a solution for accelerated ageing studies of electrolytes in Lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Daniel; Steinmetz, Vincent; Durand, Delphine; Legand, Solène; Dauvois, Vincent; Maître, Philippe; Le Caër, Sophie

    2015-04-24

    Diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are prototype examples of eco-friendly solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their degradation products affect both the battery performance and its safety. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the reaction mechanisms involved in the ageing processes. Among those, redox processes are likely to play a critical role. Here we show that radiolysis is an ideal tool to generate the electrolytes degradation products. The major gases detected after irradiation (H2, CH4, C2H6, CO and CO2) are identified and quantified. Moreover, the chemical compounds formed in the liquid phase are characterized by different mass spectrometry techniques. Reaction mechanisms are then proposed. The detected products are consistent with those of the cycling of Li-based cells. This demonstrates that radiolysis is a versatile and very helpful tool to better understand the phenomena occurring in lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; ...

    2015-08-19

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The modelmore » development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.« less

  9. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-CuxSb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  10. Exothermic behaviors of mechanically abused lithium-ion batteries with dibenzylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Qiao, Yu

    2016-09-01

    A thermal-runaway retardant (TRR) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), dibenzylamine (DBA), is investigated. In a TRR-modified LIB, DBA can be encapsulated in packages made of inert materials. When the LIB is subjected to mechanical abuse, the packages would be broken apart and the TRR is released. In nail penetration and impact tests, addition of 4 wt% DBA reduces the temperature increase of fully charged LIR-2450 cells by nearly 50%. The influence of TRR packages on the cycling performance of LIBs is negligible. The working mechanism of DBA is associated with the decrease in electrolyte conductivity, the increase in charge transfer resistance, and the reduction in lithium ion (Li+) transference numbers.

  11. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  12. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oumellal, Y; Rougier, A; Nazri, G A; Tarascon, J-M; Aymard, L

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH(2) with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH(2) electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 0.5 V versus Li(+)/Li(o) which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH(2). Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH(2), as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH(2), which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    situ and Ar-atmosphere Raman spectroscopy, a rapid increase in graphene defect level is detected for small increments in the number of lithiation/delithiation cycles until the I(D)/I(G) ratio reaches ˜1.5-2.0 and the 2D peak intensity drops by ˜50%, after which the Raman spectra show minimal changes upon further cycling. Using DFT, the interplay between graphene topological defects and chemical functionalization is explored, thus providing insight into the experimental results. In particular, the DFT results show that defects can act as active sites for species that are present in the electrochemical environment such as Li, O, and F. Furthermore, chemical functionalization with these species lowers subsequent defect formation energies, thus accelerating graphene degradation upon cycling. This positive feedback loop continues until the defect concentration reaches a level where lithium diffusion through the graphene can occur in a relatively unimpeded manner, with minimal further degradation upon extended cycling. Overall, this study provides mechanistic insight into graphene defect formation during lithiation, thus informing ongoing efforts to employ graphene in lithium ion battery technology. Having understood the electrochemical properties of graphene, we have used this to improve the performance of Li-ion cathodes. In particular, Spinel-structured LiMn2O4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, thermal stability (safety) and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from a limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, we show that a single sheet of graphene can act effectively as a diffusion barrier for Mn2+ ions, thereby protecting the cathode surface and significantly reducing the dissolution process. Relative to lithium cells containing a sputtered and uncoated thin film LMO 'control' cathode, cells with a graphene-coated LMO cathode provide

