Science.gov

Sample records for advanced mass spectrometers

  1. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  2. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  3. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  4. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  5. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  6. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  7. Advanced Ion Mass Spectrometer for Giant Planet Ionosphere, Magnetospheres and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Paschalidis, Nick; Jones, Sarah; Brinkerhoff, William; Paterson, William; Ali, Ashraf; Coplan, Michael; Chornay, Dennis; Sturner, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bateman, Fred; Fontaine, Dominique; Verdeil, Christophe; Andre, Nicolas; Blanc, Michel; Wurz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present our Advanced Ion Mass Spectrometer (AIMS) for outer planet missions which has been under development from various NASA sources (NASA Living with a Star Instrument Development (LWSID), NASA Astrobiology Instrument Development (ASTID), NASA Goddard Internal Research and Development (IRAD)s) to measure elemental, isotopic, and simple molecular composition abundances of 1 V to 25 kV hot ions with wide field-of-view (FOV) in the 1 - 60 amu mass range at mass resolution M/ ΔM <= 60 over a wide dynamic range of particle intensities and penetrating radiation background from the inner magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn to the outer magnetospheric boundary regions and the upstream solar wind. This instrument will work for both spinning spacecraft and 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. AIMS will measure the ion velocity distribution functions (VDF) for the individual ion species from which velocity moments will give their ion density, flow velocity and temperature.

  8. Advanced Laser Architecture for Two-Step Laser Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Molly E.; Li, Steven X.; Yu, Anthony W.; Getty, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrobiology missions will focus on planets with significant astrochemical or potential astrobiological features, such as small, primitive bodies and the icy moons of the outer planets that may host diverse organic compounds. These missions require advanced instrument techniques to fully and unambiguously characterize the composition of surface and dust materials. Laser desorptionionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) is an emerging instrument technology for in situ mass analysis of non-volatile sample composition. A recent Goddard LDMS advancement is the two-step laser tandem mass spectrometer (L2MS) instrument to address the need for future flight instrumentation to deconvolve complex organic signatures. The L2MS prototype uses a resonance enhanced multi-photon laser ionization mechanism to selectively detect aromatic species from a more complex sample. By neglecting the aliphatic and inorganic mineral signatures in the two-step mass spectrum, the L2MS approach can provide both mass assignments and clues to structural information for an in situ investigation of non-volatile sample composition. In this paper we will describe our development effort on a new laser architecture that is based on the previously flown Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) laser transmitter for the L2MS instrument. The laser provides two discrete midinfrared wavelengths (2.8 m and 3.4 m) using monolithic optical parametric oscillators and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (266 nm) on a single laser bench with a straightforward development path toward flight readiness.

  9. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  10. Advanced Ion Mass Spectrometer for Giant Planet Ionospheres, Magnetospheres and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, EC; Cooper, JF; Paschalidis, N.; Jones, SL; Rodriguez, M.; Ali, A.; Coplan, MA; Chornay, DJ; Sturner; Bateman, FB; Andre, N.; Fedorov, A.; Wurz, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Ion Composition Spectrometer (AIMS) has been under development from various NASA sources (NASA LWSID, NASA ASTID, NASA Goddard IRADs) to measure elemental, isotopic, and simple molecular composition abundances of 1 eV/e to 25 keV/e hot ions with wide field-of-view (FOV) in the 1 - 60 amu mass range at mass resolution M/ΔM ≤ 60 over a wide dynamic range of intensities and penetrating radiation background from the inner magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn to the outer magnetospheric boundary regions and the upstream solar wind. This instrument will work for both spinning spacecraft and 3-axis stabilized spacecraft with wide field-of-view capability in both cases. It will measure the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) for the individual ion species; ion velocity moments of the IVDF will give the fluid parameters (density, flow velocity and temperature) of the individual ion species. Outer planet mission applications are Io Observer, Jupiter Europa Orbiter/Europa Clipper, Enceladus Orbiter, and Uranus Orbiter as described in the decadal survey, but would also be valuable for inclusion on other missions to outer planet destinations such as Saturn- Titan and Neptune-Triton and for future missions to terrestrial planets, Venus and Mars, the Moon, asteroids, and comets, and of course for geospace applications to the Earth.

  11. Miniaturised TOF mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, U.; Wurz, P.; Whitby, J.

    2003-04-01

    For the BepiColombo misson of ESA to Mercury, we built a prototype of a miniaturised Time of Flight mass spectrometer with a low mass and low power consumption. Particles will be set free form the surface and ionized by short laser pluses. The mass spectrometer is dedicated to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of almost all elements of Mercurys planetary surface with an adequate dynamique range, mass range and mass resolution. We will present first results of our prototype and future designs.

  12. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  13. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  14. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  15. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  16. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  17. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  18. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  19. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  20. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  1. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  2. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  3. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  4. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  5. The Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Meier, A.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer and the other for the inner coma, with each obtaining complementary information in the region for which it is not optimized. The outer coma is characterized by the interaction between solar wind and comentary plasmas, the inner coma by the outflow of cometary neutrals and their ionization products. Both sensors feature mass imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by multidetector arrays. Resultant mass-per-charge resolution is greater than or = 20. Energy per charge, and the elevation and aximuth of incident ions are measured. Calibration and in-flight solar-wind data show that the IMS will meet its scientific goals for the Halley encounter.

  6. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  7. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  8. Recent advances in miniaturization of infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, James T.; Johnson, Edward A.; Bodkin, W. Andrew; Stevenson, William A.; White, David A.

    2000-03-01

    In the past ten years, a number of miniature spectrometers covering the visible and near infrared wavelengths out to 2.5 microns wavelength have been developed and are now commercially available. These small but high performance instruments have taken advantage of continuing advances in high sensitivity detectors--both CCD's and diode arrays, improvements in holographic gratings, and the availability of low-loss optical materials both in bulk and fiber form that transmit at these wavelengths and that can readily be formed into monolithic shapes for complex optical structures. More recently, a number of researchers have addressed the more intractable problems of extending these miniaturization innovations to spectrometers capable of operation in the mid-infrared wavelengths from 3 microns to 12 microns and beyond. Key enabling technologies for this effort include the recent development of high D*, uncooled thermopile and micro-bolometer detector arrays, new low- mass, high-efficiency pulsed infrared sources, and the design and fabrication of novel monolithic optical structures and waveguides using high index infrared optical materials. This paper reviews the development of these innovative infrared spectrometers and, in particular, the development of the `wedge' spectrometer by Foster-Miller, Inc. and the MicroSpecTM, a MEMS-based solid state spectrograph, by Ion Optics, Inc.

  9. Advancing Top-down Analysis of the Human Proteome Using a Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fornelli, Luca; Durbin, Kenneth R; Fellers, Ryan T; Early, Bryan P; Greer, Joseph B; LeDuc, Richard D; Compton, Philip D; Kelleher, Neil L

    2017-02-03

    Over the past decade, developments in high resolution mass spectrometry have enabled the high throughput analysis of intact proteins from complex proteomes, leading to the identification of thousands of proteoforms. Several previous reports on top-down proteomics (TDP) relied on hybrid ion trap-Fourier transform mass spectrometers combined with data-dependent acquisition strategies. To further reduce TDP to practice, we use a quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument coupled with software for proteoform-dependent data acquisition to identify and characterize nearly 2000 proteoforms at a 1% false discovery rate from human fibroblasts. By combining a 3 m/z isolation window with short transients to improve specificity and signal-to-noise for proteoforms >30 kDa, we demonstrate improving proteome coverage by capturing 439 proteoforms in the 30-60 kDa range. Three different data acquisition strategies were compared and resulted in the identification of many proteoforms not observed in replicate data-dependent experiments. Notably, the data set is reported with updated metrics and tools including a new viewer and assignment of permanent proteoform record identifiers for inclusion of highly characterized proteoforms (i.e., those with C-scores >40) in a repository curated by the Consortium for Top-Down Proteomics.

  10. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  11. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  12. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  13. Miniature Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potember, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Major advances must occur to protect astronauts from prolonged periods in near-zero gravity and high radiation associated with extended space travel. The dangers of living in space must be thoroughly understood and methods developed to reverse those effects that cannot be avoided. Six of the seven research teams established by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) are studying biomedical factors for prolonged space travel to deliver effective countermeasures. To develop effective countermeasures, each of these teams require identification of and quantitation of complex pharmacological, hormonal, and growth factor compounds (biomarkers) in humans and in experimental animals to develop an in-depth knowledge of the physiological changes associated with space travel. At present, identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol. Many of these procedures are complicated and the identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol and associated laboratory equipment. To carry all of this equipment and chemicals on a spacecraft would require a complex clinical laboratory; and it would occupy much of the astronauts time. What is needed is a small, efficient, broadband medical diagnostic instrument to rapidly identify important biomarkers for human space exploration. The Miniature Time-Of- Flight Mass Spectrometer Project in the Technology Development Team is developing a small, high resolution, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to quantitatively measure biomarkers for human space exploration. Virtues of the JHU/APL TOFMS technologies reside in the promise for a small (less than one cubic ft), lightweight (less than 5 kg), low-power (less than 50 watts), rugged device that can be used continuously with advanced signal processing diagnostics. To date, the JHU/APL program has demonstrated mass capability from under 100 to beyond 10,000 atomic mass units (amu) in a very small, low power prototype for biological analysis. Further

  14. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E; Ladner, Edward P

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  15. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  16. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  17. Ion Mass Spectrometer Development for JEO Class Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Coplan, M. A.; Chornay, D. J.; Sturner, S. J.; Brown, S. K.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.

    2012-10-01

    Under the Astrobiology Instrument Development Program we have been developing an advanced 3-D ion mass spectrometer (IMS) from 10 V to 30 kV, that can be proposed for missions to Jupiter's icy moons, Uranus, Titan, asteroids, comets, and solar wind.

  18. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  19. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  20. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  1. Thermal desorption mass spectrometer for mass metrology.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Z; Azouigui, S; Bouhtiyya, S; Macé, S; Plimmer, M D; Pinot, P; Tayeb-Chandoul, F; Hannachi, R

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a device for the study of physisorbed elements on polished surfaces (diameter ⩽56 mm) of the kind used in mass metrology. The technique is based on mass spectrometry of molecules desorbed after heating under vacuum of the analyzed surface. We describe a first application of the device to study current and future mass standards in order to understand how their surface reactivity depends on storage conditions, cleaning processes, and polishing methods. Surface contamination analysis by thermal desorption mass spectrometry to examine the effect of cleaning on pure iridium is given as an example.

  2. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  3. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  4. The ion mass spectrometer on Giotto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Benson, J.; Hemmerich, P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer (IMS) system, its calibration, and the initial flight performance are discussed. The IMS system consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer coma, the other for the inner coma, with each sensor obtaining complementary information in the region for which it was not optimized. Both sensors feature mass-imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by means of multi-detector arrays, with resultant mass per charge resolution of not less than 20. In addition to mass per charge, the energy per charge and the elevation and azimuth of the incident ions were measured during the Giotto flight.

  5. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Myers, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  6. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  7. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  8. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  9. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  10. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  11. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result, it is not possible for instructors to take full advantage of this equipment. Therefore, to facilitate accessibility to this tool, we have developed a realistic computer-based simulator. Using this software, students are able to practice their ability to identify the components of the original gas, thereby gaining a better understanding of the underlying physical laws. The software is available as a free download.

  12. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  13. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  14. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  15. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  16. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  17. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  18. Advanced 360o FOV, wide energy range, non-HV, gated time of flight mass spectrometers for Small Satellites and Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.; Nanan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The time of flight technique is widely used for composition analysis of space plasma instruments. The foil - MCP/CEM combination is commonly used for E x TOF mass analysis at the cost of energy threshold, scattering, and direct particle interaction which ultimately affect performance. An alternative method especially effective at low energies is gated time of flight where the start foil is replaced with electric gating. There are several advantages of electric gating, including elimination of heavy HVPS required for pre-reacceleration to overcome foil thresholds, non- destructive interaction with atomic and molecular ions before analysis, and electronic controllability including geometric factor adjustment for flux dynamic range, FOV optimization, electronic filtering of most abundant elements in favor of minor species, and other properties affecting directly the scientific and engineering performance of the instruments. In addition special secondary emission surfaces can be used for triple coincidence when needed. The combination of electric gating and special surfaces works in an extensive energy range from 0 to tens of KeV without the need of start foil/HVPS making thus the use attractive to small satellites and cubesats. Those characteristics will be elaborated in the context of a gated time of flight wide field of view and energy range ion spectrometer combined with a neutral mass spectrometer (WINMS) developed at GSFC. The instrument prototypes have mass resolution adequate to separate N, O, OH, OH2; also static from ram moving H allowing thus separation of outgassing from ambient gases. A first implementation INMS with a mass <600 grams and size <1.5U is the main payload of the EXOCUBE Cubesat mission launched in January 2015 and already produced flight data; a second upgraded implementation is on onboard the GSFC Dellingr 6U CubeSat scheduled for launch in late 2015; and ongoing developments are baselined for other satellite missions.

  19. Calculations for Calibration of a Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations to calibrate a quadrupole mass spectrometer in an instrumentation system for identifying trace amounts of organic chemicals in air. In the operation of the mass spectrometer, the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of ions being counted at a given instant of time is a function of the instantaneous value of a repeating ramp voltage waveform applied to electrodes. The count rate as a function of time can be converted to an m/z spectrum (equivalent to a mass spectrum for singly charged ions), provided that a calibration of m/z is available. The present computer program can perform the calibration in either or both of two ways: (1) Following a data-based approach, it can utilize the count-rate peaks and the times thereof measured when fed with air containing known organic compounds. (2) It can utilize a theoretical proportionality between the instantaneous m/z and the instantaneous value of an oscillating applied voltage. The program can also estimate the error of the calibration performed by the data-based approach. If calibrations are performed in both ways, then the results can be compared to obtain further estimates of errors.

  20. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-06-11

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last few years. This technique uses H₃Oþ as a chemical ionization (CI) reagent to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. Mass spectra acquired with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are simple because proton transfer chemical ionization is ‘soft’ and results in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, peak identification can still be difficult due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). The use of an ITMS is appealing because of its ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates are possible that will allow for detection of multiple compounds. Here we present the first results from a proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype instrument in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second-generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low-ppbv to high-pptv range. Furthermore, the applicability of MS/MS in differentiating between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making differentiation possible, even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. However, MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular masses but with different intensity ratios

  1. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  2. COSIMA Mass Spectrometer for the ROSETTA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, H.; Höfner, H.; Kissel, J.; Koch, A.

    2003-04-01

    The eries COmetary eries Secondary eries Ion eries Mass eries Analyzer (COSIMA) is a german contribution to ESA's ROSETTA mission. The COSIMA instrument has been built by vH&S as prime contractor, with contributions by the MPE in Garching and various institutes from Germany and abroad. COSIMA's principal investigator is Dr. Jochen Kissel, MPE. COSIMA will extend our knowledge about comets by analyzing the chemical composition of the dust from comet Wirtanen, which it will visit in 2011. COSIMA is a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer system. The cometary dust is collected on metal black surfaces of targets, which are exposed to space. There are 24 such targets stored in a manipulation unit. A target is moved by a miniaturized robotic arm either to exposure or into one of three analyze positions: In one position, a microscopic camera localizes dust grains on the target and calculates their coordinates. In another position, the chemistry station, targets are thermally treated to later analyze modifications by heat. The third, main position is the analyzing spot of the TOF spectrometer; here a pulsed primary ion beam with energy 8 keV partially ionizes the dust grain. The secondary ions are extracted by an electrostatic lens and accelerated to an energy of 1 keV. The ions travel through a drift tube free of electrical fields; they are reflected at its end by an electrostatic reflector, travel back through the same tube, and finally hit an ion detector (microsphere plate with discriminating amplifier). From the individual flight times of the secondary ions a time-of-flight spectrum is assembled, which corresponds to the mass spectrum of the analyzed grain. The primary ions are generated by a liquid-metal Indium source. An ion-optical system, consisting of a beam switch, lenses, chopper, buncher stages, and deflection plates, forms the focused primary ion pulse. An auxiliary Indium source is used for sputtering/cleaning the targets and serves for redundancy by a

  3. Miniaturised Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, U.; Benz, W.; Whitby, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Schulz, R.; Romstedt, J.

    2004-04-01

    Originally intended for the European Space Agency's BepiColombo mission to Mercury, we have built a series of highly miniaturised laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometers (LMS), suitable for in situ measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of the surface of airless planetary bodies. The instruments will determine ma jor, minor, and trace element abundances in minerals on a spatial scale of 10 m, and will have sufficient dynamic range and mass resolution to perform useful isotopic measurements in favourable cases. Solid material is simultaneously evaporated and ionised by means of laser ablation, requiring intense pulsed laser radiation. Laser ablation was chosen as the sample introduction technique principally because of its high spatial resolution and the lack of any need for sample preparation. Advantages of the technique include simplicity of the resulting design, speed of measurement, and the ability for depth profiling (potentially important for a regolith in which mineral grains are coated with impact produced glass). Time of flight mass spectrometers are simple, robust devices that couple well to a pulsed ion source and we have previous experience of their construction for space flight, e.g. the ROSINA instrument suite for the ROSETTA mission. For BepiColombo, we have built two prototype instruments, one with a design mass of 500 g and a volume comparable to a beer can intended to be deployed on a static lander, and a smaller cigarettebox sized version with a design mass of 250 g, small enough to be integrated in a rover or robotic arm.

  4. SIPT--An Ultrasensitive Mass Spectrometer for Rare Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringle, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few decades, advances in radioactive beam facilities like the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) have made short-lived, rare-isotope beams available for study in various science areas, and new facilities, like the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at MSU, will provide even more exotic rare isotopes. The determination of the masses of these rare isotopes is of utmost importance since it provides a direct measurement of the binding energy of the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. For this purpose we are currently developing a dedicated Single-Ion Penning Trap (SIPT) mass spectrometer at NSCL to handle the specific challenges posed by rare isotopes. These challenges, which include short half-lives and extremely low production rates, are dealt with by employing the narrowband FT-ICR detection method under cryogenic conditions. Used in concert with the 9.4-T time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the 7-T SIPT system will ensure that the LEBIT mass measurement program at MSU will make optimal use of the wide range of rare isotope beams provided by the future FRIB facility, addressing such topics as nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, and fundamental interactions. Over the last few decades, advances in radioactive beam facilities like the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU) have made short-lived, rare-isotope beams available for study in various science areas, and new facilities, like the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at MSU, will provide even more exotic rare isotopes. The determination of the masses of these rare isotopes is of utmost importance since it provides a direct measurement of the binding energy of the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. For this purpose we are currently developing a dedicated Single-Ion Penning Trap (SIPT) mass

  5. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-07-07

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last several years. This technique uses H3O+ as a chemical ionization (CI) agent for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) - parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. PTR-MS mass spectra are simple because the ionization method of proton transfer is “soft”, resulting in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, the simplicity of the mass spectra can cause problems in peak identification due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). ITMS is appealing because of the ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates can be realized for detection of multiple compounds. We present here the first results from a Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype interface in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated for the PTR-ITMS. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low ppbv to pptv range. Furthermore the applicability of MS/MS to differentiate between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making a differentiation possible even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular weight but different ratios, allowing quantitative distinction only if one species

  6. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  7. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  8. Rapid discrimination of bacteria using a miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Christopher J; Wei, Pu; Snyder, Dalton T; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Zheng; Pielak, Rafal M; Graham Cooks, R

    2016-03-07

    Bacteria colonies were analyzed using paper spray ionization coupled with a portable mass spectrometer. The spectra were averaged and processed using multivariate analysis to discriminate between different species of bacteria based on their unique phospholipid profiles. Full scan mass spectra and product ion MS/MS data were compared to those recorded using a benchtop linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

  9. Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W.; Cravens, T.; Luhmann, J.; McNutt, R.; Ip, W.-H.; Gell, D.; Muller-Wordag, I. C. F.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) aboard the Cassini orbiter has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in its first flyby of Titan. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon s upper atmosphere do not appear to be changed since the Voyager flyby in 1979. However, the more sensitive techniques provided by modern in-situ mass spectrometry also give evidence for large-spatial-scale large-amplitude atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and for a plethora of stable carbon-nitrile compounds above 1174 km. Furthermore, they allow the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which provide interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The atmosphere was first accreted as ammonia and ammonia ices from the Saturn sub-nebula. Subsequent photochemistry likely converted the atmosphere into molecular nitrogen. The early atmosphere was 1.5 to 5 times more substantial and was lost via escape over the intervening 4.5 billion years due to the reduced gravity associated with the relatively small mass of Titan. Carbon in the form of methane has continued to outgas over time from the interior with much of it being deposited in the form of complex hydrocarbons on the surface and some of it also being lost to space.

  10. Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer via an isolating stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Driving a quadrupole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  11. Quadrupole mass spectrometer driver with higher signal levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Driving a quadrapole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  12. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  13. Open-split interface for mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Diehl, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An open-split interface includes a connector body having four leg members projecting therefrom within a single plane, the first and third legs being coaxial and the second and fourth legs being coaxial. A tubular aperture extends through the first and third legs and a second tubular aperture extends through the second and fourth legs, connecting at a juncture within the center of the connector body. A fifth leg projects from the connector body and has a third tubular aperture extending therethrough to the juncture of the first and second tubular apertures. A capillary column extends from a gas chromatograph into the third leg with its end adjacent the juncture. A flow restrictor tube extends from a mass spectrometer through the first tubular aperture in the first and third legs and into the capillary columnm end, so as to project beyond the end of the third leg within the capillary column. An annular gap between the tube and column allows excess effluent to pass to the juncture. A pair of short capillary columns extend from separate detectors into the second tubular aperture in the second and fourth legs, and are oriented with their ends spaced slightly from the first capillary column end. A sweep flow tube is mounted in the fifth leg so as to supply a helium sweep flow to the juncture.

  14. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  15. Synchronised Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, Eiko

    2010-05-01

    Up to twelve Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMSs) were operated simultaneously at rural and background stations (EMEP and EUSAAR sites) across Europe. Measurements took place during three intensive periods, in collaboration between the European EUCAARI IP and the EMEP monitoring activities under the UNECE Convention for Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) during three contrasting months (May 2008, Sep/Oct 2008, Feb/Mar 2009). These measurements were conducted, analysed and quality controlled carefully using a unified protocol, providing the largest spatial database of aerosol chemical composition measured with a unified online technique to date, and a unique snapshots of the European non-refractory submicron aerosol climatology. As campaign averages over all active monitoring sites, organics represent 28 to 43%, sulphate 18 to 25%, ammonium 13 to 15% and nitrate 15 to 36% of the resolved aerosol mass, with the highest relative nitrate contribution during the Feb/Mar campaign. The measurements demonstrate that in NW Europe (e.g. Ireland, UK, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland) the regional submicron aerosol tends to be neutralised and here nitrates make a major contribution to the aerosol mass. By contrast, periods with low nitrate and acidic aerosol were observed at sites in S and E Europe (e.g. Greece, Finland), presumably due to a combination of larger SO2 point sources in Easter Europe, smaller local NH3 sources and, in the case of Greece, higher temperatures. While at the more marine and remote sites (Ireland, Scotland, Finland) nitrate concentrations were dominated by episodic transport phenomena, at continental sites (Switzerland, Germany, Hungary) nitrate followed a clear diurnal cycle, reflecting the thermodynamic behaviour of ammonium nitrate. The datasets clearly shows spatially co-ordinated, large-scale pollution episodes of organics, sulphate and nitrate, the latter being most pronounced during the Feb/Mar campaign. At selected

  16. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This work is aimed at understanding the aspects of designing a miniature mass spectrometer (MS) system. A multitude of commercial and government sectors, such as the military, environmental agencies and industrial manufacturers of semiconductors, refrigerants, and petroleum products, would find a small, portable, rugged and reliable MS system beneficial. Several types of small MS systems are evaluated and discussed, including linear quadrupole, quadrupole ion trap, time of flight and sector. The performance of each system in terms of accuracy, precision, limits of detection, response time, recovery time, scan rate, volume and weight is assessed. A performance scale is setup to rank each systems and an overall performance score is given to each system. All experiments involved the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in a nitrogen background with the concentrations of the components of interest ranging from 0-5000 part-per-million (ppm). The relative accuracies of the systems vary from < 1% to approx. 40% with an average below 10%. Relative precisions varied from 1% to 20%, with an average below 5%. The detection limits had a large distribution, ranging from 0.2 to 170 ppm. The systems had a diverse response time ranging from 4 s to 210 s as did the recovery time with a 6 s to 210 s distribution. Most instruments had scan times near, 1 s, however one instrument exceeded 13 s. System weights varied from 9 to 52 kg and sizes from 15 x 10(exp 3)cu cm to 110 x 10(exp 3) cu cm.

  17. Inficon Transpector MPH Mass Spectrometer Random Vibration Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Bond, Jo; Captain, Janine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this test report is to summarize results from the vibration testing of the INFICON Transpector MPH100M model Mass Spectrometer. It also identifies requirements satisfied, and procedures used in the test. As a payload of Resource Prospector, it is necessary to determine the survivability of the mass spectrometer to proto-qualification level random vibration. Changes in sensitivity of the mass spectrometer can be interpreted as a change in alignment of the instrument. The results of this test will be used to determine any necessary design changes as the team moves forward with flight design.

  18. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  19. Method for increasing the dynamic range of mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail; Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.

    2004-09-07

    A method for enhancing the dynamic range of a mass spectrometer by first passing a sample of ions through the mass spectrometer having a quadrupole ion filter, whereupon the intensities of the mass spectrum of the sample are measured. From the mass spectrum, ions within this sample are then identified for subsequent ejection. As further sampling introduces more ions into the mass spectrometer, the appropriate rf voltages are applied to a quadrupole ion filter, thereby selectively ejecting the undesired ions previously identified. In this manner, the desired ions may be collected for longer periods of time in an ion trap, thus allowing better collection and subsequent analysis of the desired ions. The ion trap used for accumulation may be the same ion trap used for mass analysis, in which case the mass analysis is performed directly, or it may be an intermediate trap. In the case where collection is an intermediate trap, the desired ions are accumulated in the intermediate trap, and then transferred to a separate mass analyzer. The present invention finds particular utility where the mass analysis is performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer or a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

  20. Advanced x-ray imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, John L. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An x-ray spectrometer that also provides images of an x-ray source. Coded aperture imaging techniques are used to provide high resolution images. Imaging position-sensitive x-ray sensors with good energy resolution are utilized to provide excellent spectroscopic performance. The system produces high resolution spectral images of the x-ray source which can be viewed in any one of a number of specific energy bands.

  1. Mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.

    2000-07-25

    A mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus is provided. The sample presentation apparatus has a complex bound to the surface of the sample presentation apparatus. This complex includes a molecule which may chemically modify a biomolecule.

  2. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  3. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  4. Spacecraft Applications of Compact Optical and Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davinic, N. M.; Nagel, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Optical spectrometers, and mass spectrometers to a lesser extent, have a long and rich history of use aboard spacecraft. Space mission applications include deep space science spacecraft, earth orbiting satellites, atmospheric probes, and surface landers, rovers, and penetrators. The large size of capable instruments limited their use to large, expensive spacecraft. Because of the novel application of micro-fabrication technologies, compact optical and mass spectrometers are now available. The new compact devices are especially attractive for spacecraft because of their small mass and volume, as well as their low power consumption. Dispersive optical multi-channel analyzers which cover the 0.4-1.1 micrometer wavelength are now commercially available in packages as small as 3 x 6 x 18 mm exclusive of drive and recording electronics. Mass spectrometers as small as 3 x 3 mm, again without electronics, are under development. A variety of compact optical and mass spectrometers are reviewed in this paper. A number of past space applications are described, along with some upcoming opportunities that are likely candidate missions to fly this new class of compact spectrometers.

  5. High-performance double-focusing mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Double focusing was first employed when mass spectrometers of a simpler design were not capable any longer to satisfy increasing demands in mass spectroscopy. One of the successful instruments of the 1930's was the mass spectrometer designed by Mattauch and Herzog (1934). The compactness of the Mattauch-Herzog geometry became particularly important in connection with studies involving the employment of rockets, satellites, or space probes. Another advantage of the considered spectrometer is related to the capability of measuring several masses of ions simultaneously. The instrument design was, therefore adopted for some rocket flights to the upper atmosphere, the investigation of the upper atmosphere of Mars, and for studying the upper atmosphere of Venus. Attention is given to laboratory applications involving the instrument in a somewhat enlarged version, and aspects of instrument operation and performance.

  6. EXTENDING THE USEFUL LIFE OF OLDER MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

    2010-06-17

    Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261{trademark} Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

  7. Miniature Focusing Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, Isik; Srivastava, Santosh

    2005-01-01

    An improved miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed in a continuing effort to minimize the sizes, weights, power demands, and costs of mass spectrometers for such diverse applications as measurement of concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere, detecting poisonous gases in mines, and analyzing exhaust gases of automobiles. Advantageous characteristics of this mass spectrometer include the following: It is simple and rugged. Relative to prior mass spectrometers, it is inexpensive to build. There is no need for precise alignment of its components. Its mass range is practically unlimited Relative to prior mass spectrometers, it offers high sensitivity (ability to measure relative concentrations as small as parts per billion). Its resolution is one dalton (one atomic mass unit). An entire mass spectrum is recorded in a single pulse. (In a conventional mass spectrometer, a spectrum is recorded mass by mass.) The data-acquisition process takes only seconds. It is a lightweight, low-power, portable instrument. Although time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) have been miniaturized previously, their performances have not been completely satisfactory. An inherent adverse effect of miniaturization of a TOF-MS is a loss of resolution caused by reduction of the length of its flight tube. In the present improved TOF-MS, the adverse effect of shortening the flight tube is counteracted by (1) using charged-particle optics to constrain ion trajectories to the flight-tube axis while (2) reducing ion velocities to increase ion flight times. In the present improved TOF-MS, a stream of gas is generated by use of a hypodermic needle. The stream of gas is crossed by an energy-selected, pulsed beam of electrons (see Figure 1). The ions generated by impingement of the electrons on the gas atoms are then focused by three cylindrical electrostatic lenses, which constitute a segmented flight tube. After traveling along the flight tube, the ions enter a charged

  8. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus.

  9. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1993-12-21

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus. 5 figures.

  10. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  11. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  12. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  13. Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William

    2008-01-01

    Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

  14. Quantitative proteomics using the high resolution accurate mass capabilities of the quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Domon, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    High resolution/accurate mass hybrid mass spectrometers have considerably advanced shotgun proteomics and the recent introduction of fast sequencing capabilities has expanded its use for targeted approaches. More specifically, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument has a unique configuration and its new features enable a wide range of experiments. An overview of the analytical capabilities of this instrument is presented, with a focus on its application to quantitative analyses. The high resolution, the trapping capability and the versatility of the instrument have allowed quantitative proteomic workflows to be redefined and new data acquisition schemes to be developed. The initial proteomic applications have shown an improvement of the analytical performance. However, as quantification relies on ion trapping, instead of ion beam, further refinement of the technique can be expected.

  15. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  16. The History of Planetary Exploration Using Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    At the Planetary Probe Workshop Dr. Paul Mahaffy will give a tutorial on the history of planetary exploration using mass spectrometers. He will give an introduction to the problems and solutions that arise in making in situ measurements at planetary targets using this instrument class.

  17. A Rocket-borne Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Mesosphere That is Pumped by Rocket Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S.; Robertson, S.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Rocket-borne mass spectrometers for ions have been flown that were evacuated by cryogenic vacuum pumps with liquid helium or neon. There have not been flights since 1993 because these instruments required expensive deliveries of cryogens and frequent refillings. Advances in (1) aerodynamic modeling, (2) mass spectrometer design, and (3) ion detection technology make possible a new approach to mass spectrometry in the mesosphere in which the spectrometer is pumped by the flow around the rocket. First, the Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo method has been applied to simulating the air flow around the rocket payload. We find that if the forward deck of the payload is supported on a stalk of smaller diameter (10 cm for example), that a low-density void is created below the forward deck by the flow around the payload, assuming that the payload is pointed in the ram direction. The air density below the deck is reduced from ambient by a factor 7 and 15 at altitudes of 80 and 90 km, respectively. The mass spectrometer is exhausted into this void which acts as a pump. In a conservative scenario, the spectrometer is kept evacuated on the upleg then opened at the apogee both at the inlet and exit. Data are acquired on the downleg to 70 km, below which the pressure in the low-density void becomes too high. Second, we use the rotating field mass spectrometer which operates at higher pressure (up to 30 mTorr) than the quadrupole spectrometer because the ion path length is shorter (2 cm) and because a larger ion acceleration potential is used that reduces the ion-neutral collision cross section. Third, we use a new design of channel electron multiplier that has been shown to operate at pressures up to 10 mTorr in the lab, corresponding to the number density at approximately 80 km in the arctic winter.

  18. Design and development of a fast ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Two Fast Ion Mass Spectrometers (FIMS A and FIMS B) were developed. The design, development, construction, calibration, integration, and flight of these instruments, along with early results from the data analysis efforts are summarized. A medium energy ion mass spectrometer that covers mass velocity space with significantly higher time resolution, improved mass resolution, (particularly for heavier ions), and wider energy range than existing instruments had achieved was completed. The initial design consisted of a dual channel cylindrical electrostatic analyzer followed by a dual channel cylindrical velocity filter. The gain versus count rate characteristics of the high current channel electron multipliers (CEM's), which were chosen for ion detection, revealed a systematic behavior that can be used as a criterion for selection of CEM's for long counting lifetimes.

  19. Implementing photodissociation in an Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Vasicek, Lisa A; Ledvina, Aaron R; Shaw, Jared; Griep-Raming, Jens; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2011-06-01

    We modified a dual pressure linear ion trap Orbitrap to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in the higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) cell for high resolution analysis. A number of parameters, including the pressures of the C-trap and HCD cell, the radio frequency (rf) amplitude applied to the C-trap, and the HCD DC offset, were evaluated to optimize IRMPD efficiency and maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio. IRMPD was utilized for characterization of phosphopeptides, supercharged peptides, and N-terminal modified peptides, as well as for top-down protein analysis. The high resolution and high mass accuracy capabilities of the Orbitrap analyzer facilitated confident assignment of product ions arising from IRMPD.

  20. Implementing Photodissociation in an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Vasicek, Lisa A.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Shaw, Jared; Griep-Raming, Jens; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    We modified a dual pressure linear ion trap Orbitrap to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in the higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) cell for high resolution analysis. A number of parameters, including the pressures of the C-trap and HCD cell, the radio frequency (rf) amplitude applied to the C-trap, and the HCD DC offset, were evaluated to optimize IRMPD efficiency and maintain a high signal-to-noise ratio. IRMPD was utilized for characterization of phosphopeptides, supercharged peptides, and N-terminal modified peptides, as well as for top-down protein analysis. The high resolution and high mass accuracy capabilities of the Orbitrap analyzer facilitated confident assignment of product ions arising from IRMPD. PMID:21953052

  1. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.; Bond, L. A.; Freedman, P. A.; Tattersall, B. N.; Lagergren, C. R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90 deg deflection magnets with boundaries 18 deg off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives a mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100 percent transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16 percent increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M - 1/2 = (6.5 +/- 0.5)(10)(exp -10) and M + 1/2 = (3.1 +/- 0.8)(10)(exp -10). By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is M - 1 = 1(10)(exp -10). Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  2. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffels, J.J.; Ells, D.R.; Bond, L.A.; Freedman, P.A.; Tattersall, B.N.; Lagergren, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90{degrees} -deflection magnets with boundaries 18{degrees} off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100% transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16% increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M {minus} 1/2 = (6.5 {plus_minus} 0.5){times} 0{sup {minus}10} M + 1/2 = (3.1 {plus_minus} 0.8) {times} 10{sup {minus}10}. By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is m {minus} 1 = 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}10}. Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  3. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffels, J.J.; Ells, D.R.; Bond, L.A. ); Freedman, P.A.; Tattersall, B.N. ); Lagergren, C.R. )

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90[degrees] -deflection magnets with boundaries 18[degrees] off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100% transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16% increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M [minus] 1/2 = (6.5 [plus minus] 0.5)[times] 0[sup [minus]10] M + 1/2 = (3.1 [plus minus] 0.8) [times] 10[sup [minus]10]. By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is m [minus] 1 = 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]10]. Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  4. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  5. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to allow

  6. Development of an Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS) was purchased from EXTREL Mass Spectrometry, Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA). Our research objectives were to adapt this instrument and develop techniques for real-time determinations of the concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. The prototype instrument is capable of making high frequency measurements with no sample preconcentrations. Isotopically labeled standards are used as an internal standard to obtain high precision and to compensate for changes in instrument sensitivity and analyte losses in the sampling manifold as described by Bandy and coworkers. The prototype instrument is capable of being deployed on NASA C130, Electra, P3, and DC8 aircraft. After purchasing and taking delivery by June 1994, we assembled the mass spectrometer, data acquisition, and manifold flow control instrumentation in electronic racks and performed tests.

  7. Mini Mass Spectrometer Integrated with a Miniature Ion Funnel.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yanbing; Zhang, Xiaohua; Xu, Hualei; Zheng, Yongchang; Yuan, Tao; Xu, Wei

    2017-03-14

    Previously, a continuous atmospheric pressure interfaced miniature mass spectrometer was developed in our lab. The continuous atmospheric pressure interface improves system robustness, stability, and scan speed, but it also results in limited ion transfer efficiency and reduced mass resolution. To solve these problems, a miniature ion funnel was designed and integrated into the miniature mass spectrometer for the first time. Besides ion transfer efficiency, dimension and power consumption of the ion funnel also need to be considered throughout the design process. After a systematic optimization, the designed miniature ion funnel could increase ion transfer efficiency by more than 10 times, while lowering the background pressure of ion trap by ∼2 times. As a result, sensitivity and mass resolution of the second generation miniature mass spectrometer were improved by 20 times and ∼2 times, respectively, while maintaining its high scan speed and stability. A sensitive and robust mini-MS, capable of coupling with ambient ionization sources would meet the needs of many on-site chemical analysis applications, such as in food, drug, and agricultural administrations, forensic science, homeland security, and etc.

  8. Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) designed and built by Hasso Niemann has revolutionized our understanding of the Saturn system and demonstrated the importance of mass spectrometry as a tool for understanding formation, evolution, and chemical processes. In this talk that honors the accomplishments of Hasso I will discuss: 1) the major discoveries of INMS at Titan, Enceladus, and the other icy moons of Saturn, 2) the new perspective this has given us on understanding the formation and evolution of the outer solar system, and 3) the implications for future studies in the outer solar system using mass spectrometry.

  9. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40

  10. Miniature mass spectrometer systems based on a microengineered quadrupole filter.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Andrew; Wright, Steven; Syms, Richard R A; Dash, Neil; Schwab, Marc-André; Finlay, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Two miniature mass spectrometer systems based on a microengineered quadrupole mass filter have been developed. One of the instruments has a footprint of 27 cm x 20 cm and is intended for laboratory use when space is at a premium. The other is portable and intended for use in the field. It is battery powered, weighs 14.9 kg, and is housed in a rugged case. This is the first example of a portable mass spectrometer incorporating an analyzer fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. The starting material for construction of the filters is a bonded silicon on insulator substrate, which is selectively etched using batch processing techniques to form coupling optics and springs that accurately hold 0.5 mm diameter stainless steel rods in the required geometry. Assembled filters measure 35 mm x 6 mm x 1.5 mm and are mounted, together with an ion source and channeltron detector, in small, interchangeable cartridges, which plug into a 220 cm(3) vacuum chamber. Recovery from accidental contamination or when servicing is required can be achieved within 5-10 min, as the cartridge is easily exchanged with a spare. A potential application to environmental monitoring has been investigated. The headspace above water spiked with dibutyl mercaptan was sampled with a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber, which was then injected directly into the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer. Using this method, the limit of detection was found to be approximately 5 ppm for a 15 s sampling period.

  11. Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer Experimental Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1994-01-01

    Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass-to-charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained trom the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment during re-entry on the STS-35 mission. The principal experimental objective is to obtain measurements of freestream density in the hypersonic rarefied flow flight regime. Data were collected from 180 to about 87 km. However, data above 115 km were contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transdueers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data are compared to the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions. The freestream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere model, exhibits the wavelike nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. Selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump.

  12. Absolute calibration of Apollo lunar orbital mass spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, P. R.; Smith, A.; Jackson, J. J.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Recent experiments were conducted in Langley Research Center's molecular beam system to perform an absolute calibration of the lunar orbital mass spectrometer which was flown on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions. Tests were performed with several models of the instrument using two test gases, argon and neon, in the 1 ntorr to .1 picotorr range. Sensitivity to argon at spacecraft orbital velocity was .00028 A/torr enabling partial pressures in the .01-picotorr range to be measured at the spacecraft altitude. Neon sensitivity was nearly a factor of 5 less. Test data support the feasibility of using the lunar orbital mass spectrometer as a tool to gather information about the lunar atmosphere.

  13. Mass spectrometer. [On Space Transportation System 2 Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.; Carignan, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) operates in the range from 2 to 150 amu. It is pointed out that the Mass Spectrometer on STS-2 performed very well. It was found that the column density of H2O effluent from the Shuttle reached a maximum of 1 x 10 to the 13th per sq cm at 7 hr, 30 min and decreased by a factor of 7.5 during the subsequent 40 hrs. The count rate response of H2O could be correlated with mission-related events, taking into account the dumping of supply water, the operation of the Flash Evaporator System, and the firing of a primary reaction control system engine.

  14. High-efficiency electron ionizer for a mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Darrach, Murray R. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved electron ionizer for use in a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The improved electron ionizer includes a repeller plate that ejects sample atoms or molecules, an ionizer chamber, a cathode that emits an electron beam into the ionizer chamber, an exit opening for excess electrons to escape, at least one shim plate to collimate said electron beam, extraction apertures, and a plurality of lens elements for focusing the extracted ions onto entrance apertures.

