Science.gov

Sample records for advanced materials assembly

  1. Advanced stamp geometries and adhesiveless transfer printing modalities for use in deterministic materials assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andrew

    Transfer printing has become a robust technique for assembling disparate classes of micro- and nanomaterials into spatially organized, functional arrangements in two and three-dimensional layouts. Such capabilities have made this assembly process invaluable in realizing novel or unusual forms of many high-performance systems, such as flexible electronics, three-dimensional optoelectronics, and bio-compatible or bio-integrated electronic devices. The focus of this thesis is to develop a collection of advanced transfer printing modalities that enable expansion in breadth and diversity of materials and formats that serve as either ink or substrate layers during assembly. Targeted modulation of adhesion at the stamp/nanomaterial interface provides a direct route for enhancing printing efficacy, particularly in 'dry' or adhesiveless systems where intimate contact between the substrate and transferred material is desired. This body of work progresses from several simple, passive techniques that demonstrate either strong or weak levels of stamp adhesion for retrieval and printing, respectively, to more active methods that utilize first dynamic adhesion switching and then ultimately fine control over stamp adhesive strength through the use of targeted mechanical loading. Several examples of assembled devices are discussed to demonstrate the broad utility of these protocols, as well as integration strategies for high throughput, massively parallel printing paradigms.

  2. Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Han, Mengdi; Ou, Dapeng; Liu, Yuhao; Lin, Qing; Guo, Xuelin; Fu, Haoran; Xie, Zhaoqian; Gao, Mingye; Huang, Yuming; Kim, JungHwan; Qiu, Yitao; Nan, Kewang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Gutruf, Philipp; Luo, Hongying; Zhao, An; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Capabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality (Q) factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts. PMID:27679820

  3. Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Han, Mengdi; Ou, Dapeng; Liu, Yuhao; Lin, Qing; Guo, Xuelin; Fu, Haoran; Xie, Zhaoqian; Gao, Mingye; Huang, Yuming; Kim, JungHwan; Qiu, Yitao; Nan, Kewang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Gutruf, Philipp; Luo, Hongying; Zhao, An; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2016-09-01

    Capabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality (Q) factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts.

  4. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  5. Thin films and assemblies of photosensitive membrane proteins and colloidal nanocrystals for engineering of hybrid materials with advanced properties.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Sergei Yu; Solovyeva, Daria O; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-11-15

    Langmuir-Schaefer methods < self-assembly and layer-by-layer methods. The key advances in the techniques of preparation of the assemblies or complexes of colloidal nanocrystals with bR, purple membranes, or photosynthetic reaction centres are also reviewed. Approaches to the fabrication of the prototype photosensitive nano-bio hybrid materials with advanced photovoltaic, energy transfer, and optical switching properties and future prospects in this field are analyzed in the concluding part of the review.

  6. Advances in Nanostructured Materials via Templated Sol-Gel Structure Control and Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudisill, Stephen G.

    This dissertation describes a body of work focused on understanding and improving morphology control of nanoporous structures via their aqueous chemistry. Synthesis of materials was carried out primarily using the Pechini process with metal nitrates and colloidal crystal templates. CeO2 and CeO 2-derived compounds were used for a substantial portion of the dissertation as they are useful for thermochemical cycling experiments. Templated CeO 2 shows a tenfold improvement over an untemplated material as well as a nanoparticle powder under lab-scale thermochemical cycling experiments. The Pechini process itself was then investigated as a means to obtain greater structural control over colloidal crystal templated materials. The process was demonstrated to involve phase separation, which allowed for the production of microspheres and bicontinuous networks of templated CeO 2-based solids. Microspheres produced were between 1--3 microm in size, with polydispersity less than 15%. Further experimentation demonstrated that this phase separation methodology was generalizable to Fe2O 3 and Mn3O4, though higher polydispersities were obtained for these materials. The final research project accomplished in this dissertation involves a method to produce ordered collagen fibrils through the incorporation of nanocrystalline cellulose during fibrillogenesis. Results were verified via scanning electron microscopy and a mechanism was proposed based on infrared spectroscopy results indicating a decrease in collagen-collagen hydrogen bonding.

  7. Extending lithography with advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    Material evolution has been a key enabler of lithography nodes in the last 30 years. This paper explores the evolution of anti-reflective coatings and their transformation from materials that provide only reflection control to advanced multifunctional layers. It is expected that complementary processes that do not require a change in wavelength will continue to dominate the development of new devices and technology nodes. New device architecture, immersion lithography, negative-tone development, multiple patterning, and directed self-assembly have demonstrated the capabilities of extending lithography nodes beyond what anyone thought would be possible. New material advancements for future technology nodes are proposed.

  8. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  9. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  10. Directed self-assembly of performance materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealey, Paul

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising strategy for high-volume cost-effective manufacturing at the nanoscale. Over the past decades, manufacturing techniques have been developed with such remarkable efficiency that it is now possible to engineer complex systems of heterogeneous materials at the scale of a few tens of nanometers. Further evolution of these techniques, however, is faced with difficult challenges not only in feasibility of implementation at scales of 10 nm and below, but also in prohibitively high capital equipment costs. Materials that self-assemble, on the other hand, spontaneously form structures at the mesoscale, but the micrometer areas or volumes over which the materials self-assemble with adequate perfection in structure is incommensurate with the macroscopic dimensions of working devices and systems of devices of industrial relevance. Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) refers to the integration of self-assembling materials with traditional manufacturing processes. Here we will discuss DSA of block copolymers to revolutionize sub 10 nm lithography and the manufacture of integrated circuits and storage media, DSA of ex-situ synthesized nanoparticles for applications in nanophotonics, and DSA of liquid crystals for advanced optics.

  11. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

    1988-04-11

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

  12. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Katherine M.; Starenchak, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

  13. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  14. Advanced DNA assembly technologies in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanova, Billyana; Peng, Lansha; Liang, Xiquan; Li, Ke; Hammond, Linda; Peterson, Todd C; Katzen, Federico

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have had a fundamental impact on drug discovery. The continuous emergence of unique gene assembly techniques resulted in the generation of a variety of therapeutic reagents such as vaccines, cancer treatment molecules and regenerative medicine precursors. With the advent of synthetic biology there is a growing need for precise and concerted assembly of multiple DNA fragments of various sizes, including chromosomes. In this article, we summarize the highlights of the recombinant DNA technology since its inception in the early 1970s, emphasizing on the most recent advances, and underscoring their principles, advantages and shortcomings. Current and prior cloning trends are discussed in the context of sequence requirements and scars left behind. Our opinion is that despite the remarkable progress that has enabled the generation and manipulation of very large DNA sequences, a better understanding of the cell's natural circuits is needed in order to fully exploit the current state-of-the-art gene assembly technologies.

  15. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  16. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  17. Self-assembled lipid bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Waggoner, Tina A.; Last, Julie A.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is a self-assembling material comprised of stacks of lipid bilayers formed in a columnar structure, where the assembly process is mediated and regulated by chemical recognition events. The material, through the chemical recognition interactions, has a self-regulating system that corrects the radial size of the assembly creating a uniform diameter throughout most of the structure. The materials form and are stable in aqueous solution. These materials are useful as structural elements for the architecture of materials and components in nanotechnology, efficient light harvesting systems for optical sensing, chemical processing centers, and drug delivery vehicles.

  18. Laser-assisted advanced assembly for MEMS fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Yuriy Andreev

    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are currently fabricated using methods originally designed for manufacturing semiconductor devices, using minimum if any assembly at all. The inherited limitations of this approach narrow the materials that can be employed and reduce the design complexity, imposing limitations on MEMS functionality. The proposed Laser-Assisted Advanced Assembly (LA3) method solves these problems by first fabricating components followed by assembly of a MEMS device. Components are micro-machined using a laser or by photolithography followed by wet/dry etching out of any material available in a thin sheet form. A wide range of materials can be utilized, including biocompatible metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, semiconductors, and materials with special properties such as memory shape alloys, thermoelectric, ferromagnetic, piezoelectric, and more. The approach proposed allows enhancing the structural and mechanical properties of the starting materials through heat treatment, tribological coatings, surface modifications, bio-functionalization, and more, a limited, even unavailable possibility with existing methods. Components are transferred to the substrate for assembly using the thermo-mechanical Selective Laser Assisted Die Transfer (tmSLADT) mechanism for microchips assembly, already demonstrated by our team. Therefore, the mechanical and electronic part of the MEMS can be fabricated using the same equipment/method. The viability of the Laser-Assisted Advanced Assembly technique for MEMS is demonstrated by fabricating magnetic switches for embedding in a conductive carbon-fiber metamaterial for use in an Electromagnetic-Responsive Mobile Cyber-Physical System (E-RMCPS), which is expected to improve the wireless communication system efficiency within a battery-powered device.

  19. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  20. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  1. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  2. Porous nano-structured Co3O4 anode materials generated from coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates for advanced lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Danhua; Geng, Hongbo; Wang, Jiaqing; Zheng, Junwei; Pan, Yue; Cao, Xueqin; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-21

    A simple and scalable coordination-derived method for the synthesis of porous Co3O4 hollow nanospheres is described here. The initially formed coordination-driven self-assembled aggregates (CDSAAs) could act as the precursor followed by calcination treatment. Then the porous hollow Co3O4 nanospheres are obtained, in which the primary Co3O4 nanoparticles are inter-dispersed. When the nanospheres are used as anode materials for lithium storage, they show excellent coulombic efficiency, high lithium storage capacity and superior cycling performance. In view of the facile synthesis and excellent electrochemical performance obtained, this protocol to fabricate special porous hollow frameworks could be further extended to other metal oxides and is expected to improve the practicality of superior cycle life anode materials with large volume excursions for the development of the next generation of LIBs.

  3. Advanced Embedded Active Assemblies for Extreme Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development and evaluation of advanced technologies for the integration of electronic die within membrane polymers. Specifically, investigators thinned silicon die, electrically connecting them with circuits on flexible liquid crystal polymer (LCP), using gold thermo-compression flip chip bonding, and embedding them within the material. Daisy chain LCP assemblies were thermal cycled from -135 to +85degC (Mars surface conditions for motor control electronics). The LCP assembly method was further utilized to embed an operational amplifier designed for operation within the Mars surface ambient. The embedded op-amp assembly was evaluated with respect to the influence of temperature on the operational characteristics of the device. Applications for this technology range from multifunctional, large area, flexible membrane structures to small-scale, flexible circuits that can be fit into tight spaces for flex to fit applications.

  4. Self-assembled Materials for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Kake; Wang, Donghai; Liu, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight developments on self-assembled nanostructured materials (i.e. mesoporous and nanoparticle based materials) and their catalytic applications. Since there are some reviews available for metal-based nanoparticles as catalysts, this review will mainly focus on self-assembled oxide-based catalytic materials. The content includes: (1) Design and synthetic strategy toward self-assembled mesoporous catalysts; (2) Polyoxometalates (POMs) based nanocatalysts; (3) Dendrimers based nanocatalysts; (4) Shaped nanomaterials and catalytic applications. We show that self-assemblies of molecules, crystalline seeds, nano-building blocks into organized mesoscopic structures paved new roads for tailoring porosities of heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic active sites.

  5. Nanophase materials assembled from clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The preparation of metal and ceramic atom clusters by means of the gas-condensation method, followed by their in situ collection and consolidation under high-vacuum conditions, has recently led to the synthesis of a new class of ultrafine-grained materials. These nanophase materials, with typical average grain sizes of 5 to 50 nm and, hence, a large fraction of their atoms in interfaces, exhibit properties that are often considerably improved relative to those of conventional materials. Furthermore, their synthesis and processing characteristics should enable the design of new materials with unique properties. Some examples are ductile ceramics that can be formed and sintered to full density at low temperatures without the need for binding or sintering aids, and metals with dramatically increased strength. The synthesis of these materials is briefly described along with what is presently known of their structure and properties. Their future impact on materials science and technology is also considered.

  6. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  7. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  8. Directed Nanoscale Assembly of Graphene Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Ouk

    Graphene based materials, including fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, are two-dimensional polymeric materials consisting of sp2 hybrid carbons. Those carbon materials have attracted enormous research attention for their outstanding material properties along with molecular scale dimension. The optimized utilization of those materials in various application fields inevitably requires the subtle controllability of their structures and properties. In this presentation, our research achievements associated to directed nanoscale assembly of B- or N-doped graphene based materials will be introduced. Graphene based materials can be efficiently processed into various three-dimensional structures via self-assembly principles. Those carbon assembled structures with extremely large surface and high electro-conductivity are potentially useful for energy and environmental applications. Aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide shows liquid crystalline phase, whose spontaneous molecular ordering is useful for display or fiber spinning. Along with the structure control by directed nanoscale assembly, substitutional doping of graphene based materials with B- or N- can be attained via various chemical treatment methods. The resultant chemically modified carbon materials with tunable workfunction, charge carrier density and enhanced surface activity could be employed for various nanomaterials and nanodevices for improved functionalities and performances.

  9. Self-assembly of nanocomposite materials

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sellinger, Alan; Lu, Yunfeng

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a nanocomposite self-assembly is provided where at least one hydrophilic compound, at least one hydrophobic compound, and at least one amphiphilic surfactant are mixed in an aqueous solvent with the solvent subsequently evaporated to form a self-assembled liquid crystalline mesophase material. Upon polymerization of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds, a robust nanocomposite self-assembled material is formed. Importantly, in the reaction mixture, the amphiphilic surfactant has an initial concentration below the critical micelle concentration to allow formation of the liquid-phase micellar mesophase material. A variety of nanocomposite structures can be formed, depending upon the solvent evaporazation process, including layered mesophases, tubular mesophases, and a hierarchical composite coating composed of an isotropic worm-like micellar overlayer bonded to an oriented, nanolaminated underlayer.

  10. Self-assembling materials for therapeutic delivery✩

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Monica C.; Schneider, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of medications must be administered through parenteral delivery, i.e., intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection, to ensure effectiveness of the therapeutic. For some therapeutics, the use of delivery vehicles in conjunction with this delivery mechanism can improve drug efficacy and patient compliance. Macromolecular self-assembly has been exploited recently to engineer materials for the encapsulation and controlled delivery of therapeutics. Self-assembled materials offer the advantages of conventional crosslinked materials normally used for release, but also provide the ability to tailor specific bulk material properties, such as release profiles, at the molecular level via monomer design. As a result, the design of materials from the “bottom up” approach has generated a variety of supramolecular devices for biomedical applications. This review provides an overview of self-assembling molecules, their resultant structures, and their use in therapeutic delivery. It highlights the current progress in the design of polymer- and peptide-based self-assembled materials. PMID:19010748

  11. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced thermoelectric material for radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) applications is reported. A number of materials were explored. The bulk of the effort, however, was devoted to improving silicon germanium alloys by the addition of gallium phosphide, the synthesis and evaluation of lanthanum chrome sulfide and the formulation of various mixtures of lanthanum sulfide and chrome sulfide. It is found that each of these materials exhibits promise as a thermoelectric material.

  12. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-08

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  13. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-24

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule-substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging from

  14. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  15. Advanced materials for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Slemp, W. S.; Long, E. R., Jr.; Sykes, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal thrust of the LSST program is to develop the materials technology required for confident design of large space systems such as antennas and platforms. Areas of research in the FY-79 program include evaluation of polysulfones, measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of low expansion composite laminates, thermal cycling effects, and cable technology. The development of new long thermal control coatings and adhesives for use in space is discussed. The determination of radiation damage mechanisms of resin matrix composites and the formulation of new polymer matrices that are inherently more stable in the space environment are examined.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Huong, P V

    1996-06-01

    Many micro-structural aspects of advanced materials and the incidence on the physical properties have been elucidated by Raman micro-spectroscopy. The potential of this technique is demonstrated with new materials interesting in both academic and industrial developments: new carbons and diamonds, superconductors, semiconductors, superhards.

  17. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  18. Future requirements for advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  19. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  20. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  1. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  2. Crops: a green approach toward self-assembled soft materials.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George

    2008-06-01

    To date, a wide range of industrial materials such as solvents, fuels, synthetic fibers, and chemical products are being manufactured from petroleum resources. However, rapid depletion of fossil and petroleum resources is encouraging current and future chemists to orient their research toward designing safer chemicals, products, and processes from renewable feedstock with an increased awareness of environmental and industrial impact. Advances in genetics, biotechnology, process chemistry, and engineering are leading to a new manufacturing concept for converting renewable biomass to valuable fuels and products, generally known as the biorefinery concept. The swift integration of crop-based materials synthesis and biorefinery manufacturing technologies offers the potential for new advances in sustainable energy alternatives and biomaterials that will lead to a new manufacturing paradigm. This Account presents a novel and emerging concept of generating various forms of soft materials from crops (an alternate feedstock). In future research, developing biobased soft materials will be a fascinating yet demanding practice, which will have direct impact on industrial applications as an economically viable alternative. Here we discuss some remarkable examples of glycolipids generated from industrial byproducts such as cashew nut shell liquid, which upon self-assembly produced soft nanoarchitectures including lipid nanotubes, twisted/helical nanofibers, low-molecular-weight gels, and liquid crystals. Synthetic methods applied to a "chiral pool" of carbohydrates using the selectivity of enzyme catalysis yield amphiphilic products derived from biobased feedstock including amygdalin, trehalose, and vitamin C. This has been achieved with a lipase-mediated regioselective synthetic procedure to obtain such amphiphiles in quantitative yields. Amygdalin amphiphiles showed unique gelation behavior in a broad range of solvents such as nonpolar hexanes to polar aqueous solutions

  3. Regulation of Replication Fork Advance and Stability by Nucleosome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Felix; Maya, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The advance of replication forks to duplicate chromosomes in dividing cells requires the disassembly of nucleosomes ahead of the fork and the rapid assembly of parental and de novo histones at the newly synthesized strands behind the fork. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly provides a unique opportunity to regulate fork advance and stability. Through post-translational histone modifications and tightly regulated physical and genetic interactions between chromatin assembly factors and replisome components, chromatin assembly: (1) controls the rate of DNA synthesis and adjusts it to histone availability; (2) provides a mechanism to protect the integrity of the advancing fork; and (3) regulates the mechanisms of DNA damage tolerance in response to replication-blocking lesions. Uncoupling DNA synthesis from nucleosome assembly has deleterious effects on genome integrity and cell cycle progression and is linked to genetic diseases, cancer, and aging. PMID:28125036

  4. Regulation of Replication Fork Advance and Stability by Nucleosome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Prado, Felix; Maya, Douglas

    2017-01-24

    The advance of replication forks to duplicate chromosomes in dividing cells requires the disassembly of nucleosomes ahead of the fork and the rapid assembly of parental and de novo histones at the newly synthesized strands behind the fork. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly provides a unique opportunity to regulate fork advance and stability. Through post-translational histone modifications and tightly regulated physical and genetic interactions between chromatin assembly factors and replisome components, chromatin assembly: (1) controls the rate of DNA synthesis and adjusts it to histone availability; (2) provides a mechanism to protect the integrity of the advancing fork; and (3) regulates the mechanisms of DNA damage tolerance in response to replication-blocking lesions. Uncoupling DNA synthesis from nucleosome assembly has deleterious effects on genome integrity and cell cycle progression and is linked to genetic diseases, cancer, and aging.

  5. Advancing Design-for-Assembly: The Next Generation in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.

    1998-12-09

    At the 1995 IEEE Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning, Sandia National Laboratories introduced the Archimedes 2 Software Tool [2]. The system was described as a second-generation assembly planning system that allowed preliminmy application of awembly planning for industry, while solidly supporting further research in planning techniques. Sandia has worked closely with indust~ and academia over the last four years. The results of these working relationships have bridged a gap for the next generation in assembly planning. Zke goal of this paper is to share Sandia 's technological advancements in assembly planning over the last four years and the impact these advancements have made on the manufacturing communip.

  6. A novel preparation of core-shell electrode materials via evaporation-induced self-assembly of nanoparticles for advanced Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Ellis, Sarah; Xu, Wangwang; Dye, Dara; Zhao, Jianqing; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-18

    We report, for the first time, a simple and novel synthesis of a Li-rich layered-spinel core-shell heterostructure (L@S core-shell) via evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of Ni-doped Li4Mn5O12 nanoparticles (Li4Mn4.5Ni0.5O12) onto the surface of layered Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 (LMNCO) without using any surfactant during the coating process. The resultant L@S core-shell as a cathode in lithium ion batteries demonstrates significantly improved specific capacity, cycling performance and rate capability compared to pristine LMNCO.

  7. Advanced Infrared Photodetectors (Materials Review)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    rays by reducing the effective detector area (9]. The lens structure also offers a measure of mechanical protection. 2.3.2 Electronic non...ib.itio’ý I by Availability Codes Philip J. Picone Avail and/ornDist Special SUMMARY The present status of advanced infrared semiconductor detector materials... POSTAL ADDRESS: Director, Surveillance Research Laboratory, PO Box 1500, Salisbury, South Australia, 5108. SRL.0117-RR UNCLASSIFIED SRL - 0117 - RR

  8. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using block polymer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Sarah Elizabeth

    Despite its potential as an abundant, sustainable alternative to non-renewable energy sources, solar energy currently is underutilized. Photovoltaics, which convert energy from sunlight into electricity, commonly are made from inorganic semiconductor materials that require expensive manufacturing and processing techniques. Alternatively, organic materials can be used to produce flexible and lightweight organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can be prepared using solution-based processing techniques. However, OPV devices are limited by low efficiencies and short lifetimes compared to their inorganic counterparts. In OPV systems, charge carriers are generated in the active layer via the separation of excitons (electron-hole pairs) at interfaces between donor and acceptor materials. Because excitons have a limited diffusion length (˜10 nm), they may recombine before reaching a donor-acceptor interface if domain sizes are large. This exciton recombination can limit device efficiency; thus, the design parameters for improved active layer morphologies include large interfacial areas, small size scales, and continuous conducting pathways. Currently, most OPV devices are prepared by blending donor and acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices, often resulting in non-ideal, process-dependent morphologies. Alternatively, the self-assembly of block polymers (BP)s offers a reproducible means to generate nanostructured active layers. The work presented in this dissertation examines the synthetic approaches to preparing BPs containing different electroactive materials: non-conjugated, amorphous poly(vinyl-m-triphenylamine) [PVmTPA] and conjugated poly(3-alkythiophene) [P3AT] p-type materials as well as fullerene-based n-type materials. The synthesis and self-assembly of a model poly(methyl methacrylate)- b-PVmTPA system is presented. This work was extended to synthesize PVmTPA BPs with complementary poly(methyl methacrylate- co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P

  9. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  10. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  11. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  12. Assembly of Colloidal Materials Using Bioadhesive Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Daniel A.; Hiddessen, Amy L.; Tohver, Valeria; Crocker, John C.; Weitz, David A.

    2002-01-01

    We have pursued the use of biological crosslinking molecules of several types to make colloidal materials at relatively low volume fraction of colloidal particles. The objective is to make binary alloys of colloidal particles, made of two different colloidal particles coated with complementary biological lock-and-key binding molecules, which assemble due to the biological specificity. The long-term goal is to use low affinity lock-and-key biological interactions, so that the can anneal to form crystalline states. We have used a variety of different surface chemistries in order to make colloidal materials. Our first system involved using selectin-carbohydrate (sialyl-Lewis) interactions; this chemistry is derived from immune system. This chemical interaction is of relatively low affinity, with timescales for dissociation of several seconds. Furthermore, the adhesion mediated by these molecules can be reversed by the chelation of calcium atoms; thus assembled structures can be disassembled reversibly. Our second system employed avidin-biotin chemistry. This well-studied system is of high affinity, and is generally irreversible on a laboratory time-scale. Thus, we would expect selectin-carbohydrate interactions at high molecular density and avidin-biotin interactions to give kinetically-trapped structures; however, at low densities, we would expect significant differences in the structure and dynamics of the two materials, owing to their very different release rates. We have also begun to use a third chemistry - DNA hybridization. By attaching single stranded DNA oligonucleotide chains to beads, we can drive the assembly of colloidal materials by hybridization of complementary DNA chains. It is well known that DNA adenosine-thymine (A-T) and guanine-cytosine (G-C) bases hybridize pairwise with a Gibbs free energy change of 1.7 kcal/mol per base; thus, the energy of the assembly can be modulated by altering the number of complementary bases in the DNA chains. Using

  13. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  14. VVANTAGE 6 - an advanced fuel assembly design for VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.K.; DeMario, E.E.; Knott, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    Over the last 25 years, Westinghouse fuel assemblies for pressurized water reactors (PWR`s) have undergone significant changes to the current VANTAGE 5. VANTAGE 5 PWR fuel includes features such as removable top nozzles, debris filter bottom nozzles, low-pressure-drop zircaloy grids, zircaloy intermediate flow mixing grids, optimized fuel rods, in-fuel burnable absorbers, and increased burnup capability to region average values of 48000 MWD/MTU. These features have now been adopted to the VVER reactors. Westinghouse has completed conceptual designs for an advanced fuel assembly and other core components for VVER-1000 reactors known as VANTAGE 6. This report describes the VVANTAGE 6 fuel assembly design.

  15. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  16. Peptide Self-Assembly for Crafting Functional Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Matson, John B.; Zha, R. Helen; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembling, peptide-based scaffolds are frontrunners in the search for biomaterials with widespread impact in regenerative medicine. The inherent biocompatibility and cell signaling capabilities of peptides, in combination with control of secondary structure, has led to the development of a broad range of functional materials with potential for many novel therapies. More recently, membranes formed through complexation of peptide nanostructures with natural biopolymers have led to the development of hierarchically-structured constructs with potentially far-reaching applications in biology and medicine. In this review, we highlight recent advances in peptide-based gels and membranes, including work from our group and others. Specifically, we discuss the application of peptide-based materials in the regeneration of bone and enamel, cartilage, and the central nervous system, as well as the transplantation of islets, wound-healing, cardiovascular therapies, and treatment of erectile dysfunction after prostatectomy PMID:22125413

  17. Functional, Responsive Materials Assembled from Recombinant Oleosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel

    Biological cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane made primarily of phospholipids that form a bilayer. This membrane is permselective and compartmentalizes the cell. A simple form of artificial cell is the vesicle, in which a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounds an aqueous solution. However, there is no a priori reason why a membrane needs to be made of phospholipids. It could be made of any surfactant that forms a bilayer. We have assembled membranes and other structures from the recombinant plant protein oleosin. The ability to assemble from a recombinant protein means that every molecule is identical, we have complete control over the sequence, and hence can build in designer functionality with high fidelity, including adhesion and enzymatic activity. Such incorporation is trivial using the tools of molecular biology. We find that while many variants of oleosin make membranes, others make micelles and sheets. We show how the type of supramolecular structure can be altered by the conditions of solvent, such as ionic strength, and the architecture of the surfactant itself. We show that protease cleavable domains can be incorporated within oleosin, and be engineered to protect other functional domains such as adhesive motifs, to make responsive materials whose activity and shape depend on the action of proteases. We will also present the idea of making ``Franken''-oleosins, where large domains of native oleosin are replaced with domains from other functional proteins, to make hybrids conferred by the donor protein. Thus, we can view oleosin as a template upon which a vast array of designer functionalities can be imparted..

  18. Advances in Functional Assemblies for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Palma, Matteo; Hardy, John G; Tadayyon, Ghazal; Farsari, Maria; Wind, Shalom J; Biggs, Manus J

    2015-11-18

    The ability to synthesise bioresponsive systems and selectively active biochemistries using polymer-based materials with supramolecular features has led to a surge in research interest directed towards their development as next generation biomaterials for drug delivery, medical device design and tissue engineering.

  19. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  20. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Gibbson, Murray

    2016-07-12

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  1. Video Fact Sheets: Everyday Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-06

    What are Advanced Materials? Ames Laboratory is behind some of the best advanced materials out there. Some of those include: Lead-Free Solder, Photonic Band-Gap Crystals, Terfenol-D, Aluminum-Calcium Power Cable and Nano Particles. Some of these are in products we use every day.

  2. Application of advanced materials to rotating machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

  3. Video Fact Sheets: Everyday Advanced Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    What are Advanced Materials? Ames Laboratory is behind some of the best advanced materials out there. Some of those include: Lead-Free Solder, Photonic Band-Gap Crystals, Terfenol-D, Aluminum-Calcium Power Cable and Nano Particles. Some of these are in products we use every day.

  4. Development of Specialized Advanced Materials Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmgren, Thomas; And Others

    This course is intended to give students a comprehensive experience in current and future manufacturing materials and processes. It familiarizes students with: (1) base of composite materials; (2) composites--a very light, strong material used in spacecraft and stealth aircraft; (3) laminates; (4) advanced materials--especially aluminum alloys;…

  5. Ordered mesoporous materials based on interfacial assembly and engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yue, Qin; Deng, Yonghui; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-10-04

    Ordered mesoporous materials have inspired prominent research interest due to their unique properties and functionalities and potential applications in adsorption, separation, catalysis, sensors, drug delivery, energy conversion and storage, and so on. Thanks to continuous efforts over the past two decades, great achievements have been made in the synthesis and structural characterization of mesoporous materials. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in preparing ordered mesoporous materials from the viewpoint of interfacial assembly and engineering. Five interfacial assembly and synthesis are comprehensively highlighted, including liquid-solid interfacial assembly, gas-liquid interfacial assembly, liquid-liquid interfacial assembly, gas-solid interfacial synthesis, and solid-solid interfacial synthesis, basics about their synthesis pathways, princples and interface engineering strategies.

  6. Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Christina J.; Moyer, Tyson J.; Lee, Sungsoo S.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic–inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli. PMID:23204913

  7. Advances in cryogenic transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of dynamic self-assembling nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Christina J; Moyer, Tyson J; Lee, Sungsoo S; Stupp, Samuel I

    2012-12-01

    Elucidating the structural information of nanoscale materials in their solvent-exposed state is crucial, as a result, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) has become an increasingly popular technique in the materials science, chemistry, and biology communities. Cryo-TEM provides a method to directly visualize the specimen structure in a solution-state through a thin film of vitrified solvent. This technique complements X-ray, neutron, and light scattering methods that probe the statistical average of all species present; furthermore, cryo-TEM can be used to observe changes in structure over time. In the area of self-assembly, this tool has been particularly powerful for the characterization of natural and synthetic small molecule assemblies, as well as hybrid organic-inorganic composites. In this review, we discuss recent advances in cryogenic TEM in the context of self-assembling systems with emphasis on characterization of transitions observed in response to external stimuli.

  8. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  9. Clusters and Cluster-Assembled Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    time that full diagrams of the curves of equal mean chemical potential, in terms of pressure and volume, pressure and temperature, and volume and...assembled and will prove invaluable for the continuing work: Databse 1: Numerical solutions of the shapes (and all geometric parameters) of the opti

  10. Recent Advances in Superhard Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Tian, Yongjun

    2016-07-01

    In superhard materials research, two topics are of central focus. One is to understand hardness microscopically and to establish hardness models with atomic parameters, which can be used to guide the design or prediction of novel superhard crystals. The other is to synthesize superhard materials with enhanced comprehensive performance (i.e., hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal stability), with the ambition of achieving materials harder than natural diamond. In this review, we present recent developments in both areas. The microscopic hardness models of covalent single crystals are introduced and further generalized to polycrystalline materials. Current research progress in novel superhard materials and nanostructuring approaches for high-performance superhard materials are discussed. We also clarify a long-standing controversy about the criterion for performing a reliable indentation hardness measurement.

  11. Micromechanical modeling of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, S.A.; Taylor, P.A.; Wise, J.L.; Furnish, M.D.

    1994-04-01

    Funded as a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project, the work reported here focuses on the development of a computational methodology to determine the dynamic response of heterogeneous solids on the basis of their composition and microstructural morphology. Using the solid dynamics wavecode CTH, material response is simulated on a scale sufficiently fine to explicitly represent the material`s microstructure. Conducting {open_quotes}numerical experiments{close_quotes} on this scale, the authors explore the influence that the microstructure exerts on the material`s overall response. These results are used in the development of constitutive models that take into account the effects of microstructure without explicit representation of its features. Applying this methodology to a glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) composite, the authors examined the influence of various aspects of the composite`s microstructure on its response in a loading regime typical of impact and penetration. As a prerequisite to the microscale modeling effort, they conducted extensive materials testing on the constituents, S-2 glass and epoxy resin (UF-3283), obtaining the first Hugoniot and spall data for these materials. The results of this work are used in the development of constitutive models for GRP materials in transient-dynamics computer wavecodes.

  12. Materials science: Versatile gel assembly on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Materials called hydrogels have potential applications as scaffolds for tissue engineering, but methods are needed to assemble them into complex structures that mimic those found in nature. Just such a method has now been reported.