  14. Performance Testing of Yardney MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 Lithium-ion Cells Possessing Electrolytes with Improved Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Whitcanack, Larry D.; Krause, Frederick C.; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Santee, Stuart; Puglia, Frank J.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Many future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon and Mars require high specific energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for HEV and PHEV automotive applications. In previous work focused upon evaluating various potential flame retardant additives1, triphenyl phosphate (TPP)2 was observed to have the most desirable attributes, including good life characteristics and resilience to high voltage operation. We have employed a number of approaches in the design of promising TPP-based electrolytes with improved safety, including: (a) varying the flame retardant additive (FRA) content (from 5 to 15%), (b) the use of fluorinated co-solvents, (c) the use of additives to improve compatibility, and (c) the use of ester co-solvents to decrease the viscosity and increase the conductivity. In recent work, we have demonstrated a number of these electrolyte formulations to be compatible with a number of chemistries, including: MCMB carbon-LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, graphite-LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, Li-Li(Li0.17Ni 0.25 Mn 0.58 )O2, Li-LiNiCoMnO2 and graphite- LiNiCoMnO2.3,4 In the current study, we have demonstrated the performance of a number of TPP-containing electrolytes in 7 Ah prototype MCMB-LiNiCoO2 cells. We will describe the results of a number of performance tests, including: a) 100% DOD cycle life testing at various temperatures, b) discharge rate characterization as a function of temperature, c) charge rate characterization as a function of temperature, and d) impedance as a function of temperature. In addition to displaying good life characteristics, being comparable to baseline chemistries, a number of cells were observed to provide good performance over a wide temperature range.

  15. Electrochemical studies on LiCoO 2 surface coated with Y 3Al 5O 12 for lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Ming; Cho, Yung-Da; Hsiao, Chiao-Ling; Fey, George Ting-Kuo

    Synthesized yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sol was coated on the surface of the LiCoO 2 cathode particles by an in situ sol-gel process, followed by calcination at 923 K for 10 h in air. Based on XRD, TEM, and ESCA data, a compact YAG kernel with an average thickness of ∼20 nm was formed on the surface of the core LiCoO 2 particles, which ranged from ∼90 to 120 nm in size. The charge-discharge cycling studies for the coated materials suggest that 0.3 wt.% YAG-coated LiCoO 2 heated at 923 K for 10 h in air, delivered a discharge capacity of 167 mAh g -1 and a cycle stability of about 164 cycles with a fading rate of 0.2 mAh cycle -1 at a 0.2 C-rate between 2.75 and 4.40 V vs. Li/Li +. The differential capacity plots revealed that impedance growth was slower for YAG surface treated LiCoO 2, when cells were charged at 4.40 V. DSC results exemplified that the exothermic peak at ∼468 K corresponded to the release of much less oxygen and greater thermal-stability.

  16. Power System Electronics Accommodation for a Lithium Ion Battery on the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ST5 mission requirements include validation of Lithium-ion battery in orbit. Accommodation in the power system for Li-ion battery can be reduced with smaller amp-hour size, highly matched cells when compared to the larger amp-hour size approach. Result can be lower system mass and increased reliability.

  17. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-07-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  18. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  19. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V.

  20. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  1. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  2. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  3. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meng; Belharouak, Ilias; Genc, Arda; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Guangwen; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2012-09-17

    A variety of approaches are being made to enhance the performance of lithium ion batteries. Incorporating multi-valence transition metal ions into metal oxide cathodes has been identified as an essential approach to achieve the necessary high voltage and high capacity. However, the fundamental mechanism that limits their power rate and cycling stability remains unclear. The power rate strongly depends on the lithium ion drift speed in the cathode. Crystallographically, these transition metal-based cathodes frequently have a layered structure. In the classic wisdom, it is accepted that lithium ion travels swiftly within the layers moving out/in of the cathode during the charge/discharge. Here, we report the unexpected discovery of a thermodynamically driven, yet kinetically controlled, surface modification in the widely explored lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode material, which may inhibit the battery charge/discharge rate. We found that during cathode synthesis and processing before electrochemical cycling in the cell nickel can preferentially move along the fast diffusion channels and selectively segregate at the surface facets terminated with a mix of anions and cations. This segregation essentially blocks the otherwise fast out/in pathways for lithium ions during the charge/discharge. Therefore, it appears that the transition metal dopant may help to provide high capacity and/or high voltage, but can be located in a “wrong” location that blocks or slows lithium diffusion, limiting battery performance. In this circumstance, limitations in the properties of Li-ion batteries using these cathode materials can be determined more by the materials synthesis issues than by the operation within the battery itself.