  15. Quadrupole Ion/Neutral Mass Spectrometer for Space Shuttle Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-07

    fCon linue on reverse if neeec’O ond ientify by block number) _ A Quadrupole Ion/Neutral Mass Spectrometer (QINMS) was developed for the fourth flight...The charging of spacecraft surfaces, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys. 19:577-616. 16. Paul , W., Rheinhard, H. P., and von Zahn, U. (1958) Das elektrische...massenfilter als massenspektrometer und isotopentrenner, Z. Ph sik 152:143-182. Paul , W., and Steinwedel, H. (1953) Z. Naturforsch 8a:448. Paul , W

  16. Non-destructive ion trap mass spectrometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Frankevich, Vladimir E.; Soni, Manish H.; Nappi, Mario; Santini, Robert E.; Amy, Jonathan W.; Cooks, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to an ion trap mass spectrometer of the type having an ion trapping volume defined by spaced end caps and a ring electrode. The ion trap includes a small sensing electrode which senses characteristic motion of ions trapped in said trapping volume and provides an image current. Ions are excited into characteristic motion by application of an excitation pulse to the trapped ions. The invention also relates to a method of operating such an ion trap.

  17. Methods for SWATH™: Data Independent Acquisition on TripleTOF Mass Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Holewinski, Ronald J; Parker, Sarah J; Matlock, Andrea D; Venkatraman, Vidya; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2016-01-01

    Data independent acquisition (DIA also termed SWATH) is an emerging technology in the field of mass spectrometry based proteomics. Although the concept of DIA has been around for over a decade, the recent advancements, in particular the speed of acquisition, of mass analyzers have pushed the technique into the spotlight and allowed for high-quality DIA data to be routinely acquired by proteomics labs. In this chapter we will discuss the protocols used for DIA acquisition using the Sciex TripleTOF mass spectrometers and data analysis using the Sciex processing software.

  18. Sector field mass spectrometers in ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Norbert; Moens, Luc; Vanhaecke, Frank

    1998-11-01

    A new generation of sector field mass spectrometers, with improved analytical figures of merit at even lower prices, is commercially available, giving a strong impetus to the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) sector field instrument applications in the analytical community. It is the aim of this paper to give an overview of these instruments, to introduce some basic concepts, to discuss their peculiarities and performance, and to present some selected examples of analytical applications to demonstrate the `state of the art'.

  19. The magnetic ion-mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.; Hanson, W. B.; Lippincott, C. R.; Ferguson , E. E.

    1973-01-01

    The magnetic ion-mass spectrometer is designed to measure the abundances of the ambient positive ions in the ionosphere. It will be calibrated in flight against the retarding-potential analyzer and the cylindrical electrostatic probe to give absolute concentration data for the ion species detected. These parameters can be measured to approximately plus or minus 10% in well-behaved regions where concentrations are above 1000/cu cm. However, in highly structured polar regions, some degradation in accuracy may be expected. Three mass ranges, covered simultaneously by the scan of the instrument, 1 to 4, 4 to 16, and 16 to 64 amu, permit measurement of the entire mass range, 1 to 64 amu, in 1 sec in the main (peaks) mode. An alternate mode, analog-long, will extend the mass range to 90 amu with a 9-sec period.

  20. A Remote Laser Mass Spectrometer for Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Williams, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The use of lasers as a source of excitation for surface mass spectroscopy has been investigated for some time. Since the laser can be focused to a small spot with intensity, it can vaporize and accelerate atoms of material. Using this phenomenon with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer allows a surface elemental mass analysis of a small region with each laser pulse. While the technique has been well developed for Earth applications, space applications are less developed. NASA Langley recently began a research program to investigate the use of a laser to create ions from the lunar surface and to analyze the ions at an orbiting spacecraft. A multijoule, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser would be focused to a small spot on the lunar surface, creating a dense plasma. This plasma would eject high-energy ions, as well as neutrals, electrons, and photons. An experiment is being set up to determine the characteristics of such a laser mass spectrometer at long flight distances. This experiment will determine the character of a future flight instrument for lunar resource assessment.

  1. Titan's Topside Ionospheric Composition: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Mass Spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Hartle, Richard; Ali, Ashraf; Cooper, John; Lipatov, Alexander; Simpson, David; Sarantos, Menelaos; Chornay, Dennis; Smith, Todd

    2017-01-01

    We present ion composition measurements of Titan's topside ionosphere using both T9 and T15 Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) measurements. The IMS is able to make measurements of Titan's ionosphere due to ionospheric outflows as originally reported for the T9 flyby. This allows one to take advantage of the unique capabilities of the CAPS IMS which measures both the mass-per-charge (M/Q) of the ions and the fragments of the ions produced inside the sensor such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen fragments. Specific attention will be given to such ions as NH4 +, N +, O +, CH4 +, CxHy +, and HCNH + ions as examples. The CAPS IMS uses a time-of-flight (TOF) technique which accelerates ions up to 14.6 kV, so they can pass through ultra-thin carbon foils. Neutral fragments are used to measure the ion M/Q and positive fragments to measure the atomic components. We preliminarily find, by using IMS measurements of T9 and T15 ionospheric outflows, evidence for methane group ions, nitrogen ions, ammonium ions, water group ions and CnHm + ions with n = 2, 3, and 4 within Titan's topside ionosphere. E.C. Sittler acknowledges support at Goddard Space Flight Center by the CAPS Cassini Project from JPL funds under contract # NAS703001TONMO711123/1405851.

  2. Determination of aerosol ammonium using an aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delia, A. E.; Toohey, D. W.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2003-04-01

    The chemical composition of fine aerosols is a significant issue both because it influences the chemical and radiative properties of the aerosols, which in turn impact the regional and global climate and human health, and because it is difficult to measure accurately. The Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) developed by Aerodyne Research measures both chemical composition and aerodynamic size of submicron aerosols quantitatively. However, the measurement of aerosol ammonium is more difficult than that of the other major inorganic species, nitrate and sulfate, because of interferences in the mass spectrum from air and water. This presentation will describe the successful procedure developed for dealing with these interferences and accurately determining the ammonium mass. In addition, the application of this procedure to aerosols from a range of ambient conditions will be demonstrated using data from several field studies.

  3. Correcting peak deformation in Rosetta's ROSINA/DFMS mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keyser, Johan; Dhooghe, Frederik; Gibbons, Andrew; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Briois, Christelle; Calmonte, Ursina; Cessateur, Gaël; Equeter, Eddy; Fiethe, Björn; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Gunell, Herbert; Hässig, Myrttha; Le Roy, Léna; Maggiolo, Romain; Neefs, Eddy; Rubin, Martin; Sémon, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    The Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS), part of the ROSINA instrument package aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft visiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, experiences minor deformation of the mass peaks in the high resolution spectra acquired for m/Z = 16, 17, and to a lesser extent 18. A numerical deconvolution technique has been developed with a two-fold purpose. A first goal is to verify whether the most likely cause of the issue, a lack of stability of one of the electric potentials in the electrostatic analyser, can indeed be held responsible for it. The second goal is to correct for the deformation, in view of the important species located around these masses, and to allow a standard further treatment of the spectra in the automated DFMS data processing chain.

  4. Study of a micro chamber quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinchan; Zhang Xiaobing; Mao Fuming; Xiao Mei; Cui Yunkang; Engelsen, Daniel den; Lei Wei

    2008-03-15

    The design of a micro chamber quadrupole mass spectrometer (MCQMS) having a small total volume of only 20 cm{sup 3}, including Faraday cup ion detector and ion source, is described. This MCQMS can resist a vacuum baking temperature of 400-500 deg. C. The quadrupole elements with a hyperbolic surface are made of a ceramic material and coated with a thin metal layer. The quadrupole mass filter has a field radius of 3 mm and a length of 100 mm. Prototypes of this new MCQMS can detect a minimum partial pressure of 10{sup -8} Pa, have a peak width of {delta}M=1 at 10% peak height from mass number 1 to 60, and show an excellent long-term stability. The new MCQMS is intended to be used in residual gas analyses of electron devices during a mutual pumping and baking process.

  5. Mass Spectrometer Output File Format mzML

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important technique for analyzing proteins and other biomolecular compounds in biological samples. Each of the vendors of these mass spectrometers uses a different proprietary binary output file format, which has hindered data sharing and the development of open source software for downstream analysis. The solution has been to develop, with the full participation of academic researchers as well as software and hardware vendors, an open XML-based format for encoding mass spectrometer output files, and then to write software to use this format for archiving, sharing, and processing. This chapter presents the various components and information available for this format, mzML. In addition to the XML schema that defines the file structure, a controlled vocabulary provides clear terms and definitions for the spectral metadata, and a semantic validation rules mapping file allows the mzML semantic validator to insure that an mzML document complies with one of several levels of requirements. Complete documentation and example files insure that the format may be uniformly implemented. At the time of release there already existed several implementations of the format and vendors have committed to supporting the format in their products. PMID:20013381

  6. Mass spectrometer output file format mzML.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important technique for analyzing proteins and other biomolecular compounds in biological samples. Each of the vendors of these mass spectrometers uses a different proprietary binary output file format, which has hindered data sharing and the development of open source software for downstream analysis. The solution has been to develop, with the full participation of academic researchers as well as software and hardware vendors, an open XML-based format for encoding mass spectrometer output files, and then to write software to use this format for archiving, sharing, and processing. This chapter presents the various components and information available for this format, mzML. In addition to the XML schema that defines the file structure, a controlled vocabulary provides clear terms and definitions for the spectral metadata, and a semantic validation rules mapping file allows the mzML semantic validator to insure that an mzML document complies with one of several levels of requirements. Complete documentation and example files insure that the format may be uniformly implemented. At the time of release, there already existed several implementations of the format and vendors have committed to supporting the format in their products.

  7. Continuous time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2004-10-19

    A continuous time-of-flight mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating an electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the electric field. A source of continuous ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between arrival of a secondary electron out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a first predetermined location and arrival of a sample ion out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a second predetermined location.

  8. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  9. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOEpatents

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  10. Ion mass spectrometer experiment for ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program of NASA was the longest duration program in NASA history. A number of satellites were flown under this program, the last being called ISIS-2, which was launched on April 1, 1971 and operated successfully for over 13 years. An experiment called the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) was flown on the ISIS-2 spacecraft. It operated for 10 years providing a large data base of positive ion composition and ion flow velocities along the orbit of the satellite, the latter being circular at 1400 km with a 90 degree inclination. The data were processed and reside in the National Space Sciences Data Center.

  11. Personal computer based Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shenheng; Jones, Patrick R.

    1988-12-01

    An IBM PC AT compatible computer is used to host the interface of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer or FTMS. A common fast memory bank for both ion-excitation waveform and data acquisition is reserved in the computer's system memory space. All the digital electronics circuitry is assembled on an IBM PC AT extension board. Neither an external frequency synthesizer nor a waveform digitizer is needed. Ion-excitation waveforms can be generated in either frequency-sweeping or inverse-Fourier transform modes. Both excitation and data acquisition can be carried out at eight megawords per second.

  12. Characteristics and performance of several mass spectrometer residual gas analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultzman, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The operation and properties of various mass-spectrometer residual gas analyzers for use in vacuum measurements were analyzed in terms of efficiencies of ion extraction, ion separation and transmission, and ion collection. Types of instruments studied were magnetic sector, omegatron, quadrupole, and monopole. Experimental results presented include absolute sensitivity to argon, relative sensitivity to 10 gases, and cracking patterns for these gases. It is shown that the properties are strongly dependent on instrument range, resolution, and the particular voltages, currents, or field intensities used to control the instrument.

  13. Composition measurements of the topside ionosphere using a magnetic mass spectrometer, ion mass spectrometer on ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The ion mass spectrometer (IMS) on the ISIS-II satellite is described; it measures the composition and distribution of positive ions in the earth's ionosphere in the mass range of 1 to 64 atomic mass units. Significant data were received which show a wide variation in ion composition at night near the equator and in the daytime poleward of the plasmapause. It was found that these data enable further study of the polar wind and that the experiment produced timely data during the August, 1972 magnetic storm to show the development of a unique ionosphere above the plasmapause during the period of the storm. The scientific objectives and results of the experiment, the technical description of the instrument, a bibliography with sample papers attached, and a summary of recommendations for further study are presented.

  14. A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bing; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Fan, Rongrong; Cheng, Ping; Ding, Li; Ma, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-10-07

    A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer (DLIT-MS) has been developed for VOC analysis. It has a weight of 18 kg with dimensions of 49 cm × 39 cm × 16 cm, and consumes an average power of ca. 60 W. As a result of the introduction of a digital waveform, the DLIT-MS can be driven at a lower voltage (±100 V) to cover a mass range of 30-300 Th with a unit resolution. Compact electronics has been designed to control the DLIT-MS and record mass spectra. The mass drift was reduced after the improvement in electronics to stabilize the digital waveform voltage during the mass scan. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been achieved by using digital asymmetric waveform isolation (DAWI), forward and reverse scan, and collision induced dissociation (CID). The isolation and CID efficiency for methyl salicylate were 83.9% and 81.3%, respectively. A novel buffer gas inlet system was designed to enhance the sensitivity and allow easy and safe use of the instrument. Limits of detection below 1 ppbv were obtained for several mixed gaseous samples.

  15. Dust Mass Spectrometer for Compositional Mapping of the Galilean Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Hand, K.; Henkel, H.; Lebreton, J.; Postbert, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M.

    2012-10-01

    We present the SUDA (Surface Dust Analyzer) instrument that will provide detailed answers to the main goals of ESA's JUICE mission about habitability, surface composition and exchange processes with the interior. The surfaces of the icy moons of Jupiter can be analyzed to unprecedented mass resolution and sensitivity down to the ppm level using modern dust analyzer instruments. The measurement method is based on analyzing the chemical composition of dust particles released from the surfaces of the moons. These dust particles populate the exosphere with densities sufficient for obtaining a valuable compositional picture even from a few flybys. The SUDA instrument is well suited for the detection of water ice particles with traces of the expected hydrated minerals such as sodium carbonates and magnesium sulphates, hydrated sodium chloride, and of organic materials. The value of a dust analyzer is well demonstrated by Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer that has analyzed Enceladus's plume particles and E ring grains. SUDA is a time-of-flight, reflectron-type impact mass spectrometer, optimized for high mass resolution. The small size (268×250×171 mm3), low mass (< 4 kg) and large sensitive area (220 cm2) makes the instrument well suited for the challenging demands of the JUICE mission. A full-size prototype was used to demonstrate the performance through calibration experiments with a variety of cosmochemically relevant dust analogues. The effective mass resolution of m/Δm of 150- 200 is achieved for mass range of interest m = 1-150.

  16. A model-free method for mass spectrometer response correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shykoff, Barbara E.; Swanson, Harvey T.

    1987-11-01

    A new method for correction of mass spectrometer output signals is described. Response-time distortion is reduced independently of any model of mass spectrometer behavior. The delay of the system is found first from the cross-correlation function of a step change and its response. A two-sided time-domain digital correction filter (deconvolution filter) is generated next from the same step response data using a regression procedure. Other data are corrected using the filter and delay. The mean squared error between a step response and a step is reduced considerably more after the use of a deconvolution filter than after the application of a second-order model correction. O2 consumption and CO2 production values calculated from data corrupted by a simulated dynamic process return to near the uncorrupted values after correction. Although a clean step response or the ensemble average of several responses contaminated with noise is needed for the generation of the filter, random noise of magnitude not above 0.5 percent added to the response to be corrected does not impair the correction severely.

  17. A Novel 9.4 Tesla FTICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Nathan K.; Quinn, John P.; Blakney, Gregory T.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2011-08-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass measurement accuracy and resolving power. However, propagation of the technique into new analytical fields requires continued advances in instrument speed and sensitivity. Here, we describe a substantial redesign of our custom-built 9.4 tesla FTICR mass spectrometer that improves sensitivity, acquisition speed, and provides an optimized platform for future instrumentation development. The instrument was designed around custom vacuum chambers for improved ion optical alignment, minimized distance from the external ion trap to magnetic field center, and high conductance for effective differential pumping. The length of the transfer optics is 30% shorter than the prior system, for reduced time-of-flight mass discrimination and increased ion transmission and trapping efficiency at the ICR cell. The ICR cell, electrical vacuum feedthroughs, and cabling have been improved to reduce the detection circuit capacitance (and improve detection sensitivity) 2-fold. The design simplifies access to the ICR cell, and the modular vacuum flange accommodates new ICR cell technology, including linearized excitation, high surface area detection, and tunable electrostatic trapping potential.

  18. Multi-collector Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer -- Operational Performance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Appelhans, Anthony D; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G; Ward, Michael B.; Dahl, David A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the operational testing of a new magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes seven full-sized discrete dynode electron multipliers operating simultaneously. The instrument includes a newly developed ion dispersion lens that enables the mass dispersed individual isotope beams to be separated sufficiently to allow a full-sized discrete dynode pulse counting multiplier to be used to measure each isotope beam. The performance of the instrument was measured using SRM 996 (244Pu spike) at loadings of 2.4 and 12 fg on resin beads and with SRM 4350B Columbia River Sediment samples. The measured limit of detection (3s) for 240Pu was 3.4 attograms for SRM 996. The limit of quantitation (LOQ), defined as 10 s, was 11.2 attograms. The measured concentration of 239Pu in the CRS standard was 152 ± 6 fg/g.

  19. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  20. Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A small mass spectrometer utilizing a miniature field ionization source is now undergoing development. It is designed for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a lightweight, low-power-consumption instrument that can analyze the masses of a wide variety of molecules and ions. The device can operate without need for a high-vacuum, carrier-gas feed radioactive ionizing source, or thermal ionizer. This mass spectrometer can operate either in the natural vacuum of outer space or on Earth at any ambient pressure below 50 torr (below about 6.7 kPa) - a partial vacuum that can easily be reached by use of a small sampling pump. This mass spectrometer also has a large dynamic range - from singly charged small gas ions to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments larger than 104 atomic mass units - with sensitivity adequate for detecting some molecules and ions at relative abundances of less than one part per billion. This instrument (see figure) includes a field ionizer integrated with a rotating-field mass spectrometer (RFMS). The field ionizer effects ionization of a type characterized as "soft" in the art because it does not fragment molecules or initiate avalanche arcing. What makes the "soft" ionization mode possible is that the distance between the ionizing electrodes is less than mean free path for ions at the maximum anticipated operating pressure, so that the ionizer always operates on the non-breakdown side of the applicable Paschen curve (a standard plot of breakdown potential on the ordinate and pressure electrode separation on the abscissa). The field ionizer in this instrument is fabricated by micromachining a submicron-thick membrane out of an electrically nonconductive substrate, coating the membrane on both sides to form electrodes, then micromachining small holes through the electrodes and membrane. Because of the submicron electrode separation, even a potential of only 1 V applied between the electrodes gives rise to an electric

  1. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  2. Seven Channel Multi-collector Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony D. Appelhans

    2008-07-01

    A new magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes seven full-sized discrete dynode electron multipliers operating simultaneously has been designed, constructed and is in preliminary testing. The instrument utilizes a newly developed ion dispersion lens that enables the mass dispersed individual isotope beams to be separated sufficiently (35 mm) to allow a full-sized discrete dynode pulse counting multiplier to be used for each beam. The ion dispersion lens is a two element electrostatic 90 degree sector device that causes the beam-to-beam dispersion to increase faster than the intra-beam dispersion. Each multiplier is contained in an isolated case with a deflector/condenser lens at the entrance. A 9-sample filament cartridge is mounted on a micro-manipulator two-axis stage that enables adjustment of the filament position with 10 micron resolution within the ion lens. Results of initial testing with actinides will be presented.

  3. Planetary atmospheres with mass spectrometers carried on high-speed probes or satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.

    1977-01-01

    Earth satellite-borne mass spectrometers are considered, taking into account the identification of atomic oxygen in the thermosphere with an 'open' source mass spectrometer flown on a sounding rocket, the conventional closed-source instrument, the mass spectrometers on the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, and mass spectrometer electron multiplier output. A description is presented of mass spectrometers and planetary entry probes. Attention is given to an attempt to obtain an atmospheric composition profile with a terrestrial entry probe, the descending trajectory in the early orbits of the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite, and the molecular nitrogen densities for the descending legs of the orbits. It is pointed out that chemical reactions on the surfaces of the mass spectrometer make the measurement of reactive atmospheric species such as atomic oxygen very difficult.

  4. A remote operation quadrupole mass spectrometer using a custom radio-frequency link approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tashbar, P. W.; Nisen, D. B.; Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer (residual gas analyzer, RGA) system has been modified to operate at large separations of its electronics console and sensing head. The methods implemented have made practical applications, as well as operation, of such a system possible for the first time. This advance was stimulated by a need for placing sensors at remote (45 or 60 m) chamber locations for space simulation testing of orbital flight spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on instrument functional requirements and describing the hardware changes and adjustment techniques necessary to assure operation at the extended cable lengths.

  5. Ion Mass Spectrometer for Sporadic-E Rocket Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Pfaff, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA grant NAG5-5086 provided funding for the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to design, fabricate, calibrate, and ultimately fly two ion mass spectrometer instruments on a pair of sounding rocket payloads. Drs. R.A. Heelis and G.D. Earle from UTD were co-investigators on the project. The principal investigator for both rocket experiments was Dr. Robert Pfaff of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall project title was "Rocket/Radar Investigation of Lower Ionospheric Electrodynamics Associated with Intense Mid-Latitude Sporadic-E Layers". This report describes the overall objectives of the project, summarizes the instrument design and flight experiment details, and presents representative data obtained during the flights.

  6. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  7. Liquid helium cryopump and reliable opening device for a balloon-borne mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ingels, J; Arijs, E; Nevejans, D; Forth, H J; Schäfer, G

    1978-06-01

    The design, technical characteristics, and test and flight results of a liquid helium cryopump and an opening device operating on board a balloon-borne mass spectrometer combining a cryopump and a quadrupole mass filter are reported. The gas inlet of this mass spectrometer is opened through a simple and reliable remote-controlled system, which is also described.

  8. A tandem mass spectrometer for collision-induced dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    A tandem mass spectrometer is described for studies of collision-induced dissociation. This instrument is especially suited for investigations on organic molecules, e.g., biochemical substances, for m/z values up to 1000. The first stage is formed by a conventional EI source and a sector magnet, and has a mass resolution of about 600. The first stage is provided with a collision gas cell at the site of the detector slit. In the second stage the fragment ions are post-accelerated in order to reduce the relative energy-spread and to increase the resolution and transmission. The fragment spectrum is analyzed by a second magnet (R = 750 mm, deflection angle = 15 deg) and simultaneously recorded. Quadrupoles are added in order to vary the dispersion and to aid focussing. The ratio between the highest and lowest masses in a simultaneously detected spectrum may vary from 4 : 1 to 1.06 : 1. The resolution can be as high as 600, and the transmission from the collision cell to the CEMA ranges from 60 to 100%; the detection sensitivity can be as high as 1 ion per 10 s.

  9. Targeted proteomic quantification on quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gallien, Sebastien; Duriez, Elodie; Crone, Catharina; Kellmann, Markus; Moehring, Thomas; Domon, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein

  10. Three-stage mass spectrometer for isotopic analysis of radionuclides in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    A three-stage mass spectrometer was constructed for isotopic analysis of several radioactive as well as stable elements at environmental levels. The spectrometer is interfaced to a digital computer, which controls the operation of the spectrometer, accumulates data, reduces data, and prints a final result. The spectrometer has demonstrated the capability of measuring the isotopic composition of plutonium samples as small as 0.005 picogram and has an abundance sensitivity greater than 10/sup 8/.

  11. High Mass Ion Detection with Charge Detector Coupled to Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Avinash A.; Chou, Szu-Wei; Chang, Pei-Yu; Lee, Chen-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Yen; Chu, Ming-Lee; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Conventional linear ion trap mass analyzers (LIT-MS) provide high ion capacity and show their MS n ability; however, the detection of high mass ions is still challenging because LIT-MS with secondary electron detectors (SED) cannot detect high mass ions. To detect high mass ions, we coupled a charge detector (CD) to a rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer (RIT-MS). Immunoglobulin G ions (m/z 150,000) are measured successfully with controlled ion kinetic energy. In addition, when mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios of singly charged ions exceed 10 kTh, the detection efficiency of CD is found to be greater than that of SED. The CD can be coupled to LIT-MS to extend the detection mass range and provide the potential to perform MS n of high mass ions inside the ion trap.

  12. 10 K Ring Electrode Trap - Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Infrared Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Goebbert, Daniel J.; Meijer, Gerard; Asmis, Knut R.

    2009-03-17

    A novel instrumental setup for measuring infrared photodissociation spectra of buffer gas cooled, mass-selected ions is described and tested. It combines a cryogenically cooled, linear radio frequency ion trap with a tandem mass spectrometer, optimally coupling continuous ion sources to pulsed laser experiments. The use of six independently adjustable DC potentials superimposed over the trapping radio frequency field provides control over the ion distribution within, as well as the kinetic energy distribution of the ions extracted from the ion trap. The scheme allows focusing the ions in space and time, such that they can be optimally irradiated by a pulsed, widely tunable infrared photodissociation laser. Ion intensities are monitored with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted orthogonally to the ion trap axis.

  13. Miniature Ion Optics Towards a Micro Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ashish

    This PhD dissertation reports the development of miniature ion optics components of a mass spectrometer (MS) with the ultimate goal to lay the foundation for a compact low-power micromachined MS (microMS) for broad-range chemical analysis. Miniaturization of two specific components a) RF ion traps and b) an ion funnel have been investigated and miniature low-power versions of these components have been developed and demonstrated successfully in lab experiments. Power savings, simpler electronics and packaging schemes required to operate the micro-scale RF cylindrical ion traps have been the key motivation driving this research. Microfabricated cylindrical ion traps (microCITs) and arrays in silicon, silicon-on-insulator and stainless steel substrates have been demonstrated and average power of as low as 55 mW for a low mass range (28 to 136 amu) and mass spectra with better than a unit-mass-resolution have been recorded. For the ion funnel miniaturization effort, simple assembly, small form factor and ease of integration have been emphasized. A simplification of the conventional 3D ion funnel design, called the planar ion funnel, has been developed in a single plate and has been tested to demonstrate ion funneling at medium vacuum levels (1E-5 Torr) using DC voltages and power less than 0.5 W. Miniaturization of these components also enables use of other novel ion optics components, packaging and integration, which will allow a new class of microMS architectures amenable for radical miniaturization.

  14. Rotary turret and reusable specimen holder for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Banar, Joseph C.; Perrin, Richard E.; Ostrenga, Raymond A.

    1988-01-01

    A sample holder for use in a mass spectrometer is provided for heating a sample to discharge ions through an electrostatic field which focuses and accelerates the ions for analysis. Individual specimen holders form a plurality of filaments for heating the sample materials for ion emission. Mounting devices hold the plurality of filaments at regular spaced apart angles in a closed configuration adjacent the electrostatic field elements. A substantially solid ceramic turret is provided with a plurality of electrical contacts which engage the individual holder means for energizing the filaments and forming a corresponding plurality of radially facing, axially extending first conductive surfaces. A substantially solid stationary turret bearing member is mounted about the rotating turret with a plurality of radially biased second electrical conductive surfaces, mounted to electrically contact facing ones of the plurality of radially facing first conductive surfaces. The assembly provides a large thermal mass for thermal stability and large electrical contact areas for repeatable, stable power input for heating the sample materials. An improved sample holder is also provided having a ceramic body portion for removably engaging conductive wires. The conductive wires are compatible with a selected filament element and the sample material to be analyzed.

  15. Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (REMAS) Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; McEntire, R. W.; Cheng, A. F.

    2000-01-01

    The restricted mass and power budgets of landed science missions present a challenge to obtaining detailed analyses of planetary bodies. In situ studies, whether alone or as reconnaissance for sample return, must rely on highly miniaturized and autonomous instrumentation. Such devices must still produce useful data sets from a minimum of measurements. The great desire to understand the surfaces and interiors of planets, moons, and small bodies had driven the development of small, robotic techniques with ever-increasing capabilities. One of the most important goals on a surface mission is to study composition in many geological contexts. The mineralogical, molecular, elemental, and isotopic content of near-surface materials (regolith, rocks, soils, dust, etc.) at a variety of sites can complement broader imaging to describe the makeup and formative history of the body in question. Instruments that perform this site-to-site analysis must be highly transportable and work as a suite. For instance, a camera, microscope, spectrophotometer, and mass spectrometer can share several components and operate under a parallel command structure. Efficient use of multiple systems on a small rover has been demonstrated on the Mars Pathfinder mission.

  16. Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer for Masses of 2 to 50 Da

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew; Harrison, Willard

    2005-01-01

    A customized quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) has been built to satisfy a need for a compact, rugged instrument for measuring small concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon in a nitrogen atmosphere. This QITMS can also be used to perform quantitative analyses of other gases within its molecular-mass range, which is 2 to 50 daltons (Da). (More precisely, it can be used to perform quantitative analysis of gases that, when ionized, are characterized by m/Z ratios between 2 and 50, where m is the mass of an ion in daltons and Z is the number of fundamental electric charges on the ion.

  17. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-12-01

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged Substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with root-mean-square (RMS) error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apo-transferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g., 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1 M at m/z = 2700).

  18. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-10-12

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8,158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with RMS error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apotransferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g. 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1M at m/z =2,700).

  19. The Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Investigation Of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, Sushil; Harpold, Dan; Owen, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    A decade ago, on 14 January 2005, the Huygens probe of the Cassini-Huygens mission descended through the smog filled atmosphere of Titan and landed on the surface, revealing for the first time the extraordinary nature of Saturn's largest moon. One of the six payload instruments, the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS), was crucial for measuring the composition of the atmosphere and the surface of Titan [1,2]. Most of the GCMS findings were "firsts", including the first direct identification of molecular nitrogen as the bulk constituent of the atmosphere, first vertical profile of Titan's second most abundant volatile, methane, first determination of primordial and radiogenic argon, first quantification of a number of stable gas isotopes, and the first measurements of the make-up of Titan's surface. These data are key to understanding why Titan is so unique amongst planetary moons in possessing a massive atmosphere [3], how Titan maintains a cycle of methane complete with surface reservoirs, evaporation and condensation like the hydrological cycle on earth [3,4,5], and what is responsible for the photochemical smog on Titan that plays a central role in the very existence of an atmosphere on Titan [3]. This presentation will discuss the GCMS investigation and how it helped shape our current view of Titan. [website for downloading pdf's of relevant papers: www.umich.edu/~atreya] [1] Niemann, H. B. et al., The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe, Nature 438, 779-784, 2005. [2] Niemann, H. B. et al., The composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini-Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment, J. Geophys. Res. (Planets) 115, 12006, 2010. [3] Atreya S. K., R. D. Lorenz and J. H. Waite, Volatile origin and cycles: Nitrogen and methane, in Titan from Cassini-Huygens, R. H. Brown, J. P. Lebreton and J. Waite, (eds.), Springer Dordrecht

  20. Comparison of atomic oxygen measurements by incoherent scatter and satellite-borne mass spectrometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Alcayde, D.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic oxygen densities determined by the incoherent scatter technique are compared to densities deduced from satellite-borne mass spectrometer measurements and are found to agree within experimental error. The diurnal variations inferred from the incoherent scatter measurements do show, however, some departure from diurnal variations found by modeling the mass spectrometer results. Some implications of these departures are briefly discussed.

  1. Apparatus and method for characterizing the transmission efficiency of a mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivasytava, Santash (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An electron/ion coincidence technique is employed to characterize the absolute mass dependent transmission efficiency of mass spectrometers. The technique is not dependent upon the partial pressure of the sample beam or the ionization cross sections of calibrant gases.

  2. Investigation of an enhanced resolution triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyu; Amad, Ma'an; Winnik, Witold M; Schoen, Alan E; Schweingruber, Hans; Mylchreest, Iain; Rudewicz, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    Triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, when operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, offer a unique combination of sensitivity, specificity, and dynamic range. Consequently, the triple quadrupole is the workhorse for high-throughput quantitation within the pharmaceutical industry. However, in the past, the unit mass resolution of quadrupole instruments has been a limitation when interference from matrix or metabolites cannot be eliminated. With recent advances in instrument design, triple quadrupole instruments now afford mass resolution of less than 0.1 Dalton (Da) full width at half maximum (FWHM). This paper describes the evaluation of an enhanced resolution triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for high-throughput bioanalysis with emphasis on comparison of selectivity, sensitivity, dynamic range, precision, accuracy, and stability under both unit mass (1 Da FWHM) and enhanced (mass resolution, the transmitted precursor ion from the first quadrupole contained not only protonated molecules from mometasone, but also PPG interference. At enhanced resolution only selected mometasone peaks were transmitted, and no interference from PPG was detected. Sensitivity of the instrument was demonstrated with 10 femtograms of descarboethoxyloratadine injected on-column, for which a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 24 was obtained for MRM chromatograms at both unit and enhanced resolution. Absolute signals obtained at enhanced resolution were about one-third those obtained at unit mass resolution. However, S/N was maintained at enhanced resolution due to the proportional decrease in noise level. Finally, the stability of the instrument operating at enhanced resolution was demonstrated during an overnight 17 h period that was used to validate a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for

  3. "Fast Excitation" CID in Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, J.; Despeyroux, D.; Lammert, Stephen {Steve} A; Stephenson Jr, James {Jim} L; Goeringer, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. ''Fast excitation'' CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a{sub 4}/b{sub 4} ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with ''fast excitation'' CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for ''fast excitation'' CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H){sup 17+} of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of ''fast excitation'' CID to proteins.

  4. Advanced Applications Flight Equipment (AAFE) 125mm ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual work is reported for the 125 mm ultraviolet spectrometer to measure atmospheric ozone as a function of height, latitude, and time. The instrument is described along with the assembly, test, and calibration.

  5. In Situ Analysis of Organics with a Portable Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soparawalla, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    The search for extra-terrestrial life starts at home. In order to find life on other planets, we start by examining life processes we understand on the earth. Though it may not be possible to see the life in the form of macroscopic organisms, telltale signs of life can exist in the form of small organic molecules such as peptides and amino acids. Our overall goal is to test a portable mass spectrometer (MS) system, the Mini 10.5, for astrobiological applications including in situ hydrocarbon analysis and sediments analysis using an additional automated sample processing system (ASPS). The collaborative research focuses on two current projects in the field of astrobiology. Both projects are geared towards examining organics distributed in extreme environments. One portion of study attempts to qualitatively analyze the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by diesel exhaust on lichens growing in the desert. This requires measurements to be taken by bringing the instrument to the Mojave Desert and monitoring atmospheric composition of VOCs in situ. The second project is to evaluate the miniature MS system as a detector for the ASPS extraction system. A major obstacle of any chemometric in situ analysis is the suppression of analyte signal by concomitant signal from the surrounding environment. The ASPS extraction device has been developed at JPL to extract amino acids from sediment samples and elute them in solution. The solution is eluted at a high pH and needs to be conditioned to a more neutral pH so that dissolved amino acids can be readily protonated and subsequently analyzed by electrospray MS.

  6. A Rugged Miniature Mass-Spectrometer for Aqueous Geochemistry on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockstill, K.; Anderson, F.; Pilger, E.; McMurtry, G.; French, L.

    2005-12-01

    Introduction: We are attempting to miniaturize and shock-harden an electrospray ionization rotating field mass spectrometer (ESI-RFMS) for high precision measurements of aqueous geochemistry on Mars. The design is based on a mass spectrometer system currently being used in situ in deep ocean applications (McMurtry & Smith, 2001). It has the strengths of being small, low power, low mass, requires no precision machining, and is tolerant of moderate vacuum. A prototype RFMS instrument has been shock tested to 1200 without degrading performance. ESI-RFMS is a soft-ionization technique, allowing for the measurement of molecules with large masses, and thus is an attractive experimental methodology for aqueous geochemical analysis enabling in situ measurements of potential chemical, isotopic, and biologic signatures. For example, ESI-RFMS could determine the geochemistry and origin of near-surface deposits of ice, such as those in the northern lowlands of Mars. In addition, ESI-RFMS could examine the record of aqueous alteration contained in the compositions and mineralogy of surface materials and in the compositions of liquid water and ice on Mars. Furthermore, ESI-RFMS analyses of water could detect heavy organic compounds commonly associated with life. Results: Work to date has focused on the development of a vacuum ESI-RFMS to study heavy compounds in water directly. The ESI-RFMS design concept has now been tested under a wide variety of vacuum conditions and sample delivery pressures, as well as under a wide range of electrical conditions and sample chemistries. We have also tested the RFMS mass filter using an off-the-shelf electron impact (EI) ionizer, which has proved the new RFMS concepts of mass filtering and ion beam control, as well as significant advances in noise reduction. A critical issue that evolved from this work is the importance of a well-focused beam of ions for RFMS mass filters versus other similar but less capable spectrometers like the standard

  7. Improvement of filament-protection circuitry in a Finnigan model 251 mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildman, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    As delivered from Finnigan MAT, the emission current of the Leybold-Heraeus model IM210 ionization vacuum gage on a model 251 isotope ratio mass spectrometer can turn on as soon as the ' PUMP ON ' switch is depressed, before a good vacuum in the mass spectrometer is attained. The filament in the source of the mass spectrometer may turn on at the same time, thereby shortening its life or burning it out if the vacuum is poor. This design flaw can be corrected by a simple modification of the electronic circuitry. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, James P.; Galloway, Ewan C.; King, Martin O.; Kerherve, Gwilherm; Watts, John F.

    2016-08-01

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  9. Large acceptance spectrometers for invariant mass spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Large acceptance spectrometers at in-flight RI separators have played significant roles in investigating the structure of exotic nuclei. Such spectrometers are in particular useful for probing unbound states of exotic nuclei, using invariant mass spectroscopy with reactions at intermediate and high energies. We discuss here the key characteristic features of such spectrometers, by introducing the recently commissioned SAMURAI facility at the RIBF, RIKEN. We also investigate the issue of cross talk in the detection of multiple neutrons, which has become crucial for exploring further unbound states and nuclei beyond the neutron drip line. Finally we discuss future perspectives for large acceptance spectrometers at the new-generation RI-beam facilities.

  10. Calibration of the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Stern, J. C.; Harpold, D.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SAM suite of instruments on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is designed to provide chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples. The mission of the MSL investigations is to advance beyond the successful search for aqueous transformation in surface environments at Mars toward a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation through a series of chemical and geological measurements. The SAM suite was delivered in December 2010 (Figure 1) to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for integration into the Curiosity Rover. We previously outlined the range of SAM solid and gas calibrations implemented or planned and here we discuss a specific set of calibration experiments to establish the response of the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) to the four most abundant gases in the Martian atmosphere CO2, N2, Ar, and O2, A full SAM instrument description and calibration report is presently in preparation.

  11. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  12. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  13. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and aligrnent for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  14. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  15. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  16. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  17. A Miniature Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) for Planetary Atmospheres Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcic, J.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Bae, B.; Nikolic, D.; Darrach, M.

    2016-10-01

    Presented herein are the latest achievements in developing an instrument with the same analytical performance of commercial Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer systems but approximately an order of magnitude smaller and optimized for space missions.

  18. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Whitten, William B.

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  19. Development and characterization of an aircraft aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Kerri A; Mayer, Joseph E; Holecek, John C; Moffet, Ryan C; Sanchez, Rene O; Rebotier, Thomas P; Furutani, Hiroshi; Gonin, Marc; Fuhrer, Katrin; Su, Yongxuan; Guazzotti, Sergio; Prather, Kimberly A

    2009-03-01

    Vertical and horizontal profiles of atmospheric aerosols are necessary for understanding the impact of air pollution on regional and global climate. To gain further insight into the size-resolved chemistry of individual atmospheric particles, a smaller aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) with increased data acquisition capabilities was developed for aircraft-based studies. Compared to previous ATOFMS systems, the new instrument has a faster data acquisition rate with improved ion transmission and mass resolution, as well as reduced physical size and power consumption, all required advances for use in aircraft studies. In addition, real-time source apportionment software allows the immediate identification and classification of individual particles to guide sampling decisions while in the field. The aircraft (A)-ATOFMS was field-tested on the ground during the Study of Organic Aerosols in Riverside, CA (SOAR) and aboard an aircraft during the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L). Initial results from ICE-L represent the first reported aircraft-based single-particle dual-polarity mass spectrometry measurements and provide an increased understanding of particle mixing state as a function of altitude. Improved ion transmission allows for the first single-particle detection of species out to approximately m/z 2000, an important mass range for the detection of biological aerosols and oligomeric species. In addition, high time resolution measurements of single-particle mixing state are demonstrated and shown to be important for airborne studies where particle concentrations and chemistry vary rapidly.

  20. Highly sensitive solids mass spectrometer uses inert-gas ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Mass spectrometer provides a recorded analysis of solid material surfaces and bulk. A beam of high-energy inert-gas ions bombards the surface atoms of a sample and converts a percentage into an ionized vapor. The mass spectrum analyzer separates the vapor ionic constituents by mass-to-charge ratio.

  1. A COMPARISON OF PARTICLE MASS SPECTROMETERS DURING THE 1999 ATLANTA SUPERSITES EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the Atlanta SuperSite Experiment, four particle mass spectrometers were operated together for the first time: NOAA's PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry), U. C. Riverside's ATOFMS (Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry), U. Delaware's RSMS-II (Rapid Si...

  2. A compact E × B filter: A multi-collector cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blase, Ryan C. Miller, Greg; Brockwell, Tim; Waite, J. Hunter; Westlake, Joseph; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Ostrom, Peggy H.