  13. Enthusiasms and realities in advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1987-04-01

    This paper offers general comments on the past, present, and future of materials technology. The process by which a substance becomes an engineering material is lengthy. The following functional areas are likely to grow most in the foreseeable future: photonics, robotics, prosthetics, astronautics, and nanoelectronics. The trend in advanced materials is toward integration. (DLC)

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  15. Fabrication of bioinspired nanostructured materials via colloidal self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Han

    Through millions of years of evolution, nature creates unique structures and materials that exhibit remarkable performance on mechanicals, opticals, and physical properties. For instance, nacre (mother of pearl), bone and tooth show excellent combination of strong minerals and elastic proteins as reinforced materials. Structured butterfly's wing and moth's eye can selectively reflect light or absorb light without dyes. Lotus leaf and cicada's wing are superhydrophobic to prevent water accumulation. The principles of particular biological capabilities, attributed to the highly sophisticated structures with complex hierarchical designs, have been extensively studied. Recently, a large variety of novel materials have been enabled by natural-inspired designs and nanotechnologies. These advanced materials will have huge impact on practical applications. We have utilized bottom-up approaches to fabricate nacre-like nanocomposites with "brick and mortar" structures. First, we used self-assembly processes, including convective self-assembly, dip-coating, and electrophoretic deposition to form well oriented layer structure of synthesized gibbsite (aluminum hydroxide) nanoplatelets. Low viscous monomer was permeated into layered nanoplatelets and followed by photo-curing. Gibbsite-polymer composite displays 2 times higher tensile strength and 3 times higher modulus when compared with pure polymer. More improvement occurred when surface-modified gibbsite platelets were cross-linked with the polymer matrix. We observed ˜4 times higher strength and nearly 1 order of magnitude higher modulus than pure polymer. To further improve the mechanical strength and toughness of inorganicorganic nanocomposites, we exploited ultrastrong graphene oxide (GO), a single atom thick hexagonal carbon sheet with pendant oxidation groups. GO nanocomposite is made by co-filtrating GO/polyvinyl alcohol suspension on 0.2 im pore-sized membrane. It shows ˜2 times higher strength and ˜15 times higher

  16. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  17. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  18. Advanced baffle materials technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Vonbenken, C. J.; Halverson, W. D.; Evans, R. D.; Wollam, J. S.

    1991-10-01

    Optical sensors for strategic defense will require optical baffles to achieve adequate off-axis stray light rejection and pointing accuracy. Baffle materials must maintain their optical performance after exposure to both operational and threat environments. In addition, baffle materials must not introduce contamination which would compromise the system signal-to-noise performance or impair system mission readiness. Critical examination of failure mechanisms in current baffle materials are quite fragile and contribute to system contamination problems. Spire has developed technology to texture the substrate directly, thereby, removing minute, fragile interfaces subject to mechanical failure. This program has demonstrated that ion beam texturing produces extremely dark surfaces which are immune to damage from ordinary handling. This technology allows control of surface texture feature size and hence the optical wavelength at which the surface absorbs. The USAMTL/Spire program has produced dramatic improvements in the reflectance of ion beam textured aluminum without compromising mechanical hardness. In simulated launch vibration tests, this material produced no detectable contamination on adjacent catcher plates.

  19. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  20. Magnetic Levitational Assembly for Living Material Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Tasoglu, Savas; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Liaudanskaya, Volha; Guven, Sinan; Migliaresi, Claudio; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-15

    Functional living materials with microscale compositional topographies are prevalent in nature. However, the creation of biomaterials composed of living micro building blocks, each programmed by composition, functionality, and shape, is still a challenge. A powerful yet simple approach to create living materials using a levitation-based magnetic method is presented.

  1. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  2. Advanced Microelectronics and Materials Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    grain size have been fabricated using sol-gel processing. The process has also been used to produce composite fibers containing tetragonal zirconia ... tetragonal zirconia have also been produced. Microwave energy has been demonstrated as a viable method for ignition of self- propagating synthesis. A...have been produced on several Isubstrate materials. Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia with dispersed alpha-alumina has been produced in short

  3. Advanced Materials for Neural Surface Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Amelia A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing electrodes for neural interfacing applications requires deep consideration of a multitude of materials factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the stiffness, biocompatibility, biostability, dielectric, and conductivity properties of the materials involved. The combination of materials properties chosen not only determines the ability of the device to perform its intended function, but also the extent to which the body reacts to the presence of the device after implantation. Advances in the field of materials science continue to yield new and improved materials with properties well-suited for neural applications. Although many of these materials have been well-established for non-biological applications, their use in medical devices is still relatively novel. The intention of this review is to outline new material advances for neural electrode arrays, in particular those that interface with the surface of the nervous tissue, as well as to propose future directions for neural surface electrode development. PMID:26392802

  4. Advanced Materials for Neural Surface Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Amelia A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C

    2014-12-01

    Designing electrodes for neural interfacing applications requires deep consideration of a multitude of materials factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the stiffness, biocompatibility, biostability, dielectric, and conductivity properties of the materials involved. The combination of materials properties chosen not only determines the ability of the device to perform its intended function, but also the extent to which the body reacts to the presence of the device after implantation. Advances in the field of materials science continue to yield new and improved materials with properties well-suited for neural applications. Although many of these materials have been well-established for non-biological applications, their use in medical devices is still relatively novel. The intention of this review is to outline new material advances for neural electrode arrays, in particular those that interface with the surface of the nervous tissue, as well as to propose future directions for neural surface electrode development.

  5. Soft materials design via self assembly of functionalized icosahedral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Vidyalakshmi Chockalingam

    In this work we simulate self assembly of icosahedral building blocks using a coarse grained model of the icosahedral capsid of virus 1m1c. With significant advancements in site-directed functionalization of these macromolecules [1], we propose possible application of such self-assembled materials for drug delivery. While there have been some reports on organization of viral particles in solution through functionalization, exploiting this behaviour for obtaining well-ordered stoichiometric structures has not yet been explored. Our work is in well agreement with the earlier simulation studies of icosahedral gold nanocrystals, giving chain like patterns [5] and also broadly in agreement with the wet lab works of Finn, M.G. et al., who have shown small predominantly chain-like aggregates with mannose-decorated Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) [22] and small two dimensional aggregates with oligonucleotide functionalization on the CPMV capsid [1]. To quantify the results of our Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations I developed analysis routines in MATLAB using which we found the most preferable nearest neighbour distances (from the radial distribution function (RDF) calculations) for different lengths of the functional groups and under different implicit solvent conditions, and the most frequent coordination number for a virus particle (histogram plots further using the information from RDF). Visual inspection suggests that our results most likely span the low temperature limits explored in the works of Finn, M.G. et al., and show a good degree of agreement with the experimental results in [1] at an annealing temperature of 4°C. Our work also reveals the possibility of novel stoichiometric N-mer type aggregates which could be synthesized using these capsids with appropriate functionalization and solvent conditions.

  6. Self-assembled peptide nanostructures for functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardan Ekiz, Melis; Cinar, Goksu; Aref Khalily, Mohammad; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2016-10-01

    Nature is an important inspirational source for scientists, and presents complex and elegant examples of adaptive and intelligent systems created by self-assembly. Significant effort has been devoted to understanding these sophisticated systems. The self-assembly process enables us to create supramolecular nanostructures with high order and complexity, and peptide-based self-assembling building blocks can serve as suitable platforms to construct nanostructures showing diverse features and applications. In this review, peptide-based supramolecular assemblies will be discussed in terms of their synthesis, design, characterization and application. Peptide nanostructures are categorized based on their chemical and physical properties and will be examined by rationalizing the influence of peptide design on the resulting morphology and the methods employed to characterize these high order complex systems. Moreover, the application of self-assembled peptide nanomaterials as functional materials in information technologies and environmental sciences will be reviewed by providing examples from recently published high-impact studies.

  7. Microfluidic assembly of multiscale soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Lian; Guenther, Axel

    2010-11-01

    The vast majority of materials found in nature are characterized by length scales that span several orders of magnitude. Material properties such as porosity, permeability and elasticity are therefore locally and directionally tuned to their (biological) function and adapted to local environmental conditions. We use a massively scaled microfluidic approach to synthetically define multiscale complex fluids and soft materials with precisely tunable, non-isentropic bulk properties. Two or more fluids are separately introduced to the device that consists of fifteen vertically bonded and fluidically connected substrate layers, and guided to an exit section that either consists of 23 equidistantly spaced channels or a 23 x 15 channel array. The flow rates through individual channels are computer-controlled. Upon entering a reservoir in a flow-focusing configuration, a spatially organized fluid with characteristic length scales of 250 microns and 10 mm was defined, and retained via a chemical reaction. To illustrate different soft material morphologies in one, two or three directions, we demonstrate the formation of isolated fibers (1D); planar graded and barcoded materials (2D); graded bulk materials and perfusable matrices (3D).

  8. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2005-12-13

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  9. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2008-08-19

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  10. Assembly of surface engineered nanoparticles for functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xi

    Nanoparticles are regarded as exciting new building blocks for functional materials due to their fascinating physical properties because of the nano-confinement. Organizing nanoparticles into ordered hierarchical structures are highly desired for constructing novel optical and electrical artificial materials that are different from their isolated state or thermodynamics random ensembles. My research integrates the surface chemistry of nanoparticles, interfacial assembly and lithography techniques to construct nanoparticle based functional structures. We designed and synthesized tailor-made ligands for gold, semiconductor and magnetic nanoparticle, to modulate the assembly process and collective properties of the assembled structures, by controlling the key parameters such as particle-interface interaction, dielectric environments and inter-particle coupling etc. Top-down technologies such as micro contact printing, photolithography and nanoimprint lithography are used to guide the assembly into arbitrarily predesigned structures for potential device applications.

  11. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    PubMed

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-07

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described.

  12. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-04

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  13. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  14. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  15. Hydrodynamic Self-Assembly of Topographical Patterns on Soft Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-06

    The objective of this project is to use theoretical tools to explore fundamentally new ways of creating and controlling surface topography on soft materials (e.g., polymeric liquids, gels, colloidal suspensions) that make use of principles from hydrodynamics and self-assembly. Surface topography is known to have a significant impact on the optical, adhesive, and wetting properties of materials, so improved fundamental understanding of how to create and control it will help enable the tailoring of these properties to desired specifications. Self-assembly is the spontaneous organization of an ordered structure, and hydrodynamics often plays an important role in the self-assembly of soft materials. This research supported through this project has led to the discovery of a number of novel phenomena that are described in published journal articles. In this way, the research significantly adds to the fundamental understanding of the topics investigated.

  16. Ionic self-assembly for functional hierarchical nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Faul, Charl F J

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: The challenge of constructing soft functional materials over multiple length scales can be addressed by a number of different routes based on the principles of self-assembly, with the judicious use of various noncovalent interactions providing the tools to control such self-assembly processes. It is within the context of this challenge that we have extensively explored the use of an important approach for materials construction over the past decade: exploiting electrostatic interactions in our ionic self-assembly (ISA) method. In this approach, cooperative assembly of carefully chosen charged surfactants and oppositely charged building blocks (or tectons) provides a facile noncovalent route for the rational design and production of functional nanostructured materials. Generally, our research efforts have developed with an initial focus on establishing rules for the construction of novel noncovalent liquid-crystalline (LC) materials. We found that the use of double-tailed surfactant species (especially branched double-tailed surfactants) led to the facile formation of thermotropic (and, in certain cases, lyotropic) phases, as demonstrated by extensive temperature-dependent X-ray and light microscopy investigations. From this core area of activity, research expanded to cover issues beyond simple construction of anisotropic materials, turning to the challenge of inclusion and exploitation of switchable functionality. The use of photoactive azobenzene-containing ISA materials afforded opportunities to exploit both photo-orientation and surface relief grating formation. The preparation of these anisotropic LC materials was of interest, as the aim was the facile production of disposable and low-cost optical components for display applications and data storage. However, the prohibitive cost of the photo-orientation processes hampered further exploitation of these materials. We also expanded our activities to explore ISA of biologically relevant tectons

  17. Development of advanced micromirror arrays by flip-chip assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Bright, Victor M.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents the design, commercial prefabrication, modeling and testing of advanced micromirror arrays fabricated using a novel, simple and inexpensive flip-chip assembly technique. Several polar piston arrays and rectangular cantilever arrays were fabricated using flip-chip assembly by which the upper layers of the array are fabricated on a separate chip and then transferred to a receiving module containing the lower layers. Typical polar piston arrays boast 98.3% active surface area, highly planarized surfaces, low address potentials compatible with CMOS electronics, highly standardized actuation between devices, and complex segmentation of mirror surfaces which allows for custom aberration configurations. Typical cantilever arrays boast large angles of rotation as well as an average surface planarity of only 1.779 nm of RMS roughness across 100 +m mirrors. Continuous torsion devices offer stable operation through as much as six degrees of rotation while binary operation devices offer stable activated positions with as much as 20 degrees of rotation. All arrays have desirable features of costly fabrication services like five structural layers and planarized mirror surfaces, but are prefabricated in the less costly MUMPs process. Models are developed for all devices and used to compare empirical data.

  18. Self-Assembled Materials Made from Functional Recombinant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeongseon; Champion, Julie A

    2016-10-18

    Proteins are potent molecules that can be used as therapeutics, sensors, and biocatalysts with many advantages over small-molecule counterparts due to the specificity of their activity based on their amino acid sequence and folded three-dimensional structure. However, they also have significant limitations in their stability, localization, and recovery when used in soluble form. These opportunities and challenges have motivated the creation of materials from such functional proteins in order to protect and present them in a way that enhances their function. We have designed functional recombinant fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into materials with unique structures that maintain or improve the functionality of the protein. Fusion of either a functional protein or an assembly domain to a leucine zipper domain makes the materials design strategy modular, based on the high affinity between leucine zippers. The self-assembly domains, including elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) and defined-sequence random coil polypeptides, can be fused with a leucine zipper motif in order to promote assembly of the fusion proteins into larger structures upon specific stimuli such as temperature and ionic strength. Fusion of other functional domains with the counterpart leucine zipper motif endows the self-assembled materials with protein-specific functions such as fluorescence or catalytic activity. In this Account, we describe several examples of materials assembled from functional fusion proteins as well as the structural characterization, functionality, and understanding of the assembly mechanism. The first example is zipper fusion proteins containing ELPs that assemble into particles when introduced to a model extracellular matrix and subsequently disassemble over time to release the functional protein for drug delivery applications. Under different conditions, the same fusion proteins can self-assemble into hollow vesicles. The vesicles display a functional protein on

  19. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  20. Self-Assembly in Biosilicification and Biotemplated Silica Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Francisco M.; Coradin, Thibaud; Aimé, Carole

    2014-01-01

    During evolution, living organisms have learned to design biomolecules exhibiting self-assembly properties to build-up materials with complex organizations. This is particularly evidenced by the delicate siliceous structures of diatoms and sponges. These structures have been considered as inspiration sources for the preparation of nanoscale and nanostructured silica-based materials templated by the self-assembled natural or biomimetic molecules. These templates range from short peptides to large viruses, leading to biohybrid objects with a wide variety of dimensions, shapes and organization. A more recent strategy based on the integration of biological self-assembly as the driving force of silica nanoparticles organization offers new perspectives to elaborate highly-tunable, biofunctional nanocomposites. PMID:28344249

  1. Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access)   Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.

  2. Integrating Language Lab Materials into Advanced Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allar, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of language lab materials supplied by the pedagogical journal "Russkij Jazyk Za Rubezom" in an advanced Russian-language class. Each week students were given a relevant picture and vocabulary list prior to listening to a taped story. The story was used as the basis for conversation. (LMO)

  3. Spontaneous Motion in Hierarchically Assembled Active Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    With exquisite precision and reproducibility, cells orchestrate the cooperative action of thousands of nanometer-sized molecular motors to carry out mechanical tasks at much larger length scales, such as cell motility, division and replication. Besides their biological importance, such inherently far-from-equilibrium processes are an inspiration for the development of soft materials with highly sought after biomimetic properties such as autonomous motility and self-healing. I will describe our exploration of such a class of biologically inspired soft active materials. Starting from extensile bundles comprised of microtubules and kinesin, we hierarchically assemble active analogs of polymeric gels, liquid crystals and emulsions. At high enough concentration, microtubule bundles form an active gel network capable of generating internally driven chaotic flows that enhance transport and fluid mixing. When confined to emulsion droplets, these 3D networks buckle onto the water-oil interface forming a dense thin film of bundles exhibiting cascades of collective buckling, fracture, and self-healing driven by internally generated stresses from the kinesin clusters. When compressed against surfaces, this active nematic cortex exerts traction stresses that propel the locomotion of the droplet. Taken together, these observations exemplify how assemblies of animate microscopic objects exhibit collective biomimetic properties that are fundamentally distinct from those found in materials assembled from inanimate building blocks. These assemblies, in turn, enable the generation of a new class of materials that exhibit macroscale flow phenomena emerging from nanoscale components.

  4. Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catella, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.

  5. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  7. Self-assembly of nucleic acids, silk and hybrid materials thereof.

    PubMed

    Humenik, Martin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Top-down approaches based on etching techniques have almost reached their limits in terms of dimension. Therefore, novel assembly strategies and types of nanomaterials are required to allow technological advances. Self-assembly processes independent of external energy sources and unlimited in dimensional scaling have become a very promising approach. Here,we highlight recent developments in self-assembled DNA-polymer, silk-polymer and silk-DNA hybrids as promising materials with biotic and abiotic moieties for constructing complex hierarchical materials in ‘bottom-up’ approaches. DNA block copolymers assemble into nanostructures typically exposing a DNA corona which allows functionalization, labeling and higher levels of organization due to its specific addressable recognition properties. In contrast, self-assembly of natural silk proteins as well as their recombinant variants yields mechanically stable β-sheet rich nanostructures. The combination of silk with abiotic polymers gains hybrid materials with new functionalities. Together, the precision of DNA hybridization and robustness of silk fibrillar structures combine in novel conjugates enable processing of higher-order structures with nanoscale architecture and programmable functions.

  8. Self-assembly of nucleic acids, silk and hybrid materials thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humenik, Martin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Top-down approaches based on etching techniques have almost reached their limits in terms of dimension. Therefore, novel assembly strategies and types of nanomaterials are required to allow technological advances. Self-assembly processes independent of external energy sources and unlimited in dimensional scaling have become a very promising approach. Here, we highlight recent developments in self-assembled DNA-polymer, silk-polymer and silk-DNA hybrids as promising materials with biotic and abiotic moieties for constructing complex hierarchical materials in ‘bottom-up’ approaches. DNA block copolymers assemble into nanostructures typically exposing a DNA corona which allows functionalization, labeling and higher levels of organization due to its specific addressable recognition properties. In contrast, self-assembly of natural silk proteins as well as their recombinant variants yields mechanically stable β-sheet rich nanostructures. The combination of silk with abiotic polymers gains hybrid materials with new functionalities. Together, the precision of DNA hybridization and robustness of silk fibrillar structures combine in novel conjugates enable processing of higher-order structures with nanoscale architecture and programmable functions.

  9. Microbial astronauts: assembling microbial communities for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem

  10. Supramolecular chirality in self-assembled soft materials: regulation of chiral nanostructures and chiral functions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Qin, Long; Wang, Xiufeng; Cao, Hai; Liu, Minghua

    2014-10-29

    Supramolecular chirality, which arises from the nonsymmetric spatial arrangement of components in the self-assembly systems, has gained great attention owing to its relation to the natural biological structures and the possible new functions in advanced materials. During the self-assembling process, both chiral and achiral components are possible to form chiral nanostructures. Therefore, it becomes an important issue how to fabricate these molecular components into chiral nanostructures. Furthermore, once the chiral nanostructure is obtained, will it show new functions that simple component molecule could not? In this research news, we report our recent development in the regulation of chiral nanostructures in soft gels or vesicle materials. We have further developed several new functions pertaining to the soft gel materials, which single chiral molecules could not perform, such as the chiroptical switch, chiral recognition and the asymmetry catalysis.

  11. Self-assembled peptide nanostructures for functional materials.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Melis Sardan; Cinar, Goksu; Khalily, Mohammad Aref; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-10-07

    Nature is an important inspirational source for scientists, and presents complex and elegant examples of adaptive and intelligent systems created by self-assembly. Significant effort has been devoted to understanding these sophisticated systems. The self-assembly process enables us to create supramolecular nanostructures with high order and complexity, and peptide-based self-assembling building blocks can serve as suitable platforms to construct nanostructures showing diverse features and applications. In this review, peptide-based supramolecular assemblies will be discussed in terms of their synthesis, design, characterization and application. Peptide nanostructures are categorized based on their chemical and physical properties and will be examined by rationalizing the influence of peptide design on the resulting morphology and the methods employed to characterize these high order complex systems. Moreover, the application of self-assembled peptide nanomaterials as functional materials in information technologies and environmental sciences will be reviewed by providing examples from recently published high-impact studies.

  12. Advanced fiber/matrix material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Work completed in Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology program is discussed. Two towpreg forms (commingled yarns and fused powder towpregs) are being characterized under the program. These towpregs will be used to evaluate textile fabrication technologies for advanced aircraft composite structures. The unique characteristic of both of these material forms is that both fiber and matrix resin are handled in a single operation such as weaving, braiding, or fiber placement. The evaluation of both commingled and fused powder towpreg is described. Various polymer materials are considered for both subsonic and supersonic applications. Polymers initially being evaluated include thermoplastic polyimides such as Larc-TPI and New-TPI, thermoplastics such as PEEK and PEKEKK as well as some toughened crosslinked polyimides. Preliminary mechanical properties as well as tow handling are evaluated.

  13. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry; Hunag, C.-K.; Cheng, S.; Chi, S. C.; Gogna, P.; Paik, J.; Ravi, V.; Firdosy, S.; Ewell, R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress and processes involved in creating new and advanced thermoelectric materials to be used in the design of new radioiootope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). In a program with Department of Energy, NASA is working to develop the next generation of RTGs, that will provide significant benefits for deep space missions that NASA will perform. These RTG's are planned to be capable of delivering up to 17% system efficiency and over 12 W/kg specific power. The thermoelectric materials being developed are an important step in this process.

  14. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  15. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  16. Precision machining of advanced materials with waterjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in abrasive waterjet technology have elevated to the state that it often competes on equal footing with lasers and EDM for precision machining. Under the support of a National Science Foundation SBIR Phase II grant, OMAX has developed and commercialized micro abrasive water technology that is incorporated into a MicroMAX® JetMa- chining® Center. Waterjet technology, combined both abrasive waterjet and micro abrasive waterjet technology, is capable of machining most materials from macro to micro scales for a wide range of part size and thickness. Waterjet technology has technological and manufacturing merits that cannot be matched by most existing tools. As a cold cutting tool that creates no heat-affected zone, for example, waterjet cuts much faster than wire EDM and laser when measures to minimize a heat-affected zone are taken into account. In addition, waterjet is material independent; it cuts materials that cannot be cut or are difficult to cut otherwise. The versatility of waterjet has also demonstrated machining simulated nanomaterials with large gradients of material properties from metal, nonmetal, to anything in between. This paper presents waterjet-machined samples made of a wide range of advanced materials from macro to micro scales.

  17. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  18. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-06-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together {approx}100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  19. Implications of smart materials in advanced prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoe, Edward M.; Radicic, William N.; Knapp, Michael S.

    1994-05-01

    This research reviews common implant materials and suggests smart materials that may be used as substitutes. Current prosthetic technology, including artificial limbs, joints, and soft and hard tissue, falls short in comprehensive characterization of the chemo-mechanics and materials relationships of the natural tissues and their prosthetic materials counterparts. Many of these unknown chemo-mechanical properties in natural tissue systems maintain cooperative function that allows for optimum efficiency in performance and healing. Traditional prosthetic devices have not taken into account the naturally occurring electro-chemo-mechanical stress- strain relationships that normally exist in a tissue system. Direct mechanical deformation of tissue and cell membrane as a possible use of smart materials may lead to improved prosthetic devices once the mechanosensory systems in living tissues are identified and understood. Smart materials may aid in avoiding interfacial atrophy which is a common cause of prosthetic failure. Finally, we note that advanced composite materials have not received sufficient attention, they should be more widely used in prosthetics. Their structural efficiency allows design and construction of truly efficient bionic devices.

  20. Recent advances in organic semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2011-10-01

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their low cost, easy fabrication, and tunable properties. Applications of organic materials in thin-film transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and many other devices have been actively explored. Recent advances in organic synthesis, material processing, and device fabrication led to significant improvements in (opto)electronic device performance. However, a number of challenges remain. These range from lack of understanding of basic physics of intermolecular interactions that determine optical and electronic properties of organic materials to difficulties in controlling film morphology and stability. In this presentation, current state of the field will be reviewed and recent results related to charge carrier and exciton dynamics in organic thin films will be presented.[4pt] In collaboration with Whitney Shepherd, Mark Kendrick, Andrew Platt, Oregon State University; Marsha Loth and John Anthony, University of Kentucky.

  1. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  2. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G; Williams, T; Wendelin, T

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development program at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  3. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Williams, Tom; Wendelin, Tim

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development at the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  4. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Innovative low temperature SOFCs and advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Yang, X. T.; Xu, J.; Zhu, Z. G.; Ji, S. J.; Sun, M. T.; Sun, J. C.

    High ionic conductivity, varying from 0.01 to 1 S cm -1 between 300 and 700 °C, has been achieved for the hybrid and nano-ceria-composite electrolyte materials, demonstrating a successful application for advanced low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). The LTSOFCs were constructed based on these new materials. The performance of 0.15-0.25 W cm -2 was obtained in temperature region of 320-400 °C for the ceria-carbonate composite electrolyte, and of 0.35-0.66 W cm -2 in temperature region of 500-600 °C for the ceria-lanthanum oxide composites. The cell could even function at as low as 200 °C. The cell has also undergone a life test for several months. A two-cell stack was studied, showing expected performance successfully. The excellent LTSOFC performance is resulted from both functional electrolyte and electrode materials. The electrolytes are two phase composite materials based on the oxygen ion and proton conducting phases, or two rare-earth oxides. The electrodes used were based on the same composite material system having excellent compatibility with the electrolyte. They are highly catalytic and conductive thus creating the excellent performances at low temperatures. These innovative LT materials and LTSOFC technologies would open the door for wide applications, not only for stationary but also for mobile power sources.

  7. Combustion and self-assembly of nanoenergetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchi, Jonathan Yaniv

    The recent worldwide interest in nanotechnology spans a wide variety of scientific fields such as electronics, biology, materials science and medicine. Because of their extremely small dimensions, nanoparticles demonstrate properties different from matter at larger scales. Understanding these unusual properties and utilizing them for macroscale devices is an overall goal for nanotechnology. Moreover, manipulating these small particles into organized structures is crucial for taking full advantage of what nanotechnology has to offer, however it has proven to be a difficult task. Recent work utilizing electrostatic forces shows great potential for the self-assembly of nanoparticles into organized two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. Overall, this work examines how nanotechnology and self-assembly can benefit the field of energetic materials. Because of aluminum's high energy density and low cost, it has been used in the field of energetic materials for several decades. In order to achieve sufficient energy release rates, aluminum is typically manufactured as a powder having spherical particles with diameters on the micron scale. It is well-known that decreasing the original particle diameter of a fuel particle will increase the burning time and, thus, energy release rate. Therefore, aluminum particles have recently been made to have diameters on the nanoscale, and shown to be advantageous for several applications. The combustion of nanoaluminum (nAl) in various systems is the primary focus of this study. A progression of experiments is used to analyze the combustion of nAl: (1) a fully heterogeneous flame spread system, (2) a semi-homogeneous sonicated thermite system and (3) a quasi-homogeneous self-assembled thermite system. The flame spread experiment physically separates the nAl from the gaseous oxidizer allowing for a well-understood convective, diffusive, reactive system to be analyzed. Because of the simplicity of the experimental setup, variables

  8. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  9. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  10. NREL Advances Spillover Materials for Hydrogen Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in advancing spillover materials for hydrogen storage and improving the reproducible synthesis, long-term durability, and material costs of hydrogen storage materials. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  11. Advancements in MEMS materials and processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, John D.; Bolin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    From achievements in display imaging to air bag deployment, microelectromechanical systems are becoming more commonplace in everyday life. With an abundance of opportunities for innovative R&D in the field, the research trends are not only directed toward novel sensor and actuator development, but also toward further miniaturization, specifically achieving micro- and nanoscaled integrated systems. R&D efforts in space, military, and commercial applications are directing specific research programs focused on the area of materials science as an enabling technology to be exploited by researchers and to further push the envelope of micrometerscaled device technology. These endeavors are making significant progress in bringing this aspect of the microelectro-mechanical field to maturation through advances in materials and processing technologies.

  12. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  13. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the

  14. Seal assembly for materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOEpatents

    Minford, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Seal assembly comprising (a) two or more seal elements, each element having having a coefficient of thermal expansion; and (b) a clamping element having a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting segment between and attached to the first and second segments, wherein the two or more seal elements are disposed between the first and second segments of the clamping element. The connecting segment has a central portion extending between the first segment of the clamping element and the second segment of the clamping element, and the connecting segment is made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the connecting segment is intermediate the largest and smallest of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the two or more seal elements.

  15. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Antenna Number 2 Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Four bearing assemblies, lubricated with Apiezon C oil with 5% lead naphthenate (PbNp), were life tested in support of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These assemblies were tested continuously for five to six years using the scanning pattern of the flight instrument. A post-life-test analysis was performed on two of the assemblies to evaluate the lubricant behavior and wear in the bearings.

  16. Graphene-based macroscopic assemblies and architectures: an emerging material system.

    PubMed

    Cong, Huai-Ping; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-11-07

    Due to the outstanding physicochemical properties arising from its truly two-dimensional (2D) planar structure with a single-atom thickness, graphene exhibits great potential for use in sensors, catalysts, electrodes, and in biological applications, etc. With further developments in the theoretical understanding and assembly techniques, graphene should enable great changes both in scientific research and practical industrial applications. By the look of development, it is of fundamental and practical significance to translate the novel physical and chemical properties of individual graphene nanosheets into the macroscale by the assembly of graphene building blocks into macroscopic architectures with structural specialities and functional novelties. The combined features of a 2D planar structure and abundant functional groups of graphene oxide (GO) should provide great possibilities for the assembly of GO nanosheets into macroscopic architectures with different macroscaled shapes through various assembly techniques under different bonding interactions. Moreover, macroscopic graphene frameworks can be used as ideal scaffolds for the incorporation of functional materials to offset the shortage of pure graphene in the specific desired functionality. The advantages of light weight, supra-flexibility, large surface area, tough mechanical strength, and high electrical conductivity guarantee graphene-based architectures wide application fields. This critical review mainly addresses recent advances in the design and fabrication of graphene-based macroscopic assemblies and architectures and their potential applications. Herein, we first provide overviews of the functional macroscopic graphene materials from three aspects, i.e., 1D graphene fibers/ribbons, 2D graphene films/papers, 3D network-structured graphene monoliths, and their composite counterparts with either polymers or nano-objects. Then, we present the promising potential applications of graphene-based macroscopic

  17. Assembly and testing of microparticle and microcapsule smart tattoo materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Microscale biochemical sensors are attractive for in vitro diagnostics and disease management, as well as medical and biological research applications. Fluorescent sensors, coupling specific glucose-binding proteins with fluorescent readout methods, have been developed for this purpose. Our work has focused on the development of assembly and packaging systems for producing micro- and nanoscale sensing components that can be used as implants, intracellular reporters, or as elements in larger systems. Both hybrid organic/inorganic particles and hollow microshells have been developed to physically couple the sensing materials together in biocompatible, semipermeable packages. Fabrication details and sensor characterization are used to demonstrate the potential of these sensor concepts.

  18. Hazardous material minimization for radar assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendment, enacted in November 1990, empowered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to completely eliminate the production and usage of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by January 2000. A reduction schedule for methyl chloroform beginning in 1993 with complete elimination by January 2002 was also mandated. In order to meet the mandates, the processes, equipment, and materials used to solder and clean electronic assemblies were investigated. A vapor-containing cleaning system was developed. The system can be used with trichloroethylene or d-Limonene. The solvent can be collected for recycling if desired. Fluxless and no-clean soldering were investigated, and the variables for a laser soldering process were identified.

  19. Hierarchical assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks: bio-inspired rigid structural functional materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Fang, Hai-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Han; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2011-07-01

    The huge diversity of hierarchical micro-/nano-rigid structures existing in biological systems is increasingly becoming a source of inspiration of materials scientists and engineers to create next-generation advanced functional materials. In the past decades, these multiscale hierarchical structures have been intensively investigated to show their contributions to high performance in mechanical properties. Recently, accompanied with the development of nanotechnology, some biologically hierarchical rigid structures have been duplicated and mimicked in artificial materials through hierarchical organization of micro-/nano-building blocks. In this critical review, we will present biological rigid structural models, functional micro-/nano-building blocks, and hierarchical assembly techniques for the manufacture of bio-inspired rigid structural functional materials (177 references).

  20. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  1. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  2. A manufacturing database of advanced materials used in spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.

    1994-01-01

    Cost savings opportunities over the life cycle of a product are highest in the early exploratory phase when different design alternatives are evaluated not only for their performance characteristics but also their methods of fabrication which really control the ultimate manufacturing costs of the product. In the past, Design-To-Cost methodologies for spacecraft design concentrated on the sizing and weight issues more than anything else at the early so-called 'Vehicle Level' (Ref: DOD/NASA Advanced Composites Design Guide). Given the impact of manufacturing cost, the objective of this study is to identify the principal cost drivers for each materials technology and propose a quantitative approach to incorporating these cost drivers into the family of optimization tools used by the Vehicle Analysis Branch of NASA LaRC to assess various conceptual vehicle designs. The advanced materials being considered include aluminum-lithium alloys, thermoplastic graphite-polyether etherketone composites, graphite-bismaleimide composites, graphite- polyimide composites, and carbon-carbon composites. Two conventional materials are added to the study to serve as baseline materials against which the other materials are compared. These two conventional materials are aircraft aluminum alloys series 2000 and series 7000, and graphite-epoxy composites T-300/934. The following information is available in the database. For each material type, the mechanical, physical, thermal, and environmental properties are first listed. Next the principal manufacturing processes are described. Whenever possible, guidelines for optimum processing conditions for specific applications are provided. Finally, six categories of cost drivers are discussed. They include, design features affecting processing, tooling, materials, fabrication, joining/assembly, and quality assurance issues. It should be emphasized that this database is not an exhaustive database. Its primary use is to make the vehicle designer

  3. Nanostructured photovoltaic materials using conjugated block copolymer assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, Sarah E.; Epps, Thomas H., III

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers containing a conjugated block offer attractive possibilities for creating nanostructured organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Current OPV materials suffer from efficiency losses primarily due to a size-scale discrepancy between exciton diffusion length and domain sizes; excitons that do not reach the interface between electron and hole-conducting materials recombine, preventing charge carrier separation. The inherent nature of block-copolymers to self-assemble into well-defined nanoscale structures with domain spacings on the order of exciton diffusion length offers a potential solution for reducing exciton recombination. In this work, allyl-terminated poly(3-hexyl thiophene) or poly(3-decyl thiophene) acting as electron donors are incorporated into the block copolymer chain via a coupling reaction with poly(styrene) or poly(isoprene- b -styrene) derivatives synthesized by anionic polymerization. The resulting block copolymer morphologies are characterized by small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  5. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Heavilin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing.