  4. Electrode architectures for efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways in high power lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Ankita Shah

    As the demand for clean energy sources increases, large investments have supported R&D programs aimed at developing high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, military, grid storage and space applications. State of the art lithium ion technology cannot meet power demands for these applications due to high internal resistances in the cell. These resistances are mainly comprised of ionic and electronic resistance in the electrode and electrolyte. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of nanoscale lithium ion active materials on the premise that these materials shorten the diffusion length of lithium ions and increase the surface area for electrochemical charge transfer. While, nanomaterials have allowed significant improvements in the power density of the cell, they are not a complete solution for commercial batteries. Due to their large surface area, they introduce new challenges such as a poor electrode packing densities, high electrolyte reactivity, and expensive synthesis procedures. Since greater than 70% of the cost of the electric vehicle is due to the cost of the battery, a cost-efficient battery design is most critical. To address the limitations of nanomaterials, efficient transport pathways must be engineered in the bulk electrode. As a part of nanomanufacturing research being conducted the Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing at Northeastern University, the first aim of the proposed work is to develop electrode architectures that enhance electronic and ionic transport pathways in large and small area lithium ion electrodes. These architectures will utilize the unique electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes to create robust electrode scaffolding that improves electrochemical charge transfer. Using extensive physical and electrochemical characterization, the second aim is to investigate the effect of electrode parameters on electrochemical performance and evaluate the performance against standard commercial

  5. Numerical simulation of thermal behavior of lithium-ion secondary batteries using the enhanced single particle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Nagaoka, Makoto; Okuda, Chikaaki; Kawauchi, Shigehiro

    2014-04-01

    To understand the thermal behavior of lithium-ion secondary batteries, distributed information related to local heat generation across the entire electrode plane, which is caused by the electrochemical reaction that results from lithium-ion intercalation or deintercalation, is required. To accomplish this, we first developed an enhanced single particle (ESP) model for lithium-ion batteries that provides a cost effective, timely, and accurate method for estimating the local heat generation rates without excessive computation costs. This model accounts for all the physical processes, including the solution phase limitation. Next, a two-way electrochemical-thermal coupled simulation method was established. In this method, the three dimensional (3D) thermal solver is coupled with the quasi-3D porous electrode solver that is applied to the unrolled plane of spirally wound electrodes, which allows both thermal and electrochemical behaviors to be reproduced simultaneously at every computational time-step. The quasi-3D porous electrode solver implements the ESP model. This two-way coupled simulation method was applied to a thermal behavior analysis of 18650-type lithium-ion cells where it was found that temperature estimates of the electrode interior and on the cell can wall obtained via the ESP model were in good agreement with actual experimental measurements.

  6. Electrochemical Intercalation of Lithium Ions into Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. L.; Sumanasekera, G. U.; Rao, A. M.; Fang, S.; Eklund, P. C.

    1998-03-01

    We have investigated the electrochemical intercalation of lithium ions into ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a standard three electrode cell. The SWNT mat pressed onto a Pt plate was the working electrode. Lithium was used at both the counter and reference electrodes, and 1M LiAsF6 in ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate (1:1 by volume) served as the electrolyte. Raman spectra of the SWNTs were recorded in situ as a function of electrochemical charge using 514.5 nm excitation. During galvanostatic intercalation, we observed a relatively steep decrease in voltage until a plateau at around 1.2 V is reached. We attribute this initial decrease to the intercalation of lithium into SWNT and a concurrent electron doping of the SWNT π band. In the Raman spectrum, as the voltage reaches 1.2 V, the tangential mode frequency down shifted from 1593 cm-1 to 1591 cm-1 consistent with electron addition to the π^* band. We speculate that surface reactions of the lithium doped SWNT and the electrolyte are occuring during the plateau. During the evolution of the plateau, the Raman signal of the tangential mode gradually diminishes without further downshift of the its frequency and eventually disappears completely. Cyclic voltammograms show a minimum at around 1.2 V and peaks at around 0.7 V and 1.7 V. The origin of this structure is not presently understood.