    2015-10-15

    A compact E × B mass spectrometer is presented. The mass spectrometer presented is termed a “perfect focus” mass spectrometer as the resolution of the device is independent of both the initial direction and energy of the ions (spatial and energy independent). The mass spectrometer is small in size (∼10.7 in.{sup 3}) and weight (∼2 kg), making it an attractive candidate for portability when using small, permanent magnets. A multi-collector Faraday cup design allows for the detection of multiple ion beams in discrete collectors simultaneously; providing the opportunity for isotope ratio monitoring. The mass resolution of the device is around 400 through narrow collector slits and the sensitivity of the device follows expected theoretical calculations of the ion current produced in the electron impact ion source. Example mass spectra obtained from the cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer are presented as well as information on mass discrimination based on instrumental parameters and isotope ratio monitoring of certain ion signals in separate Faraday cups.

  3. A compact E × B filter: A multi-collector cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Blase, Ryan C; Miller, Greg; Westlake, Joseph; Brockwell, Tim; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Ostrom, Peggy H; Waite, J Hunter

    2015-10-01

    A compact E × B mass spectrometer is presented. The mass spectrometer presented is termed a "perfect focus" mass spectrometer as the resolution of the device is independent of both the initial direction and energy of the ions (spatial and energy independent). The mass spectrometer is small in size (∼10.7 in.(3)) and weight (∼2 kg), making it an attractive candidate for portability when using small, permanent magnets. A multi-collector Faraday cup design allows for the detection of multiple ion beams in discrete collectors simultaneously; providing the opportunity for isotope ratio monitoring. The mass resolution of the device is around 400 through narrow collector slits and the sensitivity of the device follows expected theoretical calculations of the ion current produced in the electron impact ion source. Example mass spectra obtained from the cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer are presented as well as information on mass discrimination based on instrumental parameters and isotope ratio monitoring of certain ion signals in separate Faraday cups.

  4. Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - An advanced optics technology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Colin; Labaw, Clayton; Sobel, Harold; Kahle, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of a special optical filter, the Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne multispectral IR imaging instrument operating in the thermal emission region (7.5-14 microns), will achieve signal-to-noise ratios greater than 600 with ambient temperature optics. This instrument will be used to do compositional surface mapping of the terrain, and will refine the ability to categorize rock families and types by providing much higher spectral resolution in the emission region than was previously available. Details of the optical system, the detector, the cooler system, and the support electronics are described.

  5. Advances in structure elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The structural elucidation of small molecules using mass spectrometry plays an important role in modern life sciences and bioanalytical approaches. This review covers different soft and hard ionization techniques and figures of merit for modern mass spectrometers, such as mass resolving power, mass accuracy, isotopic abundance accuracy, accurate mass multiple-stage MS(n) capability, as well as hybrid mass spectrometric and orthogonal chromatographic approaches. The latter part discusses mass spectral data handling strategies, which includes background and noise subtraction, adduct formation and detection, charge state determination, accurate mass measurements, elemental composition determinations, and complex data-dependent setups with ion maps and ion trees. The importance of mass spectral library search algorithms for tandem mass spectra and multiple-stage MS(n) mass spectra as well as mass spectral tree libraries that combine multiple-stage mass spectra are outlined. The successive chapter discusses mass spectral fragmentation pathways, biotransformation reactions and drug metabolism studies, the mass spectral simulation and generation of in silico mass spectra, expert systems for mass spectral interpretation, and the use of computational chemistry to explain gas-phase phenomena. A single chapter discusses data handling for hyphenated approaches including mass spectral deconvolution for clean mass spectra, cheminformatics approaches and structure retention relationships, and retention index predictions for gas and liquid chromatography. The last section reviews the current state of electronic data sharing of mass spectra and discusses the importance of software development for the advancement of structure elucidation of small molecules. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12566-010-0015-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21289855

  6. Advanced Technologies Demonstrated by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS) Aboard Deep Space 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, David H.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lee, Meemong; Sandel, Bill R.; Thomas, David A.; Benoit, Robert T.; Yelle, Roger V.

    2007-04-01

    MICAS is an integrated multi-channel instrument that includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (80 185 nm), two high-resolution visible imagers (10 20 μrad/pixel, 400 900 nm), and a short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer (1250 2600 nm). The wavelength ranges were chosen to maximize the science data that could be collected using existing semiconductor technologies and avoiding the need for multi-octave spectrometers. It was flown on DS1 to validate technologies derived from the development of PICS (Planetary Imaging Camera Spectrometer). These technologies provided a novel systems approach enabling the miniaturization and integration of four instruments into one entity, spanning a wavelength range from the UV to IR, and from ambient to cryogenic temperatures with optical performance at a fraction of a wavelength. The specific technologies incorporated were: a built-in fly-by sequence; lightweight and ultra-stable, monolithic silicon-carbide construction, which enabled room-temperature alignment for cryogenic (85 140 K) performance, and provided superb optical performance and immunity to thermal distortion; diffraction-limited, shared optics operating from 80 to 2600 nm; advanced detector technologies for the UV, visible and short-wavelength IR; high-performance thermal radiators coupled directly to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector optical bench, providing an instrument with a mass less than 10 kg, instrument power less than 10 W, and total instrument cost of less than ten million dollars. The design allows the wavelength range to be extended by at least an octave at the short wavelength end and to ˜50 microns at the long wavelength end. Testing of the completed instrument demonstrated excellent optical performance down to 77 K, which would enable a greatly reduced background for longer wavelength detectors. During the Deep Space 1 Mission, MICAS successfully collected images and spectra for asteroid 9969 Braille, Mars, and comet 19/P Borrelly

  7. Advanced technologies demonstrated by the miniature integrated camera and spectrometer (MICAS) aboard deep space 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, D.H.; Beauchamp, P.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Brown, R.H.; Chen, G.-S.; Lee, M.; Sandel, B.R.; Thomas, D.A.; Benoit, R.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    2007-01-01

    MICAS is an integrated multi-channel instrument that includes an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (80-185 nm), two high-resolution visible imagers (10-20 ??rad/pixel, 400-900 nm), and a short-wavelength infrared imaging spectrometer (1250-2600 nm). The wavelength ranges were chosen to maximize the science data that could be collected using existing semiconductor technologies and avoiding the need for multi-octave spectrometers. It was flown on DS1 to validate technologies derived from the development of PICS (Planetary Imaging Camera Spectrometer). These technologies provided a novel systems approach enabling the miniaturization and integration of four instruments into one entity, spanning a wavelength range from the UV to IR, and from ambient to cryogenic temperatures with optical performance at a fraction of a wavelength. The specific technologies incorporated were: a built-in fly-by sequence; lightweight and ultra-stable, monolithic silicon-carbide construction, which enabled room-temperature alignment for cryogenic (85-140 K) performance, and provided superb optical performance and immunity to thermal distortion; diffraction-limited, shared optics operating from 80 to 2600 nm; advanced detector technologies for the UV, visible and short-wavelength IR; high-performance thermal radiators coupled directly to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) detector optical bench, providing an instrument with a mass less than 10 kg, instrument power less than 10 W, and total instrument cost of less than ten million dollars. The design allows the wavelength range to be extended by at least an octave at the short wavelength end and to 50 microns at the long wavelength end. Testing of the completed instrument demonstrated excellent optical performance down to 77 K, which would enable a greatly reduced background for longer wavelength detectors. During the Deep Space 1 Mission, MICAS successfully collected images and spectra for asteroid 9969 Braille, Mars, and comet 19/P Borrelly. The

  8. Advances in compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T. C.

    2011-10-01

    The compact proton spectrometer (or WRF, for Wedge-Range-Filter proton spectrometer) measures the spectra of protons in the energy range ~ 3 to 20 MeV for diagnosing ICF experiments. It utilizes CR-39 for detecting individual protons and their energies, after they pass through a ranging filter with a continuously varying thickness, and appropriate algorithms for reconstructing the incident spectrum. It has now been in use for a decade at OMEGA, and is currently being used at the NIF, for measuring spectra of primary D3He protons in D3He implosions, secondary D3He protons in DD implosions, and ablator protons in DT implosions. These spectra are used to determine proton yields, shell areal density at shock-bang time and compression-bang time, fuel areal density, and implosion symmetry. During the decade of use there have been significant changes in fabrication and in analysis algorithms. An overview will be given here of the historical development, current analysis methods, and measurement accuracy. This work was supported in part by DOE and LLE.

  9. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  10. Advanced capabilities for in situ planetary mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Benna, M.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Cornish, T.; Hovmand, L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA GSFC has delivered highly capable quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) for missions to Venus (Pioneer Venus), Jupiter (Galileo), Saturn/Titan (Cassini-Huygens), Mars (MSL and MAVEN), and the Moon (LADEE). Our understanding of the Solar System has been expanded significantly by these exceedingly versatile yet low risk and cost efficient instruments. GSFC has developed more recently a suite of advanced instrument technologies promising enhanced science return while selectively leveraging heritage designs. Relying on a traditional precision QMS, the Analysis of Gas Evolved from Samples (AGES) instrument measures organic inventory, determines exposure age and establishes the absolute timing of deposition/petrogenesis of interrogated samples. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars 2018 rover employs a two-dimensional ion trap, built analogously to heritage QMS rod assemblies, which can support dual ionization sources, selective ion enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The same miniaturized analyzer serves as the core of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) instrument, which offers negative ion detection (switchable polarity) and an extended mass range (>2000 Da). Time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS) have been interfaced to a range of laser sources to progress high-sensitivity laser ablation and desorption methods for analysis of inorganic and non-volatile organic compounds, respectively. The L2MS (two-step laser mass spectrometer) enables the desorption of neutrals and/or prompt ionization at IR (1.0 up to 3.1 µm, with an option for tunability) or UV wavelengths (commonly 266 or 355 nm). For the selective ionization of specific classes of organics, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, a second UV laser may be employed to decouple the desorption and ionization steps and limit molecular fragmentation. Mass analyzers with substantially higher resolving powers (up to m/Δm > 100,000), such as the Advanced Resolution Organic

  11. Development of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) Investigation for Future Planetary Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Danell, R.; Van Ameron, F.; Pinnick, V.; Li, X.; Arevalo, R.; Glavin, D.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P.; Chu, P.; Zacny, K.; Rogacki, S.; Grubisic, A.; Cornish, T.

    2014-01-01

    Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical

  12. Comparison of a 250 kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer with a 5 MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometer--fitness for purpose in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Young, G C; Corless, S; Felgate, C C; Colthup, P V

    2008-12-01

    The introduction of 'compact' accelerator mass spectrometers into biomedical science, including use in drug metabolism and bioanalytical applications, is an exciting recent development. Comparisons are presented here between a more established and relatively large tandem accelerator which operates at up to 5 MV and a conventional laboratory-sized 250 kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer. Biological samples were enriched with low levels of radiocarbon, then converted into graphite prior to analysis on each of the two instruments. The data obtained showed the single-stage instrument to be capable of delivering comparable results, and thus able to provide similar study support, with that provided by the 5 MV instrument, without the significant overheads and complexities which are inherent to the operation of the larger instrument. We believe that the advent of these laboratory-sized accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) instruments represents a real turning point in the potential for application of AMS by a wider user group.

  13. Unmanned aerial mass spectrometer systems for in-situ volcanic plume analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jorge Andres; Pieri, David; Wright, Kenneth; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Shoder, Robert; Arkin, C Richard; Fladeland, Matthew; Bland, Geoff; Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Ramirez, Carlos; Corrales, Ernesto; Alan, Alfredo; Alegria, Oscar; Diaz, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Technology advances in the field of small, unmanned aerial vehicles and their integration with a variety of sensor packages and instruments, such as miniature mass spectrometers, have enhanced the possibilities and applications of what are now called unmanned aerial systems (UAS). With such technology, in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes are now possible without risking the lives of scientists and personnel in charge of close monitoring of volcanic activity. These methods provide unprecedented, and otherwise unobtainable, data very close in space and time to eruptions, to better understand the role of gas volatiles in magma and subsequent eruption products. Small mass spectrometers, together with the world's smallest turbo molecular pump, have being integrated into NASA and University of Costa Rica UAS platforms to be field-tested for in situ volcanic plume analysis, and in support of the calibration and validation of satellite-based remote sensing data. These new UAS-MS systems are combined with existing UAS flight-tested payloads and assets, such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2, GPS sensors, on-board data storage, and telemetry. Such payloads are capable of generating real time 3D concentration maps of the Turrialba volcano active plume in Costa Rica, while remote sensing data are simultaneously collected from the ASTER and OMI space-borne instruments for comparison. The primary goal is to improve the understanding of the chemical and physical properties of emissions for mitigation of local volcanic hazards, for the validation of species detection and abundance of retrievals based on remote sensing, and to validate transport models.

  14. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  15. A computer controlled mass spectrometer system for investigating the decomposition of non-metallic materials under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A PDP 11/23 quadrupole mass spectrometer system was coupled to a nondiscriminating gas inlet system permitting gases at atmospheric pressure to be admitted into a high vacuum chamber containing the ion source of the mass spectrometer without separation of the gaseous components. The resolution of related software problems has resulted in a convenient computer-mass spectrometer system capable of generating masses, relative intensities and related data on the gaseous products resulting from the atmospheric thermal decomposition of nonmetallic materials.

  16. A feasibility study of ion implantation techniques for mass spectrometer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koslin, M. E.; Krycuk, G. A.; Schatz, J. G., Jr.; White, F. A.; Wood, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using ion-implanted filaments doped with either an alkali metal or noble gas for in situ recalibration of onboard mass spectrometers during extended space missions. Implants of rubidium and krypton in rhenium ribbon filaments were subsequently tested in a bakeable 60 deg sector mass spectrometer operating in the static mode. Surface ionization and electron impact ion sources were both used, each yielding satisfactory results. The metallic implant with subsequent ionization provided a means of mass scale calibration and determination of system operating parameters, whereas the noble gas thermally desorbed into the system was more suited for partial pressure and sensitivity determinations.

  17. Application of an atmospheric pressure sampling mass spectrometer to chlorination reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric sampling system, based on a free jet expansion was used to study certain M-Cl-O reactions at high temperatures. The apparatus enables the volatile species from a 1-atm chemical process to be directly identified with a mass spectrometer which operates at approx. 10 to the minus 8th power torr. Studies for both pure metals and alloys are discussed. It is shown that this mass spectrometer system aids in identifying the volatile species, and provides fundamental information on the reaction mechanism.

  18. A mass spectrometer with a membrane interface for oil concentration monitoring in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatskii, V. V.; Elokhin, V. A.; Nikolaev, V. I.; Ershov, T. D.; Elizarov, A. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    An immersion mass spectrometer with a membrane interface was used for oil detection and oil concentration measurements in seawater by measuring in situ the concentrations of three hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, and xylene in the region of the specialized Primorsk oil loading seaport in the Gulf of Finland. The recorded mass spectra demonstrated the possibility of measuring the oil concentration in seawater and determining the grade of oil products. The use of a mass spectrometer with a membrane separator interface allows measurements of hydrocarbon concentration with high accuracy, which is currently not provided in commercially available monitors.

  19. Modifications to the Finnigan MAT 271 mass spectrometer in the Inorganic Gas Analysis Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, S.D.; Cordes, G.T.

    1995-08-01

    This document presents an overview of the modifications that were done to the Finnigan MAT 271 mass spectrometer used in the Dept. 1823 Inorganic Gas Analysis Lab. Among the alterations to the spectrometer were addition of a new computer, interfaces to the power supply, addition of a multimeter and introduction of a Graphical User Interface software system to run the instrument. The impact of these improvements is also discussed. The appendix details a generic procedure for operating the instrument.

  20. Performance of and planned improvements to a mountain altitude cosmic ray mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. J.; Barber, H. B.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Jenkins, E. W.; Kalbach, R. M.; Pifer, A. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Thompson, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A cosmic ray mass spectrometer with superconducting magnet, wire spark chambers, and time-of-flight scintillation counters has been operated at an altitude of 2750 meters. Various specifications of the spectrometer are presented and the method of event analysis described. Corrections to the data, resolutions and efficiencies of the spark chambers, and momentum resolution are discussed. Recent and planned improvements of the apparatus are indicated.

  1. Fullerene Soot in Eastern China Air: Results from Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Ge, X.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Sun, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collier, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the observation and quantification of fullerenes in ambient airborne particulate using an Aerodyne Soot Particle - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) deployed during 2015 winter in suburban Nanjing, a megacity in eastern China. The laser desorption and electron impact ionization techniques employed by the SP-AMS allow us to differentiate various fullerenes from other aerosol components. Mass spectrum of the identified fullerene soot is consisted by a series of high molecular weight carbon clusters (up to m/z of 2000 in this study), almost identical to the spectral features of commercially available fullerene soot, both with C70 and C60 clusters as the first and second most abundant species. This type of soot was observed throughout the entire study period, with an average mass loading of 0.18 μg/m3, accounting for 6.4% of the black carbon mass, 1.2% of the total organic mass. Temporal variation and diurnal pattern of fullerene soot are overall similar to those of black carbon, but are clearly different in some periods. Combining the positive matrix factorization, back-trajectory and analyses of the meteorological parameters, we identified the petrochemical industrial plants situating upwind from the sampling site, as the major source of fullerene soot. In this regard, our findings imply the ubiquitous presence of fullerene soot in ambient air of industry-influenced area, especially the oil and gas production regions. This study also offers new insights into the characterization of fullerenes from other environmental samples via the advanced SP-AMS technique.

  2. Performance of the High Resolution, Multi-collector Helix MC Plus Noble Gas Mass Spectrometer at the Australian National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Honda, Masahiko; Hamilton, Doug

    2016-12-01

    Performance of the Helix MC Plus noble gas mass spectrometer installed at the Australian National University (ANU) is reported. Results for sensitivity, mass discrimination and their linearity against partial pressure of noble gases, and mass resolution of the mass spectrometer are presented, and the results are compared with those of conventional noble gas mass spectrometers. The application of the five detectors on the Helix MC Plus in measuring various noble gas isotopes in multi-collector modes and the integration of the software drivers of peripheral hardware devices into the controlling program Qtegra of the mass spectrometer are discussed. High mass resolution (>1800) and mass resolving power (>8000) make this mass spectrometer unique in noble gas cosmo-geochemistry. It provides the capability to measure isobaric interference-free noble gas isotopes in multi-collector mode, significantly improves the accuracy to determine isotopic ratios, and greatly increases the efficiency of data acquisition.

  3. A Miniature Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for in Situ Analysis of Mars Surface Composition and Identification of Hazard in Advance of Future Manned Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, S. A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D.; Floyd, M. M.; Li, X.; Cornish, T.; Ecelberger, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Future landed missions to Mars will be guided by two strategic directions: (1) sample return to Earth, for comprehensive compositional analyses, as recommended by the 2011 NRC Planetary Decadal Survey; and (2) preparation for human exploration in the 2030s and beyond, as laid out by US space policy. The resultant mission architecture will likely require high-fidelity in situ chemical/organic sample analyses within an extremely constrained resource envelope. Both science goals (e.g., MEPAG Goal 1, return sample selection, etc.) as well as identification of any potential toxic and biological hazards to humans, must be addressed. Over the past several years of instrument development, we have found that the adaptable, compact, and highly capable technique of laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) has significant potential to contribute substantially to these dual objectives. This concept thus addresses Challenge Area 1: instrumentation and Investigation Approaches.

  4. Instrument manual for the retarding ion mass spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. A.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Reasoner, D. L.; Hammack, H. D.; Wright, W. W.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  5. Design and construction of a nanoelectrospray ion source for a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxler, Heinz; Wetzel, Erich; Kuster, Thomas; Heizmann, Claus W.

    1999-05-01

    The design and construction of a nanoelectrospray ion source for a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer that is used for identification and analysis of minimum peptide amounts is described. This interface exhibits several improvements over commercially available devices: a new capillary holder that allows very simple loading and placement of the spray capillary, and a rotary stage that enables reproducible adjustment of the capillary's angle at the orifice of the mass spectrometer. We also introduced a pressure-regulating system for fast and reproducible adjustment of the static backing air pressure onto the sample solution in the spray capillary. Furthermore, an electric safety circuit increases handling and operation safety of the nanoelectrospray interface.

  6. Study of Odor Approximation by Using Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Masashi; Nihei, Yasunori; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2011-09-01

    Since a set of odor components to cover wide range of smells has not been revealed yet, we studied the selection of odor components using essential-oil mass spectrum database. Basis vectors were extracted using non-negative matrix factorization method1 and then non-negative least squares method was used to determine the recipe. The odor approximations of three typical essential oils were confirmed by the sensory test. It was found that the mass spectrum data were correlated with the sensory test result. Moreover, this correlation was remarkable in the high m/z region.

  7. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  8. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs. PMID:26819909

  9. New engineering design, instrument modeling, and data analysis techniques for spaceborne mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.

    This work describes technological innovations that can be used to improve upon space-borne mass spectrometers (MS), enabling breakthrough science and the development of the next-generation of sensors. Emphasis is placed on the two classes of MS with the strongest spaceflight heritage: quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS). For the QMS, higher order auxiliary excitation techniques are modeled and implemented for the first time for both commercial and spaceflight-like sensors. These techniques, through modest modification of instrument electronics, are shown to significantly improve upon the maximum attainable mass resolution, sensitivity, ion rejection efficiency, and stability of measured mass spectra. For the TOF-MS, a complete analysis of instrument noise sources is conducted, and a mathematical framework for instrument measurements is developed. Such a framework results in an end-to-end forward modeling of instrument noise, dataset signal-to-noise estimation, and noise event removal algorithms. The developed noise processing techniques are applied to the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) instrument on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft to enable the first ever mapping of the spatial distribution of heavy ions at Mercury, the first in situ measurements of solar wind heavy ion non-thermal properties in the inner heliosphere, as well as the first in situ measurements made inside of Earth's orbit of ionized helium originating from interstellar space.

  10. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs.

  11. High energy collisions on tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Long before the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), Orbitraps, and any of the other tools that are now used ubiquitously for proteomics and metabolomics, the highest performance mass spectrometers were sector instruments, providing high resolution mass measurements by combining an electrostatic energy analyzer (E) with a high field magnet (B). In its heyday, the four sector mass spectrometer (or EBEB) was the crown jewel, providing the highest performance tandem mass spectrometry using single, high energy collisions to induce fragmentation. During a time in which quadrupole and tandem triple quadrupole instruments were also enjoying increased usage and popularity, there were, nonetheless, some clear advantages for sectors over their low collision energy counterparts. Time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers are high voltage, high vacuum instruments that have much in common with sectors and have inspired the development of tandem instruments exploiting single high energy collisions. In this retrospective, we recount our own journey to produce high performance TOFs and tandem TOFs, describing the basic theory, problems, and the advantages for such instruments. An experiment testing impulse collision theory (ICT) underscores the similarities with sector mass spectrometers where this concept was first developed. Applications provide examples of more extensive fragmentation, side chain cleavages, and charge-remote fragmentation, also characteristic of high energy sector mass spectrometers. Moreover, the so-called curved-field reflectron has enabled the design of instruments that are simpler, collect and focus all of the ions, and may provide the future technology for the clinic, for tissue imaging, and the characterization of microorganisms.

  12. Mass spectrometer for real-time metabolism monitoring during anesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarov, A. Yu.; Levshankov, A. I.

    2012-06-01

    Mass-spectrometric monitoring of metabolism (CO2/O2) in the inspiration-expiration regime is used to estimate the anesthetic protection of the patient against surgical stimulation during combined anesthesia. A correlation between the anesthetic protection of the patient and the metabolic rate is demonstrated, and the periodic variation of the metabolic rate with time is found. The sevoflurane metabolism products and intravenous analgesic fentanyl are found in the blowing air of the patient during anesthesia.

  13. HAPSITE(Trademark) Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer Variability Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-27

    in an uncharacterized chemical environment that involves chemical warfare agents (CWA) or toxic industrial chemicals ( TIC ). Gas Chromatography/Mass...Research Institute (MRI) in Kansas City, Missouri conducted a study to optimize the use of a tri-bed concentrator with TIC . The tni-bed concentrator...The remaining 81 TIC were added based on a Navy threat assessment of chemicals that could be used in a terrorist attack or potentially hazardous

  14. Recipe Estimation Using Mass Spectrometer and Large-Scale Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, Al; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An odor recorder is an instrument capable of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the target smell (e.g. apple), so called odor recipe. A variety of smells can be generated by blending multiple odor components; an odor recorder can reproduce smells as well as record them so that the sensor array output pattern of the blended odor can match that of the target odor. Although the range of smell to be recorded has been so far limited, this work enhances that range using mass spectrometry without GC. We previously proposed the algorithm to select appropriate odor components among huge number of candidates. Here we applied this proposed algorithm experimentally for reproducing different eight fruit flavors using odor components selected from our laboratory database, composed of recorded mass patterns of 190 components. The blended and target smells were compared using sensory test (triangle test). Sensory test revealed that the smell blended according to the estimated recipe using our proposed method was almost the same as the target one. Moreover, even if the less contributed components in mass spectra are eliminated from the estimated recipe, the flavor remains almost similar to that of the target one.

  15. Resonance ionization of rubidium in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Goeringer, D.E.; Buckley, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently initiated a study of resonance ionization processes in a quadrupole ion storage trap. The trap is a commercially available Ion Trap Detector that uses the voltage dependence of ion mass instability to obtain a mass spectrum of the trapped ions. We have modified the trap to permit laser excitation of atomic and molecular species within the quadrupole electrodes. Mass resolved resonance ionization spectra have been obtained for NO and Rb, described below. Rb was selected for this study for a number of reasons. We want to explore the potential of the ion trap for high resolution (Doppler free) resonance ionization spectroscopy with CW laser excitation. Rb can be excited to upper Rydberg levels with a series of transitions that can be induced with commercially available semiconductor diode lasers. In addition, levels in the same energy range can be reached through two-photon processes with visible wavelength tunable dye lasers or with single-photon processes after the laser is frequency doubled. The upper Rydberg levels can be ionized by photons, electric field, or collisions. Collisional ionization of a reservoir of Rydberg atoms may be a sensitive scheme for detecting electronegative species. RB has two stable isotopes with nonzero nuclear spin so that isotopic and hyperfine splittings can be used to assess the spectral resolution that is attained.

  16. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source.

    PubMed

    Bakeman, M S; van Tilborg, J; Sokollik, T; Baum, D; Ybarrolaza, N; Duarte, R; Toth, C; Leemans, W P

    2010-10-01

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  17. Calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet grazing incident spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Baum, D.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Duarte, R.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-10-15

    We present the design and calibration of a microchannel plate based extreme ultraviolet spectrometer. Calibration was performed at the Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This spectrometer will be used to record the single shot spectrum of radiation emitted by the tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) undulator installed at the LOASIS GeV-class laser-plasma-accelerator. The spectrometer uses an aberration-corrected concave grating with 1200 lines/mm covering 11-62 nm and a microchannel plate detector with a CsI coated photocathode for increased quantum efficiency in the extreme ultraviolet. A touch screen interface controls the grating angle, aperture size, and placement of the detector in vacuum, allowing for high-resolution measurements over the entire spectral range.

  18. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer. Final CRADA report for CRADA Number Y-1295-0394

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1997-02-24

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was used to modify Vacuum Technology`s AERO VAC computer/mass spectrometer interface and electronics to allow the mass spectrometer to acquire rapid scans. The computer interface sends signals from the PC to the mass spectrometer, controlling its filament, giving scan instructions, and selecting the proper electrometer range, and detector. It then receives the detector output in the form of amplified digital signals from the electrometer. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface and electronics. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will have replaced. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AERO VAC mass spectrometer. The new firmware allows digital signals to be transmitted considerably faster to and from the mass spectrometer than the old firmware. The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesign allowed obsolete electronics in the regulator circuitry to be replaced with more efficient circuitry. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. Figure 4 shows a picture of the prototype voltage regulator circuit. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  19. Interference signals in "third-generation" BEBE sector field mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Detlef; Schwarz, Helmut

    1995-08-01

    From the inception of analytical mass spectrometry numerous efforts have been undertaken to minimize artifacts in mass spectra. While double-focusing techniques brought about significant progress in that interference signals in ionsource mass spectra can now be excluded, for MS/MS studies several kinds of artifacts exist when only two sectors are used in MSn (n [greater-or-equal, slanted] 2) experiments. Tandem mass spectrometers having more than two sectors provide the possibility of mass-selecting parent ions under high resolution conditions and thus one might assume that artifact signals can be avoided in these machines. However, this is simply not true, and in this paper we describe possible sources of interference signals in a tandem mass spectrometer of BEBE configuration; similar considerations apply for other configurations of large-scale mass spectrometers as well. Artifact signals will be discussed which originate from limited parent-ion and/or daughter-ion resolution, from fragmentation processes occurring within the analyzers, and of interference signals which can be traced back to other sources.

  20. Systems, Methods, and Apparatus of a Low Conductance Silicon Micro-Leak for Mass Spectrometer Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, Dan N. (Inventor); Niemann, Hasso B. (Inventor); Jamieson, Brian G. (Inventor); Lynch, Bernard A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments a mass spectrometer micro-leak includes a number of channels fabricated by semiconductor processing tools and that includes a number of inlet holes that provide access to the channels.

  1. SUMS preliminary design and data analysis development. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.

  2. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    DOEpatents

    Grindstaff, Quirinus G.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  3. Laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer DNA analyzer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.W.; Martin, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer DNA analyzer which can be broadly used for biomedical research. Tasks include: pulsed ion extraction to improve resolution; two-component matrices to enhance ionization; and solid phase DNA purification.

  4. Systems, methods, and apparatus of a low conductance silicon micro-leak for mass spectrometer inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, Dan N. (Inventor); Niemann, Hasso B. (Inventor); Jamieson, Brian G. (Inventor); Lynch, Bernard A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments a mass spectrometer micro-leak includes a number of channels fabricated by semiconductor processing tools and that includes a number of inlet holes that provide access to the channels.

  5. Quadrupole mass spectrometer for a mobile laboratory to measure isotope ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.R.; Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Carter, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A mobile laboratory has been assembled for on-site inspection of plant operations handlng special nuclear materials. The isotopic composition of U, Pu, and other elements can be analyzed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Some results of analysis of uranium and boron standards are given. (DLC)

  6. High precision electric gate for time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer having a chamber with electrodes to generate an electric field in the chamber and electric gating for allowing ions with a predetermined mass and velocity into the electric field. The design uses a row of very thin parallel aligned wires that are pulsed in sequence so the ion can pass through the gap of two parallel plates, which are biased to prevent passage of the ion. This design by itself can provide a high mass resolution capability and a very precise start pulse for an ion mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the ion will only pass through the chamber if it is within a wire diameter of the first wire when it is pulsed and has the right speed so it is near all other wires when they are pulsed.

  7. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions.

    PubMed

    Adamson, B D; Coughlan, N J A; Markworth, P B; Continetti, R E; Bieske, E J

    2014-12-01

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  8. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  9. Mass spectrometic study of speciation in aluminium-fluoroquinolone solutions.

    PubMed

    Cvijovic, Mirjana; Di Marco, Valerio; Traldi, Pietro; Stankov, Milena J; Djurdjevic, Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are synthetic antibacterial agents containing a 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline skeleton. When concomintantly administered with other drugs which may contain metal ions, particularly Al(3+) (antacids, phosphate binders, vaccines etc) they may form metal-drug complexes. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that aluminium-quinolone interactions lead to reduced bio- availability and altered activity of the drug with possible development of the toxic effects of aluminum ion. Reliable speciation in Al(3+) - quinolone systems at micromolar concentration level is needed to better understand pharmaco- and toxicokinetics of the FQLs in the presence of Al. In this work, the speciation in solutions containing Al(3+) and FQL family members (fleroxacin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin) was studied by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ESI-MS/MS, and laser desorption ionization (LDI) MS. The dominating species identified in all the three Al(3+)-FQL solutions, at ca 30-50 µmol L(-1) total Al concentration and 2:1 to 1:3 metal-to-ligand ratio in the pH range 3.0- 6.0, were the ions related to the complexes AlL(2+), AlL(2)(+) and AlL(3)(0) (L = ligand in the monodeprotonated form). Mixed protonated and hydroxo complexes were also formed at lower and higher pH values respectively and, as expected, dimeric and polymeric species were not observed in ESI spectra. LDI measurements confirmed the existence of the mononuclear complexes found by ESI, and indicated the formation of polymeric species. The ion [2Al(3+) +5(-)](+) was identified with all three FQLs. This ionic species most probably arises from Al(2)L(2) by clustering with free ligand anions. Comparison of literature potentiometric data with mass spectral data indicated good agreement between speciation schemes. The obtained results suggest the presence of strong interaction between FQLs and Al(3+) which may be important in affecting absorption of these drugs in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. The role of fiber optics in mass spectrometer electro-optical ion detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D. D.; Giffin, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electro-optical ion detector combining the best features of photographic and electrical ion detection (i.e., wide mass range coverage and low ion detection threshold respectively). A nineteen fold fiber optic image dissector is discussed which reformats the 1 mm x 361 mm mass spectrometer focal plane format to a 19 mm x 19 mm format suitable for vidicon imaging and electronic display of the data.

  11. On-line Monitoring of Continuous Flow Chemical Synthesis Using a Portable, Small Footprint Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Tony W. T.; Ray, Andrew D.; O'Kearney-McMullan, Anne; Lim, Louise; McCullough, Bryan; Zammataro, Alessio

    2014-10-01

    For on-line monitoring of chemical reactions (batch or continuous flow), mass spectrometry (MS) can provide data to (1) determine the fate of starting materials and reagents, (2) confirm the presence of the desired product, (3) identify intermediates and impurities, (4) determine steady state conditions and point of completion, and (5) speed up process optimization. Recent developments in small footprint atmospheric pressure ionization portable mass spectrometers further enable this coupling, as the mass spectrometer can be easily positioned with the reaction system to be studied. A major issue for this combination is the transfer of a sample that is representative of the reaction and also compatible with the mass spectrometer. This is particularly challenging as high concentrations of reagents and products can be encountered in organic synthesis. The application of a portable mass spectrometer for on-line characterization of flow chemical synthesis has been evaluated by coupling a Microsaic 4000 MiD to the Future Chemistry Flow Start EVO chemistry system. Specifically, the Hofmann rearrangement has been studied using the on-line mass spectrometry approach. Sample transfer from the flow reactor is achieved using a mass rate attenuator (MRA) and a sampling make-up flow from a high pressure pump. This enables the appropriate sample dilution, transfer, and preparation for electrospray ionization. The capability of this approach to provide process understanding is described using an industrial pharmaceutical process that is currently under development. The effect of a number of key experimental parameters, such as the composition of the sampling make-up flow and the dilution factor on the mass spectrometry data, is also discussed.

  12. Design of An Improved Miniature Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, Viji K.; Alig, Roger C.

    1997-01-01

    The ion optics of NASA's Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) sensor was simulated with three dimensional models of the open source, the quadrupole deflector, the exit lens system and the quadrupole mass analyzer to design more compact models with lower weight. Comparison of calculated transmission with experimental results shows good agreement. Transmission analyses with varying geometrical parameters and voltages throw light on possible ways of reducing the size of the sensor. Trajectories of ions of mass 1-99 amu were simulated to analyze and optimize transmission. Analysis of open source transmission with varying angle of attack shows that the angular acceptance can be considerably increased by programming the voltages on the ion trap/ collimator. Analysis of transmission sensitivity to voltages and misalignments of the quadrupole deflector rods indicate that increased transmission is possible with a geometrically asymmetrical deflector and a deflector can be designed with much lower sensitivities of transmission. Bringing the disks closer together can decrease the size of the quadrupole deflector and also increase transmission. The exit lens system can be redesigned to be smaller by eliminating at least one electrode entirely without loss of transmission. Ceramic materials were investigated to find suitable candidates for use in the construction of lighter weight mass spectrometer. A high-sensitivity, high-resolution portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-700 amu has been built and will be commercialized in Phase 3.

  13. Demonstration of a VUV lamp photoionization source for improvedorganic speciation in an aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Toohey, D.W.; Canagaratna, M.R.; Trimborn, A.; Akiyama, K-I.; Shimono, A.; Jimenez, J.L.; DeCarlo, P.F.; Wilson, K.R.; Worsnop, D.R.

    2007-10-03

    In recent years, the Aerodyne AerosolMass Spectrometer(AMS) has become a widely used tool for determining aerosol sizedistributions and chemical composition for non-refractory inorganic andorganic aerosol. The current version of the AMS uses a combination offlash thermal vaporization and 70 eV electron impact (EI) ionization.However, EI causes extensive fragmentation and mass spectra of organicaerosols are difficult to deconvolute because they are composites of theoverlapping fragmentation patterns of all species present. Previous AMSstudies have been limited to classifying organics in broad categoriessuch as oxidized and hydrocarbon-like." In this manuscript we present newefforts to gain more information about organic aerosol composition byemploying the softer technique of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization ina Time-of-Flight AMS (ToF-AMS). In our novel design a VUV lamp is placedin direct proximity of the ionization region of the AMS, with only awindow separating the lamp and the ionizer. This design allows foralternation of photoionization and electron impact ionization within thesame instrument on the timescale of minutes. Thus, the EI-basedquantification capability of the AMS is retained while improved spectralinterpretation is made possible by combined analysis of the complementaryVUV and EI ionization spectra. Photoionization and electron impactionization spectra are compared for a number of compounds including oleicacid, long chain hydrocarbons, and cigarette smoke. In general, the VUVspectra contain much less fragmentation than the EI spectra and for manycompounds the parent ion is the dominant ion in the VUV spectrum. As anexample of the usefulness of the integration of PI within the fullcapability of the ToF-AMS, size distributions and size-segregated massspectra are examined for the cigarette smoke analysis. As a finalevaluation of the new VUV module, spectra for oleic acid are compared tosimilar experiments conducted using the tunable VUV radiation

  14. Volcanic Gas Emissions Mapping Using a Mass Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Timothy P.; Diaz, J. Andres

    2008-01-01

    The visualization of hazardous gaseous emissions at volcanoes using in-situ mass spectrometry (MS) is a key step towards a better comprehension of the geophysical phenomena surrounding eruptive activity. In-Situ gas data consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and other gas species, were acquired with an MS system. MS and global position system (GPS) data were plotted on ground imagery, topography, and remote sensing data collected by a host of instruments during the second Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) mission This combination of gas and imaging data allowed 3-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the volcanic plume end the mapping of gas concentration at several volcanic structures and urban areas This combined set of data has demonstrated a better tool to assess hazardous conditions by visualizing and modeling of possible scenarios of volcanic activity. The MS system is used for in-situ measurement of three-dimensional gas concentrations at different volcanic locations with three different transportation platforms, aircraft, auto, and hand carried. The demonstration for urban contamination mapping is also presented as another possible use for the MS system.

  15. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

  16. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-03-15

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. The effects of analyte mass and collision gases on ion beam formation in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jessica J.; Edmund, Alisa J.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-11-01

    Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to evaluate the effect of matrix components on the formation and focusing of a Ba ion beam in a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Cross sections of the ion beams were taken in the second vacuum stage, in front of the entrance to the mass analyzer. Under normal operating conditions, the addition of Pb shifted the position of the Ba ion beam to the right. PLIF was also used to evaluate the effect of a collision reaction interface (CRI) on Ca and Ba ion beams. A wider velocity distribution of ions and a decrease in overall intensity were observed for the CRI images. The fluorescence and mass spectrometer signals decreased with increased CRI flow rates. These effects were most obvious for Ca ions with He gas.

  18. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer[S

    PubMed Central

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS3 fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS3 experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies. PMID:27688258

  19. Advanced astigmatism-corrected tandem Wadsworth mounting for small-scale spectral broadband imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Lin, Guan-yu

    2013-01-01

    Tandem gratings of double-dispersion mount make it possible to design an imaging spectrometer for the weak light observation with high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution, and high optical transmission efficiency. The traditional tandem Wadsworth mounting is originally designed to match the coaxial telescope and large-scale imaging spectrometer. When it is used to connect the off-axis telescope such as off-axis parabolic mirror, it presents lower imaging quality than to connect the coaxial telescope. It may also introduce interference among the detector and the optical elements as it is applied to the short focal length and small-scale spectrometer in a close volume by satellite. An advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting has been investigated to deal with the situation. The Wadsworth astigmatism-corrected mounting condition for which is expressed as the distance between the second concave grating and the imaging plane is calculated. Then the optimum arrangement for the first plane grating and the second concave grating, which make the anterior Wadsworth condition fulfilling each wavelength, is analyzed by the geometric and first order differential calculation. These two arrangements comprise the advanced Wadsworth mounting condition. The spectral resolution has also been calculated by these conditions. An example designed by the optimum theory proves that the advanced tandem Wadsworth mounting performs excellently in spectral broadband.

  20. Underwater mass spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis of the hydrosphere.

    PubMed

    Short, R T; Fries, D P; Kerr, M L; Lembke, C E; Toler, S K; Wenner, P G; Byrne, R H

    2001-06-01

    Underwater mass spectrometry systems can be used for direct in situ detection of volatile organic compounds and dissolved gases in oceans, lakes, rivers and waste-water streams. In this work we describe the design and operation of (1) a linear quadrupole mass filter and (2) a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer interfaced, in each case, with a membrane introduction/fluid control system and packaged for underwater operation. These mass spectrometry systems can operate autonomously, or under user control via a wireless rf link. Detection limits for each system were determined in the laboratory using pure solutions. The quadrupole mass filter system provides detection limits in the 1-5 ppb range with an upper mass limit of 100 amu. Its power requirement is approximately 95 Watts. The ion trap system has detection limits well below 1 ppb, an upper mass limit of 650 amu and MS/MS capability. Its power consumption is on the order of 150 Watts. The present membrane limits analysis to non-polar compounds (<300 amu) with analysis cycles of 5-15 minutes. Deployments of both types of instruments are described, along with a discussion of the challenges associated with in-water mass spectrometry and descriptions of alternative in-water mass spectrometer configurations.