  6. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  7. Development of coupled SCALE4.2/GTRAN2 computational capability for advanced MOX fueled assembly designs

    SciTech Connect

    Vujic, J.; Greenspan, E.; Slater, Postma, T.; Casher, G.; Soares, I.; Leal, L.

    1995-05-01

    An advanced assembly code system that can efficiently and accurately analyze various designs (current and advanced) proposed for plutonium disposition is being developed by {open_quotes}marrying{close_quotes} two existing state-of-the-art methodologies-GTRAN2 and SCALE 4.2. The resulting code system, GT-SCALE, posses several unique characteristics: exact 2D representation of a complete fuel assembly, while preserving the heterogeniety of each of its pin cells; flexibility in the energy group structure, the present upper limit being 218 groups; a comprehensive cross-section library and material data base; and accurate burnup calculations. The resulting GT-SCALE is expected to be very useful for a wide variety of applications, including the analysis of very heterogeneous UO{sub 2} fueled LWR fuel assemblies; of hexagonal shaped fuel assemblies as of the Russian LWRs; of fuel assemblies for HTGRs; as well as for the analysis of criticality safety and for calculation of the source term of spent fuel.

  8. Functional materials from self-assembled bis-urea macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Linda S; Salpage, Sahan R; Korous, Arthur A

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: This Account highlights the work from our laboratories on bis-urea macrocycles constructed from two C-shaped spacers and two urea groups. These simple molecular units assembled with high fidelity into columnar structures guided by the three-centered urea hydrogen bonding motif and aryl stacking interactions. Individual columns are aligned and closely packed together to afford functional and homogeneous microporous crystals. This approach allows for precise and rational control over the dimensions of the columnar structure simply by changing the small molecular unit. When the macrocyclic unit lacks a cavity, columnar assembly gives strong pillars. Strong pillars with external functional groups such as basic lone pairs can expand like clays to accept guests between the pillars. Macrocycles that contain sizable interior cavities assemble into porous molecular crystals with aligned, well-defined columnar pores that are accessible to gases and guests. Herein, we examine the optimal design of the macrocyclic unit that leads to columnar assembly in high fidelity and probe the feasibility of incorporating a second functional group within the macrocycles. The porous molecular crystals prepared through the self-assembly of bis-urea macrocycles display surface areas similar to zeolites but lower than MOFs. Their simple one-dimensional channels are well-suited for studying binding, investigating transport, diffusion and exchange, and monitoring the effects of encapsulation on reaction mechanism and product distribution. Guests that complement the size, shape, and polarity of the channels can be absorbed into these porous crystals with repeatable stoichiometry to form solid host-guest complexes. Heating or extraction with an organic solvent enables desorption or removal of the guest and subsequent recovery of the solid host. Further, these porous crystals can be used as containers for the selective [2 + 2] cycloadditions of small enones such as 2-cyclohexenone or 3

  9. Advanced STEM Characterization of Nanoscale Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanchita

    Nanoscale materials are the key structures in determining the properties of many technologically-important materials. Two such important nanoscale materials for different technological applications are investigated in this dissertation. They are: Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts and irradiated metallic bi-layers. Catalytic activity depends on the structural parameters such as size, shape, and distribution on support. On the other hand, the radiation resistance of the model metallic multi-layers is influenced by the presence of interphase, phase-boundaries, and grain-boundaries. The focus of this dissertation is to use different TEM and STEM techniques to understand the structure of these materials. This dissertation begins with a review of the microscopy techniques used in the experiments. Then, in the next two chapters, literature review followed by results and discussions on the two above-mentioned nano materials are presented. Future research directions are included in the concluding chapter. To obtain three-dimensional morphological information of the FT catalysts during reduced/active state, STEM tomography is used. The oxidized state and reduced state is clarified by using STEM-EELS (in the form of spectrum imaging). We used a special vacuum transfer tomography holder and ex-situ gas assembly for reduction, and the reduction parameters are optimized for complete reduction. It was observed that the particle was reduced with 99.99% H2, and at 400°C for 15 minutes. The tomographic results in before-reduction condition depict that the Co-oxide particles are distributed randomly inside the alumina support. After reduction, the tomogram reveals that metallic Co nucleated and sintered towards the surface of the alumina support. The overall metallic Co distribution shows an outward segregation by subsurface diffusion mechanism. In the study of metallic bi-layer, He-irradiated gold twist grain boundary (AuTGB) was chosen as it is one of the least-studied systems in the

  10. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  11. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Liby, Alan L; Rogers, Hiram

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  12. Advanced composite materials for optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2013-09-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been well established in optomechanical systems for several decades. The other three classes of composites; metal matrix composites (MMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and carbon matrix composites (CAMCs) are making significant inroads. The latter include carbon/carbon (C/C) composites (CCCs). The success of composites has resulted in increasing use in consumer, industrial, scientific, and aerospace/defense optomechanical applications. Composites offer significant advantages over traditional materials, including high stiffnesses and strengths, near-zero and tailorable coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), tailorable thermal conductivities (from very low to over twice that of copper), and low densities. In addition, they lack beryllium's toxicity problems. Some manufacturing processes allow parts consolidation, reducing machining and joining operations. At present, PMCs are the most widely used composites. Optomechanical applications date from the 1970s. The second High Energy Astrophysical Observatory spacecraft, placed in orbit in 1978, had an ultrahigh-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (carbon/epoxy) optical bench metering structure. Since then, fibers and matrix materials have advanced significantly, and use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) has increased steadily. Space system examples include the Hubble Space Telescope metering truss and instrument benches, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), James Webb Space Telescope and many others. Use has spread to airborne applications, such as SOFIA. Perhaps the most impressive CFRP applications are the fifty-four 12m and twelve 7m moveable ground-based ALMA antennas. The other three classes of composites have a number of significant advantages over PMCs, including no moisture absorption or outgassing of organic compounds. CCC and CMC components have flown on a variety of spacecraft. MMCs have been used in space, aircraft, military and industrial

  13. Paradigm shift from self-assembly to commanded assembly of functional materials: recent examples in porphyrin/fullerene supramolecular systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mao; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Ji, Qingmin; Akada, Misaho; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Current nanotechnology based on top-down nanofabrication may encounter a variety of drawbacks in the near future so that development of alternative methods, including the so-called bottom-up approach, has attracted considerable attention. However, the bottom-up strategy, which often relies on spontaneous self-assembly, might be inefficient in the development of the requisite functional materials and systems. Therefore, assembly processes controlled by external stimuli might be a plausible strategy for the development of bottom-up nanotechnology. In this review, we demonstrate a paradigm shift from self-assembly to commanded assembly by describing several examples of assemblies of typical functional molecules, i.e. porphyrins and fullerenes. In the first section, we describe recent progress in the design and study of self-assembled and co-assembled supramolecular architectures of porphyrins and fullerenes. Then, we show examples of assembly induced by external stimuli. We emphasize the paradigm shift from self-assembly to commanded assembly by describing the recently developed electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer (ECC-LbL) methodology. PMID:27877511

  14. Advanced materials systems as commercial opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1987-04-01

    This paper shows that commercial opportunities in the materials area lie principally in materials systems, and much less in components made from differentiated individual materials. Examples are given.

  15. Beyond assemblies: system convergence and multi-materiality.

    PubMed

    Wiscombe, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The architectural construction industry has become increasingly more specialized over the past 50 years, creating a culture of layer thinking over part-to-whole thinking. Building systems and technologies are often cobbled together in conflicting and uncorrelated ways, even when referred to as 'integrated', such as by way of building information modeling. True integration of building systems requires rethinking how systems and architectural morphologies can push and pull on one another, creating not only innovation in technology but in aesthetics. The revolution in composite materials, with unprecedented plasticity and performance features, opens up a huge range of possibilities for achieving this kind of convergence. Composites by nature fuse envelope and structure, but through various types of inflections, they can also be made to conduct air and fluids through cavities and de-laminations, as well as integrate lighting and energy systems. Assembly as we know it moves away from mineral materials and hardware and toward polymers and 'healing'. Further, when projected into the near-future realm of multi-materiality and 3D manufacturing, possibilities for embedding systems and creating gradients of rigidity and opacity open up, pointing to an entirely new realm of architectural thinking.

  16. Cobalt Nanocrystals as Starting Materials for Shape Modificationand Assembly Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant-coated cobalt nanocrystals can be prepared with areasonable degree of control over particle size and shape using athermolytic route. The small crystallite size, enhanced reactivity andtunable interparticle interactions enable use of this material asstarting material for demonstration of achievement of novel structuresusing extremely simple solution-based approaches. In particular,formation of hollow cobalt sulfide nanocrystals upon chemicalmodification and emergence of long-range orientational order upondrying-mediated assembly of cobalt nanocrystals is reportedhere.Colloidal preparation of Co nanocrystals has been well-studied.Here, we emphasize general principles and crystallographic/morphologicalcharacterization of disk-shaped hcp-Co nanocrystals. Use of surfactantmolecules enables achievement of multiple morphologies in one syntheticsystem.Formation of hollow structures upon in-solution sulfidation of Conanocrystals is presented and discussed. A Kirkendall-type effect,involving dominant outward mass transport during formation of the ionicshell material explains the results naturally. It is expected that thisphenomenon will generalize extensively to formation of hollow structuresof an enormous variety of compositions. Detailed study of particlemorphology as a function of reaction conditions suggest phenomena likelyto be generally relevant to use of this approach. A short report ofcrystallographic co-alignment into vortex-like structures is alsoprovided. Our current best picture of this process involves an interplayof packing and magnetic interactions between facetedparticles.

  17. Advanced materials and nanotechnology for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-08-20

    Many biological barriers are of great importance. For example, stratum corneum, the outmost layer of skin, effectively protects people from being invaded by external microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling substances to enter and leave cells. However, on the other hand, these biological barriers seriously restrict drug delivery. For instance, stratum corneum has a very dense structure and only allows very small molecules with a molecular weight of below 500 Da to permeate whereas most drug molecules are much larger than that. A wide variety of drugs including genes needs to enter cells for proper functioning but cell membranes are not permeable to them. To overcome these biological barriers, many drug-delivery routes are being actively researched and developed. In this research news, we will focus on two advanced materials and nanotechnology approaches for delivering vaccines through the skin for painless and efficient immunization and transporting drug molecules to cross cell membranes for high-throughput intracellular delivery.

  18. Large-scale self-assembly of uniform submicron silver sulfide material driven by precise pressure control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Juanjuan; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shuhao; Yang, Yun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Shihe

    2017-03-01

    The controllable self-assembly of nanosized building blocks into larger specific structures can provide an efficient method of synthesizing novel materials with excellent properties. The self-assembly of nanocrystals by assisted means is becoming an extremely active area of research, because it provides a method of producing large-scale advanced functional materials with potential applications in the areas of energy, electronics, optics, and biologics. In this study, we applied an efficient strategy, namely, the use of ‘pressure control’ to the assembly of silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanospheres with a diameter of approximately 33 nm into large-scale, uniform Ag2S sub-microspheres with a size of about 0.33 μm. More importantly, this strategy realizes the online control of the overall reaction system, including the pressure, reaction time, and temperature, and could also be used to easily fabricate other functional materials on an industrial scale. Moreover, the thermodynamics and kinetics parameters for the thermal decomposition of silver diethyldithiocarbamate (Ag(DDTC)) are also investigated to explore the formation mechanism of the Ag2S nanosized building blocks which can be assembled into uniform sub-micron scale architecture. As a method of producing sub-micron Ag2S particles by means of the pressure-controlled self-assembly of nanoparticles, we foresee this strategy being an efficient and universally applicable option for constructing other new building blocks and assembling novel and large functional micromaterials on an industrial scale.

  19. Large-scale self-assembly of uniform submicron silver sulfide material driven by precise pressure control.

    PubMed

    Qi, Juanjuan; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shuhao; Yang, Yun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Shihe

    2017-03-10

    The controllable self-assembly of nanosized building blocks into larger specific structures can provide an efficient method of synthesizing novel materials with excellent properties. The self-assembly of nanocrystals by assisted means is becoming an extremely active area of research, because it provides a method of producing large-scale advanced functional materials with potential applications in the areas of energy, electronics, optics, and biologics. In this study, we applied an efficient strategy, namely, the use of 'pressure control' to the assembly of silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanospheres  with a diameter of approximately 33 nm into large-scale, uniform Ag2S sub-microspheres with a size of about 0.33 μm. More importantly, this strategy realizes the online control of the overall reaction system, including the pressure, reaction time, and temperature, and could also be used to easily fabricate other functional materials on an industrial scale. Moreover, the thermodynamics and kinetics parameters for the thermal decomposition of silver diethyldithiocarbamate (Ag(DDTC)) are also investigated to explore the formation mechanism of the Ag2S nanosized building blocks which can be assembled into uniform sub-micron scale architecture. As a method of producing sub-micron Ag2S particles by means of the pressure-controlled self-assembly of nanoparticles, we foresee this strategy being an efficient and universally applicable option for constructing other new building blocks and assembling novel and large functional micromaterials on an industrial scale.

  20. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  1. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and

  2. Studies of noise transmission in advanced composite material structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussos, L. A.; Mcgary, M. C.; Powell, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Noise characteristics of advanced composite material fuselages were discussed from the standpoints of applicable research programs and noise transmission theory. Experimental verification of the theory was also included.

  3. Advanced space engine powerhead breadboard assembly system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a preliminary design of a Powerhead Breadboard Assembly (PBA) for an 88 964-Newton (20,000-pound) thrust oxygen/hydrogen staged combustion cycle engine for use in orbital transfer vehicle propulsion. Existing turbopump, preburner, and thrust chamber components were integrated with interconnecting ducting, a heat exchanger, and a control system to complete the PBA design. Cycle studies were conducted to define starting transients and steady-state balances for the completed design. Specifications were developed for all valve applications and the conditions required for the control system integration with the facility for system test were defined.

  4. Self-assembled electrical materials from contorted aromatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shengxiong

    This thesis describes the design, synthesis, self-assembly and electrical properties of new types of contorted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These topologically interesting contorted aromatics show promising transistor characteristics as new building blocks for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) at different length scales. In chapter 2, a class of pentacenes that are substituted along their long edges with aromatic rings were synthesized. Their solid-state assemblies were studied by X-ray crystallography. Their performance as thin film transistors (TFTs) and single crystal field effect transistors (SCFETs) were systematically evaluated. A structure-property relationship between these highly phenylated pentacenes was found. Chapter 3 explores the new concept of whether a non-planar aromatic core could yield efficacious electronic materials, as the ultimate success in the organic electronics will require a holistic approach to creating new building blocks. Synthesis, functionalization and assembly of a new type of contorted hexabenzocoronene (HBC) whose aromatic core is heavily distorted away from planarity due to the steric congestion around its proximal carbons were discussed. Structural studies by X-ray crystallography showed that these HBC molecules stack into columnar structures in the solid state, which are ideal for conduction. Chapter 4 describes that microscale liquid crystalline thin film OFETs of tetradodecyloxy HBC showed the best transistor properties of all discotic columnar materials. Chapter 5 details the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale single crystalline fiber OFETs of octadodecyloxyl HBC. In Chapter 6 we show that a molecular scale monolayer of HBC acid chlorides could be self-assembled on SiO2 insulating layer and could be organized laterally between the ends of 2 nm carbon nanotube gaps to form high quality FETs that act as environmental and chemical sensors. Chapter 7 details the enforced one-dimensional photoconductivity

  5. Microelectromechanical system assembled ion optics: An advance to miniaturization and assembly of electron and ion optics

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.; Verbeck, G.; Saini, R.; Tsui, K.

    2009-09-15

    Deep-reactive ion etching of n-doped silicon-on-insulator is utilized to make ion optical components to aid in the miniaturization of mass analyzers. The microelectromechanical system components are bound to aluminum nitride substrates and employed three-dimensional assembly. The assembly methods are tested for breakdown (V{sub b}), durability, and alignment. Demonstration of ion manipulation is shown with a 1 mm Bradbury-Nielsen gate, 500 {mu}m Einzel lens, 500 {mu}m coaxial ring ion trap, and reflectron optics. Data are presented showing the resolution, attenuation, and performance of each of these devices. We demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of this technology and its applications to mass analysis.

  6. Solid State Cooling with Advanced Oxide Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    Properties and Response of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films for Advanced Devices, Workshop on Oxide Electronics (Sept. 2011, Napa , CA) [Invited] 19. L. W. Martin...Properties and Response of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films for Advanced Devices, Workshop on Oxide Electronics (Sept. 2011, Napa , CA) [Invited] 19. L. W

  7. Ordered Nanostructured Amphiphile Self-Assembly Materials from Endogenous Nonionic Unsaturated Monoethanolamide Lipids in Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Moghaddam, Minoo; Seddon, John M.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-08-23

    The self-assembly, solid state and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of a series of endogenous n-acylethanolamides (NAEs) with differing degrees of unsaturation, viz., oleoyl monoethanolamide, linoleoyl monoethanolamide, and linolenoyl monoethanolamide, have been examined. The studied molecules are known to possess inherent biological function. Both the monoethanolamide headgroup and the unsaturated hydrophobe are found to be important in dictating the self-assembly behavior of these molecules. In addition, all three molecules form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in water, including the inverse bicontinuous cubic diamond (Q{sub II}{sup D}) and gyroid (Q{sub II}{sup G}) phases. The ability of the NAE's to form inverse cubic phases and to be dispersed into ordered nanostructured colloidal particles, cubosomes, in excess water, combined with their endogenous nature and natural medicinal properties, makes this new class of soft mesoporous amphiphile self-assembly materials suitable candidates for investigation in a variety of advanced multifunctional applications, including encapsulation and controlled release of therapeutic agents and incorporation of medical imaging agents.

  8. Symposium DD: Low-Dimensional Materials-Synthesis, Assembly, Property Scaling and Modeling. Held in San Francisco, CA on April 9-13, 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    experimental efforts. This symposium will focus on advanced syntheses of nanoscale materials (e.g. heterostructures of nanoparticles and nanowires...Likewise, Vishva Ray (UT Arlington) presented strategies to exploit electrostatic interactions between charged nanoparticles and charge-patterned substrates...to "funnel" nanoparticles into precise predetermined locations. Other directions in assembling and patterning nanoscale materials presented during

  9. Assembling and properties of the polymer-particle nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheparovych, Roman

    Complementary properties of the soft and hard matter explain its common encounter in many natural and manmade applications. A combination of flexible organic macromolecules and hard mineral clusters results in new materials far advantageous than its constituents alone. In this work we study assembling of colloidal nanocrystals and polymers into complex nanostructures. Magnetism, surface wettability and adhesion comprise properties of interest for the obtained nanocomposites. Applying a magnetic field induces a reversible 1D ordering of the magnetically susceptible particles. This property was employed in the fabrication of the permanent chains of magnetite nanocrystals (d=15nm). In the assembling process the aligned particles were bound together using polyelectrolyte macromolecules. The basics of the binding process involved an electrostatic interaction between the positively charged polyelectrolyte and the negative surface of the particles (aqueous environment). Adsorption of the polymer molecules onto several adjacent particles in the aligned 1D aggregate results in the formation of the permanent particulate chains. Positive charges of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte molecules stabilize the dispersion of the obtained nanostructures in water. Magnetization measurements revealed that superparamagnetic nanoparticles, being assembled into 1D ordered structures, attain magnetic coercivity. This effect originates from the magnetostatic interaction between the neighboring magnetite nanocrystals. The preferable dipole alignment of the assembled nanoparticles is directed along the chain axis. Another system studied in this project includes polymer-particle responsive surface coatings. Tethered polymer chains and particles bearing different functionalities change surface properties upon restructuring of the composite layer. When the environment favors polymer swelling (good solvent), the polymer chains segregate to the surface and cover the particles. In the opposite case

  10. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  11. Bin-scale tests dry test bin assembly [Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report consists of engineering drawings of the following areas of the WIPP facility: dry test bin assembly; internal bin manifold modified design; dry test bin details; humid bin RCB lid; SWB lid modification for RCB lid assembly and details; TRUPACT II standard waste box assembly; waste handling building 411 ground floor slab-sump plans and sections; and waste handling floor building 411 ground floor slab plan.

  12. Advanced Materials and Multifunctional Structures for Aerospace Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    through covalent integration of functional nanotubes ”, Advanced Functional Materials, 14(7) (2004) 643-648. 185 R.Z. Ma, J. Wu, B.Q. Wei, J. Liang, and...on Advanced Materials for Multi Functional Structures in Aerospace Vehicles. The advanced synthesis, processing and the characterization techniques...when more than one primary function is performed either simultaneously or sequentially in time. These systems are based on metallic, ceramic and

  13. Analysis of an advanced technology subsonic turbofan incorporating revolutionary materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Successful implementation of revolutionary composite materials in an advanced turbofan offers the possibility of further improvements in engine performance and thrust-to-weight ratio relative to current metallic materials. The present analysis determines the approximate engine cycle and configuration for an early 21st century subsonic turbofan incorporating all composite materials. The advanced engine is evaluated relative to a current technology baseline engine in terms of its potential fuel savings for an intercontinental quadjet having a design range of 5500 nmi and a payload of 500 passengers. The resultant near optimum, uncooled, two-spool, advanced engine has an overall pressure ratio of 87, a bypass ratio of 18, a geared fan, and a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 3085 R. Improvements result in a 33-percent fuel saving for the specified misssion. Various advanced composite materials are used throughout the engine. For example, advanced polymer composite materials are used for the fan and the low pressure compressor (LPC).

  14. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  15. Efficient material flow in mixed model assembly lines.

    PubMed

    Alnahhal, Mohammed; Noche, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In this study, material flow from decentralized supermarkets to stations in mixed model assembly lines using tow (tugger) trains is investigated. Train routing, scheduling, and loading problems are investigated in parallel to minimize the number of trains, variability in loading and in routes lengths, and line-side inventory holding costs. The general framework for solving these problems in parallel contains analytical equations, Dynamic Programming (DP), and Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Matlab in conjunction with LP-solve software was used to formulate the problem. An example was presented to explain the idea. Results which were obtained in very short CPU time showed the effect of using time buffer among routes on the feasible space and on the optimal solution. Results also showed the effect of the objective, concerning reducing the variability in loading, on the results of routing, scheduling, and loading. Moreover, results showed the importance of considering the maximum line-side inventory beside the capacity of the train in the same time in finding the optimal solution.

  16. Material instability in granular assemblies from fundamentally different models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibille, L.; Nicot, F.; Donzé, F. V.; Darve, F.

    2007-03-01

    Three fundamentally different models: a phenomenological constitutive relation, a micro-mechanical model and direct numerical simulations by Distinct Element Method (DEM) are compared in this paper. In addition, the local form of Hill's sufficient condition of stability (i.e. the vanishing of the second-order work d2W) is considered to describe material instabilities in granular assemblies. Stress probes in the axisymmetric plane of stress increments are achieved with all three models to check whether d2W vanishes at different stress-strain states. For all the models, cones of unstable stress directions (cones of stress probe directions for which d2W = 0) are found and they appear for stress states strictly inside the plastic limit condition. Thus, independently of the model, a bifurcation domain exists inside the plastic limit condition which can describe the sudden collapses of sand samples observed in laboratory tests before reaching the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Taking advantage of the different models considered, the vanishing of the second-order work is linked to the existence of non-associated plastic strains and to micro-mechanical bases. Copyright

  17. An Instrument for Advanced Material Microstructure Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    necesary end identify by bock number) forvelopment and evaluation of a Scintillator Fiber-optic Reticon Detector array (SFRD) for application to a high...ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Pg 1 Tomoscope Rotate-Only Scan Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Scintillator Fiber-Optic Reticon Detector (SFRD) Layout..... S 3...Design Drawing of SFRD Cryostat. 16 4 .ryostat/Detector Assembly Photographs ............. 18 5 Block Diagram of Reticon Control and Analog Signal

  18. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  19. New Advances in SuperConducting Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, new materials science concepts are bringing this essential technology closer to widespread industrial use.

  20. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the chemical system characterized by chrome sulfide, chrome selenide, lanthanum selenide, and lanthanum sulfide is described. Most materials within the chemical systems possess the requisites for attractive thermoelectric materials. The preparation of the alloys is discussed. Graphs show the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of various materials within the chemical systems. The results of selected doping are included.

  1. Advanced processing and properties of superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, J.

    1995-06-01

    The author reviews fundamental aspects of Superhard Materials with hardness close to that of diamond. These materials include cubic boron nitride (c-BN), carbon nitride ({beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and diamondlike carbon. Since these materials are metastable at normal temperatures and pressures, novel methods of synthesis and processing of these materials are required. This review focuses on synthesis and processing, detailed materials characterization and properties of c-BN and {beta}C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamondlike carbon films.

  2. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  3. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  4. Self assembling bioactive materials for cell adhesion in tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Julia J.

    This work involved the study of biodegradable and biocompatible materials that have the potential to modify tissue engineering scaffolds through self assembly, generating multiple layers that deliver bioactivity. Diblock biomaterials containing cholesteryl moieties and oligomers of lactic acid units were found to form single crystals when precipitated from hot ethanol and smectic liquid crystalline phases when cast as a film. Cell culture experiments on these films with 3T3 and 3T6 fibroblasts indicated that these ordered materials form surfaces with specific chemistries that favored cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation suggesting the potential of mediating human tissue repair. The author believes the cholesteryl moieties found on the surface play a key role in determining cell behavior. Cholesteryl-(L-lactic acid) diblock molecules were then functionalized with moieties including vitamin Bx, cholesterol, and the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. An unstable activated ester between indomethacin and the diblock molecule resulted in the release of indomethacin into the culture medium which inhibited the proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts. Finally, a series of molecules were designed to incorporate dendrons based on amino acids at the termini of the diblock structures. It was determined that lysine, a basic amino acid, covalently coupled to cholesteryl-(L-lactic acid) can promote cell adhesion and spreading while negatively charged and zwitterionic 2nd generation dendrons based on aspartic acid do not. Incorporation of the well known arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence, which is found in many adhesive proteins, to the dendrons imparted integrin-mediated cell adhesion as evidenced by the formation of stress fibers. We also explored the capacity of integrin receptors to bind to ligands that are not the linear form of RGD, but have R, G, and D spatially positioned to mimic the linear RGD environments. For this purpose, the arms of the 2 nd generation

  5. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  6. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-02

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  7. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  8. Rapid Set Materials for Advanced Spall Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    for compressive strength , flexural strength , and slant shear bond strength . Table 2 and Table 3 provide the material performance matrix details and... Shear Bond Strength Flexural Strength A High High High B Moderate High Moderate C Moderate Low Moderate D Low Low Low Table 3. Material Ranking

  9. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  10. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  11. Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    This is an introductory paper for the focused session "Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions". This session will concentrate on electrochemical advances in materials and components that have been achieved through efforts sponsored under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). This paper will discuss the performance goals for components and for High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells, advanced lithium-ion cells that will offer a combination of higher specific energy and improved safety over state-of-the-art. Papers in this session will span a broad range of materials and components that are under development to enable these cell development efforts.

  12. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  13. Advanced Hybrid Materials for Aerospace Propulsion Applications (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Viewgraph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2013- April 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced hybrid materials for aerospace propulsion applications ...Many material improvements are needed for specific aerospace propulsion applications . Because the industrial community in extremely risk-averse, the...activities focused on inert materials for solid rocket propulsion applications , including the development of alternative high-temperature thermosetting

  14. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-11-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  15. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  16. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... roof and ceiling assembly, and the floor assembly, Btu/(h·ft2·°F) Ao = the gross area of the building...) For metal roof trusses or metal studs covered by Tables 402.1.2.1a and b, the total resistance of the... 402.1.2.1a or b. Table 402.1.2.1a—Parallel Path Correction Factors—Metal Roof Trusses Spaced 4 ft....

  17. Engineering of fluorescent emission of silk fibroin composite materials by material assembly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Naibo; Meng, Zhaohui; Toh, Guoyang William; Zhen, Yang; Diao, Yingying; Xu, Hongyao; Liu, Xiang Yang

    2015-03-01

    This novel materials assembly technology endows the designated materials with additional/enhanced performance by fixing "functional components" into the materials. Such functional components are molecularly recognized and accommodated by the designated materials. In this regard, two-photon fluorescence (TPF) organic molecules and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are adopted as functional components to functionalize silk fibers and films. TPF organic molecules, such as, 2,7-bis[2-(4-nitrophenyl) ethenyl]-9,9-dibutylfluorene (NM), exhibit TPF emission quenching because of the molecular stacking that leads to aggregation in the solid form. The specific recognition between -NO2 in the annealed fluorescent molecules and the -NH groups in the silk fibroin molecules decouples the aggregated molecules. This gives rise to a significant increase in the TPF quantum yields of the silk fibers. Similarly, as another type of functional components, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were also adopted in the silk functionalization method. Compared to QDs in solution the fluorescence properties of functionalized silk materials display a long stability at room temperature. As the functional materials are well dispersed at high quantum yields in the biocompatible silk a TPF microscope can be used to pursue 3D high-resolution imaging in real time of the TPF-silk scaffold.

  18. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  19. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-07

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  20. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  1. Development of Advanced Ill-Nitride Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-24

    doping, p-n junctions, and InGaN/InN quantum well structures for terahertz emitters; and (iii) develop AlInN materials lattice-matched to GaN for... GaN and InN- based materials by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Work is focused on three areas: (i) extend on our pioneering work on high...temperature nitrogen-rich growth of GaN , where we have demonstrated a new growth space for realizing high quality GaN materials and devices including world

  2. Cumulative Damage Model for Advanced Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    conditions of static loads; various theories have been advanced to predict the onset and progress of these individual damage events. • The approach taken in...composite laminates, one common approach is the well-known "first ply failure" theory (see e.g. Tsai and Hahn [l]). The basic assumption in the theory ...edge interlaminar stresses provides a physical x tai,-ntion of the edge delamination phenomenon; a suitable theory defining t he conditions for its

  3. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  4. Bioinspired large-scale aligned porous materials assembled with dual temperature gradients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hao; Chen, Yuan; Delattre, Benjamin; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, teeth, shells, and wood, exhibit outstanding properties despite being porous and made of weak constituents. Frequently, they represent a source of inspiration to design strong, tough, and lightweight materials. Although many techniques have been introduced to create such structures, a long-range order of the porosity as well as a precise control of the final architecture remain difficult to achieve. These limitations severely hinder the scale-up fabrication of layered structures aimed for larger applications. We report on a bidirectional freezing technique to successfully assemble ceramic particles into scaffolds with large-scale aligned, lamellar, porous, nacre-like structure and long-range order at the centimeter scale. This is achieved by modifying the cold finger with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wedge to control the nucleation and growth of ice crystals under dual temperature gradients. Our approach could provide an effective way of manufacturing novel bioinspired structural materials, in particular advanced materials such as composites, where a higher level of control over the structure is required. PMID:26824062

  5. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  6. Advanced composite materials for precision segmented reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.; Bowles, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the development of new low coefficient of thermal expansion resins as matrices for graphite fiber reinforced composites, quartz fiber reinforced epoxies, and graphite reinforced glass. Low residual stress fabrication methods will be developed. When coupon specimens of these new material concepts have demonstrated the required surface accuracies and resistance to thermal distortion and microcracking, reflector panels will be fabricated and tested in simulated space environments. An important part of the program is the analytical modeling of environmental stability of these new composite materials concepts through constitutive equation development, modeling of microdamage in the composite matrix, and prediction of long term stability (including viscoelasticity). These analyses include both closed form and finite element solutions at the micro and macro levels.

  7. Advances in Anisotropic Materials for Optical Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-16

    large change in the effective refractive index of the material , comparable to that obtained at transformation of a liquid into vapor. Liquid...crystall ine materials (LCs), both low·molecular weight as well as polymeric, make feasible such large changes of effective refractive index without a...frequencies and thus are uniqucly suitable for designing opt ical struc tures that maXimize the effect of changing birefringence/orientation on

  8. Flow chemistry meets advanced functional materials.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rebecca M; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Turner, Richard M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-22

    Flow chemistry and continuous processing techniques are beginning to have a profound impact on the production of functional materials ranging from quantum dots, nanoparticles and metal organic frameworks to polymers and dyes. These techniques provide robust procedures which not only enable accurate control of the product material's properties but they are also ideally suited to conducting experiments on scale. The modular nature of flow and continuous processing equipment rapidly facilitates reaction optimisation and variation in function of the products.

  9. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  10. Fabrication and assembly of a superconducting undulator for the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Hasse, Quentin; Fuerst, J. D.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Doose, C.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Skiadopoulos, D.

    2014-01-29

    A prototype superconducting undulator magnet (SCU0) has been built at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has successfully completed both cryogenic performance and magnetic measurement test programs. The SCU0 closed loop, zero-boil-off cryogenic system incorporates high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads, cryocoolers, a LHe reservoir supplying dual magnetic cores, and an integrated cooled beam chamber. This system presented numerous challenges in the design, fabrication, and assembly of the device. Aspects of this R and D relating to both the cryogenic and overall assembly of the device are presented here. The SCU0 magnet has been installed in the APS storage ring.