  7. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  8. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  9. Anisotropic lithium ion migration in LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. B.; Park, C. K.; Hwang, J. T.; Cho, W. I.; Jang, H.

    2011-12-01

    An anisotropic behavior of lithium ion migration in LiFePO4 is investigated using the cathode particles after chemical delithiation. A phase contrast of a LiFePO4 particle validating the directional property is also found. It suggests that the lithium ion migration path is limited to the [010] direction and the phase boundary between LiFePO4 and FePO4 is perpendicular [010]. The symmetric phase boundary inside the LiFePO4 particle is contrary to the non-directional core-shell model reported by others. The molecular dynamics simulation confirms the crystallographic direction with the lowest energy for lithium ion migration.

  10. Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

  11. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  12. Solvation of lithium ion in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    Solvation of the lithium ion (Li+) in dimethoxyethane (DME) and propylene carbonate (PC) is of scientific significance and urgency in the context of lithium-ion batteries. I report PM7-MD simulations on the composition of Li+ solvation shells (SH) in a few DME/PC mixtures. The equimolar mixture features preferential solvation by PC, in agreement with classical MD studies. However, one DME molecule is always present in the first SH, supplementing the cage formed by five PC molecules. As PC molecules get removed, DME gradually substitutes vacant places. In the PC-poor mixtures, an entire SH is populated by five DME molecules.

  13. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  14. Analysis of heat generation of lithium ion rechargeable batteries used in implantable battery systems for driving undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Akasaka, Yuhta; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Imachi, Kou; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We have developed internal battery systems for driving an undulation pump ventricular assist device using two kinds of lithium ion rechargeable batteries. The lithium ion rechargeable batteries have high energy density, long life, and no memory effect; however, rise in temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable battery is a critical issue. Evaluation of temperature rise by means of numerical estimation is required to develop an internal battery system. Temperature of the lithium ion rechargeable batteries is determined by ohmic loss due to internal resistance, chemical loss due to chemical reaction, and heat release. Measurement results of internal resistance (R(cell)) at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C were 0.1 Omega in the lithium ion (Li-ion) battery and 0.03 Omega in the lithium polymer (Li-po) battery. Entropy change (DeltaS) of each battery, which leads to chemical loss, was -1.6 to -61.1 J/(mol.K) in the Li-ion battery and -9.6 to -67.5 J/(mol.K) in the Li-po battery depending on state of charge (SOC). Temperature of each lithium ion rechargeable battery under a discharge current of 1 A was estimated by finite element method heat transfer analysis at an ambient temperature of 37 degrees C configuring with measured R(cell) and measured DeltaS in each SOC. Results of estimation of time-course change in the surface temperature of each battery coincided with results of measurement results, and the success of the estimation will greatly contribute to the development of an internal battery system using lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

  15. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanospheres by a facile spray drying method and their application as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: NiO nanospheres prepared by a facile spray drying method show high lithium ion storage performance as anode of lithium ion battery. - Highlights: • NiO nanospheres are prepared by a spray drying method. • NiO nanospheres are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. • NiO nanospheres show good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Fabrication of advanced anode materials is indispensable for construction of high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, nickel oxide (NiO) nanospheres are fabricated by a facial one-step spray drying method. The as-prepared NiO nanospheres show diameters ranging from 100 to 600 nm and are composed of nanoparticles of 30–50 nm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the NiO nanospheres are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The specific reversible capacity of NiO nanospheres is 656 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C, and 476 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 C. The improvement of electrochemical properties is attributed to nanosphere structure with large surface area and short ion/electron transfer path.