  1. Development of a Miniature Mass Spectrometer and an Automated Detector for Sampling Explosive Materials

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    The development of a robust ionization source using the counter-flow APCI, miniature mass spectrometer, and an automated sampling system for detecting explosives are described. These development efforts using mass spectrometry were made in order to improve the efficiencies of on-site detection in areas such as security, environmental, and industrial applications. A development team, including the author, has struggled for nearly 20 years to enhance the robustness and reduce the size of mass spectrometers to meet the requirements needed for on-site applications. This article focuses on the recent results related to the detection of explosive materials where automated particle sampling using a cyclone concentrator permitted the inspection time to be successfully reduced to 3 s. PMID:28337396

  2. A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.

  3. Electronic and software systems of an automated portable static mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichagov, Yu. V.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Lebedev, D. S.; Kogan, V. T.; Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.; Kozlenok, A. V.; Moroshkin, V. S.; Berezina, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The electronic systems of a small high-sensitivity static mass spectrometer and software and hardware tools, which allow one to determine trace concentrations of gases and volatile compounds in air and water samples in real time, have been characterized. These systems and tools have been used to set up the device, control the process of measurement, synchronize this process with accompanying measurements, maintain reliable operation of the device, process the obtained results automatically, and visualize and store them. The developed software and hardware tools allow one to conduct continuous measurements for up to 100 h and provide an opportunity for personnel with no special training to perform maintenance on the device. The test results showed that mobile mass spectrometers for geophysical and medical research, which were fitted with these systems, had a determination limit for target compounds as low as several ppb(m) and a mass resolving power (depending on the current task) as high as 250.

  4. Development of a novel mass spectrometer equipped with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Mitsubori, Youhei; Goto, Akira; Yano, Yasushige

    2007-01-01

    The ionization efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is generally high, and all elements can be fundamentally ionized by the high-temperature plasma. We focused our attention on the high potentiality of ECRIS as an ion source for mass spectrometers and attempted to customize the mass spectrometer equipped with an ECRIS. Precise measurements were performed by using an ECRIS that was specialized and customized for elemental analysis. By using the charge-state distribution and the isotope ratio, the problem of overlap such as that observed in the spectra of isobars could be solved without any significant improvement in the mass resolution. When the isotope anomaly (or serious mass discrimination effect) was not observed in ECR plasma, the system was found to be very effective for isotope analysis. In this paper, based on the spectrum (ion current as a function of an analyzing magnet current) results of low charged state distributions (2+, 3+, 4+, ...) of noble gases, we discuss the feasibility of an elemental analysis system employing an ECRIS, particularly for isotopic analysis. The high-performance isotopic analysis obtained for ECRIS mass spectrometer in this study suggests that it can be widely applied to several fields of scientific study that require elemental or isotopic analyses with high sensitivity.

  5. A remote laser-mass spectrometer for determination of elemental composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R. J.; Situ, W.

    Determination of the elemental composition of lunar, asteroid, and planetary surfaces is a major concern for science and resource utilization of space. The science associated with the development of a satellite or lunar rover laser-mass spectrometer instrument is presented here. The instrument would include a pulsed laser with sufficient energy to create a plasma on a remote surface. Ions ejected from this plasma travel back to the spacecraft or rover, where they are analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, giving the elemental and isotope composition. This concept is based on the LIMA-D instrument on board the former Soviet Union Phobos-88 spacecraft sent to Mars. A laser-mass spectrometer placed on a rover or satellite would substantially improve the data return over alternative techniques. The spatial resolution would be centimeters, and a complete mass spectrum could be achieved in one laser shot. An experiment is described that demonstrates these features. A 400 mj Nd:YAG laser is focused, to an intensity of 10(exp 11) w/sq cm, onto a Al, Ag, Cu, Ge, or lunar simulant target. A plasma forms from which ions are ejected. Some of these ions travel down an 18-m evacuated flight tube to a microchannel plate detector. Alternatively, the ions are captured by an ion trap where they are stored until pulsed into a 1-m time-of-flight mass spectrometer, giving the elemental composition of the remote surface. A television camera monitors the plasma plume shape, and a photodiode monitors the temporal plasma emission . With this system, ions of Al, Ag, Cu, Ge, and lunar simulant have been detected at 18 m. The mass spectrum from the ion trap and 1-m time-of-flight tube will be presented.

  6. Planar differential mobility spectrometer as a pre-filter for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bradley B.; Covey, Thomas R.; Coy, Stephen L.; Krylov, Evgeny V.

    2010-01-01

    Ion filters based on planar DMS can be integrated with the inlet configuration of most mass spectrometers, and are able to enhance the quality of mass analysis and quantitative accuracy by reducing chemical noise, and by pre-separating ions of similar mass. This paper is the first in a series of three papers describing the optimization of DMS / MS instrumentation. In this paper the important physical parameters of a planar DMS-MS interface including analyzer geometry, analyzer coupling to a mass spectrometer, and transport gas flow control are considered. The goal is to optimize ion transmission and transport efficiency, provide optimal and adjustable resolution, and produce stable operation under conditions of high sample contamination. We discuss the principles of DMS separations and highlight the theoretical underpinnings. The main differences between planar and cylindrical geometries are presented, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of RF ion focusing. In addition, we present a description of optimization of the frequency and amplitude of the DMS fields for resolution and ion transmission, and a discussion of the influence and importance of ion residence time in DMS. We have constructed a mass spectrometer interface for planar geometries that takes advantage of atmospheric pressure gas dynamic principles, rather than ion focusing, to minimize ion losses from diffusion in the analyzer and to maximize total ion transport into the mass spectrometer. A variety of experimental results has been obtained that illustrate the performance of this type of interface, including tests of resistance to high contamination levels, and the separation of stereoisomers. In a subsequent publication the control of the chemical interactions that drive the separation process of a DMS / MS system will be considered. In a third publication we describe novel electronics designed to provide the high voltages asymmetric waveform fields (SV) required for these

  7. A Remote Laser-mass Spectrometer for Determination of Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Situ, W.

    1993-01-01

    Determination of the elemental composition of lunar, asteroid, and planetary surfaces is a major concern for science and resource utilization of space. The science associated with the development of a satellite or lunar rover laser-mass spectrometer instrument is presented here. The instrument would include a pulsed laser with sufficient energy to create a plasma on a remote surface. Ions ejected from this plasma travel back to the spacecraft or rover, where they are analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, giving the elemental and isotope composition. This concept is based on the LIMA-D instrument on board the former Soviet Union Phobos-88 spacecraft sent to Mars. A laser-mass spectrometer placed on a rover or satellite would substantially improve the data return over alternative techniques. The spatial resolution would be centimeters, and a complete mass spectrum could be achieved in one laser shot. An experiment is described that demonstrates these features. A 400 mj Nd:YAG laser is focused, to an intensity of 10(exp 11) w/sq cm, onto a Al, Ag, Cu, Ge, or lunar simulant target. A plasma forms from which ions are ejected. Some of these ions travel down an 18-m evacuated flight tube to a microchannel plate detector. Alternatively, the ions are captured by an ion trap where they are stored until pulsed into a 1-m time-of-flight mass spectrometer, giving the elemental composition of the remote surface. A television camera monitors the plasma plume shape, and a photodiode monitors the temporal plasma emission . With this system, ions of Al, Ag, Cu, Ge, and lunar simulant have been detected at 18 m. The mass spectrum from the ion trap and 1-m time-of-flight tube will be presented.

  8. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Chorkendorff, I.; Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O.

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/{Delta}m > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH{sub 3}.

  9. Note: A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer for photoelectron imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Zhengbo; Wu Xia; Tang Zichao

    2013-06-15

    A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer (D-TOFMS) has been designed to select anions in the photoelectron imaging measurements. In this instrument, the radiation laser can be triggered precisely to overlap with the selected ion cloud at the first-order space focusing plane. Compared with that of the conventional single channel TOFMS, the in situ mass selection performance of D-TOFMS is significantly improved. Preliminary experiment results are presented for the mass-selected photodetachment spectrum of F{sup -} to demonstrate the capability of the instrument.

  10. A Low-cost, Lightweight, and Miniaturized Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOFMS) are commonly used for mass analysis and for the measurement of energy distributions of charged particles. For achieving high mass and energy resolution these instruments generally comprise long flight tubes, often as long as a few meters. This necessitates high voltages and a very clean environment. These requirements make them bulky and heavy. We have developed an instrument and calibration techniques that are based on the design principles of TOFMS. However, instead of one long flight tube it consists of a series of cylindrical electrostatic lenses that confine ions under study along the axis of the flight tube.

  11. Small mass spectrometer with extended measurement capabilities at high pressures. [for planetary atmosphere analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Zahn, U.; Mauersberger, K.

    1978-01-01

    For the in situ investigation of planetary atmospheres a small Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrometer has been developed. Its high-pressure performance has been improved by incorporating differential pumping between the ion source and the analyzing fields, shortening the path-length as well as increasing the extraction field in the ion source. In addition doubly ionized and dissociated ions are used for mass analysis. These measures make possible operation up to 0.01 millibars. Results of laboratory tests related to linearity, dynamic range, and mass resolution are presented, in particular for CO2.

  12. High sensitivity pulse-counting mass spectrometer system for noble gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse-counting mass spectrometer is described which is comprised of a new ion source of cylindrical geometry, with exceptional optical properties (the Baur source), a dual focal plane externally adjustable collector slits, and a 17-stage Allen-type electron multiplier, all housed in a metal 21 cm radius, 90 deg magnetic sector flight tube. Mass discrimination of the instrument is less than 1 per mil per mass unit; the optical transmission is more than 90%; the source sensitivity (Faraday collection) is 4 ma/torr at 250 micron emission; and the abundance sensitivity is 30,000.

  13. A Dual Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer of ExoMars 2018

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickerhoff, William B.; vanAmerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R. M.; Arevalo, R.; Atanassova, M.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cotter, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present details on the objectives, requirements, design and operational approach of the core mass spectrometer of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars mission. The MOMA mass spectrometer enables the investigation to fulfill its objective of analyzing the chemical composition of organic compounds in solid samples obtained from the near surface of Mars. Two methods of ionization are realized, associated with different modes of MOMA operation, in a single compact ion trap mass spectrometer. The stringent mass and power constraints of the mission have led to features such as low voltage and low frequency RF operation [1] and pulse counting detection.

  14. Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer and of a miniature hemispherical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer were made. The extremely high sensitivity of these instruments and their ability to operate at D region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D region ion composition measurements.

  15. Evaluating Multiplexed Quantitative Phosphopeptide Analysis on a Hybrid Quadrupole Mass Filter/Linear Ion Trap/Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38 247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11 000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628 000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h. PMID:25521595

  16. Towards a universal product ion mass spectral library - reproducibility of product ion spectra across eleven different mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Chris; Bristow, Tony; Lubben, Anneke; Simpson, Alec; Bull, Elaine; Klagkou, Katerina; Herniman, Julie; Langley, John

    2008-06-01

    Product ion spectra produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in tandem mass spectrometry experiments can differ markedly between instruments. There have been a number of attempts to standardise the production of product ion spectra; however, a consensus on the most appropriate approach to the reproducible production of spectra has yet to be reached. We have previously reported the comparison of product ion spectra on a number of different types of instruments - a triple quadrupole, two ion traps and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (Bristow AWT, Webb KS, Lubben AT, Halket JM. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2004; 18: 1). The study showed that a high degree of reproducibility was achievable. The goal of this study was to improve the comparability and reproducibility of CID product ion mass spectra produced in different laboratories and using different instruments. This was carried out experimentally by defining a spectral calibration point on each mass spectrometer for product ion formation. The long-term goal is the development of a universal (instrument independent) product ion mass spectral library for the identification of unknowns. The spectra of 48 compounds have been recorded on eleven mass spectrometers: six ion traps, two triple quadrupoles, a hybrid triple quadrupole, and two quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. Initially, 4371 spectral comparisons were carried out using the data from eleven instruments and the degree of reproducibility was evaluated. A blind trial has also been carried out to assess the reproducibility of spectra obtained during LC/MS/MS. The results suggest a degree of reproducibility across all instrument types using the tuning point technique. The reproducibility of the product ion spectra is increased when comparing the tandem in time type instruments and the tandem in space instruments as two separate groups. This may allow the production of a more limited, yet useful, screening library for LC

  17. The Multiplexed Chemical Kinetic Photoionization Mass Spectrometer: A New Approach To Isomer-resolved Chemical Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, David L.; Zou, Peng; Johnsen, Howard; Hayden, Carl C.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Knyazev, Vadim D.; North, Simon W.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-08-28

    We have developed a multiplexed time- and photon-energy?resolved photoionizationmass spectrometer for the study of the kinetics and isomeric product branching of gasphase, neutral chemical reactions. The instrument utilizes a side-sampled flow tubereactor, continuously tunable synchrotron radiation for photoionization, a multi-massdouble-focusing mass spectrometer with 100percent duty cycle, and a time- and positionsensitive detector for single ion counting. This approach enables multiplexed, universal detection of molecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. In addition to measurement of rate coefficients as a function of temperature and pressure, different structural isomers can be distinguished based on their photoionization efficiency curves, providing a more detailed probe of reaction mechanisms. The multiplexed 3-dimensional data structure (intensity as a function of molecular mass, reaction time, and photoionization energy) provides insights that might not be available in serial acquisition, as well as additional constraints on data interpretation.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments.

  19. Atomic oxygen-metal surface studies as applied to mass spectrometer measurements of upper planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjolander, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of atomic oxygen loss in mass spectrometer ion sources can be reduced to an understanding of the possible surface interactions between oxygen atoms and the metal surface of the ion source. Results are presented for an experimental study in which an atomic oxygen beam apparatus and a mass spectrometer were used to measure the oxygen atom reflection, recombination, general surface reaction, and occlusion probabilities on six different engineering surfaces as a function of atomic oxygen exposure. The materials studied are gold, Nichrome V, aluminum, titanium, silver, and platinum. The variation in measured reflection probability seems to occur with metals that form oxides, Nichrome V being stable in terms of reflection stability. Recombination is observed an all surfaces except aluminum and platinum. Variation in the complete set of measurements in a single experiment is the result of varying surface conditions.

  20. Preserving the Sequence of a Biopolymer's Monomers as They Enter an Electrospray Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulbetsch, William; Wiener, Benjamin; Poole, William; Bush, Joseph; Stein, Derek

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates how faithfully an electrospray mass spectrometer reports the order of monomers of a single biopolymer in the context of two sequencing strategies. We develop a simplified one-dimensional theoretical model of the dynamics of Brownian particles in the Taylor cone of an electropray source, where free monomers drift towards the apex in an elongational force gradient. The likelihood that neighboring particles will invert their order decreases near the apex because the strength of the force gradient increases. Neighboring monomers on a stretched biopolymer should be cleaved by photofragmentation within about 3 nm of the apex if they are to enter the mass spectrometer in sequence with 95% probability under typical experimental conditions. Alternatively, if the monomers are cleaved processively at milliseconds-long intervals by an enzyme, their sequence will be faithfully reported with 95% confidence if the enzyme is within about 117 nm of the apex.

  1. A new mass spectrometer system for investigating laser-induced vaporization phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    A laser has been combined with a mass spectrometer in a new configuration developed for studies of high-temperature materials. A vacuum-lock, solid-sample inlet is mounted at one end of a cylindrical, high-vacuum chamber one meter in length with a nude ion-source, time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the opposite end. The samples are positioned along the axis of the chamber at distances up to one meter from the ion source, and their surfaces are vaporized by a pulsed laser beam entering via windows on one side of the chamber. The instrumentation along with its capabilities is described, and results from laser-induced vaporization of several graphites are presented.

  2. STS-46 plasma composition measurements using the EOIM-3 mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, Donald E.; Trzcinski, Edmund; Gosselin, Roger; Koontz, Steven; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the active instruments incorporated into the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials - 3 experiment was a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The primary objectives for this instrument, which was built by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and was a veteran of the STS-4 flight in 1982, were to quantify the flux of atomic oxygen striking the test surfaces in the EOIM-3 payload and to detect surface reaction products from the materials in the carousel. Other speakers in this session have covered the results of these experiments. Prior to the 40-hour-long dedicated EOIM-3 mission segment at the end of the STS-46 flight, the authors used the mass spectrometer to make measurements of ion and neutral gas composition in the shuttle environment. About 25 hours of data were collected during a variety of mission events, including Eureca deployment at high altitude and many tethered satellite system operations.

  3. A focal-plane detector for the recoil-mass spectrometer of LNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrieri, A.; Maron, G.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Prete, G.

    1990-12-01

    A focal-plane detector for a recoil-mass spectrometer has been developed. It consists of a 14 × 14 cm 2 position-sensitive parallel-plate avalanche counter backed by a 43 cm long Bragg chamber. Both detectors work in the same gas volume thus reducing the dead layers. The intrinsic resolution of the position detector is ±0.5 mm, and an overall timing resolution of 660 ps FWHM was measured with 5.5 MeV α-particles. The Bragg chamber allows the identification of elements with energy high enough to overcome the Bragg peak: in all cases it allows the separation between the reaction channels and the beam scattering. The detector has already been used with a good reliability in a variety of transfer and fusion experiments at the LNL Recoil Mass Spectrometer.

  4. Re-examination of radiofrequency mass spectrometers: Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The three-stage, two-cycle, Bennett mass spectrometers in use in space and ground experiments today are of the same physical configuration as developed by Bennett in 1950. Sine-wave radiofrequency (RF) is also still used. The literature indicates that the electronics and physical manufacturing capabilities of 1950 technology may have limited the use of other improvements at that time. Therefore, a study, experimental and analytical, was undertaken to examine previously rejected RF approaches as well as new ones. The results of this study indicate there are other approaches which use fewer grids and square wave or a combination of square-wave and sine-wave RF. In regard to suppression of harmonics, none performed better than the three-stage, two-cycle, Bennett mass spectrometer. Use of square-wave RF in the Bennett approach can provide a slightly more compact configuration but no increase in throughput.

  5. Advances in OLED/OPD-based spectrometer on-a-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Eeshita; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    We describe ongoing advances toward achieving an integrated all-organic spectrometer on a chip. To this end, 2-dimensional combinatorial arrays of microcavity (μc) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with systematically varying optical cavity lengths were fabricated on a single chip by changing the thickness of different organic and/or spacer layers sandwiched between the two metal electrodes. The latter, one of which is semitransparent, form the cavity. The tunable and narrower emissions from the μcOLEDs serve as excitation sources of varying wavelength for monitoring light absorption or emission. For each wavelength, the light from the μcOLED is partially absorbed by the sample under study and the transmitted light (or the light emitted by an electronically excited sample) is detected by a photodetector (PD). To obtain a compact monitor, an organic PD (OPD) is fabricated and integrated with the μcOLED array. We show the potential of encompassing a broader wavelength range by using μcOLEDs based on different emitting layers. The OPD used to realize the first all-organic integrated spectrometer described here is based on P3HT:PCBM, though more sensitive OPDs we utilized in sensing applications are expected to improve the spectrometers' performance. The utility of this all-organic μcOLED/OPD spectrometer is shown for monitoring the absorption spectra of P3HT and Alexa Fluor 405 films. The results show excellent agreement with the absorption spectra obtained with a commercial Ocean Optics spectrometer.

  6. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  7. Photometric Calibration of an EUV Flat Field Spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    May, M; Lepson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Thorn, D; Chen, H; Hey, D; Smith, A

    2002-07-03

    The photometric calibration of ail extreme ultraviolet flat field spectrometer has been done at the Advanced Light Source at LBNL. This spectrometer is used to record spectrum for atomic physics research from highly charged ions in plasmas created in the Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and SUPEREBIT. Two calibrations were done each with a different gold-coated grating, a 1200 {ell}/mm and a 2400 {ell}/mm, that covered 75-300{angstrom} and 15-160{angstrom}, respectively. The detector for this calibration was a back thinned CCD. The relative calibration was determined for several different incident angles for both gratings. Within the scatter of the data, the calibration was roughly insensitive to the incidence angle for the range of angles investigated.

  8. Design of the cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, P.; Zhang, Hongxia; Bao, W.; Schneidewind, A.; Link, P.; Grünwald, A. T. D.; Georgii, R.; Hao, L. J.; Liu, Y. T.

    2016-06-01

    The design of the first cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor is presented. Based on the Monte Carlo simulations using neutron ray-tracing program McStas, the parameters of major neutron optics in this instrument are optimized. The neutron flux at sample position is estimated to be 5.6 ×107 n/cm2/s at neutron incident energy Ei=5 meV when the reactor operates normally at the designed 60 MW power. The performances of several neutron supermirror polarizing devices are compared and their critical parameters are optimized for this spectrometer. The polarization analysis will be realized with a flexible switch from the unpolarized experimental mode.

  9. Elimination of ``memory`` from sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chastgner, P.

    1991-05-08

    This paper describes a method for preparing the sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer for analysis of a subsequent sample following analysis of a previous sample comprising the flushing of the system interior with supercritical CO{sub 2} and venting the interior. The method eliminates the effect of system ``memory`` on the subsequent analysis, especially following persistent samples such as xenon and krypton.

  10. Halley comet dust particle classification according to the data obtained by mass spectrometer Puma-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikov, Yu. P.; Evlanov, E. N.; Fomenkova, M. N.; Mukhin, L. M.; Nazarov, M. A.; Prilutsky, O. F.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Zubkov, B. V.

    Nonzero mode spectra of the dust component of Comet Halley obtained by the dust particle impact mass-spectrometer, Puma-1, on Vega, are used to examine the origin of the mineral phase. The element compositions of 511 cometary particles are studied, using data on ions of Na, Ca, C, H, N, S, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Al. The results are used to determine the mineral composition of the dust of Comet Halley.

  11. Control and Data Transmission System for a Balloon-Borne Ion Mass Spectrometer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    BALLOON-4ORNE ON .MASSSPECTROMETER. - . Raimundas / SukY l(- J, Spencer IRochefort Northeastern University Electronics Research W6ratory Boston...ONG REPORT ,MR 1. AUlpORj.) CLir6ACT OR. GRN UNS! RV R. SUKYS F19628-78-C-021 8 0.5. ROCHEFORT VP:REORMING ONG ANIZAIIOM NPIME AND ADDRESS " PAOGNAm Et...FOR A BALLOON-BORNE ION MASS SPECTROMETER Raimundas Sukys and J. Spencer Rochefort Department of Electrical Engineering / Northeastern University

  12. Portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer for on-site chemical analyses

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Bushman, John F.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Eckels, Joel D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, lightweight (approximately 25 kg) gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, including the entire vacuum system, can perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of all sample types in the field. The GC/MS has a conveniently configured layout of components for ease of serviceability and maintenance. The GC/MS system can be transported under operating or near-operating conditions (i.e., under vacuum and at elevated temperature) to reduce the downtime before samples can be analyzed on-site.

  13. Ion-optical studies for improved ion transmission in multistage isotope-ratio mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffels, J.J. ); Laue, H.J. )

    1991-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental ion-optical studies of multistage isotope-ratio mass spectrometers were conducted to determine what improvement in ion transmission efficiency might be attainable through design changes. The computer program GIOS (General Ion Optical Systems) was used to perform theoretical calculations of focusing properties and ion transmission efficiency. Actual transmission through multiple-sector instruments was determined from measurements of the ion beam vertical profile at the focus of each stage. For existing mass spectrometers with tandem magnets of normal geometry, our studies determined a feasible design change that significantly increases ion transmission through the analyzer. The use of a cylindrical einzel lens or an electrostatic quadrupole lens near the focal point between the magnets provides vertical focusing of the ion beam to achieve the improved transmission. We also established a new mass spectrometer design that give 100% transmission through tandem magnetic analyzers and through a third-stage electrostatic analyzer without the use of an intermediate focusing lens. Non-normal magnetic field boundaries provide ion beam focusing in the vertical plant to achieve this complete transmission. 19 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Refinement and evaluation of an automated mass spectrometer for nitrogen isotope analysis by the Rittenberg technique

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, R. L.; Liu, Y. P.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus designed to automatically perform hypobromite oxidations of ammonium salt samples for nitrogen isotope analyses with a mass spectrometer was modified to improve performance and reduce analysis time. As modified, reference N2 is admitted to the mass spectrometer between samples from a dedicated inlet manifold, for calibration at the same pressure as that of the preceding sample. Analyses can be performed on samples containing 10 μg to 1 mg of N (or more), at a rate of up to 350 samples/day. When operated with a double-collector mass spectrometer, the standard deviation at the natural abundance level (10 analyses, 50-150 μg N) was <0.0001 atom % 15N. Very little memory was observed when natural abundance samples (0.366 atom % 15N) were analysed. following samples containing 40 atom % 15N. Analyses in the range, 0.2 to 1 atom % 15N (50-150 μg N), were in good agreement with manual Rittenberg analyses (1 mg N) using a dual-inlet system, and precision was comparable. For enrichments of 2 to 20 atom % 15N, automated analyses were slightly lower than manual analyses, which was attributed to outgassing of N2 from the plastic microplate used to contain samples. PMID:18924914

  15. Design and performance of an electrospray ion source for magnetic-sector mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Colburn, Alex W.; Derrick, Peter J.

    1998-03-01

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source capable of operating at accelerating potentials of up to 11 kV has been designed and fabricated. The ESI source has been shown to deliver ion beams with a total current up to 20 pA and an emittance of 2-3 mm mrad in analysis of the peptide gramicidin S (molecular mass 1140.7 Da) and the protein bovine insulin B chain (molecular mass 3495.9 Da). Coupled to a two-sector tandem mass spectrometer, the ESI source produced efficiently the multiply charged ions of proteins, such as bovine ubiquitin (molecular mass 8564.8 Da) and cytochrome c (molecular mass 12327 Da). The high ion currents and high kinetic energies of the electrospray ions (up to 200 keV) characterize this ESI source as a powerful tool to be used in structural analysis of macromolecules by collision-induced dissociation.

  16. A miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, Urs; Whitby, James A.; Wurz, Peter

    2003-12-01

    We report the development and testing of a miniature mass spectrometer and ion source intended to be deployed on an airless planetary surface to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of rocks and soils. Our design concentrates at this stage on the proposed BepiColombo mission to the planet Mercury. The mass analyser is an axially symmetric reflectron time-of-flight design. The ion source utilizes a laser induced plasma, which is directly coupled into the mass analyser. Laser ablation gives high spatial resolution, and avoids the need for sample preparation. Our prototype instrument has a demonstrated mass resolution m/Dgrm (FWHM) in excess of 600 and a predicted dynamic range of better than four orders of magnitude. Isotopic fractionation effects are found to be minor. We estimate that a flight instrument would have a mass of 500 g (including all electronics), a volume of 650 cm3 and could operate on 3 W power.

  17. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  18. Solid Phase Microextraction and Miniature Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, j.m.

    1999-01-26

    A miniature mass spectrometer, based on the time-of-flight principle, has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent precursor molecules. The instrument, with minor modifications, could fulfill many of the needs for sensing organic molecules in various Defense Programs, including Enhanced Surveillance. The basic footprint of the instrument is about that of a lunch box. The instrument has a mass range to about 300, has parts-per-trillion detection limits, and can return spectra in less than a second. The instrument can also detect permanent gases and is especially sensitive to hydrogen. In volume, the device could be manufactured for under $5000.

  19. Ion neutral mass spectrometer results from the first flyby of Titan.

    PubMed

    Waite, J Hunter; Niemann, Hasso; Yelle, Roger V; Kasprzak, Wayne T; Cravens, Thomas E; Luhmann, Janet G; McNutt, Ralph L; Ip, Wing-Huen; Gell, David; De La Haye, Virginie; Müller-Wordag, Ingo; Magee, Brian; Borggren, Nathan; Ledvina, Steve; Fletcher, Greg; Walter, Erin; Miller, Ryan; Scherer, Stefan; Thorpe, Rob; Xu, Jing; Block, Bruce; Arnett, Ken

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, molecular hydrogen, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in Titan's upper atmosphere. INMS in situ mass spectrometry has also provided evidence for atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which reveal interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon's upper atmosphere do not appear to have changed considerably since the Voyager 1 flyby.

  20. A novel aircraft-based tandem mass spectrometer for atmospheric ion and trace gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, O.; Reiner, Th.; Arnold, F.

    1993-05-01

    The general design and operation of a novel aircraft-based triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) developed for the improved detection and collisional analysis of atmospheric ions and trace gases are described. The instrument is also suitable for laboratory collision-induced dissociation measurements, studies of ion-molecule reactions, and analytical applications. Highly sensitive and selective trace gas detection by chemical ionization mass spectrometry is also possible using a novel ion injection technique. Result of aircraft-based measurements made with the TQMS are summarized.

  1. ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution

  2. A Carbon Nano Tube electron impact ionisation source for low-power, compact spacecraft mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, S.; Bardwell, M. W.; Morse, A. D.; Morgan, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    A novel ionisation source which uses commercially available Carbon Nano Tube devices is demonstrated as a replacement for a filament based ionisation source in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The carbon nanotube ion source electron emission was characterised and exhibited typical emission of 30 ± 1.7 μA with an applied voltage differential of 300 V between the carbon nanotube tips and the extraction grid. The ion source was tested for longevity and operated under a condition of continuous emission for a period of 44 h; there was an observed reduction in emission current of 26.5% during operation. Spectra were generated by installing the ion source into a Finnigan Mat ITD700 ion trap mass spectrometer; the spectra recorded showed all of the characteristic m/z peaks from m/z 69 to m/z 219. Perfluorotributylamine spectra were collected and averaged contiguously for a period of 48 h with no significant signal loss or peak mass allocation shift. The low power requirements and low mass of this novel ionisation source are considered be of great value to future space missions where mass spectrometric technology will be employed.

  3. In Situ Geochemical Analysis and Age Dating of Rocks Using Laser Ablation-Miniature Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Hurowitz, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized instrument for performing chemical and isotopic analysis of rocks has been developed. The rock sample is ablated by a laser and the neutral species produced are analyzed using the JPL-invented miniature mass spectrometer. The direct sampling of neutral ablated material and the simultaneous measurement of all the elemental and isotopic species are the novelties of this method. In this laser ablation-miniature mass spectrometer (LA-MMS) method, the ablated neutral atoms are led into the electron impact ionization source of the MMS, where they are ionized by a 70-eV electron beam. This results in a secondary ion pulse typically 10-100 microsecond wide, compared to the original 5-10-nanosecond laser pulse duration. Ions of different masses are then spatially dispersed along the focal plane of the magnetic sector of the miniature mass spectrometer and measured in parallel by a modified CCD (charge-coupled device) array detector capable of detecting ions directly. Compared to conventional scanning techniques, simultaneous measurement of the ion pulse along the focal plane effectively offers a 100% duty cycle over a wide mass range. LAMMS offers a more quantitative assessment of elemental composition than techniques that detect laser-ionized species produced directly in the ablation process because the latter can be strongly influenced by matrix effects that vary with the structure and geometry of the surface, the laser beam, and the ionization energies of the elements. The measurement of high-precision isotopic ratios and elemental composition of different rock minerals by LAMMS method has been demonstrated. The LA-MMS can be applied for the absolute age determination of rocks. There is no such instrument available presently in a miniaturized version that can be used for NASA space missions. Work is in progress in the laboratory for geochronology of rocks using LA-MMS that is based on K-Ar radiogenic dating technique.

  4. In Situ Chemical Composition Measurements of Planetary Surfaces with a Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Riedo, Andreas; Meyer, Stefan; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. For cosmochemistry, the elemental and isotopic composition of the surface material is essential information to investigate origin, differentiation and evolution processes of the body and therefore the history of our Solar System [1]. We show that the use of laser-based mass spectrometers is essential in such research because of their high sensitivity in the ppm range and their capability for quantitative elemental and isotopic analysis. A miniaturised Laser Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS) was developed in our group to study the elemental composition of solid samples [2]. The instrument's small size and light weight make it suitable for an application on a space mission to determine the elemental composition of a planetary surface for example [3]. Meteorites offer the excellent possibility to study extraterrestrial material in the laboratory. To demonstrate the sensitivity and functionality of the LMS instrument, a sample of the Allende meteorite has been investigated with a high spatial resolution. The LMS measurements allowed investigations of the elemental abundances in the Allende meteorite and detailed studies of the mineralogy and volatility [4]. These approaches can be of considerable interest for in situ investigation of grains and inhomogeneous materials with high sensitivity on a planetary surface. [1] Wurz, P., Whitby, J., Managadze, G., 2009, Laser Mass Spectrometry in Planetary Science, AIP Conf. Proc. CP1144, 70-75. [2] Tulej, M., Riedo, A., Iakovleva, M., Wurz, P., 2012, Int. J. Spec., On Applicability of a Miniaturized Laser Ablation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Trace Element Measurements, article ID 234949. [3] Riedo, A., Bieler, A., Neuland, M., Tulej, M., Wurz, P., 2012, Performance evaluation of a miniature laser ablation time

  5. AE and DE mass spectrometer observations relevant to the shuttle glow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work suggested that NO2 may be responsible for the observed continuum glow near surfaces of the space shuttle. The observations of atomic nitrogen (N) are reported at shuttle altitudes using mass spectrometers, giving special attention to the surface reactions of N relevant to the production of NO2 on spacecraft surfaces. Data from two semi-open sources mass spectrometers, the OSS instruments on the Atmosphere Explorer-C and -D satellites, and the closed source Neutral Atmospheric Composition Spectrometer (NACS) on the Dynamic Explorer-2 satellite are presented to show the similar behavior of NO in each case and the contrasting behavior of NO2. Although signals of NO and NO2 are highly dependent on surface temperature and surface composition, it appears that direct exposure of ion source surfaces to rammed gas is a necessary condition for the production of large amounts of NO2. Evidence that elevated surface temperatures can significantly reduce the production of NO2, likely by causing more rapid desorption of NO from these surfaces, is presented.

  6. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd T.; Hodges, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission currently scheduled for launch in early 2013 aboard a Minotaur V will orbit the moon at a nominal periselene of 50 km to characterized the lunar atmosphere and dust environment. The science instrument payload includes a neutral mass spectrometer as well as an ultraviolet spectrometer and a dust detector. Although to date only He, Ar-40, K, Na and Rn-222 have been firmly identified in the lunar exosphere and arise from the solar wind (He), the lunar regolith (K and Na) and the lunar interior (Ar-40, Rn-222), upper limits have been set for a large number of other species, LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) observations will determine the abundance of several species and substantially lower the present upper limits for many others. Additionally, LADEE NMS will observe the spatial distribution and temporal variability of species which condense at nighttime and show peak concentrations at the dawn terminator (e,g, Ar-40), possible episodic release from the lunar interior, and the results of sputtering or desorption processes from the regolith. In this presentation, we describe the LADEE NMS hardware and the anticipated science results.

  7. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  8. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  9. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  10. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  11. Hot ions observed by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer inside the Comet Halley contact surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.; Young, D. T.; Balsiger, H.; Buehler, F.; Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Shelly, E. G.

    1986-01-01

    Just inside the contact surface (approx. 4700 km) the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) sensor of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer detected a sudden, intense burst of ions that lasted until the HERS sensor ceased transmitting data at a distance 3000 km from comet Halley. During this interval ions with M/Q=1, 2, 12, 14, 16, 19, 24 and 28 were observed. The heavier ions appear in two populations (in the S/C frame): a very low energy, almost omnidirectional distribution, and a more energetic (approx. < ram speed) population coming from the ram direction. The low energy ions may belong to the natural Halley environment or be generated at the spacecraft by dust and gas bombardment. The ions may also be related to spacecraft charging processes on Giotto.

  12. Low-Cost Micro Mass Spectrometers for Handheld Chemical Analysis and Distributed Networks for Space Flight Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Amerom, F. H. W.; Chaudhary, A.; Short, R. T.

    2012-06-01

    Distributed networks of low-cost micro mass spectrometers, far smaller than presently available, will be powerful tools for safety of astronauts, enabling chemical monitoring throughout spacecrafts/habitats, surface vehicles and Mars deployments.

  13. A Low-Power Low-Mass Dual-Polarization Sensitive Submillimeter-Wave Radiometer/Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, G.; Reck, T.; Jung-Kubiak, C.; Gonzalez-Ovejero, D.; Lee, C.; Alonso-Del Pino, M.

    2016-10-01

    Applying CMOS components and silicon micromachining technology that enable low-mass and highly integrated receivers, we are developing a state-of-the-art submillimeter wavelength radiometer/spectrometer instrument for planetary orbiter missions.

  14. Ion/molecule reactions for detecting ammonia using miniature cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jonell N; Keil, Adam D; Noll, Robert J; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-01-07

    Gaseous ammonia, a common toxic industrial compound, is not detected readily in ion trap mass spectrometers because its molecular ion falls below the low-mass cutoff (~m/z 40) normally used when examining organic compounds. Instead, reactions of ammonia with halobenzene radical cations were used with internal electron ionization in two cylindrical ion trap miniature mass spectrometers to create a characteristic product ion by which to identify and quantify ammonia. Ammonia showed a linear response over the concentration range studied (parts per million [ppm] to parts per billion [ppb]) with limits of detection of 17 ppm and 220 ppb for experiments involving direct introduction and thermal desorption after pre-concentration, respectively. These values are comparable to ammonia's permissible exposure limit (50 ppm) and odor threshold (5 ppm). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to describe the method sensitivity, the probability of true positives, and the false positive rate for ammonia. A customized reaction scan function was created to select the species available for the ion/molecule reaction and set the amount of time the product ion could be accumulated in the trap. Product ion identity was verified using tandem mass spectrometry. Similar reactions with methylamine, ethylamine and the two nitriles, acetonitrile and benzonitrile, were explored.

  15. Application of a trochoidal electron monochromator/mass spectrometer system to the study of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Laramee, J.A.; Kocher, C.A.; Deinzer, M.L. )

    1992-10-15

    A trochoidal electron monochromator has been interfaced to a mass spectrometer to perform electron capture negative ion mass spectrometric (ECNIMS) analyses of environmentally relevant chemicals. The kinetic energy of the electron beam can be varied from 0.025 to 30 eV under computer control. No reagent gas is used to moderate the electron energies. An electron energy spread of +/- 0.1 to +/- 0.4 eV full width at half-maximum (fwhm) can readily be obtained at a transmitted current of 2 x 10(-6) A, improving to +/- 0.07 eV at 5 x 10(-7) A. Comparisons of ECNI results from the electron monochromator/mass spectrometer system with those from a standard instrument that uses a moderating gas show similar spectra for heptachlor but not for the s-triazine herbicides, as for example, atrazine. This compound shows numerous adduct ions by standard ECNIMS that are eliminated by using the electron monochromator to generate the mass spectra. Isomeric tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins show distinct differences in the electron energies needed to produce the maximum amount of parent and fragment anions. Multiple resonance states resulting in stable radical anions (M.-) are easily observed for nitrobenzene and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Ionic products of dissociative electron capture invariably occur from several resonance states.

  16. Mass spectrometer measurements of test gas composition in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, K. A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Shock tunnels afford a means of generating hypersonic flow at high stagnation enthalpies, but they have the disadvantage that thermochemical effects make the composition of the test flow different to that of ambient air. The composition can be predicted by numerical calculations of the nozzle flow expansion, using simplified thermochemical models and, in the absence of experimental measurements, it has been necessary to accept the results given by these calculations. This note reports measurements of test gas composition, at stagnation enthalpies up to 12.5 MJ.kg(exp -1), taken with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Limited results have been obtained in previous measurements. These were taken at higher stagnation enthalpies, and used a quadruple mass spectrometer. The time-of-flight method was preferred here because it enabled a number of complete mass spectra to be obtained in each test, and because it gives good mass resolution over the range of interest with air (up to 50 a.m.a.).

  17. Optimization of the Finnigan MAT 5100 Capillary Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer for the Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    FINNIGAN MAT 5100 CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS J.A. Hiltz - J. Power ,¢., DJ : .,:.JAN 1 4...CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS J.A. Hiltz - J.J. Power November 1986 Approved by B.F. Peters A...INTRODUCTION The use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as dielectric fluids in electrical transformers and capacitors has been commomplace over the

  18. USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM TO IDENTIFY COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and must be identified by other means. Often, compound identities can be deduced from the compositions of the ions in their mass spectra and review of the chemical literature. Confirmation is provided by mass spectra and r...

  19. Studies of neutron-rich nuclei using the CPT mass spectrometer at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Bertone, P. F.; Buchinger, F.; Caldwell, S.; Clark, J. A.; Crawford, J. E.; Deibel, C. M.; Gulick, S.; Lascar, D.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Savard, G.; Segel, R. E.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.; Sun, T.; Van Schelt, J.

    2011-09-01

    The nucleosynthetic path of the astrophysical r-process and the resulting elemental abundances depend on neutron-separation energies which can be determined from the masses of the nuclei along the r-process reaction path. Due to the current lack of experimental data, mass models are often used. The mass values provided by the mass models are often too imprecise or disagree with each other. Therefore, direct high-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclei are necessary to provide input parameters to the calculations and help refine the mass models. The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility of Argonne National Laboratory will provide experiments with beams of short-lived neutron-rich nuclei. The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer has been relocated to the CARIBU low-energy beam line to extend measurements of the neutron-rich nuclei into the mostly unexplored region along the r-process path. This will allow precise mass measurements (~ 10 keV/c2) of more than a hundred very neutron-rich isotopes that have not previously been measured.

  20. A constant-momentum/energy-selector time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, C P; Håkansson, P; Barofsky, D F; Piyadasa, C K G

    2007-01-01

    A matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been built with an ion source that can be operated in either constant-energy or constant-momentum acceleration modes. A decreasing electric field distribution in the ion-accelerating region makes it possible to direct ions onto a space-focal plane in either modes of operation. Ions produced in the constant-momentum mode have velocities and, thus, flight times that are linearly dependent on mass and kinetic energies that are inversely dependent on mass. The linear mass dispersion doubles mass resolving power of ions accelerated with space-focusing conditions in constant-momentum mode. The mass-dependent kinetic energy is exploited to disperse ions according to mass in a simple kinetic energy filter constructed from two closely spaced, oblique ion reflectors. Focusing velocity of ions of the same mass can substantially improve ion selection for subsequent post source decay or tandem time-of-flight analyses.