  11. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  12. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  13. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  14. Advanced Engineering Materials: Products from Super Stuff. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of "smart" or advanced materials such as ceramics, metals, composites, and polymers. Provides a design brief, a student learning activity with outcomes, quiz, and resources. (SK)

  15. Contractile-Ring Assembly in Fission Yeast Cytokinesis: Recent Advances and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Ju; Coffman, Valerie C.; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an excellent model organism to study cytokinesis. Here, we review recent advances on contractile-ring assembly in fission yeast. First, we summarize the assembly of cytokinesis nodes, the precursors of a normal contractile ring. IQGAP Rng2 and myosin essential light chain Cdc4 are recruited by the anillin-like protein Mid1, followed by the addition of other cytokinesis node proteins. Mid1 localization on the plasma membrane is stabilized by interphase node proteins. Second, we discuss proteins and processes that contribute to the search, capture, pull, and release mechanism of contractile-ring assembly. Actin filaments nucleated by formin Cdc12, the motor activity of myosin-II, the stiffness of the actin network, and severing of actin filaments by cofilin all play essential roles in contractile-ring assembly. Finally, we discuss the Mid1-independent pathway for ring assembly, and the possible mechanisms underlying the ring maturation and constriction. Collectively, we provide an overview of the current understanding of contractile-ring assembly and uncover future directions in studying cytokinesis in fission yeast. PMID:22887981

  16. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  17. Advances in glazing materials for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    No one type of glazing is suitable for every application. Many materials are available that serve different purposes. Moreover, consumers may discover that they need two types of glazing for a home because of the directions that the windows face and the local climate. To make wise purchases, consumers should first examine their heating and cooling needs and prioritize desired features such as daylighting, solar heating, shading, ventilation, and aesthetic value. Research and development into types of glazing have created a new generation of materials that offer improved window efficiency and performance for consumers. While this new generation of glazing materials quickly gains acceptance in the marketplace, the research and development of even more efficient technology continues.

  18. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  19. Fabrication of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials by Hierarchical Nanovoid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare an advanced thermoelectric material has hierarchical structures embedded with nanometer-sized voids which are key to enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Solution-based thin film deposition technique enables preparation of stable film of thermoelectric material and void generator (voigen). A subsequent thermal process creates hierarchical nanovoid structure inside the thermoelectric material. Potential application areas of this advanced thermoelectric material with nanovoid structure are commercial applications (electronics cooling), medical and scientific applications (biological analysis device, medical imaging systems), telecommunications, and defense and military applications (night vision equipments).

  20. Ferrite Materials for Advanced Multifunction Microwave Systems Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-05

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Ferrite Materials for Advanced Multifunction Microwave Systems Applications Award No. (Grant) N00014-03-1-0070 PR...were also used in this work. (200 words) 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Microwave ferrites , yttrium iron garnet, lithium ferrites , hexagonal...Unlimited COVER PAGE FINAL REPORT to the UNITED STATES OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Ferrite Materials for Advanced Multifunction Microwave Systems

  1. Advance Abrasion Resistant Materials for Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.

    2004-06-01

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of. wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  2. ADVANCED ABRASION RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, G.M.

    2004-04-08

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  3. High-throughput development of amphiphile self-assembly materials: fast-tracking synthesis, characterization, formulation, application, and understanding.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Xavier; Conn, Charlotte E; Fong, Celesta; Kennedy, Danielle F; Moghaddam, Minoo J; Drummond, Calum J

    2013-07-16

    application. High-throughput data analysis is crucial at all stages to keep pace with data collection. In this Account, we describe high-throughput advances in the field of amphiphile self-assembly, focusing on nanostructured lyotropic liquid crystalline materials, which form when amphiphiles are added to a polar solvent. We outline recent progress in the automated preparation of amphiphile molecules and their nanostructured self-assembly systems both in the bulk phase and in dispersed colloidal particulate systems. Once prepared, we can structurally characterize these systems by establishing phase behavior in a high-throughput manner with both laboratory (infrared and light polarization microscopy) and synchrotron facilities (small-angle X-ray scattering). Additionally, we provide three case studies to demonstrate how chemists can use high-throughput approaches to evaluate the functional performance of amphiphile self-assembly materials. The high-throughput methodology for the set-up and characterization of large matrix in meso membrane protein crystallization trials can illustrate an application of bulk phase self-assembling amphiphiles. For dispersed colloidal systems, two nanomedicine examples highlight advances in high-throughput preparation, characterization, and evaluation: drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging agents.

  4. Proline-poor hydrophobic domains modulate the assembly and material properties of polymeric elastin.

    PubMed

    Muiznieks, Lisa D; Reichheld, Sean E; Sitarz, Eva E; Miao, Ming; Keeley, Fred W

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a self-assembling extracellular matrix protein that provides elasticity to tissues. For entropic elastomers such as elastin, conformational disorder of the monomer building block, even in the polymeric form, is essential for elastomeric recoil. The highly hydrophobic monomer employs a range of strategies for maintaining disorder and flexibility within hydrophobic domains, particularly involving a minimum compositional threshold of proline and glycine residues. However, the native sequence of hydrophobic elastin domain 30 is uncharacteristically proline-poor and, as an isolated polypeptide, is susceptible to formation of amyloid-like structures comprised of stacked β-sheet. Here we investigated the biophysical and mechanical properties of multiple sets of elastin-like polypeptides designed with different numbers of proline-poor domain 30 from human or rat tropoelastins. We compared the contributions of these proline-poor hydrophobic sequences to self-assembly through characterization of phase separation, and to the tensile properties of cross-linked, polymeric materials. We demonstrate that length of hydrophobic domains and propensity to form β-structure, both affecting polypeptide chain flexibility and cross-link density, play key roles in modulating elastin mechanical properties. This study advances the understanding of elastin sequence-structure-function relationships, and provides new insights that will directly support rational approaches to the design of biomaterials with defined suites of mechanical properties.

  5. Composite Materials for Advanced Global Mobility Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    materials: examples include impregnation with phenolic or other resins, lamination with Kevlar tape, and lamination with a phenolic-resin skin... nanofibers or nanotubes, and crushed calcined cokes can add significantly to the strength and tailorability of the foams; unidirectional expansion

  6. Self-Assembled Biomolecular Materials Confined on Lithographic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfohl, Thomas; Kim, Joon Heon; Case, Ryan; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2000-03-01

    Lithographically patterned Si-surfaces with different geometries (linear and circular channels) are used for confining and orienting assemblies of biomacromolecules. In order to direct the self assembly, the surfaces are coated with thin organic layers to change the hydrophobicity and surface charge. Droplet casting, spin coating and microinjection are used to fill the channels with biomaterials. In particular, the use of the microinjection technique allows us to control the formation of biomolecular assemblies for highly oriented x-ray samples as well as to fill single channels (width < 5μm) with dilute solutions for single molecule investigations. Biomaterials based on tubulin are our primary interest. We use fluorescence, confocal, and polarization microscopy to observe the polymerization of microtubules from tubulin and the formation of tubulin-cationic lipid complexes. Supported by NSF DMR-9972246, University of California Biotech Research, and Education Program Training Grant 99-14, DFG Pf 375/1-1.

  7. Evaluation of advanced materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Clauer, A.H.; Shetty, D.K.; Tucker, T.R.; Stropki, J.T.

    1982-11-18

    Cemented tungsten carbides with a binder level in the range of 5 to 6 percent exhibited the best resistance to erosion for this class of materials. Other practical cermet meterials were diamond - Si/SiC, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C-Cr, and B/sub 4/C-Co. SiAlON exhibited erosion resistance equivalent to the best WC-cermet. The only coating system to show promise of improved erosion resistance was CVD TiB/sub 2/ on cemented TiB/sub 2/-Ni. Cracking and/or spalling of a TiC coating and a proprietary TMT coating occurred in the standard slurry erosion test. Ranking of cemented tungsten carbide materials in the laboratory erosion test was the same as that found in service in the Wilsonville pilot plant. Specimens from the Fort Lewis pilot plant which performed well in service exhibited low erosion in the laboratory test. A substitute slurry, was found to be 2 to 4 times more erosive than the coal-derived slurry 8 wt% solids. Ranking of materials in the substitute slurry was nearly identical to that in the coal-derived slurry. Three modes of erosion were: ductile cutting; elastic-plastic indentation and fracture; and intergranular fracture. Erosion of a given material was closely related to its microstructure. In the substitute slurry, the angle-dependence of erosion of two forms of SiC, hot-pressed and sintered, were similar, but the sintered material eroded slower. Laser fusing of preplaced powder mixtures can produce cermet-like structures with potential for erosive and sliding wear resistance. TiC particles in Stellite 6 matrix proved less prone to cracking than WC particles in the same matrix. 74 figures, 14 tables.

  8. PREFACE: Advanced Materials for Demanding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Alison; Schofield, Stephen; Kelly, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This was a special conference. It was small enough (60+ delegates) but covering a wide range of topics, under a broad end-use focussed heading. Most conferences today either have hundreds or thousands of delegates or are small and very focussed. The topics ranged over composite materials, the testing of durability aspects of materials, and an eclectic set of papers on radar screening using weak ionized plasmas, composites for microvascular applications, composites in space rockets, and materials for spallation neutron sources etc. There were several papers of new characterisation techniques and, very importantly, several papers that started with the end-user requirements leading back into materials selection. In my own area, there were three talks about the technology for the ultra-precise positioning of individual atoms, donors, and complete monolayers to take modern electronics and optoelectronics ideas closer to the market place. The President of the Institute opened with an experience-based talk on translating innovative technology into business. Everyone gave a generous introduction to bring all-comers up to speed with the burning contemporary issues. Indeed, I wish that a larger cohort of first-year engineering PhD students were present to see the full gamut of what takes a physics idea to a success in the market place. I would urge groups to learn from Prof Alison McMillan (a Vice President of the Institute of Physics) and Steven Schofield, to set up conferences of similar scale and breadth. I took in more than I do from mega-meetings, and in greater depth. Professor Michael Kelly Department of Engineering University of Cambridge

  9. Cumulative Damage Model for Advanced Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    ultimately used an exponential in the present example for added simplicity) and we norma - lize the function so that it becomes the modifier that determines...Testing and Design (Second Conference), ASTM STP 497, ASTM (1972) pp. 170-188. 5. Halpin, J. C., et al., "Characterization of Composites for the...Graphite Epoxy Composites," Proc. Symposium on Composite Materials: Testing and Design, ASTM , (Ma’rch 20, 1978) New Orleans, LA. 18. Hashin, Z. and Rotem

  10. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  11. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  12. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  13. Advances in LED packaging and thermal management materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses and cost are key light-emitting diode (LED) packaging issues. Heat dissipation limits power levels. Thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. An OIDA LED workshop cited a need for better thermal materials. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. Some of these materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required LEDs. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  14. Economic benefits of advanced materials in nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, J. T.

    2009-07-01

    A key obstacle to the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors. However, cost estimates come with a large uncertainty since far fewer fast reactors have been built than light water reactor facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. Reductions in capital cost can result from design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. It is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost. Advanced materials may also allow improved safety and longer component lifetimes. This work examines the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment cost of fast nuclear reactors.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of advanced materials for Navy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covino, J.; Lee, I.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of ceramics and ceramic coatings through the sol-gel process has extensive application with the United States Navy and a broad range of potential commercial applications as well. This paper surveys seven specific applications for which the Navy is investigating these advanced materials. For each area, the synthetic process is described and the characteristics of the materials are discussed.

  16. Analysis of Advanced Fuel Assemblies and Core Designs for the Current and Next Generations of LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean; Vierow, Karen

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the project is to design and analyze advanced fuel assemblies for use in current and future light water reactors and to assess their ability to reduce the inventory of transuranic elements, while preserving operational safety. The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel can delay or avoid the need for a second geological repository in the US. Current light water reactor fuel assembly designs under investigation could reduce the plutonium inventory of reprocessed fuel. Nevertheless, these designs are not effective in stabilizing or reducing the inventory of minor actinides. In the course of this project, we developed and analyzed advanced fuel assembly designs with improved thermal transmutation capability regarding transuranic elements and especially minor actinides. These designs will be intended for use in thermal spectrum (e.g., current and future fleet of light water reactors in the US). We investigated various fuel types, namely high burn-up advanced mixed oxides and inert matrix fuels, in various geometrical designs that are compliant with the core internals of current and future light water reactors. Neutronic/thermal hydraulic effects were included. Transmutation efficiency and safety parameters were used to rank and down-select the various designs.

  17. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  18. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Eren, A Murat

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today's microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes.

  19. Advances, challenges and a developing synthesis of ecological community assembly theory

    PubMed Central

    Weiher, Evan; Freund, Deborah; Bunton, Tyler; Stefanski, Artur; Lee, Tali; Bentivenga, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Ecological approaches to community assembly have emphasized the interplay between neutral processes, niche-based environmental filtering and niche-based species sorting in an interactive milieu. Recently, progress has been made in terms of aligning our vocabulary with conceptual advances, assessing how trait-based community functional parameters differ from neutral expectation and assessing how traits vary along environmental gradients. Experiments have confirmed the influence of these processes on assembly and have addressed the role of dispersal in shaping local assemblages. Community phylogenetics has forged common ground between ecologists and biogeographers, but it is not a proxy for trait-based approaches. Community assembly theory is in need of a comparative synthesis that addresses how the relative importance of niche and neutral processes varies among taxa, along environmental gradients, and across scales. Towards that goal, we suggest a set of traits that probably confer increasing community neutrality and regionality and review the influences of stress, disturbance and scale on the importance of niche assembly. We advocate increasing the complexity of experiments in order to assess the relative importance of multiple processes. As an example, we provide evidence that dispersal, niche processes and trait interdependencies have about equal influence on trait-based assembly in an experimental grassland. PMID:21768155

  20. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Delmont, Tom O.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today’s microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes. PMID:27069789

  1. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  2. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  3. Experiments investigating advanced materials under thermomechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Many high temperature aircraft and rocket engine components experience large mechanical loads as well as severe thermal gradients and transients. These nonisothermal conditions are often large enough to cause inelastic deformations, which are the ultimate cause for failure in those parts. A way to alleviate this problem is through improved engine designs based on better predictions of thermomechanical material behavior. To address this concern, an experimental effort was recently initiated within the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program at Lewis. As part of this effort, two new test systems were added to the Fatigue and Structures Lab., which allowed thermomechanical tests to be conducted under closely controlled conditions. These systems are now being used for thermomechanical testing for the Space Station Receiver program, and will be used to support development of metal matrix composites.

  4. Perylenediimide-surfactant complexes: thermotropic liquid-crystalline materials via ionic self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Stumpe, Joachim; Antonietti, Markus; Faul, Charl F J

    2003-04-07

    In this communication we present the facile preparation and characterisation of thermotropic liquid-crystalline materials from the ionic self-assembly of a charged perylenediimide derivative and oppositely charged surfactants.

  5. Materials for advanced rocket engine turbopump turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    A study program was conducted to identify those materials that will provide the greatest benefits as turbine blades for advanced liquid propellant rocket engine turbines and to prepare technology plans for the development of those materials for use in the 1990 through 1995 period. The candidate materials were selected from six classes of materials: single-crystal (SC) superalloys, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, rapid solidification processed (RSP) superalloys, directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) superalloys, fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, and ceramics. Properties of materials from the six classes were compiled and evaluated and property improvements were projected approximately 5 years into the future for advanced versions of materials in each of the six classes.

  6. Simulation Toolkit for Renewable Energy Advanced Materials Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter

    2013-11-13

    STREAMM is a collection of python classes and scripts that enables and eases the setup of input files and configuration files for simulations of advanced energy materials. The core STREAMM python classes provide a general framework for storing, manipulating and analyzing atomic/molecular coordinates to be used in quantum chemistry and classical molecular dynamics simulations of soft materials systems. The design focuses on enabling the interoperability of materials simulation codes such as GROMACS, LAMMPS and Gaussian.

  7. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  8. Surface chemical deposition of advanced electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron

    The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current--time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an airexposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this layer will inhibit reformation of an oxide during the Cu electroplating process. A novel method for epitaxial graphene growth directly on a dielectric substrate of systematically variable thickness was studied. Mono/multilayers of BN(111) were grown on Ru(0001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), exhibiting a flat (non-nanomesh) R30(✓3x✓3) structure. BN(111) was used as a template for growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C2H4 at 1000 K. Characterization by LEED, Auger, STM/STS and Raman indicate the graphene is in registry with the BN substrate, and exhibits a HOPG-like 0 eV bandgap density

  9. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Monica Sorescu

    2004-09-22

    The work described in this grant report was focused mainly on the properties of novel magnetic intermetallics. In the first project, we synthesized several 2:17 intermetallic compounds, namely Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Al{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiAl and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiMn, as well as several 1:12 intermetallic compounds, such as NdFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}Al{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}SiAl and NdFe{sub 10}MnAl. In the second project, seven compositions of Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 100-x-y}B{sub y} ribbons were prepared by a melt spinning method with Nd and B content increasing from 7.3 and 3.6 to 11 and 6, respectively. The alloys were annealed under optimized conditions to obtain a composite material consisting of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}-Fe phases, typical of a spring magnet structure. In the third project, intermetallic compounds of the type Zr{sub 1}Cr{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}T{sub 0.8} with T = Al, Co and Fe were subjected to hydrogenation. In the fourth project, we performed three crucial experiments. In the first experiment, we subjected a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling, for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 14 hours. In the second experiment, we ball-milled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} (x = 0.1) for time intervals between 2.5 and 17.5 hours. Finally, we exposed a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Co (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours. In all cases, the structural and magnetic properties of the systems involved were elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis loop measurements. The four projects resulted in four papers, which were published in Intermetallics, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Journal of Materials Science Letters and Materials Chemistry and Physics. The contributions reveal for the first time in literature the effect of

  10. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  11. Programming macro-materials from DNA-directed self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuena; Wang, Rong; Xue, Gi

    2015-03-14

    DNA is a powerful tool that can be attached to nano- and micro-objects and direct the self-assembly through base pairing. Since the strategy of DNA programmable nanoparticle self-assembly was first introduced in 1996, it has remained challenging to use DNA to make powerful diagnostic tools and to make designed materials with novel properties and highly ordered crystal structures. In this review, we summarize recent experimental and theoretical developments of DNA-programmable self-assembly into three-dimensional (3D) materials. Various types of aggregates and 3D crystal structures obtained from an experimental DNA-driven assembly are introduced. Furthermore, theoretical calculations and simulations for DNA-mediated assembly systems are described and we highlight some typical theoretical models for Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics simulations.

  12. JOINING OF ADVANCED HIGH-TEMPERATURE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Darsell, Jens T.

    2009-05-14

    Various compositions in the Ag-CuOx system are being investigated as potential filler metals for use in air brazing high-temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and gas concentrators. Prior work has shown that the melting temperature, and therefore the potential operational temperature, of these materials can be increased by alloying with palladium. The current study examines the effects of palladium addition on the joint strength of specimens prepared from yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) bars brazed with three different families of filler metals: Ag-CuO, 5Pd-Ag-CuO, and 15Pd-Ag-CuO. In general it was found that palladium leads to a small-to-moderate decrease in joint strength, particularly in low copper oxide compositions filler metals. However the effect is likely acceptable if a higher temperature air braze filler metal is desired. In addition, a composition was found for each filler metal series in which the joint failure mechanism undergoes a transition, typically from ductile to brittle failure. In each case, this composition corresponds approximately to the silver-rich boundary composition of the liquid miscibility gap in each system at the temperature of brazing.

  13. From Brittle to Pliant Viscoelastic Materials with Solid State Linear Polyphosphonium - Carboxylate Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, Guilhem; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Lin, Xinrong; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    A polystyrenylphosphonium polymer was synthesized and complexed with various carboxylic acid derivatives to form new solid-state polyelectrolyte-surfactant assemblies. The properties of these ionic materials were highly dependent on the nature of the anion and included a brittle material, a rubbery ball that bounces, or a sticky fiber. The values for the equilibrium modulus, storage modulus, and loss modulus were dependent on the composition of the carboxylic acid and the number of electrostatic interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on the supramolecular assemblies confirmed a bilayer structure for two of the assemblies. PMID:24511156

  14. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  15. Deformation and Damage Studies for Advanced Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advancements made in understanding deformation and damage of advanced structural materials have enabled the development of new technologies including the attainment of a nationally significant NASA Level 1 Milestone and the provision of expertise to the Shuttle Return to Flight effort. During this collaborative agreement multiple theoretical and experimental research programs, facilitating safe durable high temperature structures using advanced materials, have been conceived, planned, executed. Over 26 publications, independent assessments of structures and materials in hostile environments, were published within this agreement. This attainment has been recognized by 2002 Space Flight Awareness Team Award, 2004 NASA Group Achievement Award and 2003 and 2004 OAI Service Awards. Accomplishments in the individual research efforts are described as follows.

  16. Dynamic Characterization and Modeling of Potting Materials for Electronics Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant; Lee, Gilbert; Santiago, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    Prediction of survivability of encapsulated electronic components subject to impact relies on accurate modeling. Both static and dynamic characterization of encapsulation material is needed to generate a robust material model. Current focus is on potting materials to mitigate high rate loading on impact. In this effort, encapsulation scheme consists of layers of polymeric material Sylgard 184 and Triggerbond Epoxy-20-3001. Experiments conducted for characterization of materials include conventional tension and compression tests, Hopkinson bar, dynamic material analyzer (DMA) and a non-conventional accelerometer based resonance tests for obtaining high frequency data. For an ideal material, data can be fitted to Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model. A new temperature-time shift (TTS) macro was written to compare idealized temperature shift factor (WLF model) with experimental incremental shift factors. Deviations can be observed by comparison of experimental data with the model fit to determine the actual material behavior. Similarly, another macro written for obtaining Ogden model parameter from Hopkinson Bar tests indicates deviations from experimental high strain rate data. In this paper, experimental results for different materials used for mitigating impact, and ways to combine data from resonance, DMA and Hopkinson bar together with modeling refinements will be presented.

  17. Chemically directed assembly of nanoparticles for material and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Hwan

    The unique electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) make them useful building blocks for nanodevices and biofabrication. Site-selective immobilization/deposition of NPs on surfaces at desired positions is an important fabrication step in realizing the potential of nanomaterials in these applications. In this thesis, my research has focused on developing new strategies for mono- and multilayered-NP deposition on surfaces, increasing the stability of NP-assembles upon various surfaces for practical use of NP-based devices. Chemically directed dithiocarbamate binding of amine groups to NPs in the presence of CS2 was used for enhancing the robustness of NP assembles. Such patterning methodologies have allowed me to use site-directed NP immobilization in applications as diverse as microcontact printing, nanomolding in capillaries, nanoimprint lithography, and photolithography. Also, I have developed a simple and reliable one-step technique to form robust dendrimer-NP nanocomposites using dithiocarbamate-based chemistry. These composites are able to encapsulate and release various therapeutics, providing controllable sustained release and to separate small molecules and biomacromolecules.

  18. Dynamic characterization and modeling of potting materials for electronics assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Lee, Gilbert F.; Santiago, Jaime R.

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of survivability of encapsulated electronic components subject to impact relies on accurate modeling, which in turn needs both static and dynamic characterization of individual electronic components and encapsulation material to generate reliable material parameters for a robust material model. Current focus is on potting materials to mitigate high rate loading on impact. In this effort, difficulty arises in capturing one of the critical features characteristic of the loading environment in a high velocity impact: multiple loading events coupled with multi-axial stress states. Hence, potting materials need to be characterized well to understand its damping capacity at different frequencies and strain rates. An encapsulation scheme to protect electronic boards consists of multiple layers of filled as well as unfilled polymeric materials like Sylgard 184 and Trigger bond Epoxy # 20-3001. A combination of experiments conducted for characterization of materials used Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and dynamic material analyzer (DMA). For material which behaves in an ideal manner, a master curve can be fitted to Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model. To verify the applicability of WLF model, a new temperature-time shift (TTS) macro was written to compare idealized temperature shift factor with experimental incremental shift factor. Deviations can be readily observed by comparison of experimental data with the model fit to determine if model parameters reflect the actual material behavior. Similarly, another macro written for obtaining Ogden model parameter from Hopkinson Bar tests can readily indicate deviations from experimental high strain rate data. Experimental results for different materials used for mitigating impact, and ways to combine data from DMA and Hopkinson bar together with modeling refinements are presented.

  19. An advanced draft genome assembly of a desi type chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Parween, Sabiha; Nawaz, Kashif; Roy, Riti; Pole, Anil K; Venkata Suresh, B; Misra, Gopal; Jain, Mukesh; Yadav, Gitanjali; Parida, Swarup K; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2015-08-11

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse legume crop. We previously reported a draft genome assembly of the desi chickpea cultivar ICC 4958. Here we report an advanced version of the ICC 4958 genome assembly (version 2.0) generated using additional sequence data and an improved genetic map. This resulted in 2.7-fold increase in the length of the pseudomolecules and substantial reduction of sequence gaps. The genome assembly covered more than 94% of the estimated gene space and predicted the presence of 30,257 protein-coding genes including 2230 and 133 genes encoding potential transcription factors (TF) and resistance gene homologs, respectively. Gene expression analysis identified several TF and chickpea-specific genes with tissue-specific expression and displayed functional diversification of the paralogous genes. Pairwise comparison of pseudomolecules in the desi (ICC 4958) and the earlier reported kabuli (CDC Frontier) chickpea assemblies showed an extensive local collinearity with incongruity in the placement of large sequence blocks along the linkage groups, apparently due to use of different genetic maps. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mining of intra-specific polymorphism identified more than four thousand SNPs differentiating a desi group and a kabuli group of chickpea genotypes.

  20. From self-organization to self-assembly: a new materialism?

    PubMed

    Vincent, Bernadette Bensaude

    2016-09-01

    While self-organization has been an integral part of academic discussions about the distinctive features of living organisms, at least since Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgement, the term 'self-assembly' has only been used for a few decades as it became a hot research topic with the emergence of nanotechnology. Could it be considered as an attempt at reducing vital organization to a sort of assembly line of molecules? Considering the context of research on self-assembly I argue that the shift of attention from self-organization to self-assembly does not really challenge the boundary between chemistry and biology. Self-assembly was first and foremost investigated in an engineering context as a strategy for manufacturing without human intervention and did not raise new perspectives on the emergence of vital organization itself. However self-assembly implies metaphysical assumptions that this paper tries to disentangle. It first describes the emergence of self-assembly as a research field in the context of materials science and nanotechnology. The second section outlines the metaphysical implications and will emphasize a sharp contrast between the ontology underlying two practices of self-assembly developed under the umbrella of synthetic biology. And unexpectedly, we shall see that chemists are less on the reductionist side than most synthetic biologists. Finally, the third section ventures some reflections on the kind of design involved in self-assembly practices.

  1. Mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack growth in advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-03-01

    In terms of in-service failures, cyclic fatigue is the most prevalent form of fracture. Despite the wealth of information on fatigue failures in traditional structural materials such as (ductile) metals and alloys, far less is understood about the susceptibility of the newer advanced materials, such as (brittle) intermetallics, ceramics and their composites. In this presentation, the mechanics and mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack propagation are examined with particular emphasis on the similarities and differences between cyclic crack growth in ductile metallic materials, and corresponding behavior in the more brittle advanced materials. This is achieved by considering the process of subcritical crack growth as a mutual competition between intrinsic mechanisms of microstructural damage ahead of the crack tip, which promote crack growth, and extrinsic mechanisms of crack-tip shielding behind the tip, which impede it. This approach is shown to be important for the understanding of the structural fatigue properties of advanced materials, such as monolithic and composite ceramics, and a range of intermetallics (e.g., TiAl, MoSi2, Nb3Al), as the mechanisms of fatigue in these brittle materials are conceptually distinct from that associated with the well known metal fatigue. Examples of the application and life-prediction methodologies for such materials in fatigue-critical situations will be given from the aerospace and bioengineering industries.

  2. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  3. Spin coating nanopatterned multielemental materials via self-assembled nanotemplates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guodong; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Bong Hoon; Koo, Chong-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2009-06-03

    Spin coating of multicomponent precursor solutions was employed in conjunction with block copolymer nanotemplates to fabricate nanopatterned functional multielemental materials. Nanodot and nanowire arrays of several multielemental materials exhibiting optoelectronic and multiferroic properties have been fabricated on various substrates to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The shape, size and density of nanopatterned multielemental materials can be tuned in a variety of ways. This low cost and large scale solution nanopatterning process without a harsh etching step may offer a new opportunity for development of ultrahigh density device nanostructures.

  4. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  5. Advancing the Oxygen Generation Assembly Design to Increase Reliability and Reduce Costs for a Future Long Duration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takada, Kevin C.; Ghariani, Ahmed E.; Van Keuren,

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) has been reliably producing breathing oxygen for the crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for over eight years. Lessons learned from operating the ISS OGA have led to proposing incremental improvements to advance the baseline design for use in a future long duration mission. These improvements are intended to reduce system weight, crew maintenance time and resupply mass from Earth while increasing reliability. The proposed improvements include replacing the cell stack membrane material, deleting the nitrogen purge equipment, replacing the hydrogen sensors, deleting the wastewater interface, replacing the hydrogen dome and redesigning the cell stack power supply. The development work to date will be discussed and forward work will be outlined. Additionally, a redesigned system architecture will be proposed.

  6. Self-assembled photosynthesis-inspired light harvesting material and solar cells containing the same

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Chinnasamy, Muthiah; Fan, Dazhong

    2009-12-15

    A solar cell is described that comprises: (a) a semiconductor charge separation material; (b) at least one electrode connected to the charge separation material; and (c) a light-harvesting film on the charge separation material, the light-harvesting film comprising non-covalently coupled, self-assembled units of porphyrinic macrocycles. The porphyrinic macrocycles preferably comprise: (i) an intramolecularly coordinated metal; (ii) a first coordinating substituent; and (iii) a second coordinating substituent opposite the first coordinating substituent. The porphyrinic macrocycles can be assembled by repeating intermolecular coordination complexes of the metal, the first coordinating substituent and the second coordinating substituent.

  7. Versatile gas gun target assembly for studying blast wave mitigation in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W., Jr.

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a serious problem for military personnel returning from recent conflicts. This has increased interest in investigating blast mitigating materials for use in helmets. In this paper we describe a new versatile target assembly that is used with an existing gas gun for studying these materials.

  8. ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reome; Dan Davies

    2004-04-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

  9. Nondestructive testing of advanced materials using sensors with metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozina, Steigmann; Narcis Andrei, Danila; Nicoleta, Iftimie; Catalin-Andrei, Tugui; Frantisek, Novy; Stanislava, Fintova; Petrica, Vizureanu; Adriana, Savin

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a method for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced materials that makes use of the images in near field and the concentration of flux using the phenomenon of spatial resolution. The method allows the detection of flaws as crack, nonadhesion of coating, degradation or presence delamination stresses correlated with the response of electromagnetic sensor.

  10. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  11. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. PMID:27812480

  12. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.

    1995-10-01

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  13. Biocompatible self-assembly of nano-materials for Bio-MEMS and insect reconnaissance.

    SciTech Connect

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Sinclair, Michael B.; Manginell, Monica; Ashley, Carlee E.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Werner-Washburne, Margaret C.; Calvert, Paul Davidson; Hartenberger, Tamara N.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter; Baca, Helen Kennicott

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the development of new biocompatible self-assembly procedures enabling the immobilization of genetically engineered cells in a compact, self-sustaining, remotely addressable sensor platform. We used evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) to immobilize cells within periodic silica nanostructures, characterized by unimodal pore sizes and pore connectivity, that can be patterned using ink-jet printing or photo patterning. We constructed cell lines for the expression of fluorescent proteins and induced reporter protein expression in immobilized cells. We investigated the role of the abiotic/biotic interface during cell-mediated self-assembly of synthetic materials.

  14. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  15. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Savic, Vesna; Hector, Louis G.; Ezzat, Hesham; Sachdev, Anil K.; Quinn, James; Krupitzer, Ronald; Sun, Xin

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.

  16. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Design Requirements-Electric Systems and Equipment... Information. 402.1.1Material Properties. Information on thermal properties, building envelope system... RS-10 (incorporated by reference, see § 434.701). 402.2.1Air Barrier System. A barrier...

  17. 10 CFR 434.402 - Building envelope assemblies and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Design Requirements-Electric Systems and Equipment... Information. 402.1.1Material Properties. Information on thermal properties, building envelope system... RS-10 (incorporated by reference, see § 434.701). 402.2.1Air Barrier System. A barrier...

  18. High resolution computed tomography of advanced composite and ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, R. N.; Klima, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced composite and ceramic materials are being developed for use in many new defense and commercial applications. In order to achieve the desired mechanical properties of these materials, the structural elements must be carefully analyzed and engineered. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of high resolution computed tomography (CT) as a macrostructural analysis tool for advanced composite and ceramic materials. Several samples were scanned using a laboratory high resolution CT scanner. Samples were also destructively analyzed at the locations of the scans and the nondestructive and destructive results were compared. The study provides useful information outlining the strengths and limitations of this technique and the prospects for further research in this area.

  19. Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a final report for the period of 12/1/03 through 11/30/04 for NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-776, entitled "Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials." During this final period, major efforts were focused on both the determination of mechanical properties of advanced ceramic materials and the development of mechanical test methodologies under several different programs of the NASA-Glenn. The important research activities made during this period are: 1. Mechanical properties evaluation of two gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides. 2) Mechanical testing for fuel-cell seal materials. 3) Mechanical properties evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and CFCCs and 4) Foreign object damage (FOD) testing.