  16. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  17. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  18. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  19. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  20. Silicon-Nanowire Based Lithium Ion Batteries for Vehicles With Double the Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Ionel; Cohen, Yehonathan

    2015-03-31

    Amprius researched and developed silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius then built and delivered high-energy lithium-ion cells that met the project’s specific energy goal and exceeded the project’s energy density goal. But Amprius’ cells did not meet the project’s cycle life goal, suggesting additional manufacturing process development is required. With DOE support, Amprius developed a new anode material, silicon, and a new anode structure, nanowire. During the project, Amprius also began to develop a new multi-step manufacturing process that does not involve traditional anode production processes (e.g. mixing, drying and calendaring).

  1. Ultralife's polymer electrolyte rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for use in the mobile electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, Edward A.; Manna, Michael E.; Wise, Ralph D.; Gavrilov, Alexei B.; Bastian, Matthew J.; Brey, Rufus M.; DeMatteis, Jeffrey

    Ultralife Polymer™ brand batteries for cellular phones as made by Nokia Mobile Phones Incorporated were introduced in July 2000. Characteristics of the UBC443483 cell and UB750N battery are described and related to the power and battery requirements of these cellular phones and chargers. Current, power, and pulse capability are presented as functions of temperature, depth of discharge, and storage at the cell level. Safety protection devices and chargers are discussed at the battery pack level, as well as performance in cellular phones under various wireless communication protocols. Performance is competitive with liquid lithium-ion systems while offering opportunity for non-traditional form factors.

  2. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  3. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the 'all-climate battery' cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.

  4. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the ‘all-climate battery’ cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.

  5. Air Force Space Command. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard. Lithium-Ion Battery for Launch Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    charge/discharge cycles to condition the surface of the electrodes and stabilize capacity. 3.2 Battery A battery is an assembly of battery cells or...positive and negative electrode plates. 6 3.7 Charge Cycle A charge cycle is defined by recharge to an initial state of charge, following a...connected battery cells. Multiple modules are connected to form a battery . 3.15 Negative Electrode The negative electrode in lithium-ion cells is

  6. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects.

    PubMed

    Latz, Arnulf; Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  7. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory. PMID:25977870

  8. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in

  9. Effect of lithium ions on cementoblasts in the presence of lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Wang, Yuzhuo; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Peng; Hu, Min

    2015-04-01

    The applications of lithium ions as an agent to facilitate bone formation have been widely documented; however, the effect of lithium ions in the periodontitis model has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of single lithium ions in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A periodontitis model was induced in cementoblasts using LPS. The cytotoxic effect of the lithium ions on the cementoblasts was studied through the MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase analysis and alizarin red staining were performed to investigate the effect of the lithium ions on differentiation. To examine the effect of lithium ions on osteoclastogenesis, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and ELISA, respectively. Compared with the effect induced by lithium ions on normal cementoblasts, proliferation and differentiation were downregulated following the co-incubation of the cementoblasts with LPS and lithium ions. Furthermore, the lithium ions appeared to alter osteoclastogenesis by regulating the OPG/RANKL ratio. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that lithium ions can downregulate proliferation and differentiation in a periodontitis model. Further studies should be undertaken prior to the acceptance of lithium ions for use in the clinic.

  10. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  11. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

    2014-05-13

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  12. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  13. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  14. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugmann, Sandra; Moosbauer, Dominik; Amereller, Marius; Schreiner, Christian; Wudy, Franz; Schmitz, René; Schmitz, Raphael; Isken, Philipp; Dippel, Christian; Müller, Romek; Kunze, Miriam; Lex-Balducci, Alexandra; Winter, Martin; Gores, Heiner Jakob

    The salt lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) showed some promising results for lithium-ion-cells. It was synthesized via a new synthetic route that avoids chloride impurities. Here we report the properties of its solutions (solvent blend ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3:7, mass ratio), including its conductivity, cationic transference number, hydrolysis, Al-current collector corrosion-protection ability and its cycling performance with some electrode materials. Some Al-corrosion studies were also performed with the help of our recently developed computer controlled impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) that proofed to be a useful tool for battery material investigations.

  16. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  17. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-10-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg‑1 at the current density 500 mAg‑1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability.