  1. Delivering Microwave Spectroscopy to the Masses: a Design of a Low-Cost Microwave Spectrometer Operating in the 18-26 GHZ Frequency Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steber, Amanda; Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    Advances in chip-level microwave technology in the communications field have led to the possibilities of low cost alternatives for current Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometers. Many of the large, expensive microwave components in a traditional design can now be replaced by robust, mass market monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). "Spectrometer on a board" designs are now feasible that offer dramatic cost reduction for microwave spectroscopy. These chip-level components can be paired with miniature computers to produce compact instruments that are operable through USB. A FTMW spectrometer design using the key MMIC components that drive cost reduction will be presented. Two dual channel synthesizers (Valon Technology Model 5008), a digital pattern generator (Byte Paradigm Wav Gen Xpress), and a high-speed digitizer/arbitrary waveform generator combination unit (Tie Pie HS-5 530 XM) form the key components of the spectrometer for operation in the 18-26.5 GHz range. The design performance is illustrated using a spectrometer that is being incorporated into a museum display for astrochemistry. For this instrument a user interface, developed in Python, has been developed and will be shown.

  2. ChiMS: Open-source instrument control software platform on LabVIEW for imaging/depth profiling mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Hanley, Luke

    2015-06-01

    ChiMS is an open-source data acquisition and control software program written within LabVIEW for high speed imaging and depth profiling mass spectrometers. ChiMS can also transfer large datasets from a digitizer to computer memory at high repetition rate, save data to hard disk at high throughput, and perform high speed data processing. The data acquisition mode generally simulates a digital oscilloscope, but with peripheral devices integrated for control as well as advanced data sorting and processing capabilities. Customized user-designed experiments can be easily written based on several included templates. ChiMS is additionally well suited to non-laser based mass spectrometers imaging and various other experiments in laser physics, physical chemistry, and surface science.

  3. Airborne mass spectrometers: four decades of atmospheric and space research at the Air Force research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, A A; Hunton, D E

    1999-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a versatile research tool that has proved to be extremely useful for exploring the fundamental nature of the earth's atmosphere and ionosphere and in helping to solve operational problems facing the Air Force and the Department of Defense. In the past 40 years, our research group at the Air Force Research Laboratory has flown quadrupole mass spectrometers of many designs on nearly 100 sounding rockets, nine satellites, three Space Shuttles and many missions of high-altitude research aircraft and balloons. We have also used our instruments in ground-based investigations of rocket and jet engine exhaust, combustion chemistry and microwave breakdown chemistry. This paper is a review of the instrumentation and techniques needed for space research, a summary of the results from many of the experiments, and an introduction to the broad field of atmospheric and space mass spectrometry in general.

  4. Operational Parameters, Considerations, and Design Decisions for Resource-Constrained Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danell, Ryan M.; VanAmerom, Friso H. W.; Pinnick, Veronica; Cotter, Robert J.; Brickerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometers are increasingly finding applications in new and unique areas, often in situations where key operational resources (i.e. power, weight and size) are limited. One such example is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). This instrument is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop an ion trap mass spectrometer for chemical analysis on Mars. The constraints on such an instrument are significant as are the performance requirements. While the ideal operating parameters for an ion trap are generally well characterized, methods to maintain analytical performance with limited power and system weight need to be investigated and tested. Methods Experiments have been performed on two custom ion trap mass spectrometers developed as prototypes for the MOMA instrument. This hardware consists of quadrupole ion trap electrodes that are 70% the size of common commercial instrumentation. The trapping RF voltage is created with a custom tank circuit that can be tuned over a range of RF frequencies and is driven using laboratory supplies and amplifiers. The entire instrument is controlled with custom Lab VIEW software that allows a high degree of flexibility in the definition of the scan function defining the ion trap experiment. Ions are typically generated via an internal electron ionization source, however, a laser desorption source is also in development for analysis of larger intact molecules. Preliminary Data The main goals in this work have been to reduce the power required to generate the radio frequency trapping field used in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Generally minimizing the power will also reduce the volume and mass of the electronics to support the instrument. In order to achieve optimum performance, commercial instruments typically utilize RF frequencies in the 1 MHz range. Without much concern for power usage, they simply generate the voltage required to access the mass range of interest. In order to reduce the

  5. Influence of Coulomb effects on the resolving power of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skoblin, M G; Kopaev, I A; Monastyrskiy, M A; Alimpiev, S S; Greenfield, D E; Makarov, A A

    2015-12-31

    General theoretical approaches to the modelling of Coulomb effects in short ion bunches, developed previously by the authors, are applied in this paper to the calculation of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems. A separate module of the MASIM 3D applied software package is designed. An adaptive computational procedure for calculating the 'mirror potential' induced by an ion bunch on the surface of field-forming electrodes is proposed. The dynamics of ion bunches in a time-of-flight reflectron-type mass analyser is calculated and the limitations on the resolving power, caused by resonant Coulomb effects of self-bunching and coalescence in the groups of particles with close masses, are revealed on the basis of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, JN

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  7. Feasibility of a Fieldable Mass Spectrometer FY 2015 Year-end Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, Charles J.; Hager, George J.; Hoegg, Edward D.; Carman, April J.; Hart, Garret L.

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) monitors the production of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) at declared facilities by collecting a few grams of product in sample tubes that are then sent to central laboratories for processing and isotope ratio analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of results may not be available for some time after collection. In addition, new shipping regulations will make it more difficult to transport this amount of UF6 to a laboratory. The IAEA is interested in an isotope ratio technique for uranium in UF6 that can be moved to and operated at the enrichment facility itself. This report covers the tasks and activities of the Feasibility of a Fieldable Mass Spectrometer Project for FY 2015, which investigates the feasibility of an in-field isotope ratio technique— the forward deployment of a technique to the non-laboratory situation of a protected room with power and heat at the facility of interest. A variety of nontraditional elemental ionization techniques were considered. It was determined that only two of these should be moved forward for testing with the candidate in-field mass spectrometer and with the adsorbed UF6 sample types.

  8. Variations in thermospheric composition: A model based on mass-spectrometer and satellite-drag data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacchia, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    The seasonal-latitudinal and the diurnal variations of composition observed by mass spectrometers on the OGO 6 satellite are represented by two simple empirical formulae, each of which uses only one numerical parameter. The formulae are of a very general nature and predict the behavior of these variations at all heights and for all levels of solar activity; they yield a satisfactory representation of the corresponding variations in total density as derived from satellite drag. It is suggested that a seasonal variation of hydrogen might explain the abnormally low hydrogen densities at high northern latitudes in July 1964.

  9. A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

    2000-12-15

    The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

  10. Theory of the fly-through mode for neutral mass spectrometers. [on Explorer satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Johnson, L. H.; Potter, W. E.; Nier, A. O.

    1979-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer satellites carry a quasi-open source neutral mass spectrometer which has the capability to operate in a nonstagnating or 'fly-through' mode. Technical information on the operating characteristics of fly-through along with considerable scientific data have been acquired in this mode. When the vehicle is spun, the fly-through signal contains information on the kinetic temperature as well as the neutral density. Both quantities can be extracted from the data once the theory of operation is formulated in terms of the ambient gas velocity distribution and the angular response of the instrument.

  11. A molecular beam/quadrupole mass spectrometer system with synchronized beam modulation and digital waveform analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Adams, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A performance evaluation is conducted for a molecular beam/mass spectrometer (MB/MS) system, as applied to a 1-30 torr microwave-discharge flow reactor (MWFR) used in the formation of the methylperoxy radical and a study of its subsequent destruction in the presence or absence of NO(x). The modulated MB/MS system is four-staged and differentially pumped. The results obtained by the MWFR study is illustrative of overall system performance, including digital waveform analysis; significant improvements over previous designs are noted in attainable S/N ratio, detection limit, and accuracy.

  12. Design and development of an interchangeable nanomicroelectrospray source for a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Douglas R.; Sagerman, Gary; Wood, Troy D.

    2003-10-01

    An interchangeable microelectrospray and nanoelectrospray ionization source has been designed and constructed for use on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. This new source is specially designed to conduct nanoelectrospray experiments utilizing pulled borosilicate glass emitters, as well as various ionization modes utilizing silica capillaries. The source design facilitates the easy exchange between a microelectrospray source and nanoelectrospray source. The microionspray assembly can be quickly replaced by the nanoelectrospray adaptation in order to conduct nanoelectrospray experiments. Furthermore, this source design allows for the coupling of low flow separation techniques, like microliquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis.

  13. A Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer System for UltraLow-Emission Combustor Exhaust Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Wey, Chowen Chou

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS) system that allows the speciation of unburnt hydrocarbons in the combustor exhaust has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Combustion gas samples are withdrawn through a water-cooled sampling probe which, when not in use, is protected from contamination by a high-pressure nitrogen purge. The sample line and its connecting lines, filters, and valves are all ultraclean and are heated to avoid condensation. The system has resolution to the parts-per-billion (ppb) level.

  14. Delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electron impact for PAH studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najeeb, P. K.; Kadhane, U.

    2017-03-01

    A time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer with a pulsed electron beam as well as pulsed extraction of the recoil ions, with variable delay is reported. The effectiveness of this technique is highlighted by studying the statistical decay of mono-cations over microsecond time scales. Various details of the design and operation are discussed in the context of electron impact ionization and fragmentation of naphthalene (C10H8). The temporal behavior of acetylene (C2H2) and diacetylene (C4H2) loss is observed and compared with the associated Arrhenius decay constant, internal energy and plasmon excitation energy.

  15. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  16. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  17. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  18. Evaluating Mass Analyzers as Candidates for Small, Portable, Rugged Single Point Mass Spectrometers for Analysis of Permanent Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Follestein, Duke; Adams, Fredrick; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For Space Shuttle launch safety, there is a need to monitor the concentration Of H2, He, O2, and Ar around the launch vehicle. Currently a large mass spectrometry system performs this task, using long transport lines to draw in samples. There is great interest in replacing this stationary system with several miniature, portable, rugged mass spectrometers which act as point sensors which can be placed at the sampling point. Five commercial and two non-commercial analyzers are evaluated. The five commercial systems include the Leybold Inficon XPR-2 linear quadrupole, the Stanford Research (SRS-100) linear quadrupole, the Ferran linear quadrupole array, the ThermoQuest Polaris-Q quadrupole ion trap, and the IonWerks Time-of-Flight (TOF). The non-commercial systems include a compact double focusing sector (CDFMS) developed at the University of Minnesota, and a quadrupole ion trap (UF-IT) developed at the University of Florida.

  19. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  20. Development of a mass spectrometer system for the measurement of inert gases in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the inert gases in meteorites has provided many clues as to the origin and evolution of the solar system. Particularly crucial and complex are the gases krypton and xenon. To accurately measure the isotopic compositions of these gases requires a mass spectrometer of high sensitivity and resolution. A previously unused and largely untested mass spectrometer system was brought to the point where it was ready for routine sample analyses. This involved, among other things, focusing the ion beam for optimal peak shape and sensitivity, documenting the instrument's response to a series of characteristic tests such as multplier gain checks, and interfacing the instrument to a computer to run the sample analyses. Following this testing and setting up, three iron meteorite samples were to be analyzed for argon, krypton, and xenon. The three samples were shown in prior work to possibly contain primordial heavy inert gases. Although these analyses have not yet been carried out, it is anticipated that they will be completed in the near future.

  1. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  2. The Effect of the Earth's and Stray Magnetic Fields on Mobile Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ryan J.; Davey, Nicholas G.; Martinsen, Morten; Short, R. Timothy; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2015-02-01

    Development of small, field-portable mass spectrometers has enabled a rapid growth of in-field measurements on mobile platforms. In such in-field measurements, unexpected signal variability has been observed by the authors in portable ion traps with internal electron ionization. The orientation of magnetic fields (such as the Earth's) relative to the ionization electron beam trajectory can significantly alter the electron flux into a quadrupole ion trap, resulting in significant changes in the instrumental sensitivity. Instrument simulations and experiments were performed relative to the earth's magnetic field to assess the importance of (1) nonpoint-source electron sources, (2) vertical versus horizontal electron beam orientation, and (3) secondary magnetic fields created by the instrument itself. Electron lens focus effects were explored by additional simulations, and were paralleled by experiments performed with a mass spectrometer mounted on a rotating platform. Additionally, magnetically permeable metals were used to shield (1) the entire instrument from the Earth's magnetic field, and (2) the electron beam from both the Earth's and instrument's magnetic fields. Both simulation and experimental results suggest the predominant influence on directionally dependent signal variability is the result of the summation of two magnetic vectors. As such, the most effective method for reducing this effect is the shielding of the electron beam from both magnetic vectors, thus improving electron beam alignment and removing any directional dependency. The improved ionizing electron beam alignment also allows for significant improvements in overall instrument sensitivity.

  3. Development of a portable time-of-flight membrane inlet mass spectrometer for environmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. J.; Blamire, M. G.; Corlett, C. A.; Griffiths, B. W.; Martin, D. M.; Spencer, S. B.; Mullock, S. J.

    1998-02-01

    The benefits of on-site analysis of environmental pollutants are well known, with such techniques increasing sample throughput and reducing the overall cost of pollution level monitoring. This article describes a transportable time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, based upon a converging, annular TOF (CAT) arrangement. The instrument, the transportable CAT or T-CAT is battery powered and self-contained. The vacuum chamber is never vented and is kept at a very low pressure, even during analysis. Sample gases are admitted to the mass spectrometer via a membrane inlet system. Data collection and analysis are accomplished via a portable PC. The T-CAT is capable of detection limits approaching those of more conventional, nonportable design. The device shows reasonable linearity over wide concentration ranges. Initial results indicate that the T-CAT will be capable of use in a wide range of applications, particularly for environmental monitoring. This article describes the features of the T-CAT, and presents initial results from the membrane inlet/T-CAT system.

  4. MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission: results and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Humeau, O.; van Amerom, F. H.; Danell, R.; Freissinet, C.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Gonnsen, Z.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Coll, P.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquiring samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular and chiral) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis/chemical derivatization gas chromatography (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide information on elemental and molecular makeup, polarity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte species. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) mode of operation.

  5. The effective temperature of ions stored in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Donald, William A; Khairallah, George N; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2013-06-01

    The extent of internal energy deposition into ions upon storage, radial ejection, and detection using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is investigated as a function of ion size (m/z 59 to 810) using seven ion-molecule thermometer reactions that have well characterized reaction entropies and enthalpies. The average effective temperatures of the reactants and products of the ion-molecule reactions, which were obtained from ion-molecule equilibrium measurements, range from 295 to 350 K and do not depend significantly on the number of trapped ions, m/z value, ion trap q z value, reaction enthalpy/entropy, or the number of vibrational degrees of freedom for the seven reactions investigated. The average of the effective temperature values obtained for all seven thermometer reactions is 318 ± 23 K, which indicates that linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers can be used to study the structure(s) and reactivity of ions at near ambient temperature.

  6. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  7. Deep Atmosphere Ammonia Mixing Ratio at Jupiter from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Niemann, H. B.; Demick, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    New laboratory studies employing the Engineering Unit (EU) of the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) have resulted in a substantial reduction in the previously reported upper limit on the ammonia mixing ratio derived from the GPMS experiment at Jupiter. This measurement is complicated by background ammonia contributions in the GPMS during direct atmospheric sampling produced from the preceding gas enrichment experiments. These backgrounds can be quantified with the data from the EU studies when they are carried out in a manner that duplicates the descent profile of pressure and enrichment cell loading. This background is due to the tendency of ammonia to interact strongly with the walls of the mass spectrometer and on release to contribute to the gas being directly directed into the ion source from the atmosphere through a capillary pressure reduction leak. It is evident from the GPMS and other observations that the mixing ratio of ammonia at Jupiter reaches the deep atmosphere value at substantially higher pressures than previously assumed. This is a likely explanation for the previously perceived discrepancy between ammonia values derived from ground based microwave observations and those obtained from attenuation of the Galileo Probe radio signal.

  8. Measurement of Atmospheric Isoprene Concentrations using an Automated Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, G. D.; Shepson, P. B.; Grossenbacher, J. W.; Wells, J. M.; Patterson, G.; Barkett, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the biosphere have been shown to substantially influence both ozone and aerosol chemistry. However, field instruments for the detection of these trace gases are often limited by instrument portability and the ability to distinguish compounds of interest from background or other interfering compounds. We have developed an automated sampling system that is coupled to a lightweight, low power cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer. This instrument was used for high frequency isoprene measurements at a recent field campaign at the University of Michigan Biological Station PROPHET lab. The inlet uses a sample loop and 6-port valves to trap ambient air samples without the aid of cryogens. VOCs are preconcentrated by sampling directly into a pre-cooled capillary column that is then heated by moving the column to a pre-heated region to obtain rapid separation of isoprene from other species. Isoprene eluting from the end of the column is then introduced to the mass spectrometer. The commercially available cylindrical ion trap (Minotaur 400) interfaced with our preconcentrator yields limits of detection of <80 ppt. The data obtained during the PROPHET 2005 campaign suggest the new inlet system, when coupled with the Minotaur 400 detector provides a feasible field instrument for the fast and accurate evaluation of trace gases over a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  9. Flowing gas in mass spectrometer: method for characterization and impact on ion processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-10-21

    Mass spectrometers are complex instrumentation systems where ions are transferred though different pressure regions and mass-analyzed under high vacuum. In this work, we have investigated the impact of the gas flows that exit almost universally in all pressure regions. We developed a method that incorporates the dynamic gas field with the electric field in the simulation of ion trajectories. The scope of the electro-hydrodynamic simulation (EHS) method was demonstrated for characterizing the ion optical systems at atmospheric pressure interfaces. With experimental validation, the trapping of the externally injected ions in a linear ion trap at low pressure was also studied. Further development of the EHS method and the knowledge acquired in this research are expected to be useful in the design of hybrid instruments and the study of ion energetics.

  10. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOEpatents

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  11. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Evans, R.

    1991-11-26

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the [sup 196]Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of [+-]0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour. 8 figures.

  12. First Results From the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) Experiment on the Cassini-Huygens Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Demick, J.; Haberman, J.; Harpold, D.; Kasprzak, W.; Raaen, E.; Way, S.; Atreya, S.; Carignan, G.; Bauer, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Huygens Probe of the Cassini Huygens Mission entered the atmosphere of the moon Titan on January 14,2005. The GCMS was part of the instrument complement on the Probe to measure in situ the chemical composition of the atmosphere during the probe descent and to support the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) experiment by serving as detector for the pyrolization products. The GCMS employed a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns. The mass spectrometer employed five electron impact ion sources with available electron energies of either 70 or 25 eV. Three ion sources served as detectors for the GC columns and two were dedicated to direct atmosphere sampling and ACP gas sampling, respectively. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and served to evaporate surface constituents after impact.

  13. Flowing Gas in Mass Spectrometer: Method for Characterization and Impact on Ion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometers are complex instrumentation systems with ions transferred though different pressure regions and mass analyzed at high vacuum. In this work, we have investigated the impacts of the gas flows that exit almost universally in all pressure regions and developed a method incorporating the dynamic gas field with the electric (E) field in the simulation of ion trajectories. The capability of the electro-hydrodynamic simulation (EHS) method was demonstrated for characterizing the ion optical systems in atmospheric pressure interfaces. With experimental validation, the trapping of the externally-injected ions in a linear ion trap at low pressure has also been studied. Further development of the EHS method and the knowledge acquired in this research are expected to be useful in the design of hybrid instruments and study of ion energetics. PMID:25121805

  14. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  15. Depth profiling and imaging capabilities of an ultrashort pulse laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Moore, Jerry F.; Milasinovic, Slobodan; Liu, Yaoming; Gordon, Robert J.; Hanley, Luke

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (AToF-MS) and associated data acquisition software that permits imaging at micron-scale resolution and sub-micron-scale depth profiling are described. The ion funnel-based source of this instrument can be operated at pressures ranging from 10−8 to ∼0.3 mbar. Mass spectra may be collected and stored at a rate of 1 kHz by the data acquisition system, allowing the instrument to be coupled with standard commercial Ti:sapphire lasers. The capabilities of the AToF-MS instrument are demonstrated on metal foils and semiconductor wafers using a Ti:sapphire laser emitting 800 nm, ∼75 fs pulses at 1 kHz. Results show that elemental quantification and depth profiling are feasible with this instrument. PMID:23020378

  16. Manifold and method of batch measurement of Hg-196 concentration using a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Evans, Roger

    1991-01-01

    A sample manifold and method of its use has been developed so that milligram quantities of mercury can be analyzed mass spectroscopically to determine the .sup.196 Hg concentration to less than 0.02 atomic percent. Using natural mercury as a standard, accuracy of .+-.0.002 atomic percent can be obtained. The mass spectrometer preferably used is a commercially available GC/MS manufactured by Hewlett Packard. A novel sample manifold is contained within an oven allowing flow rate control of Hg into the MS. Another part of the manifold connects to an auxiliary pumping system which facilitates rapid clean up of residual Hg in the manifold. Sample cycle time is about 1 hour.

  17. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS): an imaging spectrometer for maritime applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Mark A.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mooradian, Gregory C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Warren, Christopher P.; Fene, Michael W.; Coyle, Christopher C.; Anderson, Richard

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS) is a compact, lightweight visible and near IR pushbroom hyperspectral imaging spectrometer flown on a Piper Aztec aircraft. AAHIS is optimized for use in shallow water, littoral, and vegetation remote sensing. Data are collected at up to 55 frames/second and may be displayed and analyzed inflight or recorded for post-flight processing. Swath width is 200 meters at a flight altitude of 1 km. Each image pixel contains hyperspectral data simultaneously recorded in up to 288 contiguous spectral channels covering the 432 to 832 nm spectral region. Pixel binning typically yields pixels 1.0 meter square with a spectral channel width of 5.5 nm. Design and performance of the AAHIS is presented, including processed imagery demonstrating feature detection and materials discrimination on land and underwater at depths up to 27 meters.

  18. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hárs, György; Dobos, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 μs. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10-4 part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 1010 V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of the mathematical

  19. Expert systems technology applied to instrument operation and data acquisition of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation covers the work done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by some computer programmers and analytical chemists specializing in mass spectrometry to develop an expert system for real-time tuning and optimization of operations of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). This capability is important to increase the sensitivity possible for selected compounds throughout the entire mass range of the instrument, rather than settling for the traditional normalized calibration which lowers sensitivity at both ends of the mass scale.

  20. Study to evaluate the integration of a mass spectrometer with a wet chemistry instrument. [for amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The charactertistics and performance capability of the current Viking '75 Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer Instrument are reviewed and documented for the purpose of possible integration with a wet chemistry instrument. Interface, high mass discrimination, and vacuum requirements were determined in a simulated flight investigation. Suggestions for future investigations, tradeoff studies, and design modifications are presented, along with the results of column bleed measurements. A preliminary design of an integrated Wet Chemistry/Mass Spectrometer instrument for amino acid analysis is shown, including estimates of additional weight, volume, and power requirements.

  1. Feasibility of using a miniature NIR spectrometer to measure volumic mass during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Novales, Juan; López, María-Isabel; González-Caballero, Virginia; Ramírez, Pilar; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2011-06-01

    Volumic mass-a key component of must quality control tests during alcoholic fermentation-is of great interest to the winemaking industry. Transmitance near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 124 must samples over the range of 200-1,100-nm were obtained using a miniature spectrometer. The performance of this instrument to predict volumic mass was evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression and multiple linear regression (MLR). The validation statistics coefficient of determination (r(2)) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) were r(2) = 0.98, n = 31 and r(2) = 0.96, n = 31, and SEP = 5.85 and 7.49 g/dm(3) for PLS and MLR equations developed to fit reference data for volumic mass and spectral data. Comparison of results from MLR and PLS demonstrates that a MLR model with six significant wavelengths (P < 0.05) fit volumic mass data to transmittance (1/T) data slightly worse than a more sophisticated PLS model using the full scanning range. The results suggest that NIR spectroscopy is a suitable technique for predicting volumic mass during alcoholic fermentation, and that a low-cost NIR instrument can be used for this purpose.

  2. Infrared multiphoton dissociation of peptide cations in a dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Myles W; Smith, Suncerae I; Ledvina, Aaron R; Madsen, James A; Coon, Joshua J; Schwartz, Jae C; Stafford, George C; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2009-10-01

    A dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in each of the two cells-the first a high pressure cell operated at nominally 5 x 10(-3) Torr and the second a low pressure cell operated at nominally 3 x 10(-4) Torr. When IRMPD was performed in the high pressure cell, most peptide ions did not undergo significant photodissociation; however, in the low pressure cell peptide cations were efficiently dissociated with less than 25 ms of IR irradiation regardless of charge state. IRMPD of peptide cations allowed the detection of low m/z product ions including the y(1) fragments and immonium ions which are not typically observed by ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). Photodissociation efficiencies of approximately 100% and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) efficiencies of greater than 60% were observed for both multiply and singly protonated peptides. In general, higher sequence coverage of peptides was obtained using IRMPD over CID. Further, greater than 90% of the product ion current in the IRMPD mass spectra of doubly charged peptide ions was composed of singly charged product ions compared to the CID mass spectra in which the abundances of the multiply and singly charged product ions were equally divided. Highly charged primary product ions also underwent efficient photodissociation to yield singly charged secondary product ions, thus simplifying the IRMPD product ion mass spectra.

  3. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Peptide Cations in a Dual Pressure Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Myles W.; Smith, Suncerae I.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Madsen, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Stafford, George C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    A dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in each of the two cells - the first a high pressure cell operated at nominally 5 × 10-3 Torr and the second a low pressure cell operated at nominally 3 × 10-4 Torr. When IRMPD was performed in the high pressure cell, most peptide ions did not undergo significant photodissociation; however, in the low pressure cell peptide cations were efficiently dissociated with less than 25 ms of IR irradiation regardless of charge state. IRMPD of peptide cations allowed the detection of low m/z product ions including the y1 fragments and immonium ions which are not typically observed by ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). Photodissociation efficiencies of ~100% and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) efficiencies of greater than 60% were observed for both multiply and singly protonated peptides. In general, higher sequence coverage of peptides was obtained using IRMPD over CID. Further, greater than 90% of the product ion current in the IRMPD mass spectra of doubly charged peptide ions was composed of singly charged product ions compared to the CID mass spectra in which the abundances of the multiply and singly charged product ions were equally divided. Highly charged primary product ions also underwent efficient photodissociation to yield singly charged secondary product ions, thus simplifying the IRMPD product ion mass spectra. PMID:19739654

  4. Mini 12, Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Clinical and Other Applications—Introduction and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A benchtop miniature mass spectrometer system, Mini 12, with ambient ionization source and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities has been developed and characterized. This instrument was developed as a self-contained system to produce quantitative results for unprocessed samples of small volumes including nonvolatile analytes. The ion processing system, vacuum system, and control system are detailed. An integrated sample loading system facilitates automated operation. A user interface has been developed to acquire and to interpret analytical results for personnel who have limited mass spectrometry knowledge. Peak widths of Δm/z 0.6 Th (full width at half-maximum) and a mass range of up to m/z 900 are demonstrated with the rectilinear ion trap mass analyzer. Multistage experiments up to MS5 are accomplished. Consumable cartridges have been designed for use in ambient paper spray ionization, and the recently developed extraction spray ionization method has been employed to improve the quantitative performance. Monitoring of trace-levels of chemicals in therapeutic drugs, as well as in food safety and environmental protection operations is demonstrated. Dual MS/MS scans are implemented to obtain the intensities of the fragment ions from the analyte and its internal standard, and the ratio is used in quantitative analysis of complex samples. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 7.5 ng/mL, with relative standard deviations below 10%, have been obtained for selected therapeutic drugs in whole blood throughout their individual therapeutic ranges. PMID:24521423

  5. Highly miniaturized laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer for a planetary rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, Urs; Whitby, James A.; Wurz, Peter; Barabash, Stas

    2004-05-01

    We report the development and testing of a highly miniaturized mass spectrometer and ion source intended to be deployed on an airless planetary surface to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of solids, e.g., rocks and soils. Our design concentrates at this stage on the proposed BepiColombo mission to the planet Mercury. The mass analyzer is a novel combination of an electrostatic analyzer and a reflectron time-of-flight design. The ion source utilizes a laser induced plasma, which is directly coupled into the mass analyzer. Laser ablation gives high spatial resolution and avoids the need for sample preparation. Our prototype instrument has a demonstrated mass resolution m/Δm full width at half maximum in excess of 180 and a predicted dynamic range of better than five orders of magnitude. We estimate that a flight instrument would have a mass of 280 g (including laser and all electronics), a volume of 84 cm3, and could operate on 3 W power.

  6. UV photodissociation of trapped ions following ion mobility separation in a Q-ToF mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bellina, Bruno; Brown, Jeffery M; Ujma, Jakub; Murray, Paul; Giles, Kevin; Morris, Michael; Compagnon, Isabelle; Barran, Perdita E

    2014-12-21

    An ion mobility mass spectrometer has been modified to allow optical interrogation of ions with different mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios and/or mobilities (K). An ion gating and trapping procedure has been developed which allows us to store ions for several seconds enabling UV photodissociation (UVPD).

  7. A five-collector system for the simultaneous measurement of argon isotope ratios in a static mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Sherrill, N.D.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Carpenter, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that utilizes five separate Faraday-cup collector assemblies, aligned along the focal plane of a mass spectrometer, to collect simultaneous argon ion beams at masses 36-40. Each collector has its own electrometer amplifier and analog-to-digital measuring channel, the outputs of which are processed by a minicomputer that also controls the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer utilizes a 90?? sector magnetic analyzer with a radius of 23 cm, in which some degree of z-direction focussing is provided for all the ion beams by the fringe field of the magnet. Simultaneous measurement of the ion beams helps to eliminate mass-spectrometer memory as a significant source of measurement error during an analysis. Isotope ratios stabilize between 7 and 9 s after sample admission into the spectrometer, and thereafter changes in the measured ratios are linear, typically to within ??0.02%. Thus the multi-collector arrangement permits very short extrapolation times for computation of initial ratios, and also provides the advantages of simultaneous measurement of the ion currents in that errors due to variations in ion beam intensity are minimized. A complete analysis takes less than 10 min, so that sample throughput can be greatly enhanced. In this instrument, the factor limiting analytical precision now lies in short-term apparent variations in the interchannel calibration factors. ?? 1981.

  8. Characterization of individual fine and ultrafine particles with a real-time single particle mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, Melissa S.

    2008-10-01

    Designed to analyze aerosols in ambient settings, the Real-Time Single Particle Mass Spectrometer (RSMS) provides a highly time-resolved measurement of the physical and chemical properties of individual fine (<2.5 mum dia.) and ultrafine (<0.1 mum dia.) particles. Understanding aerosols within this size range is crucial as these particles greatly impact both human health and the environment. Data collected by RSMS can be used identify particle sources and atmospheric processes. RSMS was deployed to Wilmington, DE during 2005-2006 as part of E-DATAS (Enhanced Delaware Air Toxics Assessment Study), a collaboration with the Delaware Department of Natural Resources (DNREC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Duke University. Mass spectra acquired by RSMS were compared to a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to give a quantitative estimate of the chemical composition of PM1.0 (particulate matter <1.0 mum dia.) impacting the city. A method to collect and analyze particles directly from emission stacks of industrial facilities was developed to help identify sources of PM. Single particle mass spectrometry, in general, has remained primarily a qualitative technique due to several instrumental limitations which affect the data. First, the shot-to-shot variation in the laser pulse caused inconsistencies between the mass spectra of particles with the same composition. To determine whether this variation was systematic or random, the covariance between ions was calculated for laboratory generated aerosols. Second, RSMS was found to be highly sensitive to specific chemical species such as ammonium nitrate and transition/alkali metals. When these compounds are present in a particle they dominate the mass spectra and dwarf other the signal from other components to the baseline. To explore this bias, data collected by RSMS in Wilmington, DE was compared to data also collected in Wilmington by the quantitative NanoAerosol Mass Spectrometer (NAMS). Finally, a light

  9. The application of simple mass spectrometers to planetary sub-surface sampling using penetrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Simon; Morse, Andrew; Bardwell, Max; Barber, Simeon; Wright, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Ptolemy is an ion trap based gas-chromatograph isotope ratio mass spectrometer which is on-board the Rosetta Lander [Wright et al., 2006; Todd et al., 2007]. The instrument uses the principles of MODULUS (Methods of Determining and Understanding Light Elements From Unequivocal Stable Isotope Compositions [Pillinger and Wright, 1993], to enable results obtained in space to be interpreted directly in the context of terrestrial analyses of meteorites and returned samples. MODULUS typically involves use of a complex sample processing system to purify and separate individual species from a complex starting sample, allowing analysis by a relatively simple, low resolution, but stable and precise mass spectrometer instrumentation. A number of exciting future mission opportunities are arising where it is unlikely that it will be feasible to incorporate the full MODULUS-style sample processing system. Of particular interest are missions that offer the opportunity to gain access to surface and sub-surface material through the deployment of mass spectrometers from either high-speed penetrator platforms [Smith et al., 2009] or from sub-surface penetrating mole devices deployed by soft landers [Richter et al., 2003]. We will present work aimed at overcoming the resolution restrictions of ion trap mass spectrometers. It is anticipated that this will enable MODULUS style science return from relatively simple instrumentation which is compatible with the future miniaturised sampling platforms currently under consideration for Mars, asteroids, comets and planetary moons. References: Wright I. P., Barber S. J., Morgan G. H., Morse A. D., Sheridan S., Andrews D. J., Maynard J., Yau D., Evans S. T., Leese M. R., Zarnecki J. C., Kent B. J., Waltham N. R., Whalley M. S., Heys S., Drummond D. L., Edeson R. L., Sawyer E. C., Turner R. F., and Pillinger C. T. (2006). Ptolemy - an instrument to measure stable isotopic ratios of key volatiles on a cometary nucleus. Space Science Reviews, 128

  10. Design of Portable Mass Spectrometers with Handheld Probes: Aspects of the Sampling and Miniature Pumping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130g drag pump and Creare 350g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130g drag pump. PMID:25404157

  11. Design of portable mass spectrometers with handheld probes: aspects of the sampling and miniature pumping systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130 g drag pump and Creare 350 g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550 g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10 ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550 g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130 g drag pump.

  12. Design of Portable Mass Spectrometers with Handheld Probes: Aspects of the Sampling and Miniature Pumping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130 g drag pump and Creare 350 g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550 g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10 ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550 g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130 g drag pump.

  13. Performance of the MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Pinnick, Veronica; Szopa, Cyril; Grand, Noël; Freissinet, Caroline; Danell, Ryan; van Ameron, Friso; Arevalo, Ricardo; Brinckerhoff, William; Raulin, François; Mahaffy, Paul; Goesmann, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquir-ing samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis gas chromatograph (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide in-formation on elemental and molecular makeup, po-larity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte spe-cies. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS) mode of operation. Both instruments have been tested separately first and have been coupled in order to test the efficiency of the future MOMA GC-MS instrument. The main objective of the second step has been to test the quantitative response of both instruments while they are coupled and to characterize the combined instrument detection limit for several compounds. A final experiment has been done in order to test the feasibility of the separation and detection of a mixture contained in a soil sample introduced in the MOMA oven.

  14. Activated Ion ETD Performed in a Modified Collision Cell on a Hybrid QLT-Oribtrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, Aaron R.; Rose, Christopher M.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Syka, John E. P.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the implementation and characterization of activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD) on a hybrid QLT-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. AI-ETD was performed using a collision cell that was modified to enable ETD reactions, in addition to normal collisional activation. The instrument manifold was modified to enable irradiation of ions along the axis of this modified cell with IR photons from a CO2 laser. Laser power settings were optimized for both charge (z) and mass to charge ( m/z) and the instrument control firmware was updated to allow for automated adjustments to the level of irradiation. This implementation of AI-ETD yielded 1.6-fold more unique identifications than ETD in an nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic yeast peptides. Furthermore, we investigated the application of AI-ETD on large scale analysis of phosphopeptides, where laser power aids ETD, but can produce b- and y-type ions because of the phosphoryl moiety's high IR adsorption. nLC-MS/MS analysis of phosphopeptides derived from human embryonic stem cells using AI-ETD yielded 2.4-fold more unique identifications than ETD alone, demonstrating a promising advance in ETD sequencing of PTM containing peptides.

  15. Activated ion ETD performed in a modified collision cell on a hybrid QLT-Oribtrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, Aaron R; Rose, Christopher M; McAlister, Graeme C; Syka, John E P; Westphall, Michael S; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-11-01

    We describe the implementation and characterization of activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD) on a hybrid QLT-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. AI-ETD was performed using a collision cell that was modified to enable ETD reactions, in addition to normal collisional activation. The instrument manifold was modified to enable irradiation of ions along the axis of this modified cell with IR photons from a CO2 laser. Laser power settings were optimized for both charge (z) and mass to charge (m/z) and the instrument control firmware was updated to allow for automated adjustments to the level of irradiation. This implementation of AI-ETD yielded 1.6-fold more unique identifications than ETD in an nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic yeast peptides. Furthermore, we investigated the application of AI-ETD on large scale analysis of phosphopeptides, where laser power aids ETD, but can produce b- and y-type ions because of the phosphoryl moiety's high IR adsorption. nLC-MS/MS analysis of phosphopeptides derived from human embryonic stem cells using AI-ETD yielded 2.4-fold more unique identifications than ETD alone, demonstrating a promising advance in ETD sequencing of PTM containing peptides.

  16. Activated Ion ETD Performed in a Modified Collision Cell on a Hybrid QLT-Oribtrap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Ledvina, Aaron R.; Rose, Christopher M.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Syka, John E.P.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation and characterization of activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD) on a hybrid QLT-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. AI-ETD was performed using a collision cell that was modified to enable ETD reactions, in addition to normal collisional activation. The instrument manifold was modified to enable irradiation of ions along the axis of this modified cell with IR photons from a CO2 laser. Laser power settings were optimized for both charge (z) and mass to charge (m/z) and the instrument control firmware was updated to allow for automated adjustments to the level of irradiation. This implementation of AI-ETD yielded 1.6 fold more unique identifications than ETD in an nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic yeast peptides. Furthermore, we investigated the application of AI-ETD on large scale analysis of phosphopeptides, where laser power aids ETD, but can produce b- and y-type ions due to the phosphoryl moiety's high IR adsorption. nLC-MS/MS analysis of phosphopeptides derived from human embryonic stem cells using AI-ETD yielded 2.4 fold more unique identifications than ETD alone, demonstrating a promising advance in ETD sequencing of PTM containing peptides. PMID:23677544

  17. LAVA subsystem integration and testing for the Resolve payload of the Resource Prospector mission: mass spectrometers and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Elaine M.; Coan, Mary R.; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Bond, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key NASA initiative to exploit resources at the site of planetary exploration for mission-critical consumables, propellants, and other supplies. The Resource Prospector mission, part of ISRU, is scheduled to launch in 2020 and will include a rover and lander hosting the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload for extracting and analyzing lunar resources, particularly low molecular weight volatiles for fuel, air, and water. RESOLVE contains the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem with a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). RESOLVE subsystems, including the RP15 rover and LAVA, are in NASA's Engineering Test Unit (ETU) phase to assure that all vital components of the payload are space-flight rated and will perform as expected during the mission. Integration and testing of LAVA mass spectrometry verified reproducibility and accuracy of the candidate MS for detecting nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The RP15 testing comprised volatile analysis of water-doped simulant regolith to enhance integration of the RESOLVE payload with the rover. Multiple tests show the efficacy of the GC to detect 2% and 5% water-doped samples.

  18. Development of a compact laser-based single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonokura, Kenichi; Kanno, Nozomu; Yamamoto, Yukio; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-based, single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SPI-TOF-MS) for on-line monitoring of trace organic species. To obtain the mass spectrum, we use a nearly fragmentation-free SPI technique with 10.5 eV (118 nm) vacuum ultraviolet laser pulses generated by frequency tripling of the third harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser. The instrument can be operated in a linear TOF-MS mode or a reflectron TOF-MS mode in the coaxial design. We designed ion optics to optimize detection sensitivity and mass resolution. For data acquisition, the instrument is controlled using LabVIEW control software. The total power requirement for the vacuum unit, control electronics unit, ion optics, and detection system is approximately 100 W. We achieve a detection limit of parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for on-line trace analysis of several organic compounds. A mass resolution of 800 at about 100 amu is obtained for reflectron TOF-MS mode in a 0.35 m long instrument. The application of on-line monitoring of diesel engine exhaust was demonstrated.

  19. Method for calibrating a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Tolmachev, Aleksey

    2003-08-19

    A method for improving the calibration of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer wherein the frequency spectrum of a sample has been measured and the frequency (f) and intensity (I) of at least three species having known mass to charge (m/z) ratios and one specie having an unknown (m/z) ratio have been identified. The method uses the known (m/z) ratios, frequencies, and intensities at least three species to calculate coefficients A, B, and C, wherein the mass to charge ratio of a least one of the three species (m/z).sub.i is equal to ##EQU1## wherein f.sub.i is the detected frequency of the specie, G(I.sub.i) is a predetermined function of the intensity of the species, and Q is a predetermined exponent. Using the calculated values for A, B, and C, the mass to charge ratio of the unknown specie (m/z).sub.ii is calculated as the sum of ##EQU2## wherein f.sub.ii is the measured frequency of the unknown specie, and (I.sub.ii) is the measured intensity of the unknown specie.