  20. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  1. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  2. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  3. Institute for Advanced Materials at University of Louisville

    SciTech Connect

    Sunkara, Mahendra; Sumaneskara, Gamini; Starr, Thomas L; Willing, G A; Robert W, Cohn

    2009-10-29

    In this project, a university-wide, academic center has been established entitled Institute for Advanced Materials and Renewable Energy. In this institute, a comprehensive materials characterization facility has been established by co-locating several existing characterization equipment and acquiring several state of the art instrumentation such as field emission transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, Particle Size Distribution/Zeta Potential measurement system, and Ultra-microtome for TEM specimen. In addition, a renewable energy conversion and storage research facility was also established by acquiring instrumentation such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Atomic Layer Deposition reactor, Solar light simulator, oxygen-free glove box, potentiostat/galvanostats and other miscellaneous items. The institute is staffed with three full-time staff members (one senior research technologist, a senior PhD level research scientist and a junior research scientist) to enable proper use of the techniques. About thirty faculty, fifty graduate students and several researchers access the facilities on a routine basis. Several industry R&D organizations (SudChemie, Optical Dynamics and Hexion) utilize the facility. The established Institute for Advanced Materials at UofL has three main objectives: (a) enable a focused research effort leading to the rapid discovery of new materials and processes for advancing alternate energy conversion and storage technologies; (b) enable offering of several laboratory courses on advanced materials science and engineering; and (c) develop university-industry partnerships based on the advanced materials research. The Institute's efforts were guided by an advisory board comprising eminent researchers from outside KY. Initial research efforts were focused on the discovery of new materials and processes for solar cells and Li ion battery electrodes. Initial sets of results helped PIs to

  4. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  5. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  6. Self-Assembled Soft Optical Negative Index Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-05

    Nanorods by Lyotropic Chromonic Materials’, Langmuir, 24 (2008), 13833-37. [15]. A. B. Golovin , and O. D. Lavrentovich, ’Electrically...Reconfigurable Optical Metamaterial Based on Colloidal Dispersion of Metal Nanorods in Dielectric Fluid’, Applied Physics Letters, 95 (2009) [16]. A. B. Golovin ...of Metal Nano-Rods in Dielectric Fluids’, Liquid Crystals Xiv, 7775 (2010) [17]. A. B. Golovin , J. Xiang, H. S. Park, L. Tortora, Y. A. Nastishin

  7. Soft nanostructured films for directing the assembly of functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D.; Kang, M.; Leal, C.

    2017-04-01

    Lipids are a class of biological small molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic constituents forming the structural membranes in cells. Over the past century an extensive understanding of lipid biology and biophysics has been developed illuminating lipids as an intricate, highly tunable, and hierarchical soft-matter system. In addition to serving as cell membrane models, lipids have been investigated as microphase separated structures in aqueous solutions. In terms of applications lipids have been realized as powerful structural motifs for the encapsulation and cellular delivery of genetic material. More recently, lipids have also revealed promise as thin film materials, exhibiting long-range periodic nano-scale order and tunable orientation. In this review we summarize the pertinent understanding of lipid nanostructure development in bulk aqueous systems followed by the current and potential perturbations to these results induced by introduction of a substrate. These effects are punctuated by a summary of our published results in the field of lipid thin films with added nucleic acids and key results introducing hard materials into lipid nanostructured substrates.

  8. Soft nanostructured films for directing the assembly of functional materials.

    PubMed

    Steer, D; Kang, M; Leal, C

    2017-04-07

    Lipids are a class of biological small molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic constituents forming the structural membranes in cells. Over the past century an extensive understanding of lipid biology and biophysics has been developed illuminating lipids as an intricate, highly tunable, and hierarchical soft-matter system. In addition to serving as cell membrane models, lipids have been investigated as microphase separated structures in aqueous solutions. In terms of applications lipids have been realized as powerful structural motifs for the encapsulation and cellular delivery of genetic material. More recently, lipids have also revealed promise as thin film materials, exhibiting long-range periodic nano-scale order and tunable orientation. In this review we summarize the pertinent understanding of lipid nanostructure development in bulk aqueous systems followed by the current and potential perturbations to these results induced by introduction of a substrate. These effects are punctuated by a summary of our published results in the field of lipid thin films with added nucleic acids and key results introducing hard materials into lipid nanostructured substrates.

  9. Stimulatory effects of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on fibronectin matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Pastino, Alexandra K; Greco, Todd M; Mathias, Rommel A; Cristea, Ileana M; Schwarzbauer, Jean E

    2017-05-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds that form via non-enzymatic glycation of proteins throughout our lifespan and at a higher rate in certain chronic diseases such as diabetes. AGEs contribute to the progression of fibrosis, in part by stimulating cellular pathways that affect gene expression. Long-lived ECM proteins are targets for non-enzymatic glycation but the question of whether the AGE-modified ECM leads to excess ECM accumulation and fibrosis remains unanswered. In this study, cellular changes due to AGE accretion in the ECM were investigated. Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins in a decellularized fibroblast ECM was achieved by incubating the ECM in a solution of methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry of fibronectin (FN) isolated from the glycated matrix identified twenty-eight previously unidentified MGO-derived AGE modification sites including functional sites such as the RGD integrin-binding sequence. Mesangial cells grown on the glycated, decellularized matrix assembled increased amounts of FN matrix. Soluble AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) also stimulated FN matrix assembly and this effect was reduced by function-blocking antibodies against the receptor for AGE (RAGE). These results indicate that cells respond to AGEs by increasing matrix assembly and that RAGE is involved in this response. This raises the possibility that the accumulation of ECM during the progression of fibrosis may be enhanced by cell interactions with AGEs on a glycated ECM.

  10. Memory devices based on self-assembled materials and processes (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-09-01

    Device fabrication based on top-down approach will reach its limit due to difficulties in patterning and processes below 10 nm node. The bottom-up approach using self-assembled materials and processes can be a viable candidate for further device scaling, but the fabrication processes are mostly not compatible with current device fabrication. In this presentation, device fabrication strategy for next-generation data-storage devices will be discussed in detail based on self-assembled materials and processes. The emphasis is placed on compatibility with current device fabrication strategies. Ordered array of various materials and systems based on bottom-up nanotechnology can be utilized as the charge storage layer for memory devices and the templates for nanoscale device fabrication. Novel device applications, for example, printed/flexible/transparent electronic devices, will be explored based on the self-assembly processes.

  11. Cost - The challenge for advanced materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.; Freeman, William T., Jr.; Siddiqi, Shahid

    1992-01-01

    Information is presented on the cost of various aircraft structures, together with methods for predicting and reducing cost. The need for the development of cost models, and of a comparative cost algorithm which could function as an engineering design tool to evaluate different design concepts, is emphasized. Efforts are underway to develop cost models that establish building-block unit cell elements that represent different material forms, geometric shapes, fabrication processes, and methods of assembly, with the purpose of expressing cost per pound or labor per pound data, with physical design and manufacture variables that a designer can visualize.

  12. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  13. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  14. Research study entitled advanced X-ray astrophysical observatory (AXAF). [system engineering for a total X-ray telescope assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasche, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    General background and overview material are presented along with data from studies performed to determine the sensitivity, feasibility, and required performance of systems for a total X-ray telescope assembly. Topics covered include: optical design, mirror support concepts, mirror weight estimates, the effects of l g on mirror elements, mirror assembly resonant frequencies, optical bench considerations, temperature control of the mirror assembly, and the aspect determination system.

  15. Behaviour of advanced materials impacted by high energy particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Garlasché, M.; Guinchard, M.; Mariani, N.; Marques dos Santos, S. D.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Boccone, V.

    2013-07-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices (BID) are designed to operate in a harsh radioactive environment and are highly loaded from a thermo-structural point of view. Moreover, modern particle accelerators, storing unprecedented energy, may be exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct beam impacts. In this context, impulse has been given to the development of novel materials for advanced thermal management with high thermal shock resistance like metal-diamond and metal-graphite composites on top of refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten and copper alloys. This paper presents the results of a first-of-its-kind experiment which exploited 440 GeV proton beams at different intensities to impact samples of the aforementioned materials. Effects of thermally induced shockwaves were acquired via high speed acquisition system including strain gauges, laser Doppler vibrometer and high speed camera. Preliminary information of beam induced damages on materials were also collected. State-of-the-art hydrodynamic codes (like Autodyn®), relying on complex material models including equation of state (EOS), strength and failure models, have been used for the simulation of the experiment. Preliminary results confirm the effectiveness and reliability of these numerical methods when material constitutive models are completely available (W and Cu alloys). For novel composite materials a reverse engineering approach will be used to build appropriate constitutive models, thus allowing a realistic representation of these complex phenomena. These results are of paramount importance for understanding and predicting the response of novel advanced composites to beam impacts in modern particle accelerators.

  16. Breakthrough and future: nanoscale controls of compositions, morphologies, and mesochannel orientations toward advanced mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Norihiro; Radhakrishnan, Logudurai; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Currently, ordered mesoporous materials prepared through the self-assembly of surfactants have attracted growing interests owing to their special properties, including uniform mesopores and a high specific surface area. Here we focus on fine controls of compositions, morphologies, mesochannel orientations which are important factors for design of mesoporous materials with new functionalities. This Review describes our recent progress toward advanced mesoporous materials. Mesoporous materials now include a variety of inorganic-based materials, for example, transition-metal oxides, carbons, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, polymers, and even metals. Mesoporous metals with metallic frameworks can be produced by using surfactant-based synthesis with electrochemical methods. Owing to their metallic frameworks, mesoporous metals with high electroconductivity and high surface areas hold promise for a wide range of potential applications, such as electronic devices, magnetic recording media, and metal catalysts. Fabrication of mesoporous materials with controllable morphologies is also one of the main subjects in this rapidly developing research field. Mesoporous materials in the form of films, spheres, fibers, and tubes have been obtained by various synthetic processes such as evaporation-mediated direct templating (EDIT), spray-dried techniques, and collaboration with hard-templates such as porous anodic alumina and polymer membranes. Furthermore, we have developed several approaches for orientation controls of 1D mesochannels. The macroscopic-scale controls of mesochannels are important for innovative applications such as molecular-scale devices and electrodes with enhanced diffusions of guest species.

  17. Self-assembling surfaces of blood-contacting materials.

    PubMed

    Major, Roman

    2013-03-01

    The optimal scaffold should have the self-organising property of activating the appropriate tissues surrounding the re-population. The anti-bacterial property of the coating was obtained through surface pre-treatment with coatings a few nanometres in thickness deposited using vapour-based methods. The coating's anti-thrombogenic properties were obtained by the selective mobilisation of cellular functions, which was controlled by the structure of porous coatings deposited on bulk substrates and by the small biological agent-L-arginyl-glycyl-L-aspartic acid (tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-RGD) protein domains. Two tests simulating arterial flow conditions were performed: Impact-R, for examining platelet function under near physiological conditions, and radial flow chamber, a cell detachment test that gives an overview of cell behaviour and shear stresses that could appear between the cell and the biomaterial. Cell structures were analysed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The performed in vitro dynamic test for the haemo-compatibility revealed the most promising surface functionalization was based on porous extracellular-like structure covered with endothelium cells simultaneously. The antibacterial function was achieved by the appropriate phase composition of the coating used for the pre-treatment stage. The coating for the pre-treatment was selected on the basis of the blood-material and bacteria-material interaction.

  18. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  19. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  20. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  1. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  2. Specific Templating of Inorganic Materials on Self-Assembled Clathrin Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilshorn, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    Nature has evolved numerous methods for the reproducible self-assembly of nanoscale architectures that are ideal templates for patterning inorganic nanostructures. For example, the protein clathrin assembles into a variety of 2D and 3D structures depending on environmental conditions during assembly. The ability of this single protein to form multiple architectures makes clathrin an ideal model system for investigating the kinetic and thermodynamic principles of self-assembly, which will lead to the ability to predictably control template architecture. We design bi-functional peptide linkers to serve as molecular bridges between distinct sites on the clathrin monomers and specific inorganic materials including gold, titania, and cobalt oxide. By generating a family of bi-functional peptides, we develop a flexible, modular system that enables the rapid development of multiple inorganic nanostructures from a single protein template without requiring re-design of the template. We present examples of gold and anatase titania catalysts fabricated through this method.

  3. MATERIAL PROCESSING FOR SELF-ASSEMBLING MACHINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. LACKNER; D. BUTT; C. WENDT

    1999-06-01

    We are developing an important aspect of a new technology based on self-reproducing machine systems. Such systems could overcome resource limitations and control the deleterious side effects of human activities on the environment. Machine systems capable of building themselves promise an increase in industrial productivity as dramatic as that of the industrial revolution. To operate successfully, such systems must procure necessary raw materials from their surroundings. Therefore, next to automation, most critical for this new technology is the ability to extract important chemicals from readily available soils. In contrast to conventional metallurgical practice, these extraction processes cannot make substantial use of rare elements. We have designed a thermodynamically viable process and experimentally demonstrated most steps that differ from common practice. To this end we had to develop a small, disposable vacuum furnace system. Our work points to a viable extraction process.

  4. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L.

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the

  5. Advanced Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy Techniques for the Investigation of Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Neil R.

    The ubiquitous cross beta sheet peptide motif is implicated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases while at the same time offers remarkable potential for constructing isomorphic high-performance bionanomaterials. Despite an emerging understanding of the complex folding landscape of cross beta structures in determining disease etiology and final structure, we lack knowledge of the critical initial stages of nucleation and growth. In this dissertation, I advance our understanding of these key stages in the cross-beta nucleation and growth pathways using cutting-edge microscopy techniques. In addition, I present a new combined time-resolved fluorescence analysis technique with the potential to advance our current understanding of subtle molecular level interactions that play a pivotal role in peptide self-assembly. Using the central nucleating core of Alzheimer's Amyloid-beta protein, Abeta(16 22), as a model system, utilizing electron, time-resolved, and non-linear microscopy, I capture the initial and transient nucleation stages of peptide assembly into the cross beta motif. In addition, I have characterized the nucleation pathway, from monomer to paracrystalline nanotubes in terms of morphology and fluorescence lifetime, corroborating the predicted desolvation process that occurs prior to cross-beta nucleation. Concurrently, I have identified unique heterogeneous cross beta domains contained within individual nanotube structures, which have potential bionanomaterials applications. Finally, I describe a combined fluorescence theory and analysis technique that dramatically increases the sensitivity of current time-resolved techniques. Together these studies demonstrate the potential for advanced microscopy techniques in the identification and characterization of the cross-beta folding pathway, which will further our understanding of both amyloidogenesis and bionanomaterials.

  6. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  7. Composite electric field guided assembly of nano/bio materials: Fluidics controlled regime for micro/nano assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jaehyun

    Nanoscale particles exhibit unique phenomena that enable extremely sensitive sensors and molecular electronic devices. The immobilization of nano/bio materials on electrodes is an essential issue needed to be addressed in order to accomplish such devices. Also, the devices often need to be assembled through the use of micromachining technology to facilitate the implementation of mechanical/electrical/chemical functions in the nano- and/or micro-dimension. Based on this concept, an array assembly method involving an electric field was accomplished through the work presented in this thesis. The technique developed here was successfully applied to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and DNA molecules. A composite electric field guided assembly method (CEGA) was developed to integrate individual MWCNTs on electrodes and to stretch a single strand lambda-DNA molecule on a gap. The CEGA approach, combining an ac with a dc e-field, was found to successfully manipulate and control the dielectrophoretic and drag force. The fabrication of nanoscale electrodes is another issue relevant to molecular devices. A technique for the fabrication of nanoscale electrodes, using a MWCNT as a shadow mask, was developed to create a ˜20nm gap. Individual MWCNTs were assembled on the nanoscale electrode by taking advantage of the CEGA method, and its highest packing density was compared with other CNT assembly technologies. As a potential application of the CEGA approach, a gas sensor using a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was developed. The electrical resistances of large diameter MWCNTs were found to decrease in the presence of air, after experiencing electrical breakdown, while pristine MWCNTs were not appreciably sensitive. Also, a glucose sensor was developed to specifically detect hydrogen gas (H2) diffused from a glucose oxidation reaction. The sensor was composed of metallic MWCNT bundles deposited using an ac electric field

  8. ADVANCED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC MATERIAL MODELS FOR FDTD ELECTROMAGNETIC CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Nelson, S D; Langdon, S

    2005-05-05

    The modeling of dielectric and magnetic materials in the time domain is required for pulse power applications, pulsed induction accelerators, and advanced transmission lines. For example, most induction accelerator modules require the use of magnetic materials to provide adequate Volt-sec during the acceleration pulse. These models require hysteresis and saturation to simulate the saturation wavefront in a multipulse environment. In high voltage transmission line applications such as shock or soliton lines the dielectric is operating in a highly nonlinear regime, which require nonlinear models. Simple 1-D models are developed for fast parameterization of transmission line structures. In the case of nonlinear dielectrics, a simple analytic model describing the permittivity in terms of electric field is used in a 3-D finite difference time domain code (FDTD). In the case of magnetic materials, both rate independent and rate dependent Hodgdon magnetic material models have been implemented into 3-D FDTD codes and 1-D codes.

  9. Materials Advances to Enhance Development of Geothermal Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1989-03-21

    In order to assure the continued development of geothermal resources, many advances in materials technology are required so that high costs resulting from the severe environments encountered during drilling, well completion and energy extraction can be reduced. These needs will become more acute as higher temperature and chemically aggressive fluids are encountered. High priority needs are for lost circulation control and lightweight well completion materials, and tools such as drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, blow-out preventers, and downhole drill motors. The lack of suitable hydrolytically stable chemical systems that can bond previously developed elastomers to metal reinforcement is a critical but as yet unaddressed impediment to the development of these tools. In addition, the availability of low cost corrosion and scale-resistant tubular lining materials would greatly enhance transport and energy extraction processes utilizing hypersaline brines. Work to address these materials needs is underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and recent accomplishments are summarized in the paper.

  10. Materials advances to enhance development of geothermal power

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1989-03-01

    In order to assure the continued development of geothermal resources, many advances in materials technology are required so that high costs resulting from the severe environments encountered during drilling, well completion and energy extraction can be reduced. These needs will become more acute as higher temperature and chemically aggressive fluids are encountered. High priority needs are for lost circulation control and lightweight well completion materials, and tools such as drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, blow-out preventers, and downhole drill motors. The lack of suitable hydrolytically stable chemical systems that can bond previously developed elastomers to metal reinforcement is a critical but as yet unaddressed impediment to the development of these tools. In addition, the availability of low cost corrosion and scale-resistant tubular lining materials would greatly enhance transport and energy extraction processes utilizing hypersaline brines. Work to address these materials needs is underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and recent accomplishments are summarized in the paper. 15 refs.

  11. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  12. Advanced Multifunctional Materials for High Speed Combatant Hulls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-25

    3D hybrid fabrics Figure 1. General technical approach for integrated optimized design methodology that leverages recent advances in materials...strain rate dependent urethanes Reinforcement ■ UHPE fibers ■ High performance fibers ■ 2D/ 3D hybrid fabrics Additives ■ Conductive particles (e.g...Plastisol Ink. These mixed inks were determined to be too viscous to be used for screen printer . We also evaluated multiple commercial inks. These were

  13. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  14. Two-dimensional oxides: multifunctional materials for advanced technologies.

    PubMed

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-08-13

    The last decade has seen spectacular progress in the design, preparation, and characterization down to the atomic scale of oxide ultrathin films of few nanometers thickness grown on a different material. This has paved the way towards several sophisticated applications in advanced technologies. By playing around with the low-dimensionality of the oxide layer, which sometimes leads to truly two-dimensional systems, one can exploit new properties and functionalities that are not present in the corresponding bulk materials or thick films. In this review we provide some clues about the most recent advances in the design of these systems based on modern electronic structure theory and on their preparation and characterization with specifically developed growth techniques and analytical methods. We show how two-dimensional oxides can be used in mature technologies by providing added value to existing materials, or in new technologies based on completely new paradigms. The fields in which two-dimensional oxides are used are classified based on the properties that are exploited, chemical or physical. With respect to chemical properties we discuss use of oxide ultrathin films in catalysis, solid oxide fuel cells, gas sensors, corrosion protection, and biocompatible materials; regarding the physical properties we discuss metal-oxide field effect transistors and memristors, spintronic devices, ferroelectrics and thermoelectrics, and solar energy materials.

  15. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  16. Polymer/inorganic nanocomposites with tailored hierarchical structure as advanced dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Manias, Evangelos; Randall, Clive; Tomer, Vivek; Polyzos, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Most advances and commercial successes of polymer/inorganic nanocomposites rely only on the dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Such approaches leave untapped opportunities where performance can be improved by controlling the larger length-scale structures. Here, we review selected examples where the hierarchical structure (from millimeter to nanometer) is tailored to control the transport properties of the materials, giving rise to marked property enhancements, relevant to dielectric materials for power capacitors. These examples address composite structures that are self-assembled, both at the nm and the micron scales, and, thus, can be produced using standard industrial practices. Specifically, polyethylene (PE) blends or poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) copolymers are reinforced with nanofillers; these composites are designed with high filler orientation, which yielded marked improvements in electric-field breakdown strength and, consequently, large improvements in their recoverable energy densities.

  17. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector

  18. Self-assembly strategies for the synthesis of functional nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, M.; Seguini, G.

    2016-06-01

    Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. This is the approach followed by nature to generate living cells and represents one of the practical strategies to fabricate ensembles of nanostructures. In static self-assembly the formation of ordered structures could require energy but once formed the structures are stable. The introduction of additional regular features in the environment could be used to template the self-assembly guiding the organization of the components and determining the final structure they form. In this regard self-assembly of block copolymers represents a potent platform for fundamental studies at the nanoscale and for application-driven investigation as a tool to fabricate functional nanostructured materials. Block copolymers can hierarchically assemble into chemically distinct domains with size and periodicity on the order of 10nm or below, offering a potentially inexpensive route to generate large-area nanostructured materials. The final structure characteristics of these materials are dictated by the properties of the elementary block copolymers, like chain length, volume fraction or degree of block incompatibility. Modern synthetic chemistry offers the possibility to design these macromolecules with very specific length scales and geometries, directly embodying in the block copolymers the code that drives their self- assembling process. The understanding of the kinetics and thermodynamics of the block copolymer self-assembly process in the bulk phase as well as in thin films represents a fundamental prerequisite toward the exploitation of these materials. Incorporating block copolymer into device fabrication procedures or directly into devices, as active elements, will lead to the development of a new generation of devices fabricated using the fundamental law of nature to our advantage in order to minimize cost and power consumption in the fabrication process

  19. Fabrication of advanced particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Juan; Han, Jun-Jie

    2011-07-04

    Recent advances in the fabrication of complex particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics are reviewed. Monodisperse particles with expected internal structures, morphologies, and sizes in the range of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers have received a good deal of attention in recent years. Due to the capability of generating monodisperse emulsions and of executing precise control and operations on the suspended droplets inside the microchannels, droplet-based microfluidic devices have become powerful tools for fabricating complex particles with desired properties. Emulsions and multiple-emulsions generated in the microfluidic devices can be composed of a variety of materials including aqueous solutions, gels, polymers and solutions containing functional nanoparticles. They are ideal microreactors or fine templates for synthesizing advanced particles, such as polymer particles, microcapsules, nanocrystals, and photonic crystal clusters or beads by further chemical or physical operations. These particles are promising materials that may be applicable for many fields, such as photonic materials, drug delivery systems, and bio-analysis. From simple to complex, from spherical to nonspherical, from polymerization and reaction crystallization to self-assembly, this review aims to help readers be aware of the many aspects of this field.

  20. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Porous Materials with Tunable Structure and Mechanical Properties via Templated Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    PubMed

    Ziminska, Monika; Dunne, Nicholas; Hamilton, Andrew R

    2016-08-31

    The deposition of stiff and strong coatings onto porous templates offers a novel strategy for fabricating macroscale materials with controlled architectures at the micro- and nanoscale. Here, layer-by-layer assembly is utilized to fabricate nanocomposite-coated foams with highly customizable properties by depositing polymer-nanoclay coatings onto open-cell foam templates. The compressive mechanical behavior of these materials evolves in a predictable manner that is qualitatively captured by scaling laws for the mechanical properties of cellular materials. The observed and predicted properties span a remarkable range of density-stiffness space, extending from regions of very soft elastomer foams to very stiff, lightweight honeycomb and lattice materials.

  2. A Monte Carlo studies of the entrance foil material in a target assembly for FDG production

    SciTech Connect

    Merouani, A.; El Khayati, N.; EL Ghayour, A.; El Alamy, H.; Zoubir, B.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed for different entrance foil Materials in the target assembly for [{sup 18}F] FDG production, to investigate the neutron generations in the entrance foil. However, the objective is to study a materials that has the more or less similar mechanical properties as the Havar{sup R} foil with less generation of secondary particles and without affecting, the yield of FDG production. (authors)

  3. Large pore size nanoporous materials from the self-assembly of asymmetric bottlebrush block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Justin; Bailey, Travis S; Rzayev, Javid

    2011-03-09

    Asymmetric polystyrene-polylactide (PS-PLA) bottlebrush block copolymers have been shown to self-assemble into a cylindrical morphology with large domain spacings. PLA cylinders can be selectively etched out of the shear-aligned polymer monoliths to generate nanoporous materials with an average cylindrical pore diameter of 55 nm. The remaining bottlebrush backbone provides a functional, hydrophilic coating inside the nanopores. This methodology significantly expands the range of pore sizes attainable in block copolymer based nanoporous materials.

  4. Advances in Subcritical Hydro-/Solvothermal Processing of Graphene Materials.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2017-02-28

    Many promising graphene-based materials are kept away from mainstream applications due to problems of scalability and environmental concerns in their processing. Hydro-/solvothermal techniques overwhelmingly satisfy both the aforementioned criteria, and have matured as alternatives to wet-chemical methods with advances made over the past few decades. The insolubility of graphene in many solvents poses considerable difficulties in their processing. In this context hydro-/solvothermal techniques present an ideal opportunity for processing of graphenic materials with their versatility in manipulating the physical and thermodynamic properties of the solvent. The flexibility in hydro-/solvothermal techniques for manipulation of solvent composition, temperature and pressure provides numerous handles to manipulate graphene-based materials during synthesis. This review provides a comprehensive look at the subcritical hydro-/solvothermal synthesis of graphene-based functional materials and their applications. Several key synthetic strategies governing the morphology and properties of the products such as temperature, pressure, and solvent effects are elaborated. Advances in the synthesis, doping, and functionalization of graphene in hydro-/solvothermal media are highlighted together with our perspectives in the field.

  5. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  6. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  7. 1D and 2D Assembly of Plant Viruses for Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Wang

    2013-01-11

    The research focused on the development of novel bionanoparticle (BNP)-based materials, especially the assembly of chemically and genetically-tailored BNP at the interface between immiscible fluids. The chemical, physical, dynamical and mechanistic aspects have been studied in this research. In particular, rod-like tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based anisotropic nanorods were synthesized via RNA or polymer assisted assembling process. Such kind of TMV-rods offers an ideal model system for the mechanistic study of orienting and packing anisotropic nanoparticles, which may have great potential in the applications of photovoltaic and field emission devices. Specific objectives include: 1) Synthesize BNPs with controlled functionality at defined positions; 2) synthesize 1D nanorods with defined length via polymer or RNA assisted assembly of TMV or TMV coat proteins; 3) self-assemble and crosslink BNPs and TMV-nanorods at liquid-liquid interfaces; 4) quantitatively characterize the structural organization of the 1D and 2D BNP-assemblies using both small angle neutron scattering and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering; and 5) develop methods to apply grazing incidence small angle X-ray/neutron scattering to investigate the assemblies of BNPs.

  8. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  9. Testing of Alternative Materials for Advanced Suit Bladders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Makinen, Janice; Tang, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate advanced pressure bladder membrane materials have been developed for NASA Johnson Space Center by DSM Biomedical for selective permeability of carbon dioxide and water vapor. These materials were elasthane and two other formulations of thermoplastic polyether polyurethane. Each material was tested in two thicknesses for permeability to carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Although oxygen leaks through the suit bladder would amount to only about 60 cc/hr in a full size suit, significant amounts of carbon dioxide would not be rejected by the system to justify its use. While the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen permeability is about 48 to 1, this is offset by the small partial pressure of carbon dioxide in acceptable breathing atmospheres of the suit. Humidity management remains a possible use of the membranes depending on the degree to which the water permeability is inhibited by cations in the sweat. Tests are underway to explore cation fouling from sweat.

  10. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  11. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  12. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Several NASA-sponsored benefit-cost studies have shown that very substantial benefits can be obtained by increasing material capability for aircraft gas turbines. Prealloyed powder processing holds promise for providing superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. The developement of advanced powder metallurgy disk alloys must be based on a design of optimum processing and heat treating procedures. Materials considered for high temperature application include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, directionally solidified superalloys, ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, materials combining the high strength of a gamma prime strengthened alloy with the elevated temperature strength of an ODS, and composites. Attention is also given to the use of high pressure turbine seals, approaches for promoting environmental protection, and turbine cooling technology.

  13. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  14. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  15. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  16. Thermodynamic and structural insights into nanocomposites engineering by comparing two materials assembly techniques for graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Huanan; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2013-06-25

    Materials assembled by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly and vacuum-assisted flocculation (VAF) have similarities, but a systematic study of their comparative advantages and disadvantages is missing. Such a study is needed from both practical and fundamental perspectives aiming at a better understanding of structure-property relationships of nanocomposites and purposeful engineering of materials with unique properties. Layered composites from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and reduced graphene (RG) are made by both techniques. We comparatively evaluate their structure, mechanical, and electrical properties. LBL and VAF composites demonstrate clear differences at atomic and nanoscale structural levels but reveal similarities in micrometer and submicrometer organization. Epitaxial crystallization and suppression of phase transition temperatures are more pronounced for PVA in LBL than for VAF composites. Mechanical properties are virtually identical for both assemblies at high RG contents. We conclude that mechanical properties in layered RG assemblies are largely determined by the thermodynamic state of PVA at the polymer/nanosheet interface rather than the nanometer scale differences in RG packing. High and nearly identical values of toughness for LBL and VAF composites reaching 6.1 MJ/m(3) observed for thermodynamically optimal composition confirm this conclusion. Their toughness is the highest among all other layered assemblies from RG, cellulose, clay, etc. Electrical conductivity, however, is more than 10× higher for LBL than for VAF composites for the same RG contents. Electrical properties are largely determined by the tunneling barrier between RG sheets and therefore strongly dependent on atomic/nanoscale organization. These findings open the door for application-oriented methods of materials engineering using both types of layered assemblies.

  17. Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.

    1993-10-22

    As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

  18. Supramolecular polymer adhesives: advanced materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Weder, Christoph; de Espinosa, Lucas Montero

    2016-01-21

    Due to their dynamic, stimuli-responsive nature, non-covalent interactions represent versatile design elements that can be found in nature in many molecular processes or materials, where adaptive behavior or reversible connectivity is required. Examples include molecular recognition processes, which trigger biological responses or cell-adhesion to surfaces, and a broad range of animal secreted adhesives with environment-dependent properties. Such advanced functionalities have inspired researchers to employ similar design approaches for the development of synthetic polymers with stimuli-responsive properties. The utilization of non-covalent interactions for the design of adhesives with advanced functionalities such as stimuli responsiveness, bonding and debonding on demand capability, surface selectivity or recyclability is a rapidly emerging subset of this field, which is summarized in this review.

  19. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Self-assembled selenium monolayers: from nanotechnology to materials science and adaptive catalysis.

    PubMed

    Romashov, Leonid V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2013-12-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of selenium have emerged into a rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several promising opportunities in materials chemistry and catalysis. Comparison between sulfur-based self-assembled monolayers and newly developed selenium-based monolayers reveal outstanding complimentary features on surface chemistry and highlighted the key role of the headgroup element. Diverse structural properties and reactivity of organosulfur and organoselenium groups on the surface provide flexible frameworks to create new generations of materials and adaptive catalysts with unprecedented selectivity. Important practical utility of adaptive catalytic systems deals with development of sustainable technologies and industrial processes based on natural resources. Independent development of nanotechnology, materials science and catalysis has led to the discovery of common fundamental principles of the surface chemistry of chalcogen compounds.

  1. Four advances in carbon-carbon materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Kowbel, Witold

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are a specialty class of materials having many unique properties making these composites attractive for a variety of demanding engineering applications. Chief among these properties are exceptional retention of mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 4000 F, excellent creep resistance, and low density (1.6 to 1.8 g/cu cm). Although carbon-carbon composites are currently in service in a variety of applications, much development work remains to be accomplished before these materials can be considered to be fully mature, realizing their full potential. Four recent technology advances holding particular promise for overcoming current barriers to the wide-spread commercialization of carbon-carbon composites are described. These advances are: markedly improved interlaminar strengths (more than doubled) of two dimensional composites achieved by whiskerization of the fabric reinforcing plies, simultaneously improved oxidation resistance and mechanical properties achieved by the incorporation of matrix-phase oxidation inhibitors based on carborane chemistry, improved oxidation resistance achieved by compositionally graded oxidation protective coatings, and markedly reduced processing times (hours as opposed to weeks or months) accomplished through a novel process of carbon infiltration and coatings deposition based on the use of liquid-phase precursor materials.

  2. Advanced materials development for fossil energy conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.; Youngblood, G.E. ); Hurst, J.K.; Bell, A.E.; Grainger, D.W.; Rananavare, S.B.; Roe, D.K.; Thompson, D.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Research activities being conducted as part of this project include: (1) fundamental studies of electrochemical processes occurring at surfaces and interfaces in fuel cells, and (2) development of novel materials synthesis and processing methodologies for fossil energy conversion applications. Complex impedance and dc polarization studies of the electrocatalytic activity at the cathode have allowed intrinsic materials properties to be separated from extrinsic properties related to morphology. Mixed conduction in cathode materials was shown to dramatically enhance electrocatalytic activity with this approach. Combustion synthesis methods were used to prepare multicomponent perovskite catalysts in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} system. Electronic properties of these catalysts can be altered by adjusting the composition, which affects both catalytic activity and selectivity. Inverse micelles have been utilized to prepare nanosized nickel sulfide particles, which show promise as hydrodesulfurization catalysts for liquefied coal. Self-assembling organic monolayers and derivatized inorganic surfaces have been used to control nucleation and crystal morphology of inorganic phases.