  18. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-10-11

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80-100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg(-1) at the current density 500 mAg(-1) after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability.

  19. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg−1 at the current density 500 mAg−1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability. PMID:27725701

  20. Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Meng; Shi, Feifei; Song, Xiangyun; Zheng, Ziyan; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Yanbao; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Zhi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2014-11-12

    Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell.

  1. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  2. Mechanism of Silicon Electrode Aging upon Cycling in Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Delpuech, Nathalie; Dupre, Nicolas; Moreau, Philippe; Bridel, Jean-Sebastian; Gaubicher, Joel; Lestriez, Bernard; Guyomard, Dominique

    2016-04-21

    Understanding the aging mechanism of silicon-based negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries upon cycling is essential to solve the problem of low coulombic efficiency and capacity fading and further to implement this new high-capacity material in commercial cells. Nevertheless, such studies have so far focused on half cells in which silicon is cycled versus an infinite reservoir of lithium. In the present work, the aging mechanism of silicon-based electrodes is studied upon cycling in a full Li-ion cell configuration with LiCoO2 as the positive electrode. Postmortem analyses of both electrodes clearly indicate that neither one of them contains lithium and that no discernible degradation results from the cycling. The aging mechanism can be explained by the reduction of solvent molecules. Electrons extracted from the positive electrode are responsible for an internal imbalance in the cell, which results in progressive slippage of the electrodes and reduces the compositional range of cyclable lithium ions for both electrodes.

  3. Lithium-ion capacitors with 2D Nb2CTx (MXene) - carbon nanotube electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Ayeong; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Anasori, Babak; Urbankowski, Patrick; Li, Jingwen; Byles, Bryan W.; Blake, Brian; Van Aken, Katherine L.; Kota, Sankalp; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Lee, Jae W.; Chen, Ying; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest to hybrid energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion capacitors, in which battery-type electrodes are combined with capacitor-type ones. It is anticipated that the energy density (either gravimetric or volumetric) of lithium-ion capacitors is improved if pseudocapacitive or fast insertion materials are used instead of conventional activated carbon (AC) in the capacitor-type electrode. MXenes, a new family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, demonstrate metallic conductivity and fast charge-discharge behavior that make them suitable for this application. In this study, we move beyond single electrodes, half-cell studies and demonstrate three types of hybrid cells using Nb2CTx-carbon nanotube (CNT) films. It is shown that lithiated graphite/Nb2CTx-CNT, Nb2CTx-CNT/LiFePO4 and lithiated Nb2CTx-CNT/Nb2CTx-CNT cells are all able to operate within 3 V voltage windows and deliver capacities of 43, 24 and 36 mAh/g (per total weight of two electrodes), respectively. Moreover, the polarity of the electrodes can be reversed in the symmetric Nb2CTx-CNT cells from providing a positive potential between 0 and 3 V to a negative one from -3 to 0 V. It is shown that the volumetric energy density (50-70 Wh/L) of our first-generation devices with MXene electrodes exceeds that of a lithium titanate/AC capacitor.

  4. Electrochemical studies of lithium-ion battery anode materials in lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingchuan

    The stability of uncoated copper (Cu) foils and graphite-coated copper (Cu-C) foils in lithium-ion battery electrolytes were extensively studied in this dissertation. At first, the electrochemical behavior and stability of the Cu foils and Cu-C foils were studied. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the redox behavior of the foils in the electrolyte solutions. The reduction of electrolyte and its effect on the oxidation of copper was also studied. Bulk electrolysis was used to quantitatively study the dissolution of the foils in dry electrolytes and in electrolytes doped with impurities of H2O or HF. It was found that the graphite coating greatly influenced the redox behavior of the copper substrate and provided some protection to the copper from oxidation. Impurities increased the oxidation tendency of both Cu foils and Cu-C foils and may influence the integrity of the Cu-C foil electrode. During these studies, the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of Cu foil and Cu-C foil electrodes in Li-ion battery electrolytes was found to be a variable value over time. A detailed study showed that the OCV first rapidly decreased until reaching a minimum, and then gradually increased until reaching a meta-steady or steady state. These results were compared with OCV studies of Al foil, Pt wire, glassy carbon and Cu disk and wire electrodes. The OCV variation appeared to correlate to a surface change on the electrode after being immersed into the electrolyte solutions. The influence of aging of the reference electrode, the surface condition and edge effect of the copper foil, and solution impurities on the stability of the OCV was also studied. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to quantitatively evaluate the stability of Cu and Cu-C foils in lithium-ion battery electrolytes at open-circuit. Results showed that the stability of Cu and Cu-C foils was different in "fresh" electrolytes whereas it was similar in "aged" electrolytes. For Cu foils, in the "fresh" electrolyte, the