  20. Small-size mass spectrometer for determining gases and volatile compounds in air during breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, V. T.; Kozlenok, A. V.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.; Lebedev, D. S.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Moroshkin, V. S.; Berezina, A. V.; Viktorova-Leclerc, O. S.; Vlasov, S. A.; Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an automated mass spectrometer for diagnostics of deceases from the composition of exhaled air. It includes a capillary system, which performs a rapid direct feeding of the sample to the instrument without changing substantially its composition and serves for studying the dynamics of variation of the ratio between various components of exhaled air. The membrane system for introducing the sample is intended for determining low concentrations of volatile organic compounds which are biomarkers of pathologies. It is characterized by selective transmittance and ensures the detection limits of target compounds at the parts per million-parts per billion (ppm-ppb) level. A static mass analyzer operating on permanent magnets possesses advantages important for mobile devices as compared to its dynamic analogs: it is more reliable in operation, has a larger dynamic range, and can be used for determining the concentration of components in the mixture one-by-one or simultaneously. The curvilinear output boundary of the magnetic lens of the mass analyzer makes it possible to reduce its weight and size by 2.5 times without deteriorating the mass resolution. We report on the results of testing of the instrument and consider the possibility of its application for early detection of deceases of respiratory and blood circulation system, gastrointestinal tract, and endocrine system.

  1. Implementation of electron-transfer dissociation on a hybrid linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Graeme C; Phanstiel, Doug; Good, David M; Berggren, W Travis; Coon, Joshua J

    2007-05-15

    We describe the adaptation of a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer to accommodate electron-transfer ion/ion reactions (ETD) for peptide and protein characterization. The method utilizes pulsed, dual electrospray ion sources and requires minimal instrument modification. Switching between cation and reagent anion injection schemes is automated and accomplished within a few hundred milliseconds. Ion/ion reactions are conducted within the linear ion trap, after which the c- and z-type product ions are passed to the orbitrap for high-resolution m/z analysis. With this arrangement, mass accuracies are typically measured to within 2 ppm at a resolving power of approximately 60 000. Using large peptides and intact proteins, we demonstrate such capabilities will accelerate our ability to interrogate high-mass species. To illustrate compatibility with automated data-dependent analysis and subsequent data processing, we couple the technique with an online chromatographic separation of a yeast whole-cell lysate followed by peptide identification using ProSight PC. Fairly long pulsing times and relatively low ET efficiency, as compared to conventional ETD instrumentation, are the main drawbacks of this approach. Still, our results suggest that the implementation of ETD on sensitive, high-resolution, and high-mass accuracy hybrid instrumentation, such as the orbitrap, will substantially propel the emergent fields of middle- and top-down proteomics.

  2. Conventional and Advanced Separations in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Methodologies and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, Heino M.; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Keqi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-02-16

    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in a given sample. Due to the chemical complexity of the metabolome, optimal separations are required for comprehensive identification and quantification of sample constituents. This chapter provides an overview of both conventional and advanced separations methods in practice for reducing the complexity of metabolite extracts delivered to the mass spectrometer detector, and covers gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as both uni-dimensional and as multi-dimensional approaches.

  3. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Kevin; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Tortorella, Daniele; Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo

    2017-02-01

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  4. Calibration of the Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Hodges, R. R.; Harpold, D. N.; King, T. T.; Jaeger, F.; Raaen, E.; Lyness, E.; Collier, M.; Benna, M.

    2012-01-01

    Science objectives of the LADEE Mission are to (1) determine the composition, and time variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere and (2) to characterize the dust environment and its variability. These studies will extend the in-situ characterization of the environment that were carried out decades ago with the Apollo missions and a variety of ground based studies. The focused LADEE measurements will enable a more complete understanding of dust and gas sources and sinks. Sources of gas include UV photo-stimulated desorption, sputtering by plasma and micrometeorites, as well as thermal release of species such as argon from the cold service or venting from the lunar interior. Sinks include recondensation on the surface and escape through a variety of mechanisms. The LADEE science payload consists of an Ultraviolet Spectrometer, a Neutral Mass Spectrometer, and a Dust Detector. The LADEE orbit will include multiple passes at or below 50 km altitude and will target repeated sampling at the sunrise terminator where exospheric density will be highest for some thermally released species. The science mission will be implemented in approximately three months to allow measurements to be made over a period of one or more lunations In addition to the science mission NASA will use this mission to demonstrate optical communication technology away from low Earth orbit.

  5. Giotto ion mass spectrometer measurements at comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.; Altwegg, K.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balsiger, H.; Jost, F.; Coates, A.; Neubauer, F. M.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Giotto ion mass spectrometer high-intensity spectrometer (IMS-HIS) measured fluxes of ions from about 260,000 km before (1008:37 UT spacecraft time) to about 86,000 km after (1701:33 UT spacecraft time) closest approach to comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup during the encounter on July 10, 1992. Although the HIS sensor was not designed to measure protons, these ions were measured far from the comet. Close in to the comet, the ions observed were probably also protons, although heavier ions cannot be completely ruled out. Considerable temporal structure appears in the data, well-correlated with the data of other instruments onboard, especially those of the magnetometer. In particular, the ion count rate correlates with the direction of the magnetic field. This strong modulation at the water group ion cyclotron period (approx. 90 s) inside the inbound bow wave indicates a very narrow ion pitch angle distribution. Hence at Grigg-Skjellerup the ions appear to experience very little pitch angle scattering. This may result from strong compression in the rapidly increasing magnetic field.

  6. Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Mass Spectrometer Status and Science Operations on the ExoMars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Li, X.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Goetz, W.; Goesmann, F.; Steininger, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars rover will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from radiative and oxidative degradation. MOMA combines analyses of acquired drill fines via (i) pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and (ii) Mars ambient laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS), enabled by a fast-valve capillary ion inlet system. This "dual source" approach gives MOMA unprecedented breadth of detection over a wide range of molecular weights and volatilities. Analysis of nonvolatile, higher-molecular weight organics such as carboxylic acids and peptides even in the presence of significant perchlorate concentrations is enabled by the extremely short (~1 ns) pulses of the desorption laser. Use of the MOMA ion trap's tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode permits selective focus on key species for isolation and controlled fragmentation, providing structural analysis capabilities. The flight-like engineering test unit (ETU) of MOMA's ion trap mass spectrometer has been put through a battery of tests to assure robustness of operation in the martian environment, to assess science performance, and to prepare for the flight model build under extremely sterile conditions as required by ExoMars. These tests have included coupling campaigns with advanced prototypes of the MOMA GC (provided by the University of Paris) and the MOMA tapping station, ovens, and laser (provided by MPS and LZH). Planning for science operations has expanded with the development of scripts for MOMA's various parameterized modes, including MS/MS. Given the limited duration of the baseline mission (218 sols), MOMA will benefit from a thorough characterization of its performance with a variety of Mars analog samples and a careful comparison with current science results from the SAM experiment on MSL. Such preparation will enable efficient

  7. Optimized electron-optical system of a static mass-spectrometer for simultaneous isotopic and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall', L. N.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall', N. R.

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to control the linear dimensions of analytical electrophysical systems is suggested. This approach uses the lens properties of electron-optical elements with a curvilinear axis. It is shown that such an approach can be effectively applied, in particular, to synthesize ion-optical systems (IOSs) for static magnetic mass spectrometers and can be implemented owing to off-axis fundamental points, the "poles" of an electron-optical system, introduced earlier by one of the authors. The capabilities of the new approach are demonstrated with the synthesis of the IOS of a static mass spectrometer dedicated for isotopic and chemical analysis with an increased resolution. A new IOS not only provides desired high ion-optical parameters at decreased dimensions of the mass spectrometer as a whole but also makes it possible to loosen requirements for the manufacturing accuracy of IOS main elements.

  8. A Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen-Purged Compartments within the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Yost, Richard A.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To enter orbit the Space Shuttle burns 1.8 million liters of liquid hydrogen combined with 0.8 million liters of liquid oxygen through three rocket engines mounted in the aft. NASA monitors the nitrogen-purged aft compartment for increased levels of hydrogen or oxygen in order to detect and determine the severity of a cryogenic fuel leak. Current monitoring is accomplished with a group of mass spectrometer systems located as much as 400 feet away from the shuttle. It can take up to 45 seconds for gas to reach the mass spectrometer, which precludes monitoring for leaks in the final moments before liftoff (the orbiter engines are started at T-00:06 seconds). To remedy the situation, NASA is developing a small rugged mass spectrometer to be used as point-sources around the Space Shuttle.

  9. Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer System for In-Situ Detection of Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.; Beegle, L. W.; Cooks, R. G.; Laughlin, B. C.; Hill, H. H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ESI/IMS/CIT-MS) as an analytical instrument for analyzing material extracted from rock and soil samples as part of a suite of instruments on the proposed 2009 Mars Science Lander (MSL) will be demonstrated. This instrument will be able to identify volatile compounds as well as resident organic molecules on the parts-per-billion (ppb) level. Also, it will be able to obtain an inventory of chemical species on the surface of Mars which will result in a better understanding of ongoing surface chemistry. Finally, questions relevant to biological processes will be answered with the complete inventory of surface and near surface organic molecules that the ESI/IMS/CIT is capable of performing.

  10. Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C.

    2011-05-15

    We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

  11. Experimental Characterization of Secular Frequency Scanning in Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-07-01

    Secular frequency scanning is implemented and characterized using both a benchtop linear ion trap and a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. Separation of tetraalkylammonium ions and those from a mass calibration mixture and from a pesticide mixture is demonstrated with peak widths approaching unit resolution for optimized conditions using the benchtop ion trap. The effects on the spectra of ion trap operating parameters, including waveform amplitude, scan direction, scan rate, and pressure are explored, and peaks at black holes corresponding to nonlinear (higher-order field) resonance points are investigated. Reverse frequency sweeps (increasing mass) on the Mini 12 are shown to result in significantly higher ion ejection efficiency and superior resolution than forward frequency sweeps that decrement mass. This result is accounted for by the asymmetry in ion energy absorption profiles as a function of AC frequency and the shift in ion secular frequency at higher amplitudes in the trap due to higher order fields. We also found that use of higher AC amplitudes in forward frequency sweeps biases ions toward ejection at points of higher order parametric resonance, despite using only dipolar excitation. Higher AC amplitudes also increase peak width and decrease sensitivity in both forward and reverse frequency sweeps. Higher sensitivity and resolution were obtained at higher trap pressures in the secular frequency scan, in contrast to conventional resonance ejection scans, which showed the opposite trend in resolution on the Mini 12. Mass range is shown to be naturally extended in secular frequency scanning when ejecting ions by sweeping the AC waveform through low frequencies, a method which is similar, but arguably superior, to the more usual method of mass range extension using low q resonance ejection.

  12. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio metschnikovii under cold stress using a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juntao; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yinghui; Li, Zhengyi; Zhao, Liqing; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Jing; Feng, Liping; Liang, Chengzhu; Xu, Biao; Gu, Peiming; Ye, Xiwen

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio metschnikovii is a food-borne pathogen found in seafood worldwide. We studied the global proteome responses of V. metschnikovii under cold stress by nano-flow ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A total of 2066 proteins were identified, among which 288 were significantly upregulated and 572 were downregulated. Functional categorization of these proteins revealed distinct differences between cold-stressed and control cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was also performed to determine the mRNA expression levels of seventeen cold stress-related genes. The results of this study should improve our understanding of the metabolic activities of cold-adapted bacteria and will facilitate a better systems-based understanding of V. metschnikovii.

  13. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-09-15

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  14. Invited article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J A; Gershman, D J; Gloeckler, G; Lundgren, R A; Zurbuchen, T H; Orlando, T M; McLain, J; von Steiger, R

    2014-09-01

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  15. A Design for a Compact Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Manard, M.

    2012-10-01

    The design of a prototype, compact time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) is described. The system primarily consists of an ion acceleration/focusing/steering assembly (AFSA), an 8 cm field-free region, a 4 cm, dual-stage reflectron and a miniature microchannel plate detector. Consequently, the resulting flight length of the system is 12 cm. The system has been designed with the capability to sample directly from atmosphere at ambient pressures. This is accomplished through the use of an electrodynamic ion funnel, housed in an intermediate-vacuum chamber that is coupled to the inlet of the TOF chamber. TOF spectra were obtained using noble gases (Ar, Kr and Xe) as test chemicals. These measured flight times were used to probe the performance of the instrument. A temporal resolution (tflight/Δt) of approximately 125, acquired using 129Xe+, has been measured for the system.

  16. Magnetic mass spectrometer search at 2750 m. for hypothetical massive particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, H. B.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Jenkins, E. W.; Jones, J. J.; Kalbach, R. M.; Pifer, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    A search was conducted for hypothetical singly charged massive particles which might be produced in collisions of very highly energetic cosmic ray particles with nuclei in the upper atmosphere. If such particles have sufficiently long lifetime and small cross section for interaction, they could survive to mountain altitude. A cosmic ray spectrometer consisting of superconducting magnet, wire spark chambers and time-of-flight scintillation counters was used to search for these particles at mountain altitude (2750 m). For any choice of hypothetical mass in the 5 to 10 GeV/c-squared range the upper limit to the vertical intensity of the particle was observed to be less than or roughly equal to 10 to the -6th/sq. cm/s/(GeV/c).

  17. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Nguyen, Daniel; Nolan, Thomas; Noreiga, Felix; Noreiga, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Quinones, Omar; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Woronowicz, Michael; Gundersen, Cynthia (Inventor); Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  18. Spiking structure of amplitude characteristics for ion trajectories in hyperboloidal mass spectrometers: the theory.

    PubMed

    Sheretov, Ernst P; Philippov, Igor V; Karnav, Tatiana B; Kolotilin, Boris I; Ivanov, Vladimir W

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory that describes a 'spiking' structure of the amplitude characteristics for trajectories of ions within a hyperboloidal mass spectrometer (HMS) discovered and reported recently. This effect, as well as modulation parametric resonance, relates directly to a fine structure of the stability diagram for a HMS. A method of extremum characteristic solutions of the Hill equation (developed in our laboratory earlier) has been used in this work. Simple expressions determined the shape of narrow dips (or reversed peaks) in the amplitude of ion oscillation versus stability parameter curves and conditions of their appearance are presented. The results that were calculated from analytical expressions are compared with those obtained from direct computations of ion trajectories in a HMS. This effect with respect to a nature of 'black holes' or 'black canyons' observed earlier in investigations of trapping efficiency and ion trapping within ion traps is discussed.

  19. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Kellogg, James; Jaeger, Ferzan; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.

  20. A prototype mass spectrometer for in situ analysis of cave atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Edward L.; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mitchell, Evelynn J.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; Younkin, Kerri N.; Seifert, Clarissa M.; Williams, Gregg C.

    2012-10-01

    Research in cave environments has many applications: studying local hydrogeologic activity, paleoclimate studies, analyzing white nose syndrome in bat populations, analogs for underground atmospheres in mining facilities, carbon sequestration efforts, and terrestrial analogs for planetary caves. The atmospheres of many caves contain tracers of current geological and biological activity, but up to this point, in situ studies have been limited to sensors that monitor individual components of the cave atmosphere. A prototype cave mass spectrometer system was assembled from commercial off-the-shelf parts to conduct surveys of atmospheric compositions inside four local Texas caves and to perform atmospheric analysis of two aquifer wellheads to a depth of 60 m. We found increased levels of CO2 in all caves and, surprisingly, increased levels of O2 in Bracken Bat Cave. Aquifer wellhead measurements showed indications of methane, other hydrocarbons, and other constituents not anticipated.

  1. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Kellogg, James; Kimvilakani, Patrick; Lefavor, Matthew; Hengemihle, Jerome; Jaeger, Ferzan; Lyness, Eric; Maurer, John; Melak, Anthony; Noreiga, Felix; Noriega, Marvin; Patel, Kiran; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence; Weidner, Edwin; Gundersen, Cynthia; Battel, Steven; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Cooper, Curt; Edmonson, Charles; Nolan, J. Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.

  2. Plasticizer contamination from vacuum system O-rings in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Verge, Kent M; Agnes, George R

    2002-08-01

    The outgassing of plasticizers from Buna-N and Viton o-rings under vacuum lead to undesired ion-molecule chemistry in an Electrospray Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. In experiments with the helium bath gas pressure >1.2 mTorr, or whenever analyte ions were stored for >100 ms, extensive loss of analyte ions by proton transfer or adduction with o-ring plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate occurred. A temporary solution to this contamination problem was found to be overnight refluxing in hexane of all the o-rings in the vacuum system. This procedure alleviated this plasticizer contamination for approximately 100 hours of operation. These results, and those that lead to identification of the contamination as plasticizers outgassing from o-rings are described.

  3. Accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating of Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.; Toolin, L.J.; Forester, R.M.; Spencer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Pleistocene lake sediments in the Great Basin typically contain little organic carbon, and thus are difficult to date reliably by conventional radioccarbon methods. Paleoenvironmental data are abundant in these sediments, but are of limited value without adequate age controls. With the advent of accelerator-mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dating, it is now possible to date these paleolacustrine sediments. AMS dates were obtained on sediment cores from the Bonneville, Franklin, and Lahontan Basins. In the Bonneville Basin, the AMS-based chronology compares well with other chronologies constructed from dated shore-zone features. In the Bonneville and Franklin basins, AMS dates delimit unconformities not apparent by other means. We found that dispersed organic carbon from sediments deposited during relatively freshwater intervals provided apparently reliable AMS radiocarbon dates. Carbonate microfossils from the Lahontan Basin also produced results that appear reasonable, while bulk carbonate yielded erroneous results. ?? 1990.

  4. Backpack-portable mass spectrometer for measurement of volatile compounds in the environment. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemond, H.F.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental measurements of volatile pollutants and metabolic gases are preferably made in situ. In situ measurement provides immediate information to the investigator while minimizing disturbance and eliminating the need for sample collection, preservation, and transport. A self-contained mass spectrometer, capable of being carried by one person, has been designed and built for this purpose. The instrument is based on a compact crossed-field analyzer using a high-energy-product magnet and control circuitry optimized for low power consumption using a 12V DC primary power source. An internal, rechargable battery can provide up to several hours of operation in the field. Provision is made for interface, via RS-232, to a compact battery-operated laptop microcomputer. A variety of inlet configurations is possible, the simplest being a probe, containing a small silicone-rubber membrane, which may be inserted into a gas- or water-containing environment of interest.

  5. A revised thermospheric model based on mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter data - MSIS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that the model presented here extends the previous description of neutral parameters to the base of the thermosphere in a continuous manner while maintaining the basic structure of the MSIS model at higher altitudes. As the altitude decreases, the composition approaches lower atmosphere values, whereas yearly, and to a lesser extent daily, variations in temperature and density are in reasonable agreement with earlier results for the lower thermosphere. An alternate description is given of magnetic storm variations on the basis of the three hour ap indices and an 8- to 10-hour exponential decay in thermospheric density and temperature response after a heating event. Additional coefficients are included for the time independent and magnetic activity terms, among them a longitudinally dependent seasonal magnetic activity effect. The description of molecular oxygen derives from mass spectrometer and EUV absorption measurements rather than ion chemistry.

  6. The role of electron scattering from registration detector in the "Troitsk nu-mass" MAC-E type spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, P. V.; Nozik, A. A.; Pantuev, V. S.; Skasyrskaya, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    There is a proposal to search for a sterile neutrino in a few keV mass range by the "Troitsk nu-mass" facility. In order to estimate sterile neutrino mixing one needs to make precision spectrum measurements well below the endpoint using the existing electrostatic spectrometer with a magnetic adiabatic collimation, or MAC-E filter. The expected signature will be a kink in the electron energy spectrum in tritium beta-decay. In this paper we consider the systematic effect of electron backscattering on the detector used in the spectrometer. For this purpose we provide a set of Monte-Carlo simulation results of electron backscattering on a silicon detector with a thin golden window with realistic electric and magnetic fields in the spectrometer. We have found that the probability of such an effect reaches up to 20-30%. The scattered electron could be reflected backwards to the detector by electrostatic field or by magnetic mirror. There is also a few percent probability to escape from the spectrometer through its entrance. A time delay between the scattering on the detector and the return of the reflected electron can reach a couple of microseconds in the Troitsk spectrometer. Such estimations are critical for the planning upgrades of the detector and the registration electronics. All considered effects are relevant to any MAC-E type spectrometer with solid detector.

  7. NEGATIVE ION ELECTROSPRAY OF BROMO- AND CHLORACETIC ACIDS AND AN EVALUATION OF EXACT MASS MEASUREMENTS WITH A BENCH-TOP TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The negative ion electrospray mass spectra of six bromo- and chloroacetic acids were measured using two different electrospray interfaces and single quadrupole and bench-top time-of-flight mass spectrometers. With each acid at 50 ug/mL in aqueous methanol at pH 10, the anions ob...

  8. Electron-Induced Dissociation of Peptides in a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Retrofitted with an Electromagnetostatic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, Valery G.; Bennett, Samuel E.; Barofsky, Douglas F.

    2015-05-01

    Dissociation of peptides induced by interaction with (free) electrons (electron-induced dissociation, EID) at electron energies ranging from near 0 to >30 eV was carried out using a radio-frequency-free electromagnetostatic (EMS) cell retrofitted into a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The product-ion mass spectra exhibited EID originating from electronically excited even-electron precursor ions, reduced radical cations formed by capture of low-energy electrons, and oxidized radical cations produced by interaction with high-energy electrons. The spectra demonstrate, within the limits of the triple quadrupole's resolving power, that high-energy EID product-ion spectra produced with an EMS cell exhibit essentially the same qualitative structural information, i.e., amino acid side-chain (SC) losses and backbone cleavages, as observed in high-energy EID spectra produced with a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The levels of fragmentation efficiency evident in the product-ion spectra recorded in this study, as was the case for those recorded in earlier studies with FT ICR mass spectrometers, is currently at the margin of analytical utility. Given that this shortcoming can be remedied, EMS cells incorporated into QqQ or QqTOF mass spectrometers could make tandem high-energy EID mass spectrometry more widely accessible for analysis of peptides, small singly charged molecules, pharmaceuticals, and clinical samples.

  9. Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer – Operational Performance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Watrous; Anthony Appelhans; Robert Hague; John Olson; Tracy Houghton

    2013-06-01

    The INL made an assessment of the commercially available inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICPMS) for actinide analysis; emphasizing low detection limits for plutonium. INL scientists subsequently determined if plutonium was present on a swipe, at a 10 million atom decision level. This report describes the evaluation of ICPMS instruments and the operational testing of a new process for the dissolution, separation and analysis via ICPMS of swipes for plutonium and uranium. The swipe dissolution, plutonium and uranium isolation, separation and purification are wet chemistry methods following established procedures. The ICPMS is a commercially available multi-collector magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes five ion counting detectors operating simultaneously. The instrument includes a sample introduction system allowing for sample volumes of < 1 mL to be reproducibly injected into the instrument with minimal waste of the sample solution, while maximizing the useable signal. The performance of the instrument was measured using SRM 996 (244Pu spike) at concentrations of 12 parts per quadrillion (ppq, fg/mL) and with SRM 4350B Columbia River Sediment samples spiked onto swipes at the 10 million atom level. The measured limit of detection (LOD, defined as 3s) for 239Pu is 310,000 atoms based upon the instrument blank data. The limit of quantification (LOQ defined as 10 s) for 239Pu is 105,000 atoms. The measured limit of detection for 239Pu from the SRM 4350B spiked onto a swipe was 2.7 million atoms with the limit of quantification being 9.0 million atoms.

  10. Response of an aerosol mass spectrometer to organonitrates and organosulfates and implications for atmospheric chemistry.

    PubMed

    Farmer, D K; Matsunaga, A; Docherty, K S; Surratt, J D; Seinfeld, J H; Ziemann, P J; Jimenez, J L

    2010-04-13

    Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We evaluate the potential for using NO(x)+ fragment ratios, organonitrogen ions, HNO(3)+ ions, the ammonium balance of the nominally inorganic ions, and comparison to ion-chromatography instruments to constrain the concentrations of ON for ambient datasets, and apply these techniques to a field study in Riverside, CA. OS manifests as separate organic and sulfate components in the AMS with minimal organosulfur fragments and little difference in fragmentation from inorganic sulfate. The low thermal stability of ON and OS likely causes similar detection difficulties for other aerosol mass spectrometers using vaporization and/or ionization techniques with similar or larger energy, which has likely led to an underappreciation of these species.

  11. Parallel reaction monitoring using quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer: Principle and applications.

    PubMed

    Bourmaud, Adele; Gallien, Sebastien; Domon, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches are nowadays widely used for quantitative proteomics studies and more recently have been implemented on high resolution/accurate mass (HRAM) instruments resulting in a considerable performance improvement. More specifically, the parallel reaction monitoring technique (PRM) performed on quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, leveraging the high resolution and trapping capabilities of the instrument, offers a clear advantage over the conventional selected reaction monitoring (SRM) measurements executed on triple quadrupole instruments. Analyses performed in HRAM mode allow for an improved discrimination between signals derived from analytes and those resulting from matrix interferences translating in the reliable quantification of low abundance components. The purpose of the study defines various implementation schemes of PRM, namely: (i) exploratory experiments assessing the detectability of very large sets of peptides (100-1000), (ii) wide-screen analyses using (crude) internal standards to obtain statistically meaningful (relative) quantitative analyses, and (iii) precise/accurate quantification of a limited number of analytes using calibrated internal standards. Each of the three implementation schemes requires specific acquisition methods with defined parameters to appropriately control the acquisition during the actual peptide elution. This tutorial describes the different PRM approaches and discusses their benefits and limitations in terms of quantification performance and confidence in analyte identification.

  12. Miniaturized Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer for CubeSat Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Paschalidis, N.; Jones, S.; Sittler, E.; Chornay, D.; Uribe, P.; Cameron, T.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the number of single point in-situ measurements of thermosphere and exosphere ion and neutral composition and density, miniaturized instrumentation is in high demand to take advantage of the increasing platform opportunities available in the smallsat/cubesat industry. The INMS (Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer) addresses this need by providing simultaneous measurements of both the neutral and ion environment, essentially providing two instruments in one compact model. The 1.3U volume, 570 gram, 1.8W nominal power INMS instrument makes implementation into cubesat designs (3U and above) practical and feasible. With high dynamic range (0.1-500eV), mass dynamic range of 1-40amu, sharp time resolution (0.1s), and mass resolution of MdM16, the INMS instrument addresses the atmospheric science needs that otherwise would have required larger more expensive instrumentation. INMS-v1 (version 1) launched on Exocube (CalPoly 3U cubesat) in 2015 and INMS-v2 (version 2) is scheduled to launch on Dellingr (GSFC 6U cubesat) in 2017. New versions of INMS are currently being developed to increase and add measurement capabilities, while maintaining its smallsat/cubesat form.

  13. A study of resonance electron capture ionization on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Liu, S; Fedoreyev, S A; Voinov, V G

    2000-01-01

    Procedures that allow the realization of resonance electron capture (REC) mode on a commercial triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, after some simple modifications, are described. REC mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments were performed and spectra for some compounds were recorded. In particular, the charge-remote fragmentation (CRF) spectra of [M - H](-) ions of docosanoic and docosenoic acids under low-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) conditions were obtained, and showed that there were no significant differences for [M - H](-) ions produced at different resonances (i.e. for [M - H](-) ions with different structures). This observation was explained on the basis of results obtained from deuterium-labeled fatty acids, which showed that different CRF ions (but with the same m/z value in the absence of labels) could be produced by different mechanisms, and all of them were obviously realized under CAD conditions that made spectra practically indistinguishable. The other example, which compared the REC-MS/MS spectrum of [M - H](-) ions and EI-MS/MS spectrum of M(+.) ions of daidzein, demonstrated the potential of the REC-MS/MS technique for more complex structure elucidation.

  14. Miniaturized system of a gas chromatograph coupled with a Paul ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortt, B. J.; Darrach, M. R.; Holland, Paul M.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Miniature gas chromatography (GC) and miniature mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation has been developed to identify and quantify the chemical compounds present in complex mixtures of gases. The design approach utilizes micro-GC components coupled with a Paul quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Inherent to the system are high sensitivity, good dynamic range, good QIT resolution, low GC flow-rates to minimize vacuum requirements and the need for consumables; and the use of a modular approach to adapt to volatile organic compounds dissolved in water or present in sediment. Measurements are reported on system response to gaseous species at concentrations varying over four orders of magnitude. The ability of the system to deal with complicated mixtures is demonstrated, and future improvements are discussed. The GC/QIT system described herein has a mass, volume and power that are, conservatively, one-twentieth of those of commercial off-the-shelf systems. Potential applications are to spacecraft cabin-air monitoring, robotic planetary exploration and trace-species detection for residual gas analysis and environmental monitoring.

  15. C60 SIMS with a Hybrid-Quadrupole Orthogonal time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Carado, Anthony; Passarelli, M. K.; Kozole, Joseph; Wingate, J. E.; Winograd, Nicholas; Loboda, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer optimized for MALDI and electrospray ionization has been equipped with a C60 cluster ion source. This configuration is shown to exhibit a number of characteristics that improve the performance of traditional time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) experiments for the analysis of complex organic materials, and potentially, for chemical imaging. Specifically, the primary ion beam is operated as a continuous rather than a pulsed beam, resulting in up to 4 orders of magnitude greater ion fluence on the target. The secondary ions are extracted at very low voltage into 8 millitorr of N2 gas introduced for collisional focusing and cooling purposes. This extraction configuration is shown to yield secondary ions that rapidly lose memory of the mechanism of their birth, yielding tandem mass spectra that are identical for SIMS and MALDI. With implementation of ion trapping, the extraction efficiency is shown to be equivalent to that found in traditional TOF-SIMS machines. Examples are given, for a variety of substrates that illustrate mass resolution of 12,000–15,600 with mass range for inorganic compounds to m/z 40,000. Preliminary chemical mapping experiments show that with added sensitivity, imaging in the MS/MS mode of operation is straightforward. In general, the combination of MALDI and SIMS is shown to add capabilities to each technique, providing a robust platform for TOF-SIMS experiments that already exists in a large number of laboratories. PMID:18844371

  16. Implementation of Ion/Ion Reactions in a Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Chrisman, Paul A.; Erickson, David E.; Liu, Jian; Liang, Xiaorong; Londry, Frank A.; Yang, Min J.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    A commercial quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been adapted for ion/ion reaction studies. To enable mutual storage of oppositely charged ions in a linear ion trap, the oscillating quadrupole field of the second quadrupole of the system (Q2) serves to store ions in the radial dimension while auxiliary RF is superposed on the end lenses of Q2 during the reaction period to create barriers in the axial dimension. A pulsed dual electrospray (ESI) source is directly coupled to the instrument interface for the purpose of proton transfer reactions. Singly and doubly charged protein ions as high in mass as 66 kDa are readily formed and observed after proton transfer reactions. For the modified instrument, the mass resolving power is about 8000 for a wide m/z range and the mass accuracy is ~20 ppm for external calibration and ~5 ppm for internal calibration after ion/ion reactions. Parallel ion parking is demonstrated with a six-component protein mixture, which shows the potential application of reducing spectral complexity and concentrating certain charge states. The current system has high flexibility with respect to defining MSn experiments involving collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion/ion reactions. Protein precursor and CID product masses can be determined with good accuracy, providing an attractive platform for top-down proteomics. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) ion/ion reactions are implemented by using a pulsed nano-ESI/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) dual source for ionization. The reaction between protonated peptide ions and radical anions of 1,3-dinitrobenzene formed exclusively c- and z- type fragment ions. PMID:16771545

  17. Characterization of organic aerosols in Beijing using an aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junke; Wang, Yuesi; Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Ji, Dongsheng; Sun, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Fine particle of organic aerosol (OA), mostly arising from pollution, are abundant in Beijing. To achieve a better understanding of the difference in OA in summer and autumn, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, Aerodyne Research Inc., USA) was deployed in urban Beijing in August and October 2012. The mean OA mass concentration in autumn was 30±30 μg m-3, which was higher than in summer (13±6.9 μg m-3). The elemental analysis found that OA was more aged in summer (oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios were 0.41 and 0.32 for summer and autumn, respectively). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis identified three and five components in summer and autumn, respectively. In summer, an oxygenated OA (OOA), a cooking-emission-related OA (COA), and a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) were indentified. Meanwhile, the OOA was separated into LV-OOA (low-volatility OOA) and SV-OOA (semi-volatile OOA); and in autumn, a nitrogen-containing OA (NOA) was also found. The SOA (secondary OA) was always the most important OA component, accounting for 55% of the OA in the two seasons. Back trajectory clustering analysis found that the origin of the air masses was more complex in summer. Southerly air masses in both seasons were associated with the highest OA loading, while northerly air masses were associated with the lowest OA loading. A preliminary study of OA components, especially the POA (primary OA), in different periods found that the HOA and COA all decreased during the National Day holiday period, and HOA decreased at weekends compared with weekdays.

  18. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Dual Linear Ion Trap-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer for Proteomics Research

    PubMed Central

    Weisbrod, Chad R.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Senko, Michael W.; Bruce, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel dual cell linear ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) and its performance characteristics are reported. A linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a LTQ-Velos mass spectrometer. This modified instrument features efficient ion accumulation and fast MS/MS acquisition capabilities of dual cell linear RF ion trap instruments coupled to the high mass accuracy, resolution, and dynamic range of a FT-ICR for improved proteomic coverage. The ion accumulation efficiency is demonstrated to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed with LTQ-FT Ultra instrumentation. The proteome coverage with yeast was shown to increase over the previous instrument generation by 50% (100% increase on the peptide level). In addition, many lower abundance level yeast proteins were only detected with this modified instrument. This novel configuration also enables beam type CID fragmentation using a dual cell RF ion trap mass spectrometer. This technique involves accelerating ions between traps while applying an elevated DC offset to one of the traps to accelerate ions and induce fragmentation. This instrument design may serve as a useful option for labs currently considering purchasing new instrumentation or upgrading existing instruments. PMID:23590889

  20. Atmospheric 21Ne abundance determined by the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Zhang, X.; Phillips, D.; Hamilton, D.; Deerberg, M.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of noble gas isotopes by multi-collector, high resolution mass spectrometry have the potential to revolutionise applications in the cosmo-geo-sciences. The Helix-MC Plus noble gas mass spectrometer installed at the Australian National University (ANU) is equipped with unique high mass resolution collectors [mass resolution (MR): ~1,800 and mass resolving power (MRP): ~8,000], including fixed axial (Ax), adjustable high mass (H2) and adjustable low mass (L2) detectors. The high mass resolution of the L2, Ax and H2 collectors permits complete separation of 20Ne (measured on L2 detector) from doubly charged interfering 40Ar (required MR of 1,777), 1H19F (MR = 1450), 1H218O (MR = 894) and partial separation of the 21Ne peak (on Ax detector) from interfering 20Ne1H (MR = 3,271), and 22Ne (on H2 detector) from interfering doubly charged CO2 (MR = 6,231). Because of the high MRP of ~8,000, 21Ne can be measured, essentially without interference from 20Ne1H, by setting the magnet position on a 20Ne1H interference-free position. This capability provides an important opportunity to re-evaluate the 21Ne abundance in the atmosphere. Our analyses demonstrate that 20Ne1H contributes ~4% to atmospheric 21Ne measurements, with the corresponding production ratio of 20Ne1H to 20Ne being ~1E-4. We calculate a new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.00287 relative to an atmospheric 22Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.102; this new value is distinctly lower than the current IUPAC recommended 21Ne/20Ne value of 0.00298. There are several significant implications ensuing from the newly determined atmospheric 21Ne abundance. For example, in the area of Earth sciences the most critical issue relates to cosmogenic 21Ne surface exposure ages, which involve the calculation of 21Ne concentrations from excess 21Ne, relative to the atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio. For young samples, where cosmogenic 21Ne contents are small and the 21Ne/20Ne ratio is close to the atmospheric value, the revised value could

  1. A New Mass Spectrometer for Upper Atmospheric Measurements in the Auroral Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, E. A.; Dyer, J. S.; Watson, M.; Sanderson, W.; Schicker, S.; Work, D.; Mertens, C. J.; Bailey, S. M.; Syrstad, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    We have previously presented a new rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for measurements in the mesosphere / lower thermosphere (MLT). Traditionally, mass spectrometry in the MLT has been difficult, mainly due to the elevated ambient pressures of the MLT and high speeds of a sounding rocket flight, which affect the direct sampling of the ambient atmosphere and spatial resolution. The TOF-MS is a versatile, inherently adaptable, axial-sampling instrument, capable of operating in a traditional TOF mode or in a multiplexing Hadamard-transform mode where high spatial resolution is desired. To minimize bow shock effects at low altitudes (~70-110km), the ram surface of the TOF-MS can be cryogenically cooled using liquid He to adsorb impinging gas particles. The vacuum pumping system for the TOF-MS is tailored to the specific mission and instrument configuration. Depending on the instrument gas load and operating altitude, cryo, miniature turbo pump or getter-based pumping systems may be employed. Terrestrial TOF-MS instruments often employ a reflectron, essentially an ion-mirror, to improve mass resolving power and compensate for the thermal velocity distribution of particles being measured. The TOF-MS can be arranged in either a simple linear or reflectron configuration. Simulations and modeling are used to compare instrument mass resolution for linear and reflectron configurations for several variable conditions including vehicle velocity and ambient temperature, ultimately demonstrating the potential to make rocket-borne mass spectrometry measurements with unit-mass resolution up to at least 48 amu. Preliminary analyses suggest that many species of interest (including He, CO2, O2, O2+ , N2, N2+, and NO+) can be measured with an uncertainty below 10% relative standard deviation on a sounding rocket flight. We also present experimental data for a laboratory prototype linear TOF-MS. Experimental data is compared to simulation and modeling efforts to

  2. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  3. Spectra, chromatograms, Metadata: mzML-the standard data format for mass spectrometer output.

    PubMed

    Turewicz, Michael; Deutsch, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes Mass Spectrometry Markup Language (mzML), an XML-based and vendor-neutral standard data format for storage and exchange of mass spectrometer output like raw spectra and peak lists. It is intended to replace its two precursor data formats (mzData and mzXML), which had been developed independently a few years earlier. Hence, with the release of mzML, the problem of having two different formats for the same purposes is solved, and with it the duplicated effort of maintaining and supporting two data formats. The new format has been developed by a broad-based consortium of major instrument vendors, software vendors, and academic researchers under the aegis of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), with full participation of the main developers of the precursor formats. This comprehensive approach helped mzML to become a generally accepted standard. Furthermore, the collaborative development insured that mzML has adopted the best features of its precursor formats. In this chapter, we discuss mzML's development history, its design principles and use cases, as well as its main building components. We also present the available documentation, an example file, and validation software for mzML.

  4. Broadscale resolving power performance of a high precision uniform field ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; Dodds, James N; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2015-10-21

    An extensive study of two current ion mobility resolving power theories ("conditional" and "semi-empirical") was undertaken using a recently developed drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer. The current study investigates the quantitative agreement between experiment and theory at reduced pressure (4 Torr) for a wide range of initial ion gate widths (100 to 500 μs), and ion mobility values (K0 from 0.50 to 3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) representing measurements obtained in helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide drift gas. Results suggest that the conditional resolving power theory deviates from experimental results for low mobility ions (e.g., high mass analytes) and for initial ion gate widths beyond 200 μs. A semi-empirical resolving power theory provided close-correlation of predicted resolving powers to experimental results across the full range of mobilities and gate widths investigated. Interpreting the results from the semi-empirical theory, the performance of the current instrumentation was found to be highly linear for a wide range of analytes, with optimal resolving powers being accessible for a narrow range of drift fields between 14 and 17 V cm(-1). While developed using singly-charged ion mobility data, preliminary results suggest that the semi-empirical theory has broader applicability to higher-charge state systems.

  5. Microfabricated silicon leak for sampling planetary atmospheres with a mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, B. G.; Lynch, B. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Niemann, H. B.; Shappirio, M. D.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2007-06-15

    A microfabricated silicon mass spectrometer inlet leak has been designed, fabricated, and tested. This leak achieves a much lower conductance in a smaller volume than is possible with commonly available metal or glass capillary tubing. It will also be shown that it is possible to integrate significant additional functionality, such as inlet heaters and valves, into a silicon microleak with very little additional mass. The fabricated leak is compatible with high temperature (up to 500 deg. C) and high pressure (up to 100 bars) conditions, as would be encountered on a Venus atmospheric probe. These leaks behave in reasonable agreement with their theoretically calculated conductance, although this differs between devices and from the predicted value by as much as a factor of 2. This variation is believed to be the result of nonuniformity in the silicon etching process which is characterized in this work. Future versions of this device can compensate for characterized process variations in order to produce devices in closer agreement with designed conductance values. The integration of an inlet heater into the leak device has also been demonstrated in this work.

  6. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehpour, M.; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2016-03-01

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV 14,13,12C3+ ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the 14C/12C and the 13C/12C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  7. Imaging and Rapid-Scanning Ion Mass Spectrometer (IRM) for the CASSIOPE e-POP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; White, Andrew; Enno, Greg; Amerl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The imaging and rapid-scanning ion mass spectrometer (IRM) is part of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) instrument suite on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite. Designed to measure the composition and detailed velocity distributions of ions in the ˜1-100 eV/q range on a non-spinning spacecraft, the IRM sensor consists of a planar entrance aperture, a pair of electrostatic deflectors, a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, and a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. The TOF gate measures the transit time of each detected ion inside the sensor. The hemispherical analyzer disperses incident ions by their energy-per-charge and azimuth in the aperture plane onto the detector. The two electrostatic deflectors may be optionally programmed to step through a sequence of deflector voltages, to deflect ions of different incident elevation out of the aperture plane and energy-per-charge into the sensor aperture for sampling. The position and time of arrival of each detected ion at the detector are measured, to produce an image of 2-dimensional (2D), mass-resolved ion velocity distribution up to 100 times per second, or to construct a composite 3D velocity distribution by combining successive images in a deflector voltage sequence. The measured distributions are then used to investigate ion composition, density, drift velocity and temperature in polar ion outflows and related acceleration and transport processes in the topside ionosphere.