  3. Joining and Assembly of Silicon Carbide-based Advanced Ceramics and Composites for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics and fiber reinforced composites are under active consideration for use in wide variety of high temperature applications within the aeronautics, space transportation, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of ceramic and composite component require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. In addition these components have to be joined or assembled with metallic sub-components. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing o high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. Silicon carbide based advanced ceramics (CVD and hot pressed), and C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of joints in silicon carbide ceramics and CVI and melt infiltrated SiC matrix composites will,be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of ceramics and composites well be discussed.

  4. Simulation of indentation fracture in crystalline materials using mesoscale self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Thalladi, Venkat R; Schwartz, Alexander; Phend, Jennifer N; Hutchinson, John W; Whitesides, George M

    2002-08-21

    A new physical model based on mesoscale self-assembly is developed to simulate indentation fracture in crystalline materials. Millimeter-scale hexagonal objects exhibiting atom-like potential functions were designed and allowed to self-assemble into two-dimensional (2D) aggregates at the interface between water and perfluorodecalin. Indentation experiments were performed on these aggregates, and the stresses and strains involved in these processes were evaluated. The stress field in the aggregates was analyzed theoretically using the 2D elastic Hertz solution. Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical analysis revealed that fracture develops in regions subjected to high shear stress and some, albeit low, tensile stress. The potential for the broader application of the model is illustrated using indentation of assemblies with point defects and adatoms introduced at predetermined locations, and using a two-phase aggregate simulating a compliant film on a stiff substrate.

  5. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  6. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M A; Pettit, F; Meier, G H; Yanar, M; Helminiak, M; Chyu, M; Siw, S; Slaughter, W S; Karaivanov, V; Kang, B S; Feng, C; Tannebaum, J M; Chen, R; Zhang, B; Fu, T; Richards, G A; Sidwell, T G; Straub, D; Casleton, K H; Dogan, O M

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ~1425-1760°C (~2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.

  7. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  8. Cubic Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Based Functional Materials: Synthesis, Assembly, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qun; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Jianwei

    2016-05-06

    Organically modified cubic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) have attracted increasing attention in the design of novel functional hybrid materials for applications such as porous materials, liquid crystals, semiconductors, high-temperature lubricants, fuel cells, and lithium batteries. The nanosized POSS moiety can be conveniently modified on the periphery with a variety of functional groups to lead to hybrid materials with desired functions. In addition, suitable mono-functionalized POSS derivatives can be incorporated into polymers as side chains via various synthetic strategies to offer a wide class of functional polymeric materials with tunable physical properties for targeted applications. In this Focus Review, we aim to summarize the recent developments on the chemistry and applications of POSS-based molecules and polymers. Moreover, the properties as well as assembly behavior of the POSS-based functional hybrid materials will be reviewed, and the relationship of the performance of the hybrid materials with the intrinsic nature of the POSS unit will be addressed.

  9. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  10. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  11. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Kurakevych, Oleksandr O; Solozhenko, Vladimir L

    2016-10-20

    The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN) with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N₂. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc.) are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure-temperature conditions are considered.

  12. Rational peptide design for functional materials via molecular self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Karthikan

    Supra-molecular self-assembly of rationally designed peptides is a promising approach to construct functional materials. This thesis specifically focuses on hydrogels, an important class of materials with potential for applications in tissue engineering, drug delivery and micro-fluidic systems. The objective is to design short peptides that would specifically adopt a stimulus dependent conformation that is strongly amenable to self-assembly resulting in material formation. With this concept the rational design of a 20 amino acid peptide (MAX1) that folds into an amphiphilic beta-hairpin structure and then self-assembles to form a rigid hydrogel under alkaline conditions is presented. The molecular level conformation of MAX1 was characterized using circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopies. The mesoscale structure of the hydrogel assessed using confocal and transmission electron micron microscopies and neutron scattering techniques shows that peptide self-assembly results in the formation of fibrils that are homogeneously 3 nm in diameter. The mechanical properties of the hydrogel probed using oscillatory rheology shows that MAX1 forms a stiff hydrogel. Since the self-assembly process is coupled to the intra-molecularly folded state of the peptide, stimulus responsiveness can be specifically engineered into the sequence by rational design. This was demonstrated in the design of peptides that form hydrogels in response to a specific stimulus such as temperature, pH or ionic strength. The significance of peptide design in the context of self-assembly and its relationship to the nanostructure was studied by designing a series of peptides derived from MAX1. Evolving from these studies is an understanding of the relationship between molecular level peptide structure and the nanoscale supra-molecular morphology. Based on this, it has been shown that alternate morphologies distinct from those observed with the gel forming peptides, such as non-twisting laminates or tube

  13. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  14. Neutron and X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Tiley, Jaimie; Wang, Yandong; Liaw, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    The selection of articles in the special topic 'Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials' is based on the materials presented during the TMS 2009 annual meeting in San Francisco, CA, February 15-19, 2009. The development of ultrabrilliant third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, together with advances in X-ray optics, has created intense X-ray microbeams, which provide the best opportunities for in-depth understanding of mechanical behavior in a broad spectrum of materials. Important applications include ultrasensitive elemental detection by X-ray fluorescence/absorption and microdiffraction to identify phase and strain with submicrometer spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of crystalline structure, orientation, and strain. X-ray microdiffraction is nondestructive with good strain resolution, competitive or superior spatial resolution in thick samples, and with the ability to probe below the sample surface. Moreover, the high-energy X-ray diffraction technique provides an effective tool for characterizing the mechanical and functional behavior in various environments (temperature, stress, and magnetic field). At the same time, some neutron diffraction instruments constructed mainly for the purpose of engineering applications can be found at nearly all neutron facilities. The first generation-dedicated instruments designed for studying in-situ mechanical behavior have been commissioned and used, and industrial standards for reliable and repeatable measurements have been developed. Furthermore, higher penetration of neutron beams into most engineering materials provides direct measurements on the distribution of various stresses (i.e., types I, II, and III) beneath the surface up to several millimeters, even tens of millimeters for important industrial components. With X-ray and neutron measurements, it is possible to characterize material behavior at different length scales. It

  15. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program: A Materials Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The realization of low-cost assess to space is one of NASA's three principal goals or "pillars" under the Office of Aero-Space Technology. In accordance with the goals of this pillar, NASA's primary space transportation technology role is to develop and demonstrate next-generation technologies to enable the commercial launch industry to develop full-scale, low cost, highly reliable space launchers. The approach involves both ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrators, including the X-33, X-34, Bantam, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), and future experimental vehicles. Next generation space transportation vehicles and propulsion systems will require the development and implementation of advanced materials and processes. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced materials efforts which are focused on the needs of next generation space transportation systems. Applications described will include ceramic matrix composite (CMC) integrally bladed turbine disk (blisk); actively cooled CMC nozzle ramp for the aerospike engine; ablative thrust chamber/nozzle; and metal matrix composite turbomachinery housings.

  16. Multidimensional Mass Spectrometry of Synthetic Polymers and Advanced Materials.

    PubMed

    Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2017-02-01

    Multidimensional mass spectrometry interfaces a suitable ionization technique and mass analysis (MS) with fragmentation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2) ) and an orthogonal online separation method. Separation choices include liquid chromatography (LC) and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), in which separation takes place pre-ionization in the solution state or post-ionization in the gas phase, respectively. The MS step provides elemental composition information, while MS(2) exploits differences in the bond stabilities of a polymer, yielding connectivity and sequence information. LC conditions can be tuned to separate by polarity, end-group functionality, or hydrodynamic volume, whereas IMS adds selectivity by macromolecular shape and architecture. This Minireview discusses how selected combinations of the MS, MS(2) , LC, and IMS dimensions can be applied, together with the appropriate ionization method, to determine the constituents, structures, end groups, sequences, and architectures of a wide variety of homo- and copolymeric materials, including multicomponent blends, supramolecular assemblies, novel hybrid materials, and large cross-linked or nonionizable polymers.

  17. Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Johnson, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion synthesis, otherwise known as self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), can be used to produce engineered advanced porous material implants which offer the possibility for bone ingrowth as well as a permanent structure framework for the long-term replacement of bone defects. The primary advantage of SHS is based on its rapid kinetics and favorable energetics. The structure and properties of materials produced by SHS are strongly dependent on the combustion reaction conditions. Combustion reaction conditions such as reaction stoichiometry, particle size, green density, the presence and use of diluents or inert reactants, and pre-heating of the reactants, will affect the exothermicity of the reaction. A number of conditions must be satisfied in order to obtain high porosity materials: an optimal amount of liquid, gas and solid phases must be present in the combustion front. Therefore, a balance among these phases at the combustion front must be created by the SHS reaction to successfully engineer a bone replacement material system. Microgravity testing has extended the ability to form porous products. The convective heat transfer mechanisms which operate in normal gravity, 1 g, constrain the combustion synthesis reactions. Gravity also acts to limit the porosity which may be formed as the force of gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during reaction. Infiltration of the porous product with other phases can modify both the extent of porosity and the mechanical properties.

  18. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  19. Nanoscale Structure and Interaction of Compact Assemblies of Carbon Nano-Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timsina, Raju; Qiu, Xiangyun

    Carbon-based nano-materials (CNM) are a diverse family of multi-functional materials under research and development world wide. Our work is further motivated by the predictive power of the physical understanding of the underlying structure-interaction-function relationships. Here we present results form recent studies of the condensed phases of several model CNMs in complexation with biologically derived molecules. Specifically, we employ X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine nanoscale structures and use the osmotic stress method to quantify their interactions. The systems under investigation are dsDNA-dispersed carbon nanotubes (dsDNA-CNT), bile-salt-dispersed carbon nanotubes, and surfactant-assisted assemblies of graphene oxides. We found that salt and molecular crowding are both effective in condensing CNMs but the resultant structures show disparate phase behaviors. The molecular interactions driving the condensation/assembly sensitively depend on the nature of CNM complex surface chemistry and range from hydrophobic to electrostatic to entropic forces.

  20. Advanced Materials Research Status and Requirements. Volume 2. Appendix: Material Properties Data Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    APPENDIX: MATERIAL PROPERTIES DATA REVIEW FINAL REPORT CONTRACT DASG60-85-C-0087 SPONSORED BY: U.S. ARMY STRATEGIC DEFENSE COMMAND DTIC c. ELECTE... properties of general interest advanced metal matrix and polymer matrix systems. qa .1 ./’r ;) 20. ;is,-icI.rON/AIAiLAS16iT’fr. ASSTRACT 1.AaSTRAZT "C...thermal, and physical properties of general interest advanced metal matrix and polymer matrix composites. 4. .Accession For r., ~~NTIS ... I By-4

  1. Effects of Hip Implant Modular Neck Material and Assembly Method on Fatigue Life and Distraction Force.

    PubMed

    Aljenaei, Fahad; Catelas, Isabelle; Louati, Hakim; Beaulé, Paul E; Nganbe, Michel

    2016-11-16

    Hip implant neck fractures and adverse tissue reactions associated with fretting-corrosion damage at modular interfaces are a major source of concern. Therefore, there is an urgent clinical need to develop accurate in vitro test procedures to better understand, predict, and prevent in vivo implant failures. This study aimed to simulate in vivo fatigue fracture and distraction of modular necks in an in vitro setting, and to assess the effects of neck material (Ti6Al4V vs. CoCrMo) and assembly method (hand vs. impact) on the fatigue life and distraction of the necks. Fatigue tests were performed on the cementless PROFEMUR® Total Hip Modular Neck System under two different loads and number of cycles: 2.3 kN for 5 million cycles, and 7.0 kN for 1.3 million cycles. The developed in vitro simulation setup successfully reproduced in vivo modular neck fracture mode and location. Neck failure occurred at the neck-stem taper and the fracture ran from the distal lateral neck surface to the proximal medial entry point of the neck into the stem. None of the necks failed under the 2.3 kN load. However, all hand-assembled Ti6Al4V necks failed under the 7.0 kN load. In contrast, none of the hand-assembled CoCrMo necks and impact-assembled necks (Ti6Al4V or CoCrMo) failed under this higher load. In conclusion, Ti6Al4V necks were more susceptible to fatigue failure than CoCrMo necks. In addition, impact assembly substantially improved the fatigue life of Ti6Al4V necks and also led to overall higher distraction forces for both neck materials. Overall, this study shows that the material and assembly method can affect the fatigue strength of modular necks. Finally, improper implant assembly during surgery may result in diminished modular neck survivability and increased failure rates. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  2. Self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymer-tethered nanoparticles: a new approach to nanoscale design of functional materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Yijing; Yin, Jun-Jie; Nie, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal molecules constructed from polymers and nanoparticles (NPs) have recently emerged as a novel class of building blocks for assembling functional hybrid materials. Particularly, self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymer (BCP)-tethered NPs (BNPs) has shown great promise in the nanoscale design of functional hybrid materials. On the one hand, structurally the BNPs can be considered as molecular equivalents that are capable of self-assembly at multiple hierarchical levels. On the other hand, the assembly of BNPs shows significant differences from molecular assembly due to their large dimension, complex geometry, and multi-scale interactions involved in the assembly process. The manipulation of BCPs localized near the surface of the NPs offers an effective tool for engineering the interactions between NPs and hence the complexity of NP assembly. In this Feature Article, recent progresses on the self-assembly of BNPs into functional materials are summarized. First, major strategies for assembling amphiphilic BNPs are highlighted. Secondly, the application of hybrid nanostructures (e.g., vesicles) assembled from BNPs in the field of biomedical imaging and delivery is discussed. Finally, current challenges and perspectives at this frontier are outlined.

  3. Directed assembly of bio-inspired hierarchical materials with controlled nanofibrillar architectures.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Peter; Napier, Bradley; Zhao, Siwei; Mitropoulos, Alexander N; Applegate, Matthew B; Marelli, Benedetto; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2017-02-27

    In natural systems, directed self-assembly of structural proteins produces complex, hierarchical materials that exhibit a unique combination of mechanical, chemical and transport properties. This controlled process covers dimensions ranging from the nano- to the macroscale. Such materials are desirable to synthesize integrated and adaptive materials and systems. We describe a bio-inspired process to generate hierarchically defined structures with multiscale morphology by using regenerated silk fibroin. The combination of protein self-assembly and microscale mechanical constraints is used to form oriented, porous nanofibrillar networks within predesigned macroscopic structures. This approach allows us to predefine the mechanical and physical properties of these materials, achieved by the definition of gradients in nano- to macroscale order. We fabricate centimetre-scale material geometries including anchors, cables, lattices and webs, as well as functional materials with structure-dependent strength and anisotropic thermal transport. Finally, multiple three-dimensional geometries and doped nanofibrillar constructs are presented to illustrate the facile integration of synthetic and natural additives to form functional, interactive, hierarchical networks.

  4. Synthesis and self-assembly of photonic materials from nanocrystalline titania sheets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Wang, Jinguo; Lv, Fujian; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin; Li, Hexing

    2013-03-27

    We describe the use of benzyl alcohols in a solvothermal/alcoholysis reaction to form nanocrystalline sheets of anatase titania. By tuning the reaction conditions, we adjust the size of the nanosheets. The type and density of benzyl groups that decorate the basal plane of the titania sheets control the self-assembly into layered structures. These layered materials can be grown from solid substrates to create iridescent thin films that reflect specific wavelengths of visible light.

  5. Fabrication and application of advanced functional materials from lignincellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sixiao

    This dissertation explored the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into advanced functional materials and their potential applications. Lignocellulosic biomass represents an as-of-yet underutilized renewable source for not only biofuel production but also functional materials fabrication. This renewable source is a great alternative for fossil fuel based chemicals, which could be one of the solutions to energy crisis. In this work, it was demonstrated a variety of advanced materials including functional carbons, metal and silica nanoparticles could be derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 1 provided overall reviewed of the lignin structures, productions and its utilizations as plastics, absorbents and carbons, as well as the preparation of nano-structured silver, silica and silicon carbide/nitride from biomass. Chapter 2, 3 and 4 discussed the fabrication of highly porous carbons from isolated lignin, and their applications as electric supercapacitors for energy storage. In chapter 2, ultrafine porous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. Chapter 3 covered the fabrication of supercapacitor based on the porous carbon fibers and the investigation of their electrochemical performances. In chapter 4, porous carbon particulates with layered carbon nano plates structures were produced by simple oven-drying followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. The effects of heat processing parameters on the resulting carbon structures and their electrochemical properties were discussed in details. Chapter 5 and 6 addressed the preparation of silver nanoparticles using lignin. Chapter 5 reported the synthesis, underlying kinetics and mechanism of monodispersed silver nanospheres with diameter less than 25 nm in aqueous solutions using lignin as dual reducing and capping agents. Chapter 6 covered the preparation of silver nanoparticles on electrospun celluloses ultrafine fibers using lignin as both

  6. PREFACE Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMAN 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aidy

    2011-02-01

    This special issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials science and Engineering contains papers contributed to the Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMAN 2009) held on 3-5 November 2009 in Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of the congress is to provide a platform for professionals, academicians and researchers to exchange views, findings, ideas and experiences on advanced science and technology. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, 50 papers were selected for publications in this issue. The policy of editing was the content of the material and its rapid dissemination was more important than its form. In 2009, the conference received close to 120 papers from leading researchers and participants from countries such as Iran, India, Switzerland, Myanmar, Nigeria, Canada, Yemen and Malaysia. We strongly hope the new ideas and results presented will stimulate and enhance the progress of research on the above conference theme. We are grateful to all the authors for their papers and presentations in this conference. They are also the ones who help make this conference possible through their hard work in the preparation of the manuscripts. We would also like to offer our sincere thanks to all the invited speakers who came to share their knowledge with us. We would also like to acknowledge the untiring efforts of the reviewers, research assistants and students in meeting deadlines and for their patience and perseverance. We wish to thank all the authors who contributed papers to the conference and all reviewers for their efforts to review the papers as well as the sponsors. We would also like to thank the members of the CAMAN 2009 Organising Committee and the International Advisory Committee for their efforts in making the conference a success. Thank you very much indeed. Guest Editor Aidy Ali

  7. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials.

  8. Advanced Standard Arabic through Authentic Texts and Audiovisual Materials. Part One: Textual Materials. Part Two: Audiovisual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammuny, Raji M.

    Instructional materials for use in advanced Arabic second language instruction are presented in two separately-bound parts. The first contains 28 lessons on a wide variety of subjects using a series of authentic texts, all in Arabic. These texts include personal and formal correspondence, short stories, essays, plays, poems, proverbs, and excerpts…

  9. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a user filter assembly for undulator/wiggler operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.; Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Dejus, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a thermo-mechanical study of a beamline filter (user filter) for undulator/wiggler operations. It is deployed in conjunction with the current commissioning window assembly on the APS insertion device (ID) front ends. The beamline filter at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will eventually be used in windowless operations also. Hence survival and reasonable life expectancy of the filters under intense insertion device (ID) heat flu are crucial to the beamline operations. To accommodate various user requirements, the filter is configured to be a multi-choice type and smart to allow only those filter combinations that will be safe to operate with a given ring current and beamline insertion device gap. However, this paper addresses only the thermo-mechanical analysis of individual filter integrity and safety in all combinations possible. The current filter design is configured to have four filter frames in a cascade with each frame holding five filters. This allows a potential 625 total filter combinations. Thermal analysis for all of these combinations becomes a mammoth task considering the desired choices for filter materials (pyrolitic graphite and metallic filters), filter thicknesses, undulator gaps, and the beam currents. The paper addresses how this difficult task has been reduced to a reasonable effort and computational level. Results from thermo-mechanical analyses of the filter combinations are presented both in tabular and graphical format.

  10. Quality Assurance Protocol for AFCI Advanced Structural Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this letter is to inform you of recent progress on the development of advanced structural materials in support of advanced fast reactors and AFCI. As you know, the alloy development effort has been initiated in recent months with the procurement of adequate quantities of the NF616 and HT-UPS alloys. As the test alloys become available in the coming days, mechanical testing, evaluation of optimizing treatments, and screening of environmental effects will be possible at a larger scale. It is therefore important to establish proper quality assurance protocols for this testing effort in a timely manner to ensure high technical quality throughout testing. A properly implemented quality assurance effort will also enable preliminary data taken in this effort to be qualified as NQA-1 during any subsequent licensing discussions for an advanced design or actual prototype. The objective of this report is to describe the quality assurance protocols that will be used for this effort. An essential first step in evaluating quality protocols is assessing the end use of the data. Currently, the advanced structural materials effort is part of a long-range, basic research and development effort and not, as yet, involved in licensing discussions for a specific reactor design. After consultation with Mark Vance (an ORNL QA expert) and based on the recently-issued AFCI QA requirements, the application of NQA-1 quality requirements will follow the guidance provided in Part IV, Subpart 4.2 of the NQA-1 standard (Guidance on Graded Application of QA for Nuclear-Related Research and Development). This guidance mandates the application of sound scientific methodology and a robust peer review process in all phases, allowing for the data to be qualified for use even if the programmatic mission changes to include licensing discussions of a specific design or prototype. ORNL has previously implemented a QA program dedicated to GNEP activities and based on an appropriately graded

  11. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  12. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  13. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask ‘how are nanoshapes created?’, ‘how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?’, ‘how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?’. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

  14. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  15. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, F. W.; Palmer, A. J.; Stites, D. J.

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) for fusion materials irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three In-Pile Tubes (IPTs) running the length of the reactor vessel. These IPTs are kept dry and test trains with integral instrumentation are inserted and removed through a transfer shield plate above the reactor vessel head. The test vehicle is designed to irradiate specimens as large as 2.2 cm in diameter, at temperatures of 250-800°C, achieving neutron damage rates as high as 10 displacements per atom per year. The high fast to thermal neutron flux ratio required for fusion materials testing is accomplished by using an aluminum filler to displace as much water as possible from the flux trap and surrounding the filler piece with a ring of replaceable neutron absorbing material. The gas blend temperature control system remains in place from test to test, thus hardware costs for new tests are limited to the experiment capsule train and integral instrumentation.

  16. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  17. Metal-coordination: using more of nature's tricks to assemble new soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Growing evidence supports a critical role of metal-coordination in soft biological material properties such as self-healing, underwater adhesion and autonomous wound plugging. Using bio-inspired metal-coordinating polymers, initial efforts to mimic these properties have shown promise. In addition, with polymer network mechanics dictated by coordinate crosslink dynamics material properties can be easily tuned from visco-elastic fluids to elastic solids. Given their exploitation in desirable material applications in nature, metal-coordinate crosslinking provides an opportunity to advance synthetic polymer materials design. Early lessons from this pursuit are presented.

  18. Progressive macromolecular self-assembly: from biomimetic chemistry to bio-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Sakai, Fuji; Su, Lu; Liu, Yijiang; Wei, Kongchang; Chen, Guosong; Jiang, Ming

    2013-10-04

    Macromolecular self-assembly (MSA) has been an active and fruitful research field since the 1980s, especially in this new century, which is promoted by the remarkable developments in controlled radical polymerization in polymer chemistry, etc. and driven by the demands in bio-related investigations and applications. In this review, we try to summarize the trends and recent progress in MSA in relation to biomimetic chemistry and bio-inspired materials. Our paper covers representative achievements in the fabrication of artificial building blocks for life, cell-inspired biomimetic materials, and macromolecular assemblies mimicking the functions of natural materials and their applications. It is true that the current status of the deliberately designed and obtained nano-objects based on MSA including a variety of micelles, multicompartment vesicles, and some hybrid and complex nano-objects is at their very first stage to mimic nature, but significant and encouraging progress has been made in achieving a certain similarity in morphologies or properties to that of natural ones. Such achievements also demonstrate that MSA has played an important and irreplaceable role in the grand and long-standing research of biomimetic and bio-inspired materials, the future success of which depends on mutual and persistent efforts in polymer science, material science, supramolecular chemistry, and biology.

  19. Linear-drive cryocoolers for the Department of Defense standard advanced dewar assembly (SADA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Garin S.

    2005-05-01

    The Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA) is the critical module in the Department of Defense (DoD) standardization of scanning second-generation thermal imaging systems. The DoD has established a family of SADAs to fulfill a range of performance requirements for various platforms. The SADA consists of the Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), Dewar, Command & Control Electronics (C&CE), and the cryogenic cooler, and is used in platforms such as the Apache helicopter, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and the Javelin Command Launch Unit (CLU). In support of the family of SADAs, the DoD defined a complementary family of tactical linear drive cryocoolers. The Stirling cycle linear drive cryocoolers are utilized to cool the Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) in the SADAs. These coolers are required to have low input power, a quick cool-down time, low vibration output, low audible noise, and a higher reliability than currently fielded rotary coolers. These coolers must also operate in a military environment with its inherent high vibration level and temperature extremes. This paper will (1) outline the characteristics of each cryocooler, (2) present the status and results of qualification tests, (3) present the status of production efforts, and (4) present the status of efforts to increase linear drive cooler reliability.

  20. Cellulose-pectin composite hydrogels: Intermolecular interactions and material properties depend on order of assembly.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Martinez-Sanz, Marta; Bonilla, Mauricio R; Wang, Dongjie; Gilbert, Elliot P; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-04-15

    Plant cell walls have a unique combination of strength and flexibility however, further investigations are required to understand how those properties arise from the assembly of the relevant biopolymers. Recent studies indicate that Ca(2+)-pectates can act as load-bearing components in cell walls. To investigate this proposed role of pectins, bioinspired wall models were synthesised based on bacterial cellulose containing pectin-calcium gels by varying the order of assembly of cellulose/pectin networks, pectin degree of methylesterification and calcium concentration. Hydrogels in which pectin-calcium assembly occurred prior to cellulose synthesis showed evidence for direct cellulose/pectin interactions from small-angle scattering (SAXS and SANS), had the densest networks and the lowest normal stress. The strength of the pectin-calcium gel affected cellulose structure, crystallinity and material properties. The results highlight the importance of the order of assembly on the properties of cellulose composite networks and support the role of pectin in the mechanics of cell walls.

  1. Supramolecular soft and hard materials based on self-assembly algorithms of alkyl-conjugated fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takashi

    2010-05-28

    Dimensionally controlled and hierarchically assembled supramolecular architectures in nano/micro/bulk length scales are formed by self-organization of alkyl-conjugated fullerenes. The simple molecular design of covalently attaching hydrophobic long alkyl chains to fullerene (C(60)) is different from the conventional (hydrophobic-hydrophilic) amphiphilic molecular designs. The two different units of the alkyl-conjugated C(60) are incompatible but both are soluble in organic solvents. The van der Waals intermolecular forces among long hydrocarbon chains and the pi-pi interaction between C(60) moieties govern the self-organization of the alkyl-conjugated C(60) derivatives. A delicate balance between the pi-pi and van der Waals forces in the assemblies leads to a wide variety of supramolecular architectures and paves the way for developing supramolecular soft materials possessing various morphologies and functions. For instance, superhydrophobic films, electron-transporting thermotropic liquid crystals and room-temperature liquids have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the unique morphologies of the assemblies can be utilised as a template for the fabrication of nanostructured metallic surfaces in a highly reproducible and sustainable way. The resulting metallic surfaces can serve as excellent active substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) owing to their plasmon enhancing characteristics. The use of self-assembling supramolecular objects as a structural template to fabricate innovative well-defined metal nanomaterials links soft matter chemistry to hard matter sciences.

  2. PREFACE: International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khateeb, Mohammad Y.

    2015-10-01

    It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference of Advanced Materials ICAM 2015" that will take place at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan. This year, the conference coincides with the coming of spring in Jordan; we hope the participants will enjoy the colors and fragrance of April in Jordan. The call for papers attracted submissions of over a hundred abstracts from twenty one different countries. These papers are going to be classified under four plenary lectures, fifteen invited papers, thirty five oral presentations and more than sixty posters covering the different research areas of the conference. The ICAM conference focuses on new advances in research in the field of materials covering chemical, physical and biological aspects. ICAM includes representatives from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and disseminate research in all fields of advanced materials. Topics range from synthesis, applications, and solid state to nano-materials. In addition, talented junior investigators will present their best ongoing research at a poster session. We have also organized several workshops contiguous to the main conference, such as the one-day workshop on "Particle Surface Modification for Improved Applications". The purpose of this short course was to introduce interested materials technologists to several methodologies that have been developed to modify the surfaces of particulate matter. Moreover, a pre-conference workshop on "Communication in Science" was conducted for young scientists. The main goal of this workshop was to train young scientists in matters of interdisciplinary scientific communications. In addition to the scientific program, the attendees will have a chance to discover the beauty of Jordan, a land of rich history and varied culture. Numerous social events that will provide opportunities to renew old contacts and

  3. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  4. Challenges in microstructural metrology for advanced engineered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingard, K. P.; Roebuck, B.; Quested, P.; Bennett, E. G.

    2010-04-01

    Measurement of microstructural parameters is essential for both controlling and modelling properties of and production processes for advanced materials. In the past decade new techniques such as electron backscatter diffraction have enabled a considerable increase in the amount of data and degree of detail in microstructural measurements of, for example, the extent of recrystallization in a metal deformed at high temperatures. However, the many parameters involved and automated nature of the methods can lead to artefacts and bias in calculated values, and increased resolution will lead to disagreement with more conventional methods. Examples are given of the range of microstructural measurements possible by new techniques and how different results can be obtained from the same underlying data. The need is stressed for interlaboratory comparisons to enable underpinning data to be derived on the validity, repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of key microstructural parameters.

  5. Feasibility of an advanced thrust termination assembly for a solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A total of 68 quench tests were conducted in a vented bomb assembly (VBA). Designed to simulate full-scale motor operating conditions, this laboratory apparatus uses a 2-inch-diameter, end-burning propellant charge and an insulated disc of consolidated hydrated aluminum sulfate along with the explosive charge necessary to disperse the salt and inject it onto the burning surface. The VBA was constructed to permit variation of motor design parameters of interest; i.e., weight of salt per unit burning surface area, weight of explosive per unit weight of salt, distance from salt surface to burning surface, incidence angle of salt injection, chamber pressure, and burn time. Completely satisfactory salt quenching, without re-ignition, occurred in only two VBA tests. These were accomplished with a quench charge ratio (QCR) of 0.023 lb salt per square inch of burning surface at dispersing charge ratios (DCR) of 13 and 28 lb of salt per lb of explosive. Candidate materials for insulating salt charges from the rocket combustion environment were evaluated in firings of 5-inch-diameter, uncured end-burner motors. A pressed, alumina ceramic fiber material was selected for further evaluation and use in the final demonstration motor.

  6. Advances in directed self assembly integration and manufacturability at 300 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsack, Benjamen; Somervell, Mark; Muramatsu, Makato; Tanouchi, Keiji; Kitano, Takahiro; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Akai, Keiji; Ozawa, Mariko; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Tahara, Shigeru; Nafus, Kathleen

    2013-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has the potential to extend scaling for both line/space and hole patterns. DSA has shown the capability for pitch reduction (multiplication), hole shrinks, CD self-healing as well as a pathway towards LWR and pattern collapse improvement [1-10]. TEL has developed a DSA development ecosystem (collaboration with customers, consortia, inspection vendors and material suppliers) to successfully demonstrate directed PS-PMMA DSA patterns using chemo-epitaxy (lift-off and etch guide) and grapho-epitaxy integrations on 300 mm wafers. New processes are being developed to simplify process integration, to reduce defects and to address design integration challenges with the long term goal of robust manufacturability. For hole DSA applications, a wet development process has been developed that enables traditional post-develop metrology through the high selectivity removal of PMMA cylindrical cores. For line/ space DSA applications, new track, cleans and etch processes have been developed to improve manufacturability. In collaboration with universities and consortia, fundamental process studies and simulations are used to drive process improvement and defect investigation. To extend DSA resolution beyond a PS-PMMA system, high chi materials and processes are also explored. In this paper, TEL's latest process solutions for both hole and line/space DSA process integrations are presented.

  7. Remote replacement of materials open-test assembly specimens at the FFTF/IEM cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.; Ramsey, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) interim examination and maintenance (IEM) cell is used for the remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. The materials open-test assembly (MOTA) is brought to the IEM cell for materials test specimen removal. The specimens are shipped to the materials laboratory for sorting and installation in new specimen holders and then returned within 10 days to the IEM cell where they are installed in a new MOTA vehicle for further irradiation. Reconstituting a MOTA is a challenging remote operation involving dozens of steps and two separate facilities. Handling and disassembling sodium-wetted components pose interesting handling, cleaning, and disposal challenges. The success of this system is evidenced by its timely completion in the critical path of FFTF outage schedules.

  8. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  9. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  10. Oligo(phenylenevinylene) hybrids and self-assemblies: versatile materials for excitation energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Bandini, Elisa; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-06-21

    Oligo(phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs) are extensively investigated π-conjugated molecules that exhibit absorption and fluorescence in the UV-Vis spectral region, which can be widely tuned by chemical functionalisation and external control (e.g. solvent, temperature, pH). Further modulation of the optoelectronic properties of OPVs is possible by supramolecular aggregation, primarily driven by hydrogen bonding or π-stacking interactions. In recent years, extensive research work has been accomplished in exploiting the unique combination of the structural and electronic properties of OPVs, most of which has been targeted at the preparation of molecules and materials featuring photoinduced energy transfer. This review intends to offer an overview of the multicomponent arrays and self-assembled materials based on OPV which have been designed to undergo energy transfer by means of a thorough choice of excitation donor-acceptor partners. We present a few selected examples of photoactive dyads and triads containing organic moieties (e.g. fullerene, phenanthroline) as well as coordination compounds (Cu(I) complexes). We then focus more extensively on self-assembled materials containing suitably functionalised OPVs that lead to hydrogen bonded aggregates, helical structures, gels, nanoparticles, vesicles, mesostructured organic-inorganic hybrid films, functionalised nanoparticles and quantum dots. In most cases, these materials exhibit luminescence whose colour and intensity is related to the efficiency and direction of the energy transfer processes.