  5. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  6. A Self-Healing Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Hao; Dong, Xiaoli; Cao, Jingyu; Wang, Lie; Xu, Yifan; Ren, Jing; Hwang, Yunil; Son, In Hyuk; Huang, Xianliang; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-11-07

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries are critical for the next-generation electronics. However, during the practical application, they may break under deformations such as twisting and cutting, causing their failure to work or even serious safety problems. A new family of all-solid-state and flexible aqueous lithium ion batteries that can self-heal after breaking has been created by designing aligned carbon nanotube sheets loaded with LiMn2 O4 and LiTi2 (PO4 )3 nanoparticles on a self-healing polymer substrate as electrodes, and a new kind of lithium sulfate/sodium carboxymethylcellulose serves as both gel electrolyte and separator. The specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance can be well maintained after repeated cutting and self-healing. These self-healing batteries are demonstrated to be promising for wearable devices.

  7. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  8. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  9. In-situ temperature measurement in lithium ion battery by transferable flexible thin film thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutyala, Madhu Santosh K.; Zhao, Jingzhou; Li, Jianyang; Pan, Hongen; Yuan, Chris; Li, Xiaochun

    2014-08-01

    Temperature monitoring is important for improving the safety and performance of Lithium Ion Batteries (LIB). This paper presents the feasibility study to insert flexible polymer embedded thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) in a lithium ion battery pouch cell for in-situ temperature monitoring. A technique to fabricate polyimide embedded TFTC sensors on glass substrates and later transfer it onto thin copper foils is presented. The sensor transfer process can be easily integrated into the assembly process of a pouch cell, thus holding promise in implementing in Battery Management Systems (BMS). Internal temperature of the LIB pouch cell was measured in-situ when the sensor embedded battery was operated at high rate charge-discharge cycles. The polyimide embedded TFTCs survived the battery assembly process and the battery electrolyte environment. It is observed that the heat generation inside the battery is dominant during the high-rate of discharges. The developed technique can serve to improve the battery safety and performance when implemented in battery management systems and enhance the understanding of heat generation and its effects.

  10. Correlation of aging and thermal stability of commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, M.; Friesen, A.; Grützke, M.; Stenzel, Y. P.; Brunklaus, G.; Haetge, J.; Nowak, S.; Schappacher, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2017-02-01

    Established safety of lithium ion batteries is key for the vast diversity of applications. The influence of aging on the thermal stability of individual cell components and complete cells is of particular interest. Commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries based on LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/C are investigated after cycling at different temperatures. The variations in the electrochemical performance are mainly attributed to aging effects on the anode side considering the formation of an effective solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) during cycling at 45 °C and a thick decomposition layer on the anode surface at 20 °C. The thermal stability of the anodes is investigated including the analysis of the evolving gases which confirmed the severe degradation of the electrolyte and active material during cycling at 20 °C. In addition, the presence of metallic lithium deposits could strongly affect the thermal stability. Thermal safety tests using quasi-adiabatic conditions show variations in the cells response to elevated temperatures according to the state-of-charge, i.e. a reduced reactivity in the discharged state. Furthermore, it is revealed that the onset of exothermic reactions correlates with the thermal stability of the SEI, while the thermal runaway is mainly attributed to the decomposition of the cathode and the subsequent reactions with the electrolyte.