  8. Functional residual capacity measurements in healthy infants: ultrasonic flow meter versus a mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pillow, J J; Ljungberg, H; Hülskamp, G; Stocks, J

    2004-05-01

    Accurate, reproducible and portable bedside monitoring of lung volume could potentially facilitate the early recognition of both under and overinflation of the lungs in ventilated and nonventilated subjects. This study asked whether a prototype portable ultrasonic flow meter provided valid and reliable measurements of functional residual capacity (FRCUS) when compared to those obtained using a mass spectrometer (FRCMS) in nonventilated healthy infants. Paired, randomised measurements of FRCMS and FRCUS were obtained using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) multiple-breath washout technique in 23 healthy infants with a median (range) postnatal age of 34.6 (1.3-92.6) weeks and weight of 8.3 (3.9-11.7) kg. FRCUS was on average 5.7%, (95% CI: 1.0-10.4%) less than FRCMS equating to a difference of approximately 1 mL x kg(-1). The 95% limits of agreement (LA) between the two techniques were relatively wide (95% LA: -17.5% to 29%), although in keeping with previously reported within-patient variability for lung volume measurements. There was no significant difference between the within subject coefficient of variation for FRCMS (3.7%) and FRCUS (5.2%). The ultrasonic flow meter used in this study provides repeatable measurements of functional residual capacity in spontaneously breathing healthy infants that approximate those obtained during mass spectrometry.

  9. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunguang; Li, Jinxu; Tang, Bin; Zhu, Liping; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI-) photoelectron ionization (PEI) portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE) below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1) with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear. PMID:26587023

  10. 129I level in seawater near a nuclear power plant determined by accelerator mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chaohui; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhao, Yaolin; Wang, Zhiwen; Li, Huaibin; Chen, Ning; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Luyuan; Luo, Maoyi; Liang, Wangguo; Fan, Yukun; Zhao, Xiaolei

    2011-03-01

    129I concentration in the seawater samples near a nuclear power plant was determined in the Xi'an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) Center. Isotope dilution method was used via addition of excessive amount of stable iodine ( 127I) in the sample before separation, and iodine in the seawater was separated by solvent extraction, and the back extracted iodine in iodide form was precipitated as AgI, which was used as AMS target for 129I measurement. 125I tracer was added to monitor the recovery of iodine in the whole separation process. 129I/ 127I ratios in the prepared target were determined by AMS. The concentration of 127I in seawater samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that the 129I/ 127I atomic ratios in the seawater range from 8.29×10 -11 to 9.45×10 -10, approximately one order of magnitude higher than that in seaweed collected in the pre-nuclear era, but fall in the environmental level of global fallout.

  11. MSM, an Efficient Workflow for Metabolite Identification Using Hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Robert; Huang, Yingying; Schwartz, Jae C.; Chen, Yan; Carlson, Timothy J.; Ma, Ji

    2012-05-01

    Identification of drug metabolites can often yield important information regarding clearance mechanism, pharmacologic activity, or toxicity for drug candidate molecules. Additionally, the identification of metabolites can provide beneficial structure-activity insight to help guide lead optimization efforts towards molecules with optimal metabolic profiles. There are challenges associated with detecting and identifying metabolites in the presence of complex biological matrices, and new LC-MS technologies have been developed to meet these challenges. In this report, we describe the development of an experimental approach that applies unique features of the hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometer to streamline in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification experiments. The approach, referred to as MSM, utilizes multiple collision cells, dissociation methods, mass analyzers, and detectors. With multiple scan types and different dissociation modes built into one experimental method, along with flexible post-acquisition analysis options, the MSM workflow offers an attractive option to fast and reliable identification of metabolites in different kinds of in vitro and in vivo samples. The MSM workflow was successfully applied to metabolite identification analysis of verapamil in both in vitro rat hepatocyte incubations and in vivo rat bile samples.

  12. Correlation between y-type ions observed in ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Carly A; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide.

  13. Development of Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometers (INMS) for Heliophysics and Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Cooper, John; Zesta, Eftyhia; Ali, Ashraf; Chornay, Dennis; Durachka, David; Brambora, Clifford; Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Goddard's Geospace Physics Laboratory is developing INMS concepts that can be used for future Geospace missions to the Earth's ionosphere and for future planetary missions to bodies with atmospheres and ionospheres, in collaboration with the Planetary Environments Laboratory. Our group is designing ion mass spectrometers (IMS) for energy-per-charge range 1 V to 50 kV that can be used for solar wind ion composition measurements, the Earth's magnetosphere , lunar orbiters, and planetary magnetospheres. We will focus this presentation in our efforts and results for future CubeSat Missions to the Earth's ionosphere and a High Precision Electric Gate (HPEG) design that can be used with a reflectometer to achieve very high mass resolution capability. The HPEG design has been patented by Goddard with E. C. Sittler Jr. as inventor. The HPEG design allows for miniaturization so it is ideally suited to CubeSat missions. Engineers at Goddard's Instrument Electronics Development Branch have prototyped a pulse generator that can deliver a required train of pulses with ~ ns pulses on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform that will allow miniature designs of the HPEG. The burst of pulses can be triggered at MHz rates. We will present initial lab results for a simpler CubeSat design instrument and a more complex version using the HPEG.

  14. Correlation between y-Type Ions Observed in Ion Trap and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Carly A.; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide. PMID:19603825

  15. Development of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Prost, Spencer A.; Wojcik, Roza; Norheim, Randolph V.; Baker, Erin S.; Rusyn, Ivan; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-12-20

    Complex samples benefit from multidimensional measurements where higher resolution enables more complete characterization of biological and environmental systems. To address this challenge, we developed a drift tube-based ion mobility spectrometry-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (IMS-Orbitrap MS) platform. To circumvent the time scale disparity between the fast IMS separation and the much slower Orbitrap MS acquisition, we utilized a dual gate and pseudorandom sequences to multiplexed injection of ions and allowing operation in signal averaging (SA), single multiplexing (SM) and double multiplexing (DM) IMS modes to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements. For the SM measurements, a previously developed algorithm was used to reconstruct the IMS data. A new algorithm was developed for the DM analyses involving a two-step process that first recovers the SM data and then decodes the SM data. The algorithm also performs multiple refining procedures in order to minimize demultiplexing artifacts. The new IMS-Orbitrap MS platform was demonstrated by the analysis of proteomic and petroleum samples, where the integration of IMS and high mass resolution proved essential for accurate assignment of molecular formulae.

  16. Investigation of Luna-20 soil samples, using a mass spectrometer with a spark-discharge ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Ramendik, G. I.; Gronskaia, S. I.; Gubina, I. IA.; Gushchin, V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A method of analyzing soil samples with a mass spectrometer employing a spark-discharge ion source is described, and the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the determination of impurities, in amounts of less than 10 mg, in lunar samples. It is shown that four parts of the Luna-20 lunar highland sample differ in their chemical composition.

  17. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; ...

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting inmore » nearly lossless transmission.« less

  18. Evaluating Mass Analyzers as Candidates for Small, Portable, Rugged Single Point Mass Spectrometers for Analysis of Permanent Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Follestein, Duke; Adams, Fredrick; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For Space Shuttle launch safety, there is a need to monitor the concentration of H2, He, O2 and Ar around the launch vehicle. Currently a large mass spectrometry system performs this task, using long transport lines to draw in samples. There is great interest in replacing this stationary system with several miniature, portable, rugged mass spectrometers which act as point sensors which can be placed at the sampling point. Five commercial and two non-commercial analyzers are evaluated. The five commercial systems include the Leybold Inficon XPR-2 linear quadrupole, the Stanford Research (SRS-100) linear quadrupole, the Ferran linear quadrupole array, the ThermoQuest Polaris-Q quadrupole ion trap, and the IonWerks Time-of-Flight (TOF). The non-commercial systems include a compact double focusing sector (CDFMS) developed at the University of Minnesota, and a quadrupole ion trap (UF-IT) developed at the University of Florida. The System Volume is determined by measuring the entire system volume including the mass analyzer, its associated electronics, the associated vacuum system, the high vacuum pump and rough pump. Also measured are any ion gauge controllers or other required equipment. Computers are not included. Scan Time is the time required for one scan to be acquired and the data to be transferred. It is determined by measuring the time required acquiring a known number of scans and dividing by said number of scans. Limit of Detection is determined first by performing a zero-span calibration (using a 10-point data set). Then the limit of detection (LOD) is defined as 3 times the standard deviation of the zero data set. (An LOD of 10 ppm or less is considered acceptable.)

  19. Field-portable Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) Unit for Semi-volatile Compound Analysis in Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Program ERDC TR-11-11 September 2011 Field-portable Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) Unit for Semi-volatile Compound Analysis in...fixed laboratories that perform regulatory-approved analytical methods . The typical analysis and data reporting time at most analytical laboratories...USEPA method 8330. Technology description Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis systems can provide valuable chemical information on almost any type of

  20. development of a neutral mass spectrometer dedicated to the analysis of planetary envelopes (NIMEIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.

    2012-12-01

    LATMOS worked for several years on a newly designed instrument suitable for measuring neutral environments as rarefied exosphere of Mars, Venus, Europa, asteroids or Titan for example. This instrument NIMEIS for Neutral and Ion Mass and Energy Imaging Spectrometer has as main features the ability to measure low densities of neutral but also conduct an analysis of mass and energy in an energy range covering the thermal and suprathermal between ~ 1 eV and 20 eV far unexplored. My thesis is divided into two independent parts. First, we optimize the ionization source, that is an innovative concept, and secondly we design the optics of the instrument based on an electrostatic optimization. The ionization source is based on the use of carbon nanotubes and to extract the electrons and ionize the neutral. Employing this technology we can significantly reduce the power, because previously we were using heated filaments. We develop this technology in close collaboration with a laboratory Ajou University (South Korea) that provides us with carbon nanotubes. I did a simulation study of the mode of extraction of electrons from initial tests, from an assembly developed by our laboratory in South Korea. The instrument has been optimized so that the impact on the detector gives us the one hand the energy of the particle and on the other hand the mass of the particle simultaneously and in continuous time. I developed the optics of the instrument using an electrostatic optical software. A comprehensive numerical model has been defined and a prototype is being manufactured.

  1. A Virtual Research Environment for a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.; Schäfer, L.; Klump, J.; Galkin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Overview: This poster describes the development of a Virtual Research Environment for the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) at GFZ Potsdam. Background: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) are extremely sensitive instruments for analyzing the surfaces of solid and thin film samples. These instruments are rare, expensive and experienced operators are very highly sought after. As such, measurement time is a precious commodity, until now only accessible to small numbers of researchers. The challenge: The Virtual SIMS Project aims to set up a Virtual Research Environment for the operation of the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR instrument at the GFZ Potsdam. The objective of the VRE is to provide SIMS access not only to researchers locally present in Potsdam but also to scientists working with SIMS cooperation partners in e.g., South Africa, Brazil or India. The requirements: The system should address the complete spectrum of laboratory procedures - from online application for measurement time, to remote access for data acquisition to data archiving for the subsequent publication and for future reuse. The approach: The targeted Virtual SIMS Environment will consist of a: 1. Web Server running the Virtual SIMS website providing general information about the project, lab access proposal forms and calendar for the timing of project related tasks. 2. LIMS Server, responsible for scheduling procedures, data management and, if applicable, accounting and billing. 3. Remote SIMS Tool, devoted to the operation of the experiment within a remote control environment. 4. Publishing System, which supports the publication of results in cooperation with the GFZ Library services. 5. Training Simulator, which offers the opportunity to rehearse experiments and to prepare for possible events such as a power outages or interruptions to broadband services. First results: The SIMS Virtual Research Environment will be mainly based on open source software, the only exception being the CAMECA IMS

  2. A Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen-Purged Compartments within the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Yost, Richard A.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To enter orbit, the Space Shuttle burns 1.8 million liters of liquid hydrogen combined with 0.8 million liters of liquid oxygen through three rocket engines mounted in the aft. NASA monitors the nitrogen-purged aft compartment for increased levels of hydrogen or oxygen in order to detect and determine the severity of a cryogenic fuel leak. Current monitoring is accomplished with a group of mass spectrometer systems located as much as 400 feet away from the Shuttle. It can take up to 45 seconds for gas to reach the mass spectrometer, which precludes monitoring for leaks in the final moments before liftoff (the orbiter engines are started at T-00:06 seconds). To remedy the situation, NASA is developing a small rugged mass spectrometer to be used as point-sensors around the Space Shuttle. As part of this project, numerous mass analyzer technologies are being investigated. Presented here are the preliminary results for one such technology, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (QITMS). A compact QITMS system has been developed in-house at the University of Florida for monitoring trace levels of four primary gases, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon, all in a nitrogen background. Since commercially available QITMS systems are incapable of mass analysis at m/z(exp 2), the home-built system is preferred for the evaluation of QITMS technology.

  3. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhou; Tong, Qiu-Nan; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Hu, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374124).

  4. Isotopes of nitrogen on Mars: Atmospheric measurements by Curiosity's mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael H; Atreya, Sushil K; Mahaffy, Paul N; Franz, Heather B; Malespin, Charles; Trainer, Melissa G; Stern, Jennifer C; Conrad, Pamela G; Manning, Heidi L K; Pepin, Robert O; Becker, Richard H; McKay, Christopher P; Owen, Tobias C; Navarro-González, Rafael; Jones, John H; Jakosky, Bruce M; Steele, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    [1] The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) measured a Mars atmospheric14N/15N ratio of 173 ± 11 on sol 341 of the mission, agreeing with Viking's measurement of 168 ± 17. The MSL/SAM value was based on Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer measurements of an enriched atmospheric sample, with CO2 and H2O removed. Doubly ionized nitrogen data at m/z 14 and 14.5 had the highest signal/background ratio, with results confirmed by m/z 28 and 29 data. Gases in SNC meteorite glasses have been interpreted as mixtures containing a Martian atmospheric component, based partly on distinctive14N/15N and40Ar/14N ratios. Recent MSL/SAM measurements of the40Ar/14N ratio (0.51 ± 0.01) are incompatible with the Viking ratio (0.35 ± 0.08). The meteorite mixing line is more consistent with the atmospheric composition measured by Viking than by MSL. PMID:26074632

  5. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation metal ions release detection in the human mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazkova, J.

    2002-06-01

    Presence of more dental alloys in oral cavity often causes pathological symptoms. Due to various and multi-faced symptomatology, they tend to be a source of significant problems not only for the patient but also for the dentist. Metal ions released from alloys can cause subjective and objective symptoms in mouth. The aim of this study was detection of metal elements presence in saliva. There were 4 groups of examined persons: with intact teeth (15 individuals) with metallic restorations, pathological currents 5-30 (mu) A, multi-faced subjective symptomatology and uncharacteristic objective diagnosis (32 patients), with metallic restorations and no subjective symptoms (14 persons) and with metallic restorations, without pathological currents and with problems related to galvanism (13 patients). Presence of 14 metal elements was checked by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation. Nd:YAG laser detector was used. There were significant differences in content of silver, gold and mercury between persons with intact teeth and other three groups. There were no differences found between subjects with and without galvanic currents, and presence of subjective and objective symptoms.

  6. Initial SAM calibration gas experiments on Mars: Quadrupole mass spectrometer results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Malespin, Charles A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Becker, Richard H.; Benna, Mehdi; Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freissinet, Caroline; Manning, Heidi L. K.; Prats, Benito D.; Raaen, Eric; Wong, Michael H.

    2017-04-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is equipped to analyze both martian atmospheric gases and volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials, with target measurements including chemical and isotopic composition (Mahaffy et al., 2012). To facilitate assessment of instrument performance and validation of results obtained on Mars, SAM houses a calibration cell containing CO2, Ar, N2, Xe, and several fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds (Franz et al., 2014; Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report describes the first two experiments utilizing this calibration cell on Mars and gives results from analysis of data acquired with the SAM Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). These data support the accuracy of isotope ratios obtained with the QMS (Conrad et al., 2016; Mahaffy et al., 2013) and provide ground-truth for reassessment of analytical constants required for atmospheric measurements, which were reported in previous contributions (Franz et al., 2015, 2014). The most significant implication of the QMS data involves reinterpretation of pre-launch contamination previously believed to affect only CO abundance measurements (Franz et al., 2015) to affect N2 abundances, as well. The corresponding adjustment to the N2 calibration constant presented here brings the atmospheric volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 retrieved by SAM into closer agreement with those reported by the Viking mission (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977).

  7. Neutral composition measurements by the Pioneer Venus Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Orbiter re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.; Niemann, H. B.; Hedin, A. E.; Bougher, S. W.; Hunten, D. M.

    1993-12-01

    Measurements by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ONMS) instrument during Orbiter re-entry have been made from 18-24 hours local solar time, above 170 km, of He, and from midnight to 4.5 hours below 200 km of He, N, O, CO, N2, and CO2. Preliminary results indicate that in the post-midnight sector He is the dominant species above 170 km, O the dominant species from 140-170 km and CO2 the dominant species below 140 km. Estimated scale height temperatures for He, O and CO2 of about 105-120 K are similar to those observed in 1978-80 at higher solar activity. The densities at 1 am local solar time and at 150 km are within 35% of those measured earlier. The He bulge is also similar to that observed in 1978-80 confirming that thermosphere superrotation is still present. Comparison with the results of a Venus Thermosphere General Circulation Model suggests the nightside is not sensitive to changes in solar activity due to the isolation of the day and night thermospheres. Apparently, the relatively small changes in the dayside thermosphere with solar activity have little impact on the nightside thermosphere.

  8. Isotopes of nitrogen on Mars: Atmospheric measurements by Curiosity's mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael H; Atreya, Sushil K; Mahaffy, Paul N; Franz, Heather B; Malespin, Charles; Trainer, Melissa G; Stern, Jennifer C; Conrad, Pamela G; Manning, Heidi L K; Pepin, Robert O; Becker, Richard H; McKay, Christopher P; Owen, Tobias C; Navarro-González, Rafael; Jones, John H; Jakosky, Bruce M; Steele, Andrew

    2013-12-16

    [1] The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) measured a Mars atmospheric(14)N/(15)N ratio of 173 ± 11 on sol 341 of the mission, agreeing with Viking's measurement of 168 ± 17. The MSL/SAM value was based on Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer measurements of an enriched atmospheric sample, with CO2 and H2O removed. Doubly ionized nitrogen data at m/z 14 and 14.5 had the highest signal/background ratio, with results confirmed by m/z 28 and 29 data. Gases in SNC meteorite glasses have been interpreted as mixtures containing a Martian atmospheric component, based partly on distinctive(14)N/(15)N and(40)Ar/(14)N ratios. Recent MSL/SAM measurements of the(40)Ar/(14)N ratio (0.51 ± 0.01) are incompatible with the Viking ratio (0.35 ± 0.08). The meteorite mixing line is more consistent with the atmospheric composition measured by Viking than by MSL.

  9. An electrospray ionization source for thermochemical investigation with the guided ion beam mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Moision, R M; Armentrout, P B

    2007-06-01

    An electrospray ionization (ESI) source developed for use with the guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer (GIBMS) is described. For accurate determination of thermochemistry using threshold collision-induced dissociation (TCID), it is essential that any source produces ions with four exacting characteristics: (1) high intensity, (2) stable signal, and well-defined energies both (3) kinetic, and (4) internal. To accomplish these objectives, the ions generated by the electrospray are collected using a radio frequency electrodynamic ion funnel and are then transferred into a hexapole ion guide where they are thermalized and subsequently passed into higher-vacuum regions for analysis. The resulting ion intensities using this source can exceed 10(6) ions/s. Stable beams (<10% variation in signal) can be generated over multiple hours. The kinetic energy distribution of ions emerging from this source has been shown to be well described by a Gaussian distribution with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of about 0.1-0.2 eV in the laboratory frame of reference. Finally, TCID results for ions generated with this source show excellent agreement with previously reported threshold values for ions generated using a variety of sources and experimental methodologies. This confirms that internal energies of the ions are well described by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at room temperature.

  10. Temperature Variations in the Martian Upper Atmosphere from the MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Shane W.; Yelle, Roger; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Elrod, Meredith K.; Bougher, Stephen W.; MAVEN

    2016-10-01

    The MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measures composition and variability of neutral and ionic species in the Martian upper atmosphere, allowing us to calculate neutral temperatures from roughly 130 km to 300 km above the surface. Over the past two years at Mars, NGIMS has collected an extensive and useful data set that covers much of the Martian thermosphere and exosphere. We use new, improved algorithms for the most accurate determination of densities from the NGIMS data. We use the densities of inert species (specifically CO2, Ar, and N2) along with a hydrostatic equilibrium model to infer the temperature profile and its uncertainty. Uncertainties include the errors in the density measurements, unknown upper boundary conditions, and horizontal variations in the atmosphere. Our calculations reveal diurnal temperature variations of up to 90 K and maximum latitudinal temperature variations of 130 K. These fluctuations in temperature in the upper atmosphere are surprising because they are significantly larger than those predicted by the latest 3D general circulation models for Mars.

  11. Charge state separation for protein applications using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chernushevich, I V; Fell, L M; Bloomfield, N; Metalnikov, P S; Loboda, A V

    2003-01-01

    A novel method for separating ions according to their charge state using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer is presented. The benefits of charge state separation are particularly apparent in protein identification applications at low femtomole concentration levels, where in conventional TOF MS spectra peptide ions are often lost in a sea of chemical noise. When doubly and triply charged tryptic peptide ions need to be filtered from singly charged background ions, the latter are suppressed by two to three orders of magnitude, while from 10-50% of multiply charged ions remain. The suppression of chemical noise reduces the need for chromatography and can make this experimental approach the electrospray equivalent of conventional MALDI peptide maps. If unambiguous identification cannot be achieved, MS/MS experiments are performed on the precursor ions identified through charge separation, while the previously described Q2-trapping duty cycle enhancement is tuned for approximately 1.4 of the precursor m/z to enhance intensities of ions with m/z values above that of the precursor. The resulting product ion spectra contain few fragments of impurities and provide quick and unambiguous identification through database search. The multiple charge separation technique requires minimal tuning and may become a useful tool for analysis of complex mixtures.

  12. Effect of Vaporizer Temperature on Ambient Non-Refractory Submicron Aerosol Composition and Mass Spectra Measured by the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS) are routinely operated with a constant vaporizer temperature (Tvap) of 600oC in order to facilitate quantitative detection of non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) species. By analogy with other thermal desorption instrument...

  13. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  14. Inside Enceladus’ plumes: the view from Cassini’s mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Mark E.; Hurley, Dana M.; Teolis, Ben D.; Waite, J. Hunter; Magee, Brian A.; Smith, H. Todd; Tenishev, Valeriy; Westlake, Joe H.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2015-11-01

    Between early 2008 and late 2012, the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) on Cassini measured particles deep inside the plumes of Enceladus seven times from varying altitudes and locations. From these measurements and the models that use them, we have extracted information that can be used to constrain the physical processes that create the plumes and govern their source.Neutral densities are high only when INMS is within view of the tiger stripes. Inside the plumes, INMS measures spatial variations that are consistent with Mach-4 jets superimposed on more-diffuse vapor. INMS measured vapor velocity directly during a portion of one encounter, finding a Mach-4 distribution centered on 1.2 km/s. Modeling of vapor sources distributed along the tiger stripes show they contribute 20% to 75% of the total density, depending on the encounter and assumptions on the discrete sources. Model-fitted velocities range from 500 to 1300 m/s. The INMS data also show 3x variations in total density that are consistent with the orbit-phase variations detected in visual and IR remote observations of dust plumes. Only H3O+ ions are observed clearly inside the plumes.An ice grain entering INMS increases the counts for one measurement. These spikes are the largest source of uncertainty (40%) in vapor measurements, but also provide independent measurements of ice grains. The frequency of these ice grains matches the Cosmic Dust Analyzer counts for grains larger than 0.2 μm. Their orbit-phase variability as seen by INMS is also consistent with VIMS data.Water vapor comprises at least 90% of the plumes, with CO2, NH3, and CH4 positively identified and less than 1%, each. H2 is likely 5-10%, but its abundance is uncertain due to fractionation of H2O in the instrument. A species (CO or N2) with a mass of 28 u is as abundant as CO2. The C2 group totals < 0.5%, and the C3 group < 0.01%. The high-velocity encounters show carbon fractions of organic molecules with masses > 100 u. During

  15. Advances in the determination of quark masses

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, T.; Gupta, R.

    1998-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the determination of the light quark masses, using both lattice QCD and sum rule methods, in the last year. The authors discuss the different methods and review the status of current results. Finally, they review the calculation of bottom and charm masses.

  16. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole.

  17. Advancing the Technology of Monolithic CMOS detectors for their use as X-ray Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) proposes a two year program to further advance the scientific capabilities of monolithic CMOS detectors for use as x-ray imaging spectrometers. This proposal will build upon the progress achieved with funding from a previous APRA proposal that ended in 2013. As part of that previous proposal, x- ray optimized, highly versatile, monolithic CMOS imaging detectors and technology were developed and tested. The performance and capabilities of these devices were then demonstrated, with an emphasis on the performance advantages these devices have over CCDs and other technologies. The developed SAO/SRI-Sarnoff CMOS devices incorporate: Low noise, high sensitivity ("gain") pixels; Highly parallel on-chip signal chains; Standard and very high resistivity (30,000Ohm-cm) Si; Back-Side thinning and passivation. SAO demonstrated the performance benefits of each of these features in these devices. This new proposal high-lights the performance of this previous generation of devices, and segues into new technology and capability. The high sensitivity ( 135uV/e) 6 Transistor (6T) Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) pixels provided a large charge to voltage conversion gain to the detect and resolve even small numbers of photo electrons produced by x-rays. The on-chip, parallel signal chain processed an entire row of pixels in the same time that a CCD requires to processes a single pixel. The resulting high speed operation ( 1000 times faster than CCD) provide temporal resolution while mitigating dark current and allowed room temperature operation. The high resistivity Si provided full (over) depletion for thicker devices which increased QE for higher energy x-rays. In this proposal, SAO will investigate existing NMOS and existing PMOS devices as xray imaging spectrometers. Conventional CMOS imagers are NMOS. NMOS devices collect and measure photo-electrons. In contrast, PMOS devices collect and measure photo-holes. PMOS devices have various

  18. Toward a Fieldable Atomic Mass Spectrometer for Safeguards Applications: Sample Preparation and Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Barinaga, Charles J.; Hager, George J.; Hart, Garret L.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Jones, Sarah MH; Manard, Benjamin T.

    2014-10-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) long-term research and development plan calls for the development of new methods to detect misuse at nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing and enrichment plants. At enrichment plants, for example, the IAEA’s contemporary safeguards approaches are based on a combination of routine and random inspections that include collection of UF6 samples from in-process material and selected cylinders for subsequent analyses. These analyses include destructive analysis (DA) in a laboratory (typically by mass spectrometry [MS]) for isotopic characterization, and environmental sampling (ES) for subsequent laboratory elemental and isotopic analysis (also both typically by MS). One area of new method development includes moving this kind of isotope ratio analytical capability for DA and ES activities into the field. Some of the reasons for these developments include timeliness of results, avoidance of hazardous material shipments, and guidance for additional sample collecting. However, this capability does not already exist for several reasons, such as that most lab-based chemical and instrumental methods rely on laboratory infrastructure (highly trained staff, power, space, hazardous material handling, etc.) and require significant amounts of consumables (power, compressed gases, etc.). In addition, there are no currently available, fieldable instruments for atomic or isotope ratio analysis. To address these issues, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and collaborator, Clemson University, are studying key areas that limit the fieldability of isotope ratio mass spectrometry for atomic ions: sample preparation and ionization, and reducing the physical size of a fieldable mass spectrometer. PNNL is seeking simple and robust techniques that could be effectively used by inspectors who may have no expertise in analytical MS. In this report, we present and describe the preliminary findings for three candidate

  19. Results from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) Experiment on the Cassini-Huygens Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Demick-Montelara, J.; Haberman, J.; Harpold, D.; Kasprzak, W.; Owen, T.; Raaen, E.; Way, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was one of six instruments on the Cassini-Huygens Probe mission to Titan. The GCMS measured in situ the chemical composition of the atmosphere during the probe descent and served as the detector for the pyrolization products for the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) experiment to determine the composition of the aerosol particles. The GCMS collected data from an altitude of 146 km to ground impact. The Probe and the GCMS survived impact and collected data for 1 hour and 9 minutes on the surface. Mass spectra were collected during descent and on the ground over a range of m/z from 2 to 141. The major constituents of the lower atmosphere were confirmed to be N2 and CH4. The methane mole fraction was uniform in the stratosphere. It increased below the tropopause, at about 32 km altitude, monotonically toward the surface, reaching a plateau at about 8 km at a level near saturation. After surface impact a steep increase of the methane signal was observed, suggesting evaporation of surface condensed methane due to heating by the GCMS sample inlet heater. The measured mole fraction of Ar-40 is 4.3x10(exp -5) and of Ar-36 is 2.8x10(exp -7). The other primordial noble gases were below 10(exp -8) mole fraction. The isotope ratios of C-12/C-13 determined from methane measurements are 82.3 and of N-14/N-15 determined from molecular nitrogen are 183. The D/H isotope ratio determined from the H2 and HD measurements is 2.3x10(exp -4). Carbon dioxide, methane, acetylene and cyanogen were detected evaporating from the surface in addition to methane. The GCMS employed a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns, a chemical scrubber and a hydrocarbon enrichment cell. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and to evaporate volatiles from the

  20. Results from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) Experiment on the Cassini-Huygens Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, S.; Demick-Monelara, J.; Haberman, J.; Harpold, D.; Kasprzak, W.; Owen, T.; Raaen, E.; Way, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was one of six instruments on the Cassini-Huygens Probe mission to Titan. The GCMS measured in situ the chemical composition of the atmosphere during the probe descent and served as the detector for the pyrolization products for the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) experiment to determine the composition of the aerosol particles. The GCMS collected data from an altitude of 146 km to ground impact. The Probe and the GCMS survived impact and collected data for 1 hour and 9 minutes on the surface. Mass spectra were collected during descent and on the ground over a range of mlz from 2 to 141. The major constituents of the lower atmosphere were confirmed to be N2 and CH4. The methane mole fraction was uniform in the stratosphere. It increased below the tropopause, at about 32 km altitude, monotonically toward the surface, reaching a plateau at about 8 km at a level near saturation. After surface impact a steep increase of the methane signal was observed, suggesting evaporation of surface condensed methane due to heating by the GCMS sample inlet heater. The measured mole fraction of Ar-40 is 4.3x10(exp -5) and of Ar-36 is 2.8x10(exp -7). The other primordial noble gases were below 10(exp -8) mole fraction. The isotope ratios of C-12/C-13 determined from methane measurements are 82.3 and of N-14/N-15 determined from molecular nitrogen are 183. The D/H isotope ratio determined from the H2 and HD measurements is 2.3x10(exp -4). Carbon dioxide, ethane, acetylene and cyanogen were detected evaporating from the surface in addition to methane. The GCMS employed a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns, a chemical scrubber and a hydrocarbon enrichment cell. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and to evaporate volatiles from the

  1. Mini and micro spectrometers pave the way to on-field advanced analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyé, Clémentine; Kolb, Hugo; d'Humières, Benoît.

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in the 1990's, miniature optical spectrometers were compact, portable devices brought on the market by the desire to move from time-consuming lab-based analyses to on-field and in situ measurements. This goal of getting spectroscopy into the hands of non-specialists is driving current technical and application developments, the ultimate goal being, in a far future, the integration of a spectrometer into a smartphone or any other smart device (tablet, watch, …). In this article, we present the results of our study on the evolution of the compact spectrometers market towards widespread industrial use and consumer applications. Presently, the main market of compact spectrometers remains academic labs. However, they have been adopted on some industrial applications such as optical source characterization (mainly laser and LEDs). In a near future, manufacturers of compact spectrometers target the following industrial applications: agriculture crop monitoring, food process control or pharmaceuticals quality control. Next steps will be to get closer to the consumer market with point-of-care applications such as glucose detection for diabetics, for example. To reach these objectives, technological breakthroughs will be necessary. Recent progresses have already allowed the release of micro-spectrometers. They take advantage of new micro-technologies such as MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems), micro-mirrors arrays to reduce cost and size while allowing good performance and high volume manufacturability. Integrated photonics is being investigated for future developments. It will also require new business models and new market approaches. Indeed, spreading spectroscopy to more industrial and consumer applications will require spectrometers manufacturers to get closer to the end-users and develop application-oriented products.

  2. Direct Chemical Analysis of Solids by Laser Ablation in an Ion-Storage Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Klunder, G L; Grant, P M; Andresen, B D; Russo, R E

    2003-09-29

    A laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer system is described for the direct analysis of solids, particles, and fibers. The system uses a quadrupole ion trap operated in an ion-storage (IS) mode, coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The sample is inserted radially into the ring electrode and an imaging system allows direct viewing and selected analysis of the sample. Measurements identified trace contaminants of Ag, Sn, and Sb in a Pb target with single laser-shot experiments. Resolution (m/{micro}m) of 1500 and detection limits of approximately 10 pg have been achieved with a single laser pulse. The system configuration and related operating principles for accurately measuring low concentrations of isotopes are described.

  3. A global thermospheric model based on mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter data MSIS. I - N2 density and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Reber, C. A.; Newton, G. P.; Spencer, N. W.; Salah, J. E.; Evans, J. V.; Kayser, D. C.; Alcayde, D.; Bauer, P.; Cogger, L.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of neutral nitrogen density from mass spectrometers on five satellites (AE-B, Ogo 6, San Marco 3, Aeros A, and AE-C) and neutral temperatures inferred from incoherent scatter measurements at four ground stations are combined to produce a model of thermospheric neutral temperatures and nitrogen densities similar to the Ogo 6 empirical model (Hedin et al., 1974). This global model is designated MSIS (mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter). The global average temperature, the annual temperature variation, lower bound density, and lower bound temperature are discussed. The data set covers the time period from the end of 1965 to mid-1975 and also a wide range of solar activities. Diurnal and semidiurnal variations in lower bound density and temperature are considered, as is magnetic activity.

  4. Study on volatilization mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide from nitrosyl ruthenium nitrate by using mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In a cooling malfunction accident of a high-level liquid waste (HLLW) tank, behavior of ruthenium (Ru) attracts much attention, since Ru could be oxidized to a volatile chemical form in the boiling and drying of HLLW, and part of radioactive Ru can potentially be released to the environment. In this study, nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO3)3) dissolved in nitric acid (HNO3), which is commonly contained in a simulated HLLW, was dried and heated up to 723 K, and the evolved gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer. The well-known volatile species, ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) was detected in a temperature range between 390 K and 500 K with the peak top around 440 K. Various gases such as HNO3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO) also evolved due to evaporation of the nitric acid and decomposition of the nitrate ions. The ion current of RuO4 seems to increase with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO3 decreases. More volatilization of RuO4 was observed from the HNO3 solution containing not only Ru(NO)(NO3)3 but also cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) which was added for extra supply of nitrate ion, compared with that from the HNO3 solution containing only Ru(NO)(NO3)3. These experimental results suggest that Ru could be oxidized to form RuO4 by the nitrate ion as well as HNO3.

  5. Establishing and monitoring an aseptic workspace for building the MOMA mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Berlin, David

    2016-09-01

    Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is an instrument suite on the European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars 2020 Rover, and the Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS) is being built at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MOMA-MS is a life-detection instrument and thus falls in the most stringent category of Planetary Protection (PP) biological cleanliness requirements. Less than 0.03 spore/m2 are allowed in the instrument sample path. In order to meet these PP requirements, MOMA-MS must be built and maintained in a low bioburden environment. The MOMA-MS project at GSFC maintains three clean rooms with varying levels of bioburden control. The Aseptic Assembly Clean room has the highest level of control, applying three different bioburden reducing methods: 70% Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA), 7.5% Hydrogen Peroxide, and Ultra-Violet C (UVC) light. The three methods are used in rotation and each kills microorganisms by a different mechanism, reducing the likelihood of microorganisms developing resistance to all three. The Integration and Mars Chamber Clean rooms use less biocidal cleaning, with the option to deploy extra techniques as necessary. To support the monitoring of clean rooms and verification that MOMA-MS hardware meets PP requirements, a new Planetary Protection lab was established that currently has the capabilities of standard growth assays for spore or vegetative bacteria, rapid bioburden analysis that detects Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), plus autoclave and Dry Heat microbial Reduction (DHMR) verification. The clean rooms are monitored for vegetative microorganisms and by rapid ATP assay, and a clear difference in bioburden is observed between the aseptic and other clean room.

  6. Establishing and Monitoring an Aseptic Workspace for Building the MOMA Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Berlin, David

    2016-01-01

    Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is an instrument suite on the European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars 2020 Rover, and the Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS) is being built at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MOMA-MS is a life-detection instrument and thus falls in the most stringent category of Planetary Protection (PP) biological cleanliness requirements. Less than 0.03 spore/m2 are allowed in the instrument sample path. In order to meet these PP requirements, MOMA-MS must be built and maintained in a low bioburden environment. The MOMA-MS project at GSFC maintains three clean rooms with varying levels of bioburden control. The Aseptic Assembly Clean room has the highest level of control, applying three different bioburden reducing methods: 70% Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA), 7.5% Hydrogen Peroxide, and Ultra-Violet C (UVC) light. The three methods are used in rotation and each kills microorganisms by a different mechanism, reducing the likelihood of microorganisms developing resistance to all three. The Integration and Mars Chamber Clean rooms use less biocidal cleaning, with the option to deploy extra techniques as necessary. To support the monitoring of clean rooms and verification that MOMA-MS hardware meets PP requirements, a new Planetary Protection lab was established that currently has the capabilities of standard growth assays for spore or vegetative bacteria, rapid bioburden analysis that detects Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), plus autoclave and Dry Heat microbial Reduction (DHMR) verification. The clean rooms are monitored for vegetative microorganisms and by rapid ATP assay, and a clear difference in bioburden is observed between the aseptic and other clean room.

  7. Development of Soft Ionization for Particulate Organic Detection with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Trimborn, A; Williams, L R; Jayne, J T; Worsnop, D R

    2008-06-19

    During this DOE SBIR Phase II project, we have successfully developed several soft ionization techniques, i.e., ionization schemes which involve less fragmentation of the ions, for use with the Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS). Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization was demonstrated in the laboratory and deployed in field campaigns. Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization allows better identification of organic species in aerosol particles as shown in laboratory experiments on single component particles, and in field measurements on complex multi-component particles. Dissociative electron attachment with lower energy electrons (less than 30 eV) was demonstrated in the measurement of particulate organics in chamber experiments in Switzerland, and is now a routine approach with AMS systems configured for bipolar, negative ion detection. This technique is particularly powerful for detection of acidic and other highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) chemical functionality. Low energy electron ionization (10 to 12 eV) is also a softer ionization approach routinely available to AMS users. Finally, Lithium ion attachment has been shown to be sensitive to more alkyl-like chemical functionality in SOA. Results from Mexico City are particularly exciting in observing changes in SOA molecular composition under different photochemical/meteorological conditions. More recent results detecting biomass burns at the Montana fire lab have demonstrated quantitative and selective detection of levoglucosan. These soft ionization techniques provide the ToF-AMS with better capability for identifying organic species in ambient atmospheric aerosol particles. This, in turn, will allow more detailed study of the sources, transformations and fate of organic-containing aerosol.

  8. Establishing and Monitoring an Aseptic Workspace for Building the MOMA Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalime, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is an instrument suite on the ESA ExoMars 2018 Rover, and the Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS) is being built at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). As MOMA-MS is a life-detection instrument and it thus falls in the most stringent category of Planetary Protection (PP) biological cleanliness requirements. Less than 0.03 sporem2 is allowed in the instrument sample path. In order to meet these PP requirements, MOMA-MS must be built and maintained in a low bioburden environment. The MOMA-MS project at GSFC maintains three cleanrooms with varying levels of bioburden control. The Aseptic Assembly Cleanroom has the highest level of control, applying three different bioburden reducing methods: 70 IPA, 7.5 Hydrogen Peroxide, and Ultra-Violet C light. The three methods are used in rotation and each kills microbes by a different mechanism, reducing the likelihood of microorganisms developing resistance to all three. The Integration and Mars Chamber Cleanrooms use less biocidal cleaning, with the option to deploy extra techniques as necessary. To support the monitoring of cleanrooms and verification that MOMA-MS hardware meets PP requirements, a new Planetary Protection lab was established that currently has the capabilities of standard growth assays for spore or vegetative bacteria, rapid bioburden analysis that detects Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), plus autoclave and DHMR verification. The cleanrooms are monitored both for vegetative microorganisms and by rapid ATP assay, and a clear difference in bioburden is observed between the aseptic the other cleanroom.

  9. Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

    2014-11-19

    We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

  10. Reevaluated martian atmospheric mixing ratios from the mass spectrometer on the Curiosity rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Heather B.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Wong, Michael H.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Manning, Heidi L. K.; Stern, Jennifer C.

    2015-05-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is a miniature geochemical laboratory designed to analyze martian atmospheric gases as well as volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials (Mahaffy et al., 2012). SAM began sampling the martian atmosphere to measure its chemical and isotopic composition shortly after Curiosity landed in Mars' Gale Crater in August 2012 (Mahaffy et al., 2013). Analytical methods and constants required for atmospheric measurements with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) were provided in a previous contribution (Franz et al., 2014). Review of results obtained through application of these constants to repeated analyses over a full martian year and supporting studies with laboratory instruments offer new insights into QMS performance that allow refinement of the calibration constants and critical reassessment of their estimated uncertainties. This report describes the findings of these studies, provides updated calibration constants for atmospheric analyses with the SAM QMS, and compares volume mixing ratios for the martian atmosphere retrieved with the revised constants to those initially reported (Mahaffy et al., 2013). Sufficient confidence is enabled by the extended data set to support calculation of precise abundances for CO rather than an upper limit. Reanalysis of data acquired on mission sols 45 and 77 (at solar longitudes of 175° and 193°, respectively) with the revised constants leads to the following average volume mixing ratios: CO2 0.957(±0.016), N2 0.0203(±0.0003), Ar 0.0207(±0.0002), O2 1.73(±0.06)×10-3, CO 7.49(±0.026)×10-4.