  11. Advanced topographic laser altimeter system (ATLAS) receiver telescope assembly (RTA) and transmitter alignment and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagopian, John; Bolcar, Matthew; Chambers, John; Crane, Allen; Eegholm, Bente; Evans, Tyler; Hetherington, Samuel; Mentzell, Eric; Thompson, Patrick L.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Vaughnn, David

    2016-09-01

    The sole instrument on NASA's ICESat-2 spacecraft shown in Figure 1 will be the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS)1. The ATLAS is a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument; it measures the time of flight of the six transmitted laser beams to the Earth and back to determine altitude for geospatial mapping of global ice. The ATLAS laser beam is split into 6 main beams by a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) that are reflected off of the earth and imaged by an 800 mm diameter Receiver Telescope Assembly (RTA). The RTA is composed of a 2-mirror telescope and Aft Optics Assembly (AOA) that collects and focuses the light from the 6 probe beams into 6 science fibers. Each fiber optic has a field of view on the earth that subtends 83 micro Radians. The light collected by each fiber is detected by a photomultiplier and timing related to a master clock to determine time of flight and therefore distance. The collection of the light from the 6 laser spots projected to the ground allows for dense cross track sampling to provide for slope measurements of ice fields. NASA LIDAR instruments typically utilize telescopes that are not diffraction limited since they function as a light collector rather than imaging function. The more challenging requirements of the ATLAS instrument require better performance of the telescope at the ¼ wave level to provide for improved sampling and signal to noise. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) contracted the build of the telescope to General Dynamics (GD). GD fabricated and tested the flight and flight spare telescope and then integrated the government supplied AOA for testing of the RTA before and after vibration qualification. The RTA was then delivered to GSFC for independent verification and testing over expected thermal vacuum conditions. The testing at GSFC included a measurement of the RTA wavefront error and encircled energy in several orientations to determine the expected zero gravity figure, encircled

  12. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  13. The use of advanced materials in space structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. C. G.; Slachmuylders, E. J.

    The last decade has seen the Space applications of composite materials become almost commonplace in the construction of configurations requiring high stiffness and/or dimensional stability, particularly in the field of antennas. As experience has been accumulated, applications for load carrying structures utilizing the inherent high specific strength/stiffness of carbon fibres have become more frequent. Some typical examples of these and their design development criteria are reviewed. As these structures and the use of new plastic matrices emerge, considerable attention has to be given to establishing essential integrity control requirements from both safety and cost aspects. The advent of manned European space flight places greater emphasis on such requirements. Attention is given to developments in the fields of metallic structures with discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of their application. The design and development of hot structures, thermal protection systems and air-breathing engines for future launch vehicles necessitates the use of the emerging metal/matrix and other advanced materials. Some of their important features are outlined. Means of achieving such objectives by greater harmonization within Europe are emphasized. Typical examples of on-going activities to promote such collaboration are described.

  14. Optical measurement of materials and lens assemblies at specific or varied temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemechek, John J.

    2015-10-01

    Optical materials and lens assemblies are specified for use at various operating temperatures. Ophthalmic lenses such as intra-ocular (IOLs), rigid gas permeable (RGP), and soft contact lenses must be verified at a single well-controlled temperature to ensure correct performance. In comparison, lens assemblies for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) and other "outdoor" applications demand performance over a substantial range of temperatures. Both applications demand the ability to integrate temperature monitoring or control with optical measuring instruments. A common practice is to thermally soak the material or lens assembly and then attempt measurement before the object under evaluation returns to ambient room temperature. We are reporting on the utilization of a NIST-traceable temperature device combined with wavefront sensing technology for faster integrated measurement capability. The temperature sensor is currently capable of 0.01 and 0.1 degree C resolution and accuracy; respectively for an operating range of 0 to 100 degrees C. Efforts are underway to extend the temperature measurement range down to -30 C. The wavefront measurement device is a Shack- Hartmann sensor (SHS) operating at 5 to 15 Hz with simultaneous gauging of temperature. The SHS can be operated with a choice of wavelengths from 400 to 1,000 nm. It also supports both single and double-pass configurations. The single-pass arrangement was chosen for these experiments due to the simpler, more compact set-up. The dynamic range of the wavefront sensor is first utilized to evaluate the temperature chamber. Results are then presented for two lens assemblies intended for commercial UAVs.

  15. The halogen bond in the design of functional supramolecular materials: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Priimagi, Arri; Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2013-11-19

    Halogen bonding is an emerging noncovalent interaction for constructing supramolecular assemblies. Though similar to the more familiar hydrogen bonding, four primary differences between these two interactions make halogen bonding a unique tool for molecular recognition and the design of functional materials. First, halogen bonds tend to be much more directional than (single) hydrogen bonds. Second, the interaction strength scales with the polarizability of the bond-donor atom, a feature that researchers can tune through single-atom mutation. In addition, halogen bonds are hydrophobic whereas hydrogen bonds are hydrophilic. Lastly, the size of the bond-donor atom (halogen) is significantly larger than hydrogen. As a result, halogen bonding provides supramolecular chemists with design tools that cannot be easily met with other types of noncovalent interactions and opens up unprecedented possibilities in the design of smart functional materials. This Account highlights the recent advances in the design of halogen-bond-based functional materials. Each of the unique features of halogen bonding, directionality, tunable interaction strength, hydrophobicity, and large donor atom size, makes a difference. Taking advantage of the hydrophobicity, researchers have designed small-size ion transporters. The large halogen atom size provided a platform for constructing all-organic light-emitting crystals that efficiently generate triplet electrons and have a high phosphorescence quantum yield. The tunable interaction strengths provide tools for understanding light-induced macroscopic motions in photoresponsive azobenzene-containing polymers, and the directionality renders halogen bonding useful in the design on functional supramolecular liquid crystals and gel-phase materials. Although halogen bond based functional materials design is still in its infancy, we foresee a bright future for this field. We expect that materials designed based on halogen bonding could lead to

  16. Advanced materials characterization based on full field deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, A. Paige

    Accurate stress-strain constitutive properties are essential for understanding the complex deformation and failure mechanisms for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. Among such materials, glass-fiber- and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer--matrix composites play a critical role in advanced structural designs. The large number of different methods and specimen types currently required to generate three-dimensional allowables for structural design slows down the material characterization. Also, some of the material constitutive properties are never measured due to the prohibitive cost of the specimens needed. This work shows that simple short-beam shear (SBS) specimens are well-suited for measurement of multiple constitutive properties for composite materials and that can enable a major shift toward accurate material characterization. The material characterization is based on the digital image correlation (DIC) full-field deformation measurement. The full-field-deformation measurement enables additional flexibility for assessment of stress--strain relations, compared to the conventional strain gages. Complex strain distributions, including strong gradients, can be captured. Such flexibility enables simpler test-specimen design and reduces the number of different specimen types required for assessment of stress--strain constitutive behavior. Two key elements show advantage of using DIC in the SBS tests. First, tensile, compressive, and shear stress--strain relations are measured in a single experiment. Second, a counter-intuitive feasibility of closed-form stress and modulus models, normally applicable to long beams, is demonstrated for short-beam specimens. The modulus and stress--strain data are presented for glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy material systems. The applicability of the developed method to static, fatigue, and impact load rates is also demonstrated. In a practical method to determine stress-strain constitutive relations, the stress

  17. Materials advances required to reduce energy consumption through the application of heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.

    1984-09-01

    Several key materials advances are required to reduce energy consumption through application of heavy duty diesel engines. Heavy duty diesel engines are viewed as effecting energy use both directly through fuel consumption, and indirectly through their durability with large energy expenditures required to replace worn-out engines. Materials advances that would improve fuel consumption include materials related to hot gas-path insulation, and materials related to design advances (other than insulation). Most design advances that are focused on fuel consumption or other performance factors also directly influence durability through materials properties. Several major engine components and many conventional (and advanced) materials are examined. If materials development is integrated with design and manufacturing advances, then fuel economy higher than 0.28 BSFC (50 pct thermal efficiency), and durability beyond 750,000 miles may be achievable.

  18. Assembling of Fluid Filtration System for Quantitative Evaluation of Microleakage in Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Javidi, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Roohani, Ehsan

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are several methods for evaluating microleakage in dentistry, for example dye or bacterial leakage, electro-chemical methods, radioisotope labeling and fluid filtration. The purpose of this study was to assemble the fluid filtration system for quantitative evaluation of microleakage in dental materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The roots were connected to a tube filled with an underwater pressure supply. A bubble was introduced into the water to measure endodontic leakage. A digital camera and professional software were utilized to record and measure the bubble displacement. RESULTS: Our system was constructed successfully and functioned correctly. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study we found this system efficient for the evaluation of microleakage of dental materials. PMID:24146673

  19. Saga, A Small Advanced Geochemistry Assembly With Micro-rover For The Exploration Of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, J.; Saga Team

    During future lander missions on Mars, Moon, or Mercury, it is highly advisable to extend the reach of instruments and to bring them to the actual sites of interest to measure in-situ selected surface samples (rocks, soils, or regolith). Particularly, geo- chemical measurements (determination of chemistry, mineralogy, and surface texture) are of utmost importance, because they provide key data on the nature of the sur- face samples. The obtained data will contribute to the classification of these samples. On Mars, weathering processes can also be studied provided some grinding tools are available. Also, the existence of ancient water activities, if any, can be searched for (e.g. sediments, hydroxides, hydrated minerals, or evaporates). The combined geo- chemical data sets of several samples and one/or several landing sites provide an im- portant base for the understanding of planetary surface processes and, hence, plan- etary evolution. A light-weight integrated instrument package and a micro-rover is proposed for future geochemical investigations. SAGA (Small Advanced Geochem- istry Assembly) will consist of several small geochemistry instruments and a tool that are packaged in a compact payload cab: the chemical Alpha Particle X-Ray Spec- trometer (APXS), the mineralogical Mössbauer Spectrometer (MIMOS), the textural close-up camera (MIROCAM), and a blower/grinder tool. These instruments have or will get flight heritage on upcoming ESA and NASA missions. The modularity of the concept permits to attach SAGA to any deployment device, specially, to the pro- posed small, lightweight micro-rover (dubbed SAGA?XT). Micro-rover technology has been developed for many years in Europe. One of the most advanced concepts is the tracked micro-rover SNanokhodT, developed recently in the frame of ESASs & cedil; Technology Research Programme (TRP). It has a total mass of about 3.5 kg (includ- ing payload and parts on the lander). This micro-rover is designed to drive to

  20. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  1. Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Self-Assembly Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon Materials for Energy-Related Applications Sheng Dai Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6201 Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous in separation, catalysis, and energy storage/conversion. Well-defined mesoporous carbon materials are essential for a number of the aforementioned applications. Ordered porous carbon materials have previously been synthesized using colloidal crystals and presynthesized mesoporous silicas as hard templates. The mesostructures of these carbon materials are connected via ultrathin carbon filaments and can readily collapse under high-temperature conditions. Furthermore, these hard-template methodologies are extremely difficult to adapt to the fabrication of large-scale ordered nanoporous films or monoliths with controlled pore orientations. More recently, my research group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several others around the world have developed alternative methods for synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous carbons via self-assembly. Unlike the mesoporous carbons synthesized via hard-template methods, these mesoporous carbons are highly stable and can be graphitized at high temperature (>2800ᵒC) without significant loss of mesopores. The surface properties of these materials can be further tailored via surface functionalization. This seminar will provide an overview and perspective of the mesoporous carbon materials derived from soft-template synthesis and surface functionalization and their fascinating applications in catalysis, separation, and energy storage devices. Dr. Sheng Dai got his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University in 1984 and 1986, respectively. He subsequently obtained a PhD degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1990. He is currently a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Leader of Nanomaterials Group and Center for Nanophase Materials Science of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and

  2. Facile access to large-scale, self-assembled, nacre-inspired, high-performance materials with tunable nanoscale periodicities.

    PubMed

    Das, Paramita; Schipmann, Susanne; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, Baolei; Klemradt, Uwe; Walther, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Although advances have been reported to mimic the mechanically excellent structure of natural nacre, larger-scale applications are still limited due to time and energy-intensive preparation pathways. Herein, we demonstrate that simple high-shear homogenization of dispersions containing biobased high molecular weight sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (700 kg/mol, CMC) and natural sodium montmorillonite (MTM), serving as the soft energy-dissipating phase and reinforcing platelets, respectively, can be used to prepare large-area and thick films with well-aligned hard/soft nacre-mimetic mesostructure. During this process, core-shell nanoplatelets with intrinsic hard/soft structure form, which then self-assemble into a layered nanocomposite during water removal. The nanoscale periodicities of the alternating hard/soft layers can be precisely tuned by changing the ratio of CMC to MTM, which allows studying the evolution of mechanical properties as a function of the lamellar nanoscale periodicity and fractions of hard to soft material. Remarkable mechanical stiffness (25 GPa) and strength (320 MPa) can be obtained placing these materials among the top end of nacre-inspired materials reported so far. Mechanical homogenization also allows direct preparation of concentrated, yet homogeneous, gel-like dispersions of high nanoclay content, suited to doctor-blade large-area and thick films with essentially the same properties as films cast from dilute dispersions. In terms of functional properties, we report high-transparency, shape-persistent fire-blocking and the ability to surface-pattern via inkjet printing. Considering the simple, fully scalable, waterborne preparation pathway, and the use of nature-based components, we foresee applications as ecofriendly, bioinspired materials to promote sustainable engineering materials and novel types of functional barrier coatings and substrates.

  3. Organized chromophoric assemblies for nonlinear optical materials: towards (sub)wavelength scale architectures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialiang; Semin, Sergey; Rasing, Theo; Rowan, Alan E

    2015-03-01

    Photonic circuits are expected to greatly contribute to the next generation of integrated chips, as electronic integrated circuits become confronted with bottlenecks such as heat generation and bandwidth limitations. One of the main challenges for the state-of-the-art photonic circuits lies in the development of optical materials with high nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities, in particular in the wavelength and subwavelength dimensions which are compatible with on-chip technologies. In this review, the varied approaches to micro-/nanosized NLO materials based on building blocks of bio- and biomimetic molecules, as well as synthetic D-π-A chromophores, have been categorized as supramolecular self-assemblies, molecular scaffolds, and external force directed assemblies. Such molecular and supramolecular NLO materials have intrinsic advantages, such as structural diversities, high NLO susceptibilities, and clear structure-property relationships. These "bottom-up" fabrication approaches are proposed to be combined with the "top-down" techniques such as lithography, etc., to generate multifunctionality by coupling light and matter on the (sub)wavelength scale.

  4. Host-guest encapsulation of materials by assembled virus protein cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    1998-05-01

    Self-assembled cage structures of nanometre dimensions can be used as constrained environments for the preparation of nanostructured materials, and the encapsulation of guest molecules, with potential applications in drug delivery and catalysis. In synthetic systems the number of subunits contributing to cage structures is typically rather small,. But the protein coats of viruses (virions) commonly comprise hundreds of subunits that self-assemble into a cage for transporting viral nucleic acids. Many virions, moreover, can undergo reversible structural changes that open or close gated pores to allow switchable access to their interior. Here we show that such a virion - that of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus - can be used as a host for the synthesis of materials. We report the mineralization of two polyoxometalate species (paratungstate and decavanadate) and the encapsulation of an anionic polymer inside this virion, controlled by pH-dependent gating of the virion's pores. The diversity in size and shape of such virus particles make this a versatile strategy for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment.

  5. Synthesis and Functionalization of 3D Nano-graphene Materials: Graphene Aerogels and Graphene Macro Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Patrick G; Worsley, Marcus A; Hiszpanski, Anna M; Baumann, Theodore F; Biener, Juergen

    2015-11-05

    Efforts to assemble graphene into three-dimensional monolithic structures have been hampered by the high cost and poor processability of graphene. Additionally, most reported graphene assemblies are held together through physical interactions (e.g., van der Waals forces) rather than chemical bonds, which limit their mechanical strength and conductivity. This video method details recently developed strategies to fabricate mass-producible, graphene-based bulk materials derived from either polymer foams or single layer graphene oxide. These materials consist primarily of individual graphene sheets connected through covalently bound carbon linkers. They maintain the favorable properties of graphene such as high surface area and high electrical and thermal conductivity, combined with tunable pore morphology and exceptional mechanical strength and elasticity. This flexible synthetic method can be extended to the fabrication of polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) and polymer/graphene oxide (GO) composite materials. Furthermore, additional post-synthetic functionalization with anthraquinone is described, which enables a dramatic increase in charge storage performance in supercapacitor applications.

  6. Hierarchically Superstructured Prussian Blue Analogues: Spontaneous Assembly Synthesis and Applications as Pseudocapacitive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Binder, Andrew J.; Chen, Jihua; Jin, Xianbo; Overbury, Steven; Dai, Sheng

    2014-11-10

    Hierarchically superstructured Prussian blue analogues (hexa- conventional hybrid graphene/MnO2 nanostructured textiles. cyanoferrate, M = NiII, CoII and CuII) are synthesized through Because sodium or potassium ions are involved in energy stor- a spontaneous assembly technique. In sharp contrast to mac- age processes, more environmentally neutral electrolytes can roporous-only Prussian blue analogues, the hierarchically su- be utilized, making the superstructured porous Prussian blue perstructured porous Prussian blue materials are demonstrated analogues a great contender for applications as high-per- to possess a high capacitance, which is similar to those of the formance pseudocapacitors.

  7. A Programmable DNA Double-Write Material: Synergy of Photolithography and Self-Assembly Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Song, Youngjun; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Kim, Sejung; Heaney, Yvonne C; Warner, John; Chen, Shaochen; Heller, Michael J

    2017-01-11

    We demonstrate a DNA double-write process that uses UV to pattern a uniquely designed DNA write material, which produces two distinct binding identities for hybridizing two different complementary DNA sequences. The process requires no modification to the DNA by chemical reagents and allows programmed DNA self-assembly and further UV patterning in the UV exposed and nonexposed areas. Multilayered DNA patterning with hybridization of fluorescently labeled complementary DNA sequences, biotin probe/fluorescent streptavidin complexes, and DNA patterns with 500 nm line widths were all demonstrated.

  8. Hierarchically Superstructured Prussian Blue Analogues: Spontaneous Assembly Synthesis and Applications as Pseudocapacitive Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Binder, Andrew J.; ...

    2014-11-10

    Hierarchically superstructured Prussian blue analogues (hexa- conventional hybrid graphene/MnO2 nanostructured textiles. cyanoferrate, M = NiII, CoII and CuII) are synthesized through Because sodium or potassium ions are involved in energy stor- a spontaneous assembly technique. In sharp contrast to mac- age processes, more environmentally neutral electrolytes can roporous-only Prussian blue analogues, the hierarchically su- be utilized, making the superstructured porous Prussian blue perstructured porous Prussian blue materials are demonstrated analogues a great contender for applications as high-per- to possess a high capacitance, which is similar to those of the formance pseudocapacitors.

  9. Modelling parallel assemblies of porous materials using the equivalent circuit method.

    PubMed

    Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the accuracy of the parallel transfer matrix method (P-TMM) and the admittance sum method (ASM) in the prediction of the absorption properties of parallel assemblies of materials was investigated [Verdière, Panneton, Elkoun, Dupont, and Leclaire, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, EL90-EL95 (2014)]. It was demonstrated that P-TMM is more versatile than ASM, as a larger variety of different backing configurations can be handled. Here it will be shown that the same universality is offered by the equivalent circuit method.

  10. Material characteristics of self-assembled mushroom-like InGaN nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. M.; Yan, C. L.; Qu, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The material characteristics of self-assembled mushroom-like N-polar InGaN/GaN nanowire heterostructure have been clarified, which were achieved by different In content self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns grown on self-assembled GaN nanocolumns template on (111)-silicon-substrate under N-rich condition by plasma-assist molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The In component of the InGaN nanocolumns was determined by XRD (2θ-ω scans). SEM has been used to study the morphology which demonstrated that the diameter of the nanocolumns became larger with higher In content. The structural properties of the individual InGaN nanocolumn were further analyzed by HAADF image, EDX and TEM. The high-In-content (85%) single mushroom-like InGaN nanocolumn showed some cracks on the sidewall, however the GaN nanocolumns showed dislocation free. The (0002) facet of the nanocolumn show very clearly hexagonal structure. It is quite clear that the formation of the mushroom-like InGaN nanocolumns comes from that the lateral epitaxy is dominating with the high In content embedded.

  11. Advanced materials and methods for next generation spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Gene Phillip

    The modern age is filled with ever-advancing electronic devices. The contents of this dissertation continue the desire for faster, smaller, better electronics. Specifically, this dissertation addresses a field known as "spintronics", electronic devices based on an electron's spin, not just its charge. The field of spintronics originated in 1990 when Datta and Das first proposed a "spin transistor" that would function by passing a spin polarized current from a magnetic electrode into a semiconductor channel. The spins in the channel could then be manipulated by applying an electrical voltage across the gate of the device. However, it has since been found that a great amount of scattering occurs at the ferromagnet/semiconductor interface due to the large impedance mismatch that exists between the two materials. Because of this, there were three updated versions of the spintronic transistor that were proposed to improve spin injection: one that used a ferromagnetic semiconductor electrode, one that added a tunnel barrier between the ferromagnet and semiconductor, and one that utilized a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier which would act like a spin filter. It was next proposed that it may be possible to achieve a "pure spin current", or a spin current with no concurrent electric current (i.e., no net flow of electrons). One such method that was discovered is the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in 2008 by Uchida et al., in which a thermal gradient in a magnetic material generates a spin current which can be injected into adjacent material as a pure spin current. The first section of this dissertation addresses this spin Seebeck effect (SSE). The goal was to create such a device that both performs better than previously reported devices and is capable of operating without the aid of an external magnetic field. We were successful in this endeavor. The trick to achieving both of these goals was found to be in the roughness of the magnetic layer. A rougher magnetic

  12. Final Assembly and Initial Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Grover

    2007-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing.1,2 The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The final design phase for the first experiment was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the first experiment test train (designated AGR-1) as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment

  13. Modular space station, phase B extension. Information management advanced development. Volume 4: Data processing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The computation and logical functions which are performed by the data processing assembly of the modular space station are defined. The subjects discussed are: (1) requirements analysis, (2) baseline data processing assembly configuration, (3) information flow study, (4) throughput simulation, (5) redundancy study, (6) memory studies, and (7) design requirements specification.

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Advanced Structural and Functional Materials Design 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2009-07-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan started the Priority Assistance for the Formation of Worldwide Renowned Centers of Research - Global COE Program. This program is based on the competitive principle where a third party evaluation decides which program to support and to give priority support to the formation of world-class centers of research. Our program Center of Excellence for Advanced Structural and Functional Materials Design was selected as one of 13 programs in the field of Chemistry and Materials Science. This center is composed of two materials-related Departments in the Graduate School of Engineering: Materials and Manufacturing Science and Adaptive Machine Systems, and 4 Research Institutes: Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Welding and Joining Research Institute, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research and Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy. Recently, materials research, particularly that of metallic materials, has specialized only in individual elemental characteristics and narrow specialty fields, and there is a feeling that the original role of materials research has been forgotten. The 6 educational and research organizations which make up the COE program cooperatively try to develop new advanced structural and functional materials and achieve technological breakthrough for their fabrication processes from electronic, atomic, microstructural and morphological standpoints, focusing on their design and application: development of high performance structural materials such as space plane and turbine blades operating under a severe environment, new fabrication and assembling methods for electronic devices, development of evaluation technique for materials reliability, and development of new biomaterials for regeneration of biological hard tissues. The aim of this international conference was to report the scientific progress in our Global COE program and also to discuss

  15. Three-dimensional microarchitected materials and devices using nanoparticle assembly by pointwise spatial printing

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mohammad Sadeq; Hu, Chunshan; Panat, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical materials are important to a wide range of emerging technological applications. We report a method to synthesize complex 3D microengineered materials, such as microlattices, with nearly fully dense truss elements with a minimum diameter of approximately 20 μm and having high aspect ratios (up to 20:1) without using any templating or supporting materials. By varying the postprocessing conditions, we have also introduced an additional control over the internal porosity of the truss elements to demonstrate a hierarchical porous structure with an overall void size and feature size control of over five orders of magnitudes in length scale. The method uses direct printing of nanoparticle dispersions using the Aerosol Jet technology in 3D space without templating or supporting materials followed by binder removal and sintering. In addition to 3D microlattices, we have also demonstrated directly printed stretchable interconnects, spirals, and pillars. This assembly method could be implemented by a variety of microdroplet generation methods for fast and large-scale fabrication of the hierarchical materials for applications in tissue engineering, ultralight or multifunctional materials, microfluidics, and micro-optoelectronics. PMID:28275733

  16. Three-dimensional microarchitected materials and devices using nanoparticle assembly by pointwise spatial printing.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammad Sadeq; Hu, Chunshan; Panat, Rahul

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical materials are important to a wide range of emerging technological applications. We report a method to synthesize complex 3D microengineered materials, such as microlattices, with nearly fully dense truss elements with a minimum diameter of approximately 20 μm and having high aspect ratios (up to 20:1) without using any templating or supporting materials. By varying the postprocessing conditions, we have also introduced an additional control over the internal porosity of the truss elements to demonstrate a hierarchical porous structure with an overall void size and feature size control of over five orders of magnitudes in length scale. The method uses direct printing of nanoparticle dispersions using the Aerosol Jet technology in 3D space without templating or supporting materials followed by binder removal and sintering. In addition to 3D microlattices, we have also demonstrated directly printed stretchable interconnects, spirals, and pillars. This assembly method could be implemented by a variety of microdroplet generation methods for fast and large-scale fabrication of the hierarchical materials for applications in tissue engineering, ultralight or multifunctional materials, microfluidics, and micro-optoelectronics.

  17. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymer Materials for Disease Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fengting; Qiu, Tian; Liu, Libing; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Shu

    2016-02-10

    The extraordinary optical amplification and light-harvesting properties of conjugated polymers impart sensing systems with higher sensitivity, which meets the primary demands of early cancer diagnosis. Recent advances in the detection of DNA methylation and mutation with polyfluorene derivatives based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a means to modulate fluorescent responses attest to the great promise of conjugated polymers as powerful tools for the clinical diagnosis of diseases. To facilitate the ever-changing needs of diagnosis, the development of detection approaches and FRET signal analysis are highlighted in this review. Due to their exceptional brightness, excellent photostability, and low or absent toxicity, conjugated polymers are verified as superior materials for in-vivo imaging, and provide feasibility for future clinical molecular-imaging applications. The integration of conjugated polymers with clinical research has shown profound effects on diagnosis for the early detection of disease-related biomarkers, as well as in-vivo imaging, which leads to a multidisciplinary scientific field with perspectives in both basic research and application issues.

  18. Polyoxometalate clusters, nanostructures and materials: from self assembly to designer materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Long, De-Liang; Burkholder, Eric; Cronin, Leroy

    2007-01-01

    Polyoxometalates represent a diverse range of molecular clusters with an almost unmatched range of physical properties and the ability to form structures that can bridge several length scales. The new building block principles that have been discovered are beginning to allow the design of complex clusters with desired properties and structures and several structural types and novel physical properties are examined. In this critical review the synthetic and design approaches to the many polyoxometalate cluster types are presented encompassing all the sub-types of polyoxometalates including, isopolyoxometalates, heteropolyoxometalates, and reduced molybdenum blue systems. As well as the fundamental structure and bonding aspects, the final section is devoted to discussing these clusters in the context of contemporary and emerging interdisciplinary interests from areas as diverse as anti-viral agents, biological ion transport models, and materials science.

  19. Advancement in thermal interface materials for future high-performance electronic applications. Part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Huber, Dale L.; Rightley, Michael J.; Emerson, John Allen

    2006-02-01

    As electronic assemblies become more compact and increase in processing bandwidth, escalating thermal energy has become more difficult to manage. The major limitation has been nonmetallic joining using poor thermal interface materials (TIM). The interfacial, versus bulk, thermal conductivity of an adhesive is the major loss mechanism and normally accounts for an order magnitude loss in conductivity per equivalent thickness. The next generation TIM requires a sophisticated understanding of material and surface sciences, heat transport at submicron scales, and the manufacturing processes used in packaging of microelectronics and other target applications. Only when this relationship between bond line manufacturing processes, structure, and contact resistance is well-understood on a fundamental level will it be possible to advance the development of miniaturized microsystems. This report examines using thermal and squeeze-flow modeling as approaches to formulate TIMs incorporating nanoscience concepts. Understanding the thermal behavior of bond lines allows focus on the interfacial contact region. In addition, careful study of the thermal transport across these interfaces provides greatly augmented heat transfer paths and allows the formulation of very high resistance interfaces for total thermal isolation of circuits. For example, this will allow the integration of systems that exhibit multiple operational temperatures, such as cryogenically cooled detectors.

  20. Effects of self-assembled materials prepared from V2O5 for lithium ion electroinsertion.

    PubMed

    Galiote, Nelson A; Camargo, Maiuí N L; Iost, Rodrigo M; Crespilho, Frank; Huguenin, Fritz

    2011-10-04

    Self-assembled materials consisting of V(2)O(5), polyallylamine (PAH) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were obtained by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method, aiming at their application as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and electrochromic devices. The method employed herein allowed for linear growth of visually homogeneous films composed of V(2)O(5), V(2)O(5)/PAH, and V(2)O(5)/PAH/AgNP with 15 bilayers. According to the Fourier transform infrared spectra, interaction between the oxygen atom of the vanadyl group and the amino group should be responsible for the growth of these films. This interaction also enabled establishment of an electrostatic shield between the lithium ions and the sites with higher negative charge, thereby raising the ionic mobility and consequently increasing the energy storage capacity and reducing the response time. According to the site-saturation model and the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical results, the presence of PAH in the self-assembled host matrix decreased the number of V(2)O(5) electroactive sites. Thus, AgNPs were stabilized in PAH and inserted into the nanoarchitecture, so as to enhance the specific capacity. This should provide new conducting pathways and connect isolated V(2)O(5) particles in the host matrix. Therefore, new nanoarchitectures for specific interactions were formed spontaneously and chosen as examples in this work, aiming to demonstrate the potentiality of the adopted self-assembled method for enhancing the charge transport rate into the host matrices. The obtained materials displayed suitable properties for use as electrodes in lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

  1. Electric Materials in advance of Technologies for CO2 Emission Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Electric materials for the CO2 emission reduction and the climate changes mitigation are reviewed for this special issue. In the diversified society and the climate changes in the global environment, the advanced electric materials and their effective application technologies are a significant and argent field. Proceedings of superconducting materials, fuel cell materials, solar cell materials etc. are spectacular.

  2. Challenges, Solutions, and Quality Metrics of Personal Genome Assembly in Advancing Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wenming; Wu, Leihong; Yavas, Gokhan; Simonyan, Vahan; Ning, Baitang; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Even though each of us shares more than 99% of the DNA sequences in our genome, there are millions of sequence codes or structure in small regions that differ between individuals, giving us different characteristics of appearance or responsiveness to medical treatments. Currently, genetic variants in diseased tissues, such as tumors, are uncovered by exploring the differences between the reference genome and the sequences detected in the diseased tissue. However, the public reference genome was derived with the DNA from multiple individuals. As a result of this, the reference genome is incomplete and may misrepresent the sequence variants of the general population. The more reliable solution is to compare sequences of diseased tissue with its own genome sequence derived from tissue in a normal state. As the price to sequence the human genome has dropped dramatically to around $1000, it shows a promising future of documenting the personal genome for every individual. However, de novo assembly of individual genomes at an affordable cost is still challenging. Thus, till now, only a few human genomes have been fully assembled. In this review, we introduce the history of human genome sequencing and the evolution of sequencing platforms, from Sanger sequencing to emerging “third generation sequencing” technologies. We present the currently available de novo assembly and post-assembly software packages for human genome assembly and their requirements for computational infrastructures. We recommend that a combined hybrid assembly with long and short reads would be a promising way to generate good quality human genome assemblies and specify parameters for the quality assessment of assembly outcomes. We provide a perspective view of the benefit of using personal genomes as references and suggestions for obtaining a quality personal genome. Finally, we discuss the usage of the personal genome in aiding vaccine design and development, monitoring host immune

  3. Improving Surface Analysis Methods for Characterization of Advanced Materials by development of standards, reference data, and interlaboratory comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.

    2007-02-06

    This paper summarizes the results of two surveys examining current needs for improved analyses of surfaces. Surfaces and interfaces are increasingly important to science and to technologies associated with nanoparticles, nano-structured materials and other complex materials including those associated with information systems and medical or biological applications. Adequate characterization of advanced materials frequently requires application of more than one analysis method along with the need to analyze data in increasingly sophisticated and sometimes interrelated ways. It is useful for both new and experienced analysts to have ready access to best practices for obtaining accurate and useful information from a variety of different analysis tools. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Committee TC 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis and ASTM Committee E-42 on Surface Analysis are working to address these needs by assembling guides and standards reflecting the collective experience and wisdom of experts in this community.

  4. Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-12-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content.