  11. Mitigating thermal runaway of lithium-ion battery through electrolyte displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Fan, Jiang; Wu, Dengguo; Qiao, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Alkanes are investigated as thermal-runaway retardants (TRR) for lithium-ion battery (LIB). TRR is a chemical that can rapidly terminate exothermic reactions in LIB. Under normal working conditions, TRR is sealed in separate packages in the LIB cell, and upon mechanical abuse, it is released to suppress heat generation. The alkanes under investigation include octane, pentadecane, and icosane, among which pentadecane has the highest thermal-runaway mitigation (TRM) efficiency. In nail penetration test on coin cells, ˜4 wt. % pentadecane reduced the maximum temperature by ˜60%; in impact test on pouch cells, ˜5 wt. % pentadecane reduced the maximum temperature by ˜90%. The high TRM efficiency of pentadecane is attributed to its high wettability to separator and its immiscibility with electrolyte. By forming a physical barrier between the cathode and anode, pentadecane interrupts lithium ion (Li+) transport and increases the charge transfer resistance by nearly two orders of magnitude. The diffusion rate of pentadecane in the electrode layer stack was measured to be ˜580 μm/s.

  12. Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chiwon; Patel, Mumukshu; Rangasamy, Baskaran; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Xia, Changlei; Shi, Sheldon; Choi, Wonbong

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered as a potential anode material for next generation Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conductivity, flexibility, surface area, and lithium-ion insertion ability. However, the low mass loading and bulk density of carbon nanomaterials hinder their use in large-scale energy storage because their high specific capacity may not scale up linearly with the thickness of the electrode. To address this issue, a novel three-dimensional (3D) architecture is rationally designed by stacking layers of free-standing CNTs with the increased areal density to 34.9 mg cm-2, which is around three-times higher than that of the state-of-the-art graphitic anodes. Furthermore, a thermal compression process renders the bulk density of the multi-stacked 3D CNTs to be increased by 1.85 g cm-3, which yields an excellent volumetric capacity of 465 mAh cm-3 at 0.5C. Our proposed strategy involving the stacking of 3D CNT based layers and post-thermal compression provides a powerful platform for the utilization of carbon nanomaterials in the advanced LIB technology.

  13. Natural sisal fibers derived hierarchical porous activated carbon as capacitive material in lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhewei; Guo, Huajun; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Yan, Zhiliang; Wang, Yansen

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a novel advanced electrochemical energy storage (EES) system bridging gap between lithium ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (ECC). In this work, we report that sisal fiber activated carbon (SFAC) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by KOH activation and served as capacitive material in LIC for the first time. Different particle structure, morphology, specific surface area and heteroatoms affected the electrochemical performance of as-prepared materials and corresponding LICs. When the mass ratio of KOH to char precursor was 2, hierarchical porous structured SFAC-2 was prepared and exhibited moderate specific capacitance (103 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), superior rate capability and cyclic stability (88% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A g-1). The corresponding assembled LIC (LIC-SC2) with optimal comprehensive electrochemical performance, displayed the energy density of 83 Wh kg-1, the power density of 5718 W kg-1 and superior cyclic stability (92% energy density retention after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). It is worthwhile that the source for activated carbon is a natural and renewable one and the synthesis method is eco-friendly, which facilitate that hierarchical porous activated carbon has potential applications in the field of LIC and other energy storage systems.

  14. Collective capture of released lithium ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Wu, C. S.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhou, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capture of newly ionized lithium ions in the solar wind by means of electromagnetic instabilities is investigated through linear analysis and computer simulation. Three instabilities, driven by a lithium velocity ring perpendicular to and drifting along the magnetic field, are considered. The capture time of the lithium by the solar wind is roughly 10 linear growth times, regardless of whether resonant or nonresonant modes dominate initially. Possible implications of the results for the Active Magnetosphere Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) mission are discussed.

  15. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  16. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  17. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  18. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  20. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less