  11. On-line monitoring of control rod integrity in BWRs using a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, I.; Loner, H.; Ammon, K.; Sihver, L.; Ledergerber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of fuel and control rod integrity in the core of a boiling water reactor is essential for maintaining a safe and reliable operation. Control rods of a boiling water reactor are mainly filled with boron carbide as a neutron absorber. Due to the irradiation of boron with neutrons, a continuous production of lithium and helium will occur inside a control rod. Most of the created helium will be retained in the boron carbide lattice; however a small part will escape into the void volume of the control blade. Therefore the integrity of control rods during operation can efficiently be followed by on-line measurements of helium concentration in the reactor off-gas system using a mass spectrometer. Since helium is a fill gas in fuel rods, the same method is a useful early warning system for primary fuel failures. In this paper, we introduce an on-line helium detector system which is installed at the nuclear power plant in Leibstadt. Furthermore the measuring experiences of control rod failure detection at the plant are presented. Different causes of increased helium levels in the off-gas system have been distinguished. There are spontaneous helium releases as well as helium releases caused by changed conditions in the reactor (power reduction, control rod movement, etc.). Helium peaks can also be characterized according to the released amount of helium, the peak shape and the duration of the release, which leads to different interpretations of the release mechanisms. In addition, the measured amount of released helium from a 50 days period (280 l) is also compared to the calculated amount of produced helium from the washed out boron during the same time period (190 l).

  12. From carbon to actinides: A new universal 1MV accelerator mass spectrometer at ANSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Hotchkis, M.; Levchenko, V.; Fink, D.; Hauser, T.; Kitchen, R.

    2015-10-01

    A new 1 MV NEC pelletron AMS system at ANSTO is presented. The spectrometer comprises large radius magnets for actinide measurements. A novel feature of the system is fast switching between isotopes both at low and high energy sections allowing measurements of up to 8 isotopes within a single sequence. Technical details and layout of the spectrometer is presented. Performance data for 14C, 10Be, 26Al and actinides demonstrate the system is ready for routine AMS measurements.

  13. Performance of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Investigation on the 2018 Exomars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Pinnick, Veronica T.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Danell, Ryan M.; Li, Xiang; Getty, Stephanie; Hovmand, Lars; Atanassova, Martina; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Chu, Zhiping; Goesmann, Fred; Steininger, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from degradation derived from cosmic radiation and/or oxidative chemical reactions. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. The MOMA investigation is led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) with the mass spectrometer subsystem provided by NASA GSFC. MOMA's linear ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is designed to analyze molecular composition of: (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated in a gas chromatograph; and, (ii) ions directly desorbed from crushed solid samples at Mars ambient pressure, as enabled by a pulsed UV laser system, fast-actuating aperture valve and capillary ion inlet. Breadboard ITMS and associated electronics have been advanced to high end-to-end fidelity in preparation for flight hardware delivery to Germany in 2015.

  14. Observation of Accumulated Metal Cation Distribution in Fish by Novel Stigmatic Imaging Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Jun; Ikeda, Shinichiro; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of radioactive substances in biological organisms is a matter of great concern since the incident at the nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan. We have developed a novel technique for observing the distribution of accumulated metal cations in fish that employs a new imaging mass spectrometer, MULTUM-IMG2. Distributions of 133Cs and 88Sr in a sliced section of medaka (Oryzias latipes) are obtained with spatial resolution of µm-scale.

  15. A Programmable Control Unit for a Balloon-Borne Mass Spectrometer Based on Intel 8085A Microprocessor,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-07

    his initial suggestions of the system, and Ralzaundas Sukys of Northeastern University for his advice and help with the hardware portion of the thesis...October 1978 F19628-78-C-0218 18 September 1978 through present Sukys , R. and Goldberg, S. (1974),"Control Circuits for a Rocket Payload Neutralization...the Project EXCEDE: SWIR Experiment," AFGL-TR-76-200. Rochefort, J. S. and Sukys , R. (1976), "Instrumentation Systems for Mass Spectrometers", AFGL-TR

  16. Development of an Ion Mass Spectrometer and Sounding Rocket System for D-Region Cluster-Ion Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-27

    IbM. DI NbOl Preface The preparation of this report was possible only because of the manifold extra contributions of the following: R. Sukys ...is to assure tracking of their ratios as a function of environment. Corning CYR glass capacitors are specified. 8. Rochefort, J.S., and Sukys , R. (1978...A Digital Control Unit for a Rocket- borne Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer, AFGL-TR-78-0106, ADA 057251. 9. Rochefort, J. S., and Sukys , R. (1978

  17. A Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the Exocube Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Paschalidis, N.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Demand is high for in situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, not only for studies of the dynamic ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system but simply to define the steady state background atmospheric conditions. The ExoCube mission is designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and [H+], [He+], [O+] in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar ground stations distributed in the north polar region. The Heliophysic Division of GSFC has developed a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2 with M/dM of approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-50eV. The INMS is based on front end optics, post acceleration, gated time of flight, ESA and CEM or MCP detectors. The compact sensor has a dual symmetric configuration with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The neutral front end optics includes thermionic emission ionization and ion blocking grids, and the ion front end optics includes spacecraft potential compensation grids. The electronics include front end, fast gating, HVPS, ionizer, TOF binning and full bi directional C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded as fast as 10 msec per frame (corresponding to ~80 m spatial separation) in burst mode, and has significant onboard storage capability and data compression scheme. Experimental data from instrument testing with both ions and neutrals will be presented. The instrument is successfully integrated in the CubeSat and passed vibration, thermal and shock testing. The ExoCube mission is scheduled to fly in Nov 2014 in a 445 x 670 km polar orbit with the INMS aperture oriented in the ram direction. This miniaturized instrument (1

  18. Phoenix Lander's Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer: Differential Scanning Calorimeter and Mass Spectrometer Database Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Lauer, H. V.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Scout Phoenix lander will land in the north polar region of Mars in May, 2008. One objective of the Phoenix lander is to search for evidence of past life in the form of molecular organics that may be preserved in the subsurface soil. The Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was developed to detect these organics by coupling a simultaneous differential thermal analyzer (SDTA) with a mass spectrometer. Martian soil will be heated to approx.1000 C and potential organic decomposition products such as CO2, CH4 etc. will be examined for with the MS. TEGA s SDTA will also assess the presence of endothermic and exothermic reactions that are characteristic of soil organics and minerals as the soil is heated. The MS in addition to detecting organic decompositon products, will also assess the levels of soil inorganic volatiles such as H2O, SO2, and CO2. Organic detection has a high priority for this mission; however, TEGA has the ability to provide valuable insight into the mineralogical composition of the soil. The overall goal of this work is to develop a TEGA database of minerals that will serve as a reference for the interpretation of Phoenix-TEGA. Previous databases for the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander (MPL)-TEGA instrument only went to 725 C. Furthermore, the MPL-TEGA could only detect CO2 and H2O while the Phoenix-TEGA MS can examine up to 144 atomic mass units. The higher temperature Phoenix-TEGA SDTA coupled with the more capable MS indicates that a higher temperature database is required for TEGA interpretation. The overall goal of this work is to develop a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) database of minerals along with corresponding MS data of evolved gases that can used to interpret TEGA data during and after mission operations. While SDTA and DSC measurement techniques are slightly different (SDTA does not use a reference pan), the results are fundamentally similar and thus DSC is a useful technique in providing comparative data for the TEGA

  19. Infrared ion spectroscopy in a modified quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer at the FELIX free electron laser laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Jonathan; Berden, Giel; Gebhardt, Christoph R.; Oomens, Jos

    2016-10-01

    We report on modifications made to a Paul-type quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and discuss its application in infrared ion spectroscopy experiments. Main modifications involve optical access to the trapped ions and hardware and software coupling to a variety of infrared laser sources at the FELIX infrared free electron laser laboratory. In comparison to previously described infrared ion spectroscopy experiments at the FELIX laboratory, we find significant improvements in efficiency and sensitivity. Effects of the trapping conditions of the ions on the IR multiple photon dissociation spectra are explored. Enhanced photo-dissociation is found at lower pressures in the ion trap. Spectra obtained under reduced pressure conditions are found to more closely mimic those obtained in the high-vacuum conditions of an Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. A gas-mixing system is described enabling the controlled addition of a secondary gas into helium buffer gas flowing into the trap and allows for ion/molecule reactions in the trap. The electron transfer dissociation (ETD) option of the mass spectrometer allows for IR structure characterization of ETD-generated peptide dissociation products.

  20. In situ quantification and tracking of volatile organic compounds with a portable mass spectrometer in tropical waste and urban sites.

    PubMed

    Plocoste, Thomas; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra; Petit, Rose-Helen; Molinié, Jack; Roussas, André

    2016-11-24

    This study outlines an experimental method for landfill volatile organic compounds (VOCs) characterization by means of a portable time-of-flight mass spectrometer in an insular tropical environment. The concentrations of six VOCs, three aromatic and three chlorinated compounds, frequently identified in landfill gas plume were determined in the main municipal solid waste of Guadeloupe archipelago and its surrounding areas (in the Leeward Islands). Measurements were carried out for various stages of waste degradation. Without mechanical forcing on the waste piles, the results for aromatic and chlorinated compounds showed much higher concentrations at covered waste. Benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene were easily detected by the portable mass spectrometer in the air matrix with concentrations significantly greater than the equipment limit of detection (LOD) estimates. Trichloroethylene is not often measured by the mass spectrometer and very few calculated concentrations reach the instrument LOD. For sites near the landfill, using the sum trichloroethylene + tetrachlororethylene as tracer, it was observed that the most affected locations are under the wind of the landfill plume. Moreover, under certain atmospheric conditions, most of the surrounding area, downwind and upwind, can undergo an increase of the tracer concentration levels, as shown in the paper during a dust outbreak.

  1. Development of a Low Power Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer for In-Situ Detection of Organics in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinnick, Veronica; Buch, Arnaud; VanAmerom, Friso H. W.; Danell, Ryan M.; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Cotter, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a joint venture by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop a sensitive, light-weight, low-power mass spectrometer for chemical analysis on Mars. MOMA is a key analytical instrument aboard the 2018 ExoMars rover mission seeking signs of past or present life. The current prototype was built to demonstrate operation of gas chromatography (OC) and laser desorption (LD) mass spectrometry under martian ambient conditions (5-7 Torr of CO2-rich atmosphere). Recent reports have discussed the MO MA concept, design and performance. Here, we update the current prototype performance, focusing specifically on the GCMS mode.

  2. Role of gas-surface interactions in the reduction of Ogo 6 neutral particle mass spectrometer data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Hinton, B. B.; Schmitt, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Data obtained with the quadrupole mass spectrometer aboard the Ogo 6 satellite show the effects of significant surface interaction processes, including nearly complete recombination of incoming atomic oxygen on the walls of the instrument antechamber plus adsorption and desorption of oxygen and carbon monoxide. The observed data are fit by solving the time-dependent continuity equations accounting for production and loss of atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and (in the case of mass 28) carbon monoxide. The surface parameters that best fit the data are selected and applied to the determination of ambient densities and their estimated errors.

  3. Semiquantitative multielemental analysis of biological samples by a laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lizhi; Lin, Lin; Yu, Quan; Yan, Xiaomei; Hang, Wei; He, Jian; Huang, Benli

    2009-07-01

    Semiquantitative multielemental analyses of biological samples (tea leaf standard, Laminaria japonica, and pig skin) were demonstrated with a newly developed laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LI-O-TOFMS). The sample was directly ablated and ionized with high irradiance after simple sample preparation. Relative sensitivity coefficients (RSC) were calculated and evaluated for sensitivity differences. Due to the employment of a collisional cooling device and the orthogonal geometry of the TOF system, high resolving power can be obtained, such that elemental peaks and interferential peaks with the same nominal mass can be distinguished. The detection limit of microg g(-1) levels can be commonly achieved for elemental determination.

  4. Design of a new multi-turn ion optical system 'IRIS' for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Masaru; Ueno, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Michisato; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2009-05-01

    A new multi-turn ion optical system 'IRIS' has been designed for use with a high-performance time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, which satisfies the new design concepts of time focusing and phase space stability. It has an elliptical flight path composed of four toroidal electric sectors, with a flight path length for one lap of 0.974 m. Dimensions and voltages of sector electrodes have been optimized to satisfy theoretical requirements by simulations using surface charge method. Generally, multi-turn instruments require an injection and ejection system to inject and eject ions. On the basis of this ion optical study, we have designed an injection and ejection ion optical system, which achieves time focusing for the total system. Furthermore, we have designed novel field-adjusting electrodes (FAEs) for the perforated sectors in the injection and ejection systems, which accurately correct the electric potential around the perforated sector's hole. We have also used simulations to evaluate mass resolving power and ion transmissions for various lap numbers or flight path lengths. Through these we have confirmed that mass resolving powers of over 100,000 can be achieved with reasonable ion transmissions for a given set of initial conditions. Usually a multi-turn TOF mass spectrometer with a closed optic axis has mass range limitations from overtaking ions. To solve this problem, a TOF segmentation method is proposed that identifies all peaks in a TOF spectrum, including those from overtaking ions.

  5. PILGRIM, a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Spiral2-S3 at GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauveau, P.; Delahaye, P.; De France, G.; El Abir, S.; Lory, J.; Merrer, Y.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Wolf, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    PILGRIM is a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer currently under development at GANIL for the S3 (Super Separator Spectrometer) collaboration and dedicated to the study of the ground-state properties of exotic nuclei. MR-ToF devices have proven to be effective tools for isobar separation (with mass resolving powers in excess of 105) and high-precision mass measurements (relative mass uncertainty down to a few 10-7) within a few tens of milliseconds. These features make them extremely interesting for ensuring beam purity and accurate mass determinations of very exotic, short lived nuclei. PILGRIM is to be set up in the future low energy branch of the S3-Spiral2 project and may also be used as a beam purifier in front of the double Penning trap PIPERADE at DESIR-Spiral2. An electrostatic 90 degree quadrupole deflector to be placed between an RFQ cooler-buncher (for beam preparation) and PILGRIM is also under study. The study on the deflector focuses on conserving the beam features, especially the time-of-flight spread of the ion bunches which has a direct impact on the resolving power of a multi-reflection device.

  6. Aerosol mass spectrometer for the in situ analysis of chemical vapor synthesis processes in hot wall reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Kyum; Winterer, Markus

    2005-09-01

    We present a modified aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) for the in situ analysis of chemical vapor synthesis processes in hot wall reactors and describe the transfer function of the velocity and kinetic-energy measurement. The AMS is a combination of a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and a particle mass spectrometer (PMS) and enables the in situ analysis of aerosols with high number concentrations up to 1018m-3. Size distributions of ultrafine particles in the range of 104-107u (amu) can be measured in the PMS. Simultaneously, molecular species up to 300u can be detected in the QMS. In the setup described here a furnace was developed to enable measurement directly at the reactor exit. The formation of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of tetramethylsilane (TMS) was investigated. TMS started to decompose at about 900K and carbosilanes with two [-Si-C-] units were identified as growth species in the synthesis of SiC from TMS. With increasing temperatures particles were formed and grew by coagulation. At higher temperatures sintering of the particles became an important process. Although the particle mass reduced slightly due to a smaller residence time at higher temperatures in the reactor, the particle velocity in the molecular beam of the AMS decreased significantly. A simple model is used to compare the particle velocity in a molecular beam as a function of particle mass. The significant difference in the particle velocity can be explained by a change in the particle shape factor (κp) due to sintering.

  7. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-15

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  8. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Nam, U. W.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  9. Development of advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing a large area segmented proportional counter for KSTAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, S G; Bak, J G; Nam, U W; Moon, M K; Cheon, J K

    2007-06-01

    An advanced x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for KSTAR tokamak has been developed by utilizing a segmented two dimensional (2D) position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter. The XICS for the KSTAR tokamak provides time-resolved measurements of the radial ion and electron temperature profiles, toroidal plasma rotation velocity, and ionization equilibrium. The segmented 2D detector with delay-line readout and supporting electronics has been adopted to improve the photon count rate capability. The current fabrication status of the XICS for the KSTAR tokamak and the first performance test results of the prototype segmented 2D detector are presented.

  10. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z Q; Chen, Z J; Xie, X F; Peng, X Y; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Zhang, X; Yuan, X; Xia, Z W; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Fan, T S; Chen, J X; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  11. Sensitivity and fragmentation calibration of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer RTOF on board ESA's Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasc, Sébastien; Altwegg, Kathrin; Jäckel, Annette; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin; Fiethe, Björn; Mall, Urs; Rème, Henri

    2014-05-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission will rendez-vous comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in September 2014. The Rosetta spacecraft with the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) onboard will follow and survey 67P for more than a year until the comet reaches its perihelion and beyond. ROSINA will provide new information on the global molecular, elemental, and isotopic composition of the coma [1]. ROSINA consists of a pressure sensor (COPS) and two mass spectrometers, the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) and the Reflectron Time Of Flight mass spectrometer (RTOF). RTOF has a wide mass range, from 1 amu/e to >300 amu/e, and contains two ion sources, a reflectron and two detectors. The two ion sources, the orthogonal and the storage source, are capable to measure cometary ions while the latter also allows measuring cometary neutral gas. In neutral gas mode the ionization is performed through electron impact. A built-in Gas Calibration Unit (GCU) contains a known gas mixture composed of He, CO2, and Kr that can be used for in-flight calibration of the instrument. Among other ROSINA specific scientific goals, RTOF's task will be to determine molecular composition of volatiles via measuring and separating heavy hydrocarbons; it has been designed to study the development of the cometary activity as well as the coma chemistry between 3.5 AU and perihelion. From the spectroscopic studies and in-situ observations of other comets, we expect to find molecules such as H2O, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, alcohols, formaldehyde, and other organic compounds in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko [2]. To demonstrate and quantify the sensitivity and functionality of RTOF, calibration measurements have been realized with more than 20 species among the most abundant molecules quoted above, as well as other species such as PAHs. We will describe the applied methods used to realize this calibration and will discuss our preliminary results, i

  12. Investigating ion-surface collisions with a niobium superconducting tunnel junction detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Westmacott, G.; Zhong, F.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, S.; Labov, S.; Benner, W.H.

    1999-12-01

    The performance of an energy sensitive, niobium superconducting tunnel junction detector is investigated by measuring the pulse height produced by impacting molecular and atomic ions at different kinetic energies. Ions are produced by laser resorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results show that the STJ detector pulse height decreases for increasing molecular ion mass, passes through a minimum at around 2000 Da, and the increases with increasing mass of molecular ions above 2000Da. The detector does not show a decline in sensitivity for high mass ions as is observed with microchannel plate ion detectors. These detector plus height measurements are discussed in terms of several physical mechanisms involved in an ion-surface collision.

  13. ECD of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer with a Radio-Frequency-Free Electromagnetostatic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, Valery G.; Bennett, Samuel E.; Beckman, Joseph S.; Barofsky, Douglas F.

    2014-10-01

    A radio frequency-free electromagnetostatic (EMS) cell devised for electron-capture dissociation (ECD) of ions has been retrofitted into the collision-induced dissociation (CID) section of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to enable recording of ECD product-ion mass spectra and simultaneous recording of ECD-CID product-ion mass spectra. This modified instrument can be used to produce easily interpretable ECD and ECD-CID product-ion mass spectra of tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides that cover over 50% of their respective amino-acid sequences and readily identify their respective sites of phosphorylation. ECD fragmentation of doubly protonated, tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides, which was difficult to observe with FT-ICR instruments, occurs efficiently in the EMS cell.

  14. Sensitivity and fragmentation calibration of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer RTOF on board ESA's Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasc, Sébastien; Altwegg, Kathrin; Fiethe, Björn; Jäckel, Annette; Korth, Axel; Le Roy, Léna; Mall, Urs; Rème, Henri; Rubin, Martin; Hunter Waite, J.; Wurz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, with the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) onboard, has been following and observing comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since summer 2014. Prior to this period, and due to a technical failure also during this period, optimization and calibration campaigns have been conducted on ground with the Reflectron-type Time Of Flight (RTOF) mass spectrometer as a preparatory work for the analysis of data recorded during the science phase of the mission. In this work, we show the evolution of the performance of RTOF, and demonstrate and quantify the sensitivity and functionality of RTOF onboard Rosetta. We also present a fragmentation and sensitivity database for the most abundant molecules observed around the comet such as H2O, CO, CO2, as well as the noble gases.

  15. The Thermo Scientific HELIX-SFT noble gas mass spectrometer: (preliminary) performance for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, D. N.; Mark, D. F.; Morgan, L. E.; Tomkinson, T.; Stuart, F.; Imlach, J.; Hamilton, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Thermo Scientific HELIX-platform Split Flight Tube (HELIX-SFT) noble gas mass spectrometer is specifically designed for simultaneous collection of helium isotopes. The high mass spur houses a switchable 1011 - 1012 Ω resistor Faraday cup and the low mass spur a digital pulse-counting secondary electron multiplier (SEM). We have acquired the HELIX-SFT with the specific intention to measure argon isotopes for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. This contribution will discuss preliminary performance (resolution, reproducibility, precision etc.) with respect to measuring argon isotope ratios for 40Ar/39Ar dating of geological materials. We anticipate the greatest impact for 40Ar/39Ar dating will be increased accuracy and precision, especially as we approach the techniques younger limit. Working with Thermo Scientific we have subtly modified the source, alpha and collector slits of the HELIX-SFT mass spectrometer to improve its resolution for resolving isobaric interferences at masses 36 to 40. The enhanced performance will allow for accurate and precise measurement of argon isotopes. Preliminary investigations show that we can obtain a valley resolution of >700 and >1300 (compared to standard HELIX-SFT specifications of >400 and >700) for the high and low mass spurs, respectively. The improvement allows for full resolution of hydrocarbons (C3+) at masses 37 - 40 and almost full resolution at mass 36. The HELIX-SFT will collect data in dual collection mode with 40Ar+ ion beams measured using the switchable 1011 - 1012 Ω resistor Faraday cup and 39Ar through 36Ar measured using the SEM. The HELIX-SFT requires Faraday-SEM inter-calibration but negates the necessity to inter-calibrate multiple electron multipliers. We will further present preliminary data from the dating of mineral standards: Alder Creek sanidine, Fish Canyon sanidine and Mount Dromedary biotite (GA1550).

  16. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  17. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) are reported. The High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS obtained measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions from mass 12 to 32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus. Plasma parameters from the High Intensity Spectrometer (HIS) of the IMS obtained between 150,000 to 5000 km from the nucleus are also discussed. The distribution functions of water group ions (water group will be used to refer to ions of 16 to 18 m/q, where m is in AMU and q is in unit charges) are observed to be spherically symmetric in velocity space, indicating strong pitch angle scattering. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. HERS observations show no significant change in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. A comparison of the observations to an MHD model is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations. However, despite the agreement in flow direction, within 200,000 km of the nucleus the magnitude of the velocity is lower than predicted by the MHD model and the density is much larger (a factor of 4). Within 30,000 km of the nucleus there are large theoretical differences between the MHD model flow calculations for the plane containing the magnetic field and for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observations agreed much better with the pattern calculated for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The data obtained by the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS that are published herein were provided to the International Halley Watch archive.

  18. Continuation of data analysis from the ion mass spectrometer on the ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrometer measures the composition and number density of the positive ion species in the ionosphere as well as the ion flux normal to the spacecraft trajectory. The measurement of high latitude ionospheric dynamics is reported. Plans for an empirical composition model of the polar ionosphere at 1400 km altitude consisting of maps of the major constituent are also reported.

  19. Detection and characterization of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides in oxidized LDL and oxidized HDL by use of an Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hui, Shu-Ping; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Ohkawa, Futaba; Furumaki, Hiroaki; Jin, Shigeki; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Takeda, Seiji; Kurosawa, Takao; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2012-07-01

    Oxidation of cholesteryl esters in lipoproteins by reactive oxygen species yields cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides (CEOOH). In this study, we developed a novel method for identification and characterization of CEOOH molecules in human lipoproteins by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography with an hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LC-LTQ Orbitrap). Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis was performed in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Identification of CEOOH molecules was completed by use of high-mass-accuracy (MA) mass spectrometric data obtained by using the spectrometer in Fourier-transform (FT) mode. Native low-density lipoproteins (nLDL) and native high-density lipoproteins (nHDL) from a healthy donor were oxidized by CuSO(4), furnishing oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and oxidized HDL (oxHDL). No CEOOH molecules were detected in the nLDL and the nHDL, whereas six CEOOH molecules were detected in the oxLDL and the oxHDL. In positive-ion mode, CEOOH was detected as [M + NH(4)](+) and [M + Na](+) ions. In negative-ion mode, CEOOH was detected as [M + CH(3)COO](-) ions. CEOOH were more easily ionized in positive-ion mode than in negative-ion mode. The LC-LTQ Orbitrap method was applied to human plasma and six species of CEOOH were detected. The limit of detection was 0.1 pmol (S/N = 5:1) for synthesized CEOOH.

  20. Construction of a wireless communication contact closure system for liquid chromatography with multiple parallel mass spectrometers and other detectors.

    PubMed

    Byrdwell, William Craig

    2014-10-01

    A contact closure system was constructed that uses two contact closure sender boards that communicate wirelessly to four contact closure receiver boards to distribute start signals from two or three liquid chromatographs to 14 instruments, pumps, detectors, or other components. Default high, closed low, TTL logic (5-volt) start signals from two autosamplers are converted to simple contacts by powered relay boards that are then connected to two 16-channel wireless contact closure sender boards. The contact closure signals from the two sender boards are transmitted wirelessly to two pairs of eight-channel receiver boards (total of 32 contact signals) that distribute the start signal to 14 switches that allow selection of which start signal is sent to which instrument, pump, or detector. The contact closure system is used for quadruple parallel mass spectrometry experiments in which four mass spectrometers, using three different atmospheric pressure ionization modes, plus a UV detector, an evaporative light-scattering detector, a corona charged aerosol detector, and two syringe pumps supplying electrolyte, are all synchronized to start simultaneously. A wide variety of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments using multiple liquid chromatographs and mass spectrometers simultaneously, LCx/MSy, including column-switching experiments, can be reconfigured simply by toggling switches.

  1. Following the Ions through a Mass Spectrometer with Atmospheric Pressure Interface: Simulation of Complete Ion Trajectories from Ion Source to Mass Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2016-07-19

    Ion trajectory simulation is an important and useful tool in instrumentation development for mass spectrometry. Accurate simulation of the ion motion through the mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure ionization source has been extremely challenging, due to the complexity in gas hydrodynamic flow field across a wide pressure range as well as the computational burden. In this study, we developed a method of generating the gas flow field for an entire mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure interface. In combination with the electric force, for the first time simulation of ion trajectories from an atmospheric pressure ion source to a mass analyzer in vacuum has been enabled. A stage-by-stage ion repopulation method has also been implemented for the simulation, which helped to avoid an intolerable computational burden for simulations at high pressure regions while it allowed statistically meaningful results obtained for the mass analyzer. It has been demonstrated to be suitable to identify a joint point for combining the high and low pressure fields solved individually. Experimental characterization has also been done to validate the new method for simulation. Good agreement was obtained between simulated and experimental results for ion transfer though an atmospheric pressure interface with a curtain gas.

  2. A Rocket-Borne Axially Sampling Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, E. A.; Syrstad, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have previously reported results from modeling and simulation efforts and preliminary laboratory testing for a new rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct, in-situ measurements in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region of Earth's atmosphere. Mass spectrometry in the MLT is difficult, mainly due to the high ambient pressures in the MLT and also the high speeds and short flight durations of sounding rocket missions. In particular, TOF-MS has rarely been applied to the MLT, owing to the dependence of this MS technique on high acceleration voltages and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. To overcome these obstacles, the TOF-MS relies on a pressure tolerant MCP as well as modest acceleration potentials (100 V - 300 V). The TOF-MS is adaptable and vacuum requirements can be met by several options, including an innovative design using an inexpensive barium getter tube system, mechanical pumping system, or a cryogenic pumping system. This presentation highlights results from laboratory testing of a prototype TOF-MS instrument, demonstrating the ability of the TOF-MS to survive and operate in the challenging MLT region. MCP's have traditionally required vacuum conditions of 10-6 torr or better for operation. We have rigorously tested the effects of pressure on the MCP detector used in the TOF-MS under backfills of gases including He, Ar, N2, and lab air, at pressures extending into the 10-2 torr range. We have also tested the effect of humidity on MCP performance. Discharge events were also tracked. These experiments demonstrate the ability of the MCP detector to perform under the high pressure conditions likely to be encountered on a sounding rocket in the MLT. Additionally, optimal operating parameters for the laboratory prototype TOF-MS have been experimentally determined and applied to study the effects of pressure on the resolution and SNR of mass spectra taken with the TOF-MS. The TOF-MS has successfully operated with internal

  3. Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum

  4. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  5. Development of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with an ion-attachment method for multicomponent gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaya, Kazunari; Takahashi, Karin; Deguchi, Yuri; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    We developed a new mass spectrometer that can analyse multicomponent gases without fragmentation. This is essentially a time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyser in which the ion attachment method is used for ionisation. The method using this new device is referred to as “time-of-flight analysis in combination with ion-attachment” (TOFIA). TOFIA has the capability to analyse breath gas in about 10 min using the radio-frequency (RF) ion-guiding method and a multichannel scaler (MCS). The mass resolution of the trial device was unsatisfactory, but the device can be greatly improved in the future. We successfully analysed exhaled breath gases related to diseases, including ammonia, acetone, and isoprene gases. We expect that the TOFIA device developed in this work will contribute significantly to studies on the relationship between breath gas and health.

  6. A miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer for quantitative in situ chemical composition investigation of lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Grimaudo, Valentine; Mezger, Klaus; Moreno-García, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The chemical composition of planetary bodies, moons, comets and asteroids is a key to understand their origin and evolution [Wurz,2009]. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of rocks yield information about the formation of the planetary body, its evolution and following processes shaping the planetary surface. From the elemental composition, conclusions about modal mineralogy and petrology can be drawn. Isotope ratios are a sensitive indicator for past events on the planetary body and yield information about origin and transformation of the matter, back to events that occurred in the early solar system. Finally, measurements of radiogenic isotopes make it possible to carry out dating analyses. All these topics, particularly in situ dating analyses, quantitative elemental and highly accurate isotopic composition measurements, are top priority scientific questions for future lunar missions. An instrument for precise measurements of chemical composition will be a key element in scientific payloads of future landers or rovers on lunar surface. We present a miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer (LMS) designed for in situ research in planetary and space science and optimised for measurements of the chemical composition of rocks and soils on a planetary surface. By means of measurements of standard reference materials we demonstrate that LMS is a suitable instrument for in situ measurements of elemental and isotopic composition with high precision and accuracy. Measurements of soil standards are used to confirm known sensitivity coefficients of the instrument and to prove the power of LMS for quantitative elemental analyses [Neuland,2016]. For demonstration of the capability of LMS to measure the chemical composition of extraterrestrial material we use a sample of Allende meteorite [Neuland,2014]. Investigations of layered samples confirm the high spatial resolution in vertical direction of LMS [Grimaudo,2015], which allows in situ studying of past

  7. Comparing Theory and Experiment for Analyte Transport in the First Vacuum Stage of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachreson, Matthew R.

    The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) has been used in laboratories for many years. The majority of the improvements to the instrument have been done empirically through trial and error. A few fluid models have been made, which have given a general description of the flow through the mass spectrometer interface. However, due to long mean free path effects and other factors, it is very difficult to simulate the flow details well enough to predict how changing the interface design will change the formation of the ion beam. Towards this end, Spencer et al. developed FENIX, a direct simulation Monte Carlo algorithm capable of modeling this transitional flow through the mass spectrometer interface, the transitional flow from disorganized plasma to focused ion beam. Their previous work describes how FENIX simulates the neutral ion flow. While understanding the argon flow is essential to understanding the ICP-MS, the true goal is to improve its analyte detection capabilities. In this work, we develop a model for adding analyte to FENIX and compare it to previously collected experimental data. We also calculate how much ambipolar fields, plasma sheaths, and electron-ion recombination affect the ion beam formation. We find that behind the sampling interface there is no evidence of turbulent mixing. The behavior of the analyte seems to be described simply by convection and diffusion. Also, ambipolar field effects are small and do not significantly affect ion beam formation between the sampler and skimmer cones. We also find that the plasma sheath that forms around the sampling cone does not significantly affect the analyte flow downstream from the skimmer. However, it does thermally insulate the electrons from the sampling cone, which reduces ion-electron recombination. We also develop a model for electron-ion recombination. By comparing it to experimental data, we find that significant amounts of electron-ion recombination occurs just downstream from the

  8. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to a portable mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Taylor, Stephen; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-02-01

    Desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) is implemented on a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl substituted benzenes. The presence of these compounds in the environment poses a significant threat to the health of both humans and wildlife because of their carcinogenic, toxic, and mutagenic properties. As such, instant detection outside of the laboratory is of particular importance to allow in-situ measurement at the source. Using a rapid, high throughput, miniature, handheld mass spectrometer, several alkyl substituted benzenes and PAHs (i.e., 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, pentamethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, acenaphthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, 9-ethylfluorene, and 1-benzyl-3-methyl-naphthalene) were identified and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) from ambient surfaces, in the open air. This method can provide almost instantaneous information while minimizing sample preparation, which is advantageous in terms of both cost and simplicity of analysis. This MS-based technique is applicable to a wide range of environmental organic molecules.

  9. Real-time monitoring of trace-level VOCs by an ultrasensitive compact lamp-based VUV photoionization mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W. Q.; Shu, J. N.; Zhang, P.; Li, Z.; Li, N. N.; Liang, M.; Yang, B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a compact lamp-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS; hereafter referred to as VUV-PIMS) in our laboratory; it is composed of a radio frequency-powered VUV lamp, a VUV photoionizer, an ion-immigration region, and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By utilizing the novel photoionizer consisting of a photoionization cavity and a VUV light baffle, extremely low background noise was obtained. An ultrasensitive detection limit (2σ) of 3 pptv was achieved for benzene after an acquisition time of 10 s. To examine its potential for application in real-time sample monitoring, the developed VUV-PIMS was employed for the continuous measurement of urban air for six days in Beijing, China. Strong signals of trace-level volatile organic compounds such as benzene and its alkylated derivatives were observed in the mass spectra. These initial experimental results reveal that the instrument can be used for the online monitoring of trace-level species in the atmosphere.

  10. Reduction and scientific analysis of data from the charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Charge-Energy-Mass (CHEM) spectrometer instrument on the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft is designed to measure the mass and charge-state abundance of magnetospheric and magnetosheath ions between 0.3 and 315 keV/e, an energy range that includes the bulk of the ring current and the dynamically important portion of the plasma sheet population. Continuing research is being conducted using the AMPTE mission data set, and in particular, that of the CHEM spectrometer which has operated flawlessly since launch and still provides excellent quality data. The requirted routine data processing and reduction, and software develpment continues to be performed. Scientific analysis of composition data in a number of magnetospheric regions including the ring current region, near-earth plasma sheet and subsolar magnetosheath continues to be undertaken. Correlative studies using data from the sister instrument SULEICA, which determines the mass and charge states of ions in the energy range of approximately 10 to 250 keV/e on the IRM, as well as other data from the CCE and IRM spacecraft, particularly in the upstream region and plasma sheet have also been undertaken.

  11. Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer detection limits and thermal energy analyzer interface status report and present capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Andresen, B.; Martin, W.

    1990-10-18

    A new Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer was purchased and installed at LLNL. Over a period of several months the instrument was tested under a variety of conditions utilizing a capillary gas chromatography interface which allowed separated organic compounds to be carried directly into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. This direct interface allowed maximum analytical sensitivity. A variety of critical tests were performed in order to optimize the sensitivity of the system under a variety of analysis conditions. These tests altered the critical time cycles of the ionization, ion trapping, and detection. Various carrier gas pressures were also employed in order to ascertain the overall sensitivity of the instrument. In addition we have also interfaced a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) to the gas chromatograph in order to simultaneously detect volatile nitrogen containing compounds while mass spectral data is being acquired. This is the first application at this laboratory of simultaneous ultra-trace detections while utilizing two orthogonal analytical techniques. In particular, explosive-related compound and/or residues are of interest to the general community in water, soil and gas sampler. In this paper are highlighted a few examples of the analytical power of this new GC-TEA-ITMS technology.

  12. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  13. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  14. MAST - A mass spectrometer telescope for studies of the isotopic composition of solar, anomalous, and galactic cosmic ray nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Walter R.; Cummings, Alan C.; Cummings, Jay R.; Garrard, Thomas L.; Kecman, Branislav; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Stone, Edward C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on SAMPEX is designed to provide high resolution measurements of the isotopic composition of energetic nuclei from He to Ni (Z = 2 to 28) over the energy range from about 10 to several hundred MeV/nuc. During large solar flares MAST will measure the isotopic abundances of solar energetic particles to determine directly the composition of the solar corona, while during solar quiet times MAST will study the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays. In addition, MAST will measure the isotopic composition of both interplanetary and trapped fluxes of anomalous cosmic rays, believed to be a sample of the nearby interstellar medium.

  15. A study of the feasibility of mechanical pumps for use with the Pioneer-Venus probe mass spectrometer inlet system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, N. C.; Crosmer, W. E.; Nowak, D.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of mechanical vacuum pumps was completed. A small Roots blower for flight mass spectrometer applications was evaluated with respect to system operating parameters in a number of different modes of operation. The survey indicated that a metal bellows pump might be a viable alternative for the systems requirements. The results of the study are given, including current status of possible flight-type pumps, a systems analysis using available pumps, and recommendations for fabrication and tests of a potential flight-type pump.

  16. Measurement of the neutral composition of the lower thermosphere above Fort Churchill by rocket-borne mass spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, D. R.; Nier, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of the neutral atmospheric composition above Fort Churchill, Canada (59 N, 94 W), by mass spectrometers in two rocket flights at 0835 CST on Feb. 4 and 6, 1969. A quantitative measure for the extent of agreement with static diffusive equilibrium is introduced, and substantial agreement with profiles predicted when static diffusive equilibrium was assumed is found for all constituents including helium. A sensitive search for atomic nitrogen yielded upper limits of a few per cent for one flight and of 0.2% for the other.

  17. Investigation of the external flow analysis for density measurements at high altitude. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienkowski, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program was developed for modeling the flow field around the space shuttle in the vicinity of the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment. The operation of the EXTERNAL code is summarized. Issues associated with geometric modeling of the shuttle nose region and the modeling of intermolecular collisions including rotational energy exchange are discussed as well as a preliminary analysis of vibrational excitation and dissociation effects. The selection of trial runs is described and the parameters used for them is justified. The original version and the modified INTERNAL code for the entrance problem are reviewed. The code listing is included.

  18. Negative ion electrospray of bromo- and chloroacetic acids and an evaluation of exact mass measurements with a bench-top time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed

    Debre; Budde; Song

    2000-09-01

    The negative ion electrospray mass spectra of six bromo- and chloroacetic acids were measured using two different electrospray interfaces and single quadrupole and bench-top time-of-flight mass spectrometers. With each acid at 50 microg/mL in aqueous methanol at pH 10, the anions observed included deprotonated molecules, adducts, and fragment ions. With each acid at 100 ng/mL in aqueous acetonitrile at pH 10, mainly deprotonated molecules are observed. The exact m/z measuring capability of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer was evaluated to assess the potential for the determination of the individual acids in mixtures without an on-line separation. Mean measurement errors were nearly always less than +/- 9 ppm and the majority were less than +/- 5 ppm. Potential interferences by substances having similar exact masses and the ability to form anions in aqueous solutions were evaluated. The estimated detection limits of the five regulated haloacetic acids in drinking water, without a sample preconcentration step, are in the range of 24-86 ng/mL, which is within about a factor of 10 of the levels required for routine monitoring of the acids. Actual drinking water samples were not analyzed pending the development of slightly more sensitive techniques and quantitative analytical procedures.

  19. Influence of internal standard charge state on the accuracy of mass measurements in orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Charles, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Accuracy of mass measurements performed in orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oa-TOF) mass spectrometers highly depends on the quality of the signal and the internal calibration. The use of two reference compounds which bracket the targeted unknown, give rise to ions with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio while avoiding detector saturation and produce signals of similar intensity as compared to the target is a common requirement which allow a 5 ppm accuracy on a routine basis. Ion charge state is demonstrated here to be an additional and particularly critical parameter. Using internal references of lower charge state than the target ion systematically yielded overestimated data. Errors measured for quadruply charged molecules were in the range 16-18 ppm when mass calibrants were singly charged ions while accuracy was below 5 ppm when references and target ions were in the same charge state. Magnitude of errors was found to increase with the difference in charge state. This phenomenon arises from the orthogonal acceleration of ions in the TOF analyzer, an interface implemented in all TOF mass spectrometers to accommodate continuous beam ionization sources.

  20. Advanced Mass Calibration and Visualization for FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Kharchenko, Andriy; Konijnenburg, Marco; Klinkert, Ivo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2012-11-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) yields hundreds of unique peaks, many of which cannot be resolved by lower performance mass spectrometers. The high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power allow confident identification of small molecules and lipids directly from biological tissue sections. Here, calibration strategies for FT-ICR MS imaging were investigated. Sub-parts-per-million mass accuracy is demonstrated over an entire tissue section. Ion abundance fluctuations are corrected by addition of total and relative ion abundances for a root-mean-square error of 0.158 ppm on 16,764 peaks. A new approach for visualization of FT-ICR MS imaging data at high resolution is presented. The "Mosaic Datacube" provides a flexible means to visualize the entire mass range at a mass spectral bin width of 0.001 Da. The high resolution Mosaic Datacube resolves spectral features not visible at lower bin widths, while retaining the high mass accuracy from the calibration methods discussed.