  5. Compatibility Testing of Polymeric Materials for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) of International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    In the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts will convert urine into potable water with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) by a distillation process. The urine is pre-treated, containing flush water and stabilizers. About 2.5% solids in the urine are concentrated up to 16% brine through distillation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in the stress relaxation mode was primarily used to test 15 polymeric UPA materials for compatibility with the pre-treated and brine solutions. There were concerns that chromium trioxide (CrO3), a stabilizer not in the original pre-treat formulation for similar compatibility testing in 2000, could have an adverse effect on these polymers. DMA testing is partially complete for polymeric material samples immersed in the two solutions at room temperature for as long as 200 days. By comparing each material (conditioned and virgin), the stress relaxation modulus (E) was determined for short-term use and predicted for as long as a 10-year use in space. Such a delta E showed a decrease of as much as 79% for a Nylon material, but an increase as much as 454% for a polysulfone material, with increasing immersion time.

  6. Ultrathin coatings of nanoporous materials as property enhancements for advanced functional materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a five-month LDRD project funded through Sandia's NTM Investment Area. The project was aimed at providing the foundation for the development of advanced functional materials through the application of ultrathin coatings of microporous or mesoporous materials onto the surface of substrates such as silicon wafers. Prior art teaches that layers of microporous materials such as zeolites may be applied as, e.g., sensor platforms or gas separation membranes. These layers, however, are typically several microns to several hundred microns thick. For many potential applications, vast improvements in the response of a device could be realized if the thickness of the porous layer were reduced to tens of nanometers. However, a basic understanding of how to synthesize or fabricate such ultra-thin layers is lacking. This report describes traditional and novel approaches to the growth of layers of microporous materials on silicon wafers. The novel approaches include reduction of the quantity of nutrients available to grow the zeolite layer through minimization of solution volume, and reaction of organic base (template) with thermally-oxidized silicon wafers under a steam atmosphere to generate ultra-thin layers of zeolite MFI.

  7. Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copoliymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals (NBIT Phase II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-06

    interaction with photons and phonons. Concerning this, we seek to develop methods and understanding to create both periodically structured materials ...this, we seek to develop methods and understanding to create both periodically structured materials (Bragg gap materials ) and non-periodically...Final Report for AOARD Grant 1014069 “Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copoliymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals

  8. Polymer Crosslinked 3-D Assemblies of Nanoparticles: Mechanically Strong Lightweight Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    In analogy to supramolecular assemblies, which are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual molecules, self-standing monolithic three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles also have unique properties attributed to their structure. For example, ultra low-density 3-D assemblies of silica nanoparticles, known as silica aerogels, are characterized by large internal void space, high surface area and very low thermal conductivity. Aerogels, however, are also extremely fragile materials, limiting their application to a few specialized environments, e.g., in nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, in space (refer to NASA's Stardust Program) and aboard certain planetary vehicles (thermal insulators on Mars Rovers in 1997 and 2004). The fragility problem is traced to well-defined weak points in the aerogel skeletal framework, the interparticle necks. Using the surface functionality of the nanoparticle building blocks as a focal point, we have directed attachment of a conformal polymer coating over the entire framework, rendering all necks wider. Thus, although the bulk density may increase only by 3x, the mesoporosity (pores in the range 2-50 nm) remains unchanged, while the strength of the material increases by up to 300... Having addressed the fragility problem, aerogels are now robust materials, and a variety of applications, ranging from thermal/acoustic insulators to catalyst supports, to platform for sensors, and dielectrics are all within reach. Our approach employs molecular science to manipulate nanoscopic matter for achieving useful macroscopic properties, and in our view it resides at the core of what defines nanotechnology. In that spirit, this technology is expandable in three directions. Thus, we have already crosslinked successfully amine-modified silica, and we anticipate that more rich chemistry will be realized by been creative with the nanoparticle surface modifiers. On the other hand, although we do not expect

  9. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.; Cooley, C.R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  10. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  11. Evaluation of Space Power Materials Flown on the Passive Optical Sample Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Skowronski, Timothy J.; McCollum, Tim; Pippin, Gary; Bungay, Corey

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of materials on the exterior of spacecraft is of continuing interest, particularly in anticipation of those applications that will require a long duration in low Earth orbit. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) experiment flown on the exterior of Mir as a risk mitigation experiment for the International Space Station was designed to better understand the interaction of materials with the low Earth orbit environment and to better understand the potential contamination threats that may be present in the vicinity of spacecraft. Deterioration in the optical performance of candidate space power materials due to the low Earth orbit environment, the contamination environment, or both, must be evaluated in order to propose measures to mitigate such deterioration. The thirty two samples of space power materials studied here include solar array blanket materials such as polyimide Kapton H and SiO(x) coated polyimide Kapton H, front surface aluminized sapphire, solar dynamic concentrator materials such as silver on spin coated polyimide and aluminum on spin coated polyimide, CV 1144 silicone, and the thermal control paint Z-93-P. The physical and optical properties that were evaluated prior to and after the POSA flight include mass, total, diffuse, and specular reflectance, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. Additional post flight evaluation included scanning electron microscopy to observe surface features caused by the low Earth orbit environment and the contamination environment, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to identify contaminant type and thickness. This paper summarizes the results of pre- and post-flight measurements, identifies the mechanisms responsible for optical properties deterioration, and suggests improvements for the durability of materials in future missions.

  12. Novel surface treatment materials for aligning block-co-polymer in directed self-assembly processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Yasunobu; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) process is one of the attractive processes for creating the very fine pitch pattern. Especially, the contact hole shrink processes with block-co-polymer (BCP) or polymer blend materials were attractive processes for creating very small size hole patterns with better CD uniformity compare to general photo-lithography patterning. In general contact hole shrink process, the pattern of Spin-on Carbon Hardmask (SOC) or the photo Resist pattern created by Negative-Tone Development (NTD) process were selected for guide patterns. Since the alignment property of BCP was affected by the surface of these guide materials, it is important to control the surface condition of guide in order to obtain good shrunk contact hole patterns. In this study, we will report the surface treatment materials to control the surface condition of guide patterns such as SOC or NTD resist to achieve the better contact hole shrink performance. These materials were attached to guide pattern surface and controlled the surface energy.

  13. Directed self-assembly materials for high resolution beyond PS-b-PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, Eri; Paunescu, Margareta; Polishchuk, Orest; Jeong, EunJeong; Ng, Edward; Shan, Jianhui; Yin, Jian; Kim, Jihoon; Cao, Yi; Li, Jin; Hong, SungEun; Baskaran, Durairaj; Lin, Guanyang

    2016-03-01

    To extend directed self-assembly (DSA) of poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) for higher resolution, placement accuracy and potentially improved pattern line edge roughness (LER), we have developed a next-generation material platform of organic high-χ block copolymers ("HC series", AZEMBLYTM EXP PME-3000 series). The new material platform has a built-in orientation control mechanism which enables block copolymer domains to vertically selforient without topcoat/additive or delicate solvent vapor annealing. Furthermore, sub-10 nm lines and spaces (L/S) patterning by two major chemoepitaxy DSA, LiNe and SMARTTM processes, was successfully implemented on 12" wafer substrates by using the PME-3000 lamellar series. The results revealed that the new material platform is compatible with the existing PS-b-PMMA-based chemical prepatterns and standard protocols. We also introduced the built-in orientation control strategy to the conventional PS-b-PMMA system, producing a new generation of PS-b-PMMA materials with facile orientation control. The modified PS-b-PMMA (m-PS-b-PMMA) performed LiNe flow DSA yielding a comparable CD process window with improved LER/LWR/SWR after the L/S patterns were transferred into a Si substrate.

  14. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  15. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  16. Advanced Materials Research Status and Requirements. Volume 1. Technical Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    systems. 1.2 Applications. This document provides a review of several of the mast prominent metal matrix and polymer matrix composite materials. The...Candidate Materials. This document provides a review of some of the most prominent metal matrix and polymer matrix composite materials. The material...of the most prominent metal matrix and polymer matrix composite materials. * As seen in Figures 3-2 and 3-3, the polymer matrix composites such as

  17. Mechanochemical synthesis of maghemite/silica nanocomposites: advanced materials for aqueous room-temperature catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manuel; Pineda, Antonio; Romero, Antonio A; Barrón, Vidal; Luque, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and highly reproducible protocol has been developed for the mechanochemical preparation of advanced nanocatalytic materials in a one-pot process. The materials proved to have unprecedented activities in aqueous Suzuki couplings at room temperature, paving the way for a new generation of highly active and stable advanced nanocatalysts.

  18. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  19. Collagen-like peptides and peptide-polymer conjugates in the design of assembled materials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tianzhi; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals, and there has been long-standing interest in understanding and controlling collagen assembly in the design of new materials. Collagen-like peptides (CLP), also known as collagen-mimetic peptides (CMP) or collagen-related peptides (CRP), have thus been widely used to elucidate collagen triple helix structure as well as to produce higher-order structures that mimic natural collagen fibers. This mini-review provides an overview of recent progress on these topics, in three broad topical areas. The first focuses on reported developments in deciphering the chemical basis for collagen triple helix stabilization, which we review not with the intent of describing the basic structure and biological function of collagen, but to summarize different pathways for designing collagen-like peptides with high thermostability. Various approaches for producing higher-order structures via CLP self-assembly, via various types of intermolecular interaction, are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in a new area, the production of polymer-CLP bioconjugates, are summarized. Biological applications of collagen contained hydrogels are also included in this section. The topics may serve as a guide for the design of collagen-like peptides and their bioconjugates for targeted application in the biomedical arena. PMID:24039275

  20. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-16

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  1. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation

    PubMed Central

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here, we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. Intriguingly, our genetic data suggest that SAS-7 is required for daughter centrioles to become competent for duplication, and for mother centrioles to maintain this competence. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20353.001 PMID:28092264

  2. Engineering self-assembled materials to study and direct immune function.

    PubMed

    Tostanoski, Lisa H; Jewell, Christopher M

    2017-04-06

    The immune system is an awe-inspiring control structure that maintains a delicate and constantly changing balance between pro-immune functions that fight infection and cancer, regulatory or suppressive functions involved in immune tolerance, and homeostatic resting states. These activities are determined by integrating signals in space and time; thus, improving control over the densities, combinations, and durations with which immune signals are delivered is a central goal to better combat infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmunity. Self-assembly presents a unique opportunity to synthesize materials with well-defined compositions and controlled physical arrangement of molecular building blocks. This review highlights strategies exploiting these capabilities to improve the understanding of how precisely-displayed cues interact with immune cells and tissues. We present work centered on fundamental properties that regulate the nature and magnitude of immune response, highlight pre-clinical and clinical applications of self-assembled technologies in vaccines, cancer, and autoimmunity, and describe some of the key manufacturing and regulatory hurdles facing these areas.

  3. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The cost/benefits of advance commercial gas turbine materials are described. Development costs, estimated payoffs and probabilities of success are discussed. The materials technologies investigated are: (1) single crystal turbine blades, (2) high strength hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (3) advanced oxide dispersion strengthened burner liner, (4) bore entry cooled hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (5) turbine blade tip - outer airseal system, and (6) advance turbine blade alloys.

  4. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  6. Mast material test program (MAMATEP). [for Solar Array Assembly of Space Station Photovoltaic Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1988-01-01

    The MAMATEP program, which is aimed at verifying the need for and evaluating the performance of various protection techniques for the solar array assembly mast of the Space Station photovoltaic power module, is discussed. Coated and uncoated mast material samples have been environmentally tested and evaluated, before and after testing, in terms of mass and bending modulus. The protective coatings include CV-1144 silicone, a Ni/Al/InSn eutectic, and an open-weave Al braid. Long-term plasma asher results from unprotected samples indicate that, even though fiberglass-epoxy samples degrade, a protection technique may not be necessary to ensure structural integrity. A protection technique, however, may be desirable to limit or contain the amount of debris generated by the degradation of the fiberglass-epoxy.

  7. The Physics of Evaporation-Induced Assembly of Sol-Gel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    HURD,ALAN J.; STEINBERG,LEV

    2000-07-24

    Remarkable materials ordered at the nanoscale emerge when a sol-gel solution becomes co-organized with a surfactant. At sufficiently high concentration, the surfactant forms crystalline or liquid-crystalline arrays of micelles in the presence of the sol-gel, and as gelation proceeds the arrays become locked into the gel. Recent experiments demonstrate that the degree of order in the resulting mesoporous ceramic phase can be enhanced and controlled by continuous dip coating in which the solution, initially dilute, evolves through the critical micelle concentration by steady-state evaporation. The long-range order and microstructural orientation in these films suggest that the propagation of a critical-micelle-concentration transition front, with large physico-chemical gradients, promotes oriented self assembly of surfactant aggregates. This steep-gradient view is supported by results from unsteady evaporation of aerosols of similar solutions, in which internally well-ordered but complex particles are formed.

  8. Self-assembly into soft materials of molecules derived from naturallyoccurring fatty-acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mohan

    The self-assembly of molecular gelators has provided an attractive route for the construction of nanostructured materials with desired functionalities. A well-defined paradigm for the design of molecular gels is needed, but none has yet been established. One of the important challenges to defining this paradigm is the creation of structure-property correlations for gelators at different distance scales. This dissertation centers on gaining additional insights in the relationship between small changes in gelator structures derived from long-chain, naturally-occurring fatty acids and the properties of the corresponding gels. This approach offers a reasonable method to probe the rational design of molecular gelators. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  9. Prediction of Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Fabricated Components

    SciTech Connect

    A. Anderko; G. Engelhardt; M.M. Lencka; M.A. Jakab; G. Tormoen; N. Sridhar

    2007-09-29

    The goal of this project is to provide materials engineers, chemical engineers and plant operators with a software tool that will enable them to predict localized corrosion of process equipment including fabricated components as well as base alloys. For design and revamp purposes, the software predicts the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and assists the user in selecting the optimum alloy for a given environment. For the operation of existing plants, the software enables the users to predict the remaining life of equipment and help in scheduling maintenance activities. This project combined fundamental understanding of mechanisms of corrosion with focused experimental results to predict the corrosion of advanced, base or fabricated, alloys in real-world environments encountered in the chemical industry. At the heart of this approach is the development of models that predict the fundamental parameters that control the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environmental conditions and alloy composition. The fundamental parameters that dictate the occurrence of localized corrosion are the corrosion and repassivation potentials. The program team, OLI Systems and Southwest Research Institute, has developed theoretical models for these parameters. These theoretical models have been applied to predict the occurrence of localized corrosion of base materials and heat-treated components in a variety of environments containing aggressive and non-aggressive species. As a result of this project, a comprehensive model has been established and extensively verified for predicting the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and temperature by calculating the corrosion and repassivation potentials.To support and calibrate the model, an experimental database has been developed to elucidate (1) the effects of various inhibiting species as well as aggressive species on localized corrosion of nickel

  10. Final Report: Photo-Directed Molecular Assembly of Multifunctional Inorganic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    B.G. Potter, Jr.

    2010-10-15

    This final report details results, conclusions, and opportunities for future effort derived from the study. The work involved combining the molecular engineering of photoactive Ti-alkoxide systems and the optical excitation of hydrolysis and condensation reactions to influence the development of the metal-oxygen-metal network at the onset of material formation. Selective excitation of the heteroleptic alkoxides, coupled with control of alkoxide local chemical environment, enabled network connectivity to be influenced and formed the basis for direct deposition and patterning of Ti-oxide-based materials. The research provided new insights into the intrinsic photoresponse and assembly of these complex, alkoxide molecules. Using a suite of electronic, vibrational, and nuclear spectroscopic probes, coupled with quantum chemical computation, the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of molecular photoresponse and the nature of subsequent hydrolysis and condensation processes were probed in pyridine-carbinol-based Ti-alkoxides with varied counter ligand groups. Several methods for the patterning of oxide material formation were demonstrated, including the integration of this photoprocessing approach with conventional, dip-coating methodologies.

  11. Recent advances in carbon-carbon materials systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rummler, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    Carbon-carbon materials and new oxidation resistant coating developments are discussed. Potential areas of application are highlighted. A short bibliography of selected references is included that describe carbon-carbon materials and related technology in detail.

  12. Life Enhancement of Naval Systems through Advanced Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-12

    corrosion and anti-fouling paints, improved lubricants, and more durable helicopter rotor blades, as well as a variety of materials processing techniques...and improved uses of materials to reduce corrosion, wear and fatigue of systems components. DD "NIr, 1473 EDITION DOF NOV6 S 9OGSOLETE S/N 0102-014...34 or innovative use of existing materials, that is, by improved techniques for materials processing, evaluation, design, and construction. In this

  13. Investigating the Structure-Property Relationships of Aqueous Self-Assembled Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, Daniel Vincent

    The components of all living organisms are formed through aqueous self-assembly of organic and inorganic materials through physical interactions including hydrophobic, electrostatic, and hydrogen bonding. In this dissertation, these physical interactions were exploited to develop nanostructured materials for a range of applications. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) self-assemble into varying structures depending on the physical interactions of the peptides and tails. PA aggregation was investigated by cryo-TEM to provide insight on the effects of varying parameters, including the number and length of the lipid tails as well as the number, length, charge, hydrophobicity, and the hydrogen bonding ability of the peptides. It was determined that cylindrical micelles are most commonly formed, and that specific criteria must be met in order to form spherical micelles, nanoribbons, vesicles or less ordered aggregates. Controlling the aggregated structure is necessary for many applications---particularly in therapeutics. Additionally, two-headed PAs were designed to act as a catalyst and template for biomimetic mineralization to control the formation of inorganic nanomaterials. Finally, injectable hydrogels made from ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized with the A blocks being functionalized with either guanidinium or sulfonate groups. These oppositely charged polyelectrolyte endblocks formed complex coacervate domains, which served as physical crosslinks in the hydrogel network. The mechanical properties, the network structure, the nature of the coacervate domain and the kinetics of hydrogel formation were investigated as a function of polymer concentration, salt concentration, pH and stoichiometry with rheometry, SAXS and SANS. It was shown that the mechanical properties of the hydrogels was highly dependent on the structural organization of the coacervate domains and that the properties could be tuned with polymer and salt concentration. Polymer and salt concentration were

  14. Studies of cluster-assembled materials: From gas phase to condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lin

    . After being mass gated in a reflectron equipped time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and deposited onto TEM grids, the resultant specimens can be loaded onto high-resolution TEM investigation via electron diffraction. In conclusion, soft-landing of mass selected clusters has been shown to be a successful approach to obtain structural information on Zr-Met-Car cluster-assembled materials collected from the gas phase. TEM images indicate the richness of the morphologies associated with these cluster crystals. However, passivation methods are expected to be examined further to overcome the limited stabilities of these novel clusters. From this initial study, it's shown the promising opportunity to study other Met-Cars species and more cluster-based materials. Experimental results of reactions run with a solvothermal synthesis method obtained while searching for new Zr-C cluster assembled materials, are reported. One unexpected product in single crystal form was isolated and tentatively identified by X-ray diffraction to be [Zr6i O(OH)O12·2(Bu)4], with space group P2 1/n and lattice parameters of a = 12.44 A, b = 22.06 A, c = 18.40 A, alpha = 90°, beta = 105°, gamma = 90°, V = 4875 A3 and R 1 = 3.15% for the total observed data (I ≥ 2 sigma I) and oR2 = 2.82%. This novel hexanuclear Zr(IV)-oxo-hydroxide cluster anion may be the first member in polyoxometalates class with metal atoms from the IVB group and having Oh symmetry. Alternatively, it may be the first member in {[(Zr6Z)X 12]X6}m- class with halides replaced by oxo- and hydroxyl groups and with an increased oxidation state of Zr. It is predicted to bear application potentials directed by both families. This work could suggest a direction in which the preparation of Zr-C cluster-assembled materials in a liquid environment may be eventually fulfilled. 1,3-Bis(diethylphosphino)propane (depp) protected small gold clusters are studied via multiple techniques, including Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

  15. High-tech applications of self-assembling supramolecular nanostructured gel-phase materials: from regenerative medicine to electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Andrew R; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F; Smith, David K

    2008-01-01

    It is likely that nanofabrication will underpin many technologies in the 21st century. Synthetic chemistry is a powerful approach to generate molecular structures that are capable of assembling into functional nanoscale architectures. There has been intense interest in self-assembling low-molecular-weight gelators, which has led to a general understanding of gelation based on the self-assembly of molecular-scale building blocks in terms of non-covalent interactions and packing parameters. The gelator molecules generate hierarchical, supramolecular structures that are macroscopically expressed in gel formation. Molecular modification can therefore control nanoscale assembly, a process that ultimately endows specific material function. The combination of supramolecular chemistry, materials science, and biomedicine allows application-based materials to be developed. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering using molecular gels as nanostructured scaffolds for the regrowth of nerve cells has been demonstrated in vivo, and the prospect of using self-assembled fibers as one-dimensional conductors in gel materials has captured much interest in the field of nanoelectronics.

  16. Recent Advances in Targeted, Self-Assembling Nanoparticles to Address Vascular Damage Due to Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Ji; Tirrell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties have significant potential for atherosclerosis nanomedicine. While self-assembly allows for easy construction (and degradation) of nanoparticles with therapeutic or diagnostic functionality, or both, the targeting agent can direct them to a specific molecular marker within a given stage of the disease. Therefore, supramolecular nanoparticles have been investigated in the last decade as molecular imaging agents or explored as nanocarriers that can decrease the systemic toxicity of drugs by producing accumulation predominantly in specific tissues of interest. In this review, we first describe the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the damage caused to vascular tissue, as well as the current diagnostic and treatment options. Then we provide an overview of targeted strategies using self-assembling nanoparticles and include liposomes, high density lipoproteins, protein cages, micelles, proticles, and perfluorocarbon nanoparticles. Finally, we elaborate on and provide an overview of current challenges, limitations, and future applications for personalized medicine in the context of atherosclerosis of self-assembling nanoparticles. PMID:26085109

  17. Transient bowing of core assemblies in advanced liquid metal fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, S.A.; Orechwa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two alternative core restraint concepts are considered for a conceptual design of a 900 MWth liquid metal fast reactor core with a heterogeneous layout. The two concepts, known as limited free bowing and free flowering, are evaluated based on core bowing criteria that emphasize the enhancement of inherent reactor safety. The core reactivity change during a postulated loss of flow transient is calculated in terms of the lateral displacements and displacement-reactivity-worths of the individual assemblies. The NUBOW-3D computer code is utilized to determine the assembly deformations and interassembly forces that arise when the assemblies are subjected to temperature gradients and irradiation induced creep and swelling during the reactor operation. The assembly ducts are made of the ferritic steel HT-9 and remain in the reactor core for four-years at full power condition. Whereas both restraint systems meet the bowing criteria, a properly designed limited free bowing system appears to be more advantageous than a free flowering system from the point of view of enhancing the reactor inherent safety.

  18. Lead-Free vs Tin-Lead Reliability of Advanced Electronic Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2005-01-01

    This presentation will provide the technical background and specific information published in literature related to reliability test, analyses, modeling, and associated issues for lead-free solder package assemblies in comparison to their tin-lead solder alloys. It also presents current understanding of lead-free thermal cycle test performance in support.

  19. Quick, painless, and atraumatic gingival retraction: An overview of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Rajambigai, M. Aarti; Raja, S. Ramesh; Soundar, S. I. Joephin; Kandasamy, M.

    2016-01-01

    The success of any fixed prosthesis depends on the accuracy of impressions. Finish line exposure has to be adequate during impression making. The goal of gingival retraction is to atraumatically displace gingival tissues to allow access for impression material to record the finish line and provide sufficient thickness of gingival sulcus so that the impression does not tear off during removal. Numerous advanced materials are available for gingival retraction. This article describes the different advanced materials available. PMID:27829736

  20. Quick, painless, and atraumatic gingival retraction: An overview of advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Rajambigai, M Aarti; Raja, S Ramesh; Soundar, S I Joephin; Kandasamy, M

    2016-10-01

    The success of any fixed prosthesis depends on the accuracy of impressions. Finish line exposure has to be adequate during impression making. The goal of gingival retraction is to atraumatically displace gingival tissues to allow access for impression material to record the finish line and provide sufficient thickness of gingival sulcus so that the impression does not tear off during removal. Numerous advanced materials are available for gingival retraction. This article describes the different advanced materials available.

  1. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  2. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1 /3 monolayer halogen coverage. The s p3 dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (˜106 m /s ) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  3. Characterization and development of materials for advanced textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy; Greene, Timothy L.; Taske, Leo E.

    1993-01-01

    Work ongoing under the NASA Langley - Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program is discussed. The primary emphasis of the work centers around the development and characterization of graphite fiber that has been impregnated with an epoxy powder. Four epoxies have been characterized in towpreg form as to their weaveability and braidability. Initial mechanical properties have been generated on each resin system. These include unidirectional as well as 8-harness satin cloth. Initial 2D and 3D weaving and braiding trials will be reported on as well as initial efforts to develop towpreg suitable for advanced tow placement.

  4. Innovative Superhard Materials and Sustainable Coatings for Advanced Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jay; Novikov, Nikolay

    The book contains the results of the latest achievements of leading researchers from 9 countries in the field of diamond and diamond-like carbon, cubic boron nitride and other superhard materials; high-density engineering ceramics; high pressure-high temperature technique; computer-aided modeling; diamond, cubic boron nitride, ceramic and cemented carbide tools; development, production and applications of nanostructured materials; films and wear-resistant coating; methods for quality control of tool materials and tools.

  5. Histone H3K56 Acetylation, CAF1, and Rtt106 Coordinate Nucleosome Assembly and Stability of Advancing Replication Forks

    PubMed Central

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; González-Prieto, Román; Prado, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin assembly mutants accumulate recombinogenic DNA damage and are sensitive to genotoxic agents. Here we have analyzed why impairment of the H3K56 acetylation-dependent CAF1 and Rtt106 chromatin assembly pathways, which have redundant roles in H3/H4 deposition during DNA replication, leads to genetic instability. We show that the absence of H3K56 acetylation or the simultaneous knock out of CAF1 and Rtt106 increases homologous recombination by affecting the integrity of advancing replication forks, while they have a minor effect on stalled replication fork stability in response to the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. This defect in replication fork integrity is not due to defective checkpoints. In contrast, H3K56 acetylation protects against replicative DNA damaging agents by DNA repair/tolerance mechanisms that do not require CAF1/Rtt106 and are likely subsequent to the process of replication-coupled nucleosome deposition. We propose that the tight connection between DNA synthesis and histone deposition during DNA replication mediated by H3K56ac/CAF1/Rtt106 provides a mechanism for the stabilization of advancing replication forks and the maintenance of genome integrity, while H3K56 acetylation has an additional, CAF1/Rtt106-independent function in the response to replicative DNA damage. PMID:22102830

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  7. Advanced materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Vandersande, Jan W.; Wood, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A number of refractory semiconductors are under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for application in thermal to electric energy conversion for space power. The main thrust of the program is to improve or develop materials of high figure of merit and, therefore, high conversion efficiencies over a broad temperature range. Materials currently under investigation are represented by silicon-germanium alloys, lanthanum telluride, and boron carbide. The thermoelectric properties of each of these materials, and prospects for their further improvements, are discussed. Continued progress in thermoelectric materials technology can be expected to yield reliable space power systems with double to triple the efficiency of current state of the art systems.

  8. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  9. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  10. Prediction and Design of Materials from Crystal Structures to Nanocrystal Morphology and Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Predictions of structure formation by computational methods have the potential to accelerate materials discovery and design. Here we present two computational approaches for the prediction of crystal structures and the morphology of nanoparticles. Many materials properties are controlled by composition and crystal structure. We show that evolutionary algorithms coupled to ab-initio relaxations can accurately predict the crystal structure and composition of compounds without any prior information about the system. We will discuss results for various systems including the prediction of unexpected quasi-1D and 2D electronic structures in Li-Be compounds under pressure [1] and of the crystal structure of the superconducting high-pressure phase of Eu [2]. The self-assembly of nanocrystals into mesoscale superlattices provides a path to the design of materials with tunable electronic, physical and chemical properties for various applications. The self-assembly is controlled by the nanocrystal shape and by ligand-mediated interactions between them. To understand this, it is necessary to know the effect of the ligands on the surface energies (which tune the nanocrystal shape), as well as the relative coverage of the different facets (which control the interactions). Density functional calculations for the binding energy of oleic acid-based ligands on PbSe nanocrystals determine the surface energies as a function of ligand coverage. The Wulff construction predicts the thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the PbSe nanocrystals as a function of the ligand coverage. We show that the different ligand binding energies on the 100 and 111 facets results in different ligand coverages on the facets and predict a transition in the equilibrium shape from octahedral to cubic when increasing the ligand concentration during synthesis. Our results furthermore suggest that the experimentally observed transformation of the nanocrystal superlattice structure from fcc to bcc is caused by the

  11. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  12. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials. PMID:27230823

  13. Self-assembled peptide nanotubes as electronic materials: An evaluation from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Akdim, Brahim E-mail: ruth.pachter@us.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@us.af.mil; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-05-04

    In this letter, we report on the evaluation of diphenylalanine (FF), dityrosine (YY), and phenylalanine-tryptophan (FW) self-assembled peptide nanotube structures for electronics and photonics applications. Realistic bulk peptide nanotube material models were used in density functional theory calculations to mimic the well-ordered tubular nanostructures. Importantly, validated functionals were applied, specifically by using a London dispersion correction to model intertube interactions and a range-separated hybrid functional for accurate bandgap calculations. Bandgaps were found consistent with available experimental data for FF, and also corroborate the higher conductance reported for FW in comparison to FF peptide nanotubes. Interestingly, the predicted bandgap for the YY tubular nanostructure was found to be slightly higher than that of FW, suggesting higher conductance as well. In addition, the band structure calculations along the high symmetry line of nanotube axis revealed a direct bandgap for FF. The results enhance our understanding of the electronic properties of these material systems and will pave the way into their application in devices.

  14. Understanding the effects of PEMFC contamination from balance of plant assembly aids materials: In situ studies

    DOE PAGES

    Opu, Md.; Bender, G.; Macomber, Clay S.; ...

    2015-06-29

    In this study, in situ performance data were measured to assess the degree of contamination from leachates of five families of balance of plant (BOP) materials (i.e., 2-part adhesive, grease, thread lock/seal, silicone adhesive/seal and urethane adhesive/seal) broadly classified as assembly aids that may be used as adhesives and lubricants in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Leachate solutions, derived from soaking the materials in deionized (DI) water at elevated temperature, were infused into the fuel cell to determine the effect of the leachates on fuel cell performance. During the contamination phase of the experiments, leachate solution was introducedmore » through a nebulizer into the cathode feed stream of a 50 cm2 PEMFC operating at 0.2 A/cm2 at 80°C and 32%RH. Voltage loss and high frequency resistance (HFR) were measured as a function of time and electrochemical surface area (ECA) before and after contamination were compared. Two procedures of recovery, one self-induced recovery with DI water and one driven recovery through cyclic voltammetry (CV) were investigated. Finally, performance results measured before and after contamination and after CV recovery are compared and discussed.« less

  15. Understanding the effects of PEMFC contamination from balance of plant assembly aids materials: In situ studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opu, Md.; Bender, G.; Macomber, Clay S.; Van Zee, J. W.; Dinh, Huyen N.

    2015-06-29

    In this study, in situ performance data were measured to assess the degree of contamination from leachates of five families of balance of plant (BOP) materials (i.e., 2-part adhesive, grease, thread lock/seal, silicone adhesive/seal and urethane adhesive/seal) broadly classified as assembly aids that may be used as adhesives and lubricants in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Leachate solutions, derived from soaking the materials in deionized (DI) water at elevated temperature, were infused into the fuel cell to determine the effect of the leachates on fuel cell performance. During the contamination phase of the experiments, leachate solution was introduced through a nebulizer into the cathode feed stream of a 50 cm2 PEMFC operating at 0.2 A/cm2 at 80°C and 32%RH. Voltage loss and high frequency resistance (HFR) were measured as a function of time and electrochemical surface area (ECA) before and after contamination were compared. Two procedures of recovery, one self-induced recovery with DI water and one driven recovery through cyclic voltammetry (CV) were investigated. Finally, performance results measured before and after contamination and after CV recovery are compared and discussed.

  16. Bricklaying Curriculum: Advanced Bricklaying Techniques. Instructional Materials. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Raymond J.; Hendrix, Laborn J.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist bricklaying instructors in providing performance-based instruction in advanced bricklaying. Included in the first section of the guide are units on customized or architectural masonry units; glass block; sills, lintels, and copings; and control (expansion) joints. The next two units deal with cut,…

  17. Advanced biohybrid materials based on nanoclays for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo; Darder, Margarita; Wicklein, Bernd; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Castro-Smirnov, Fidel A.; Martín del Burgo, M. Angeles; del Real, Gustavo; Aranda, Pilar

    2012-10-01

    Bio-nanohybrids prepared by assembling natural polymers (polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, etc) to nanosized silicates (nanoclays) and related solids (layered double hydroxides, LDHs) give rise to the so-called bionanocomposites constituting a group of biomaterials with potential applications in medicine. In this way, biopolymers, including chitosan, pectin, alginate, xanthan gum, ι-carrageenan, gelatin, zein, and DNA, as well as phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, have been incorporated in layered host matrices by means of ion-exchange mechanisms producing intercalation composites. Also bio-nanohybrids have been prepared by the assembly of diverse bio-polymers with sepiolite, a natural microfibrous magnesium silicate, in this case through interactions affecting the external surface of this silicate. The properties and applications of these resulting biomaterials as active phases of ion-sensors and biosensors, for potential uses as scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and gene transfection systems, are introduced and discussed in this work. It is also considered the use of synthetic bionanocomposites as new substrates to immobilize microorganisms, as for instance to bind Influenza virus particles, allowing their application as effective low-cost vaccine adjuvants and carriers.

  18. Advances in micro/nano scale materials processing by ultrafast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotakis, Costas

    2009-03-01

    Materials processing by ultrafast lasers offers several attractive possibilities for micro/nano scale applications based on surface and in bulk laser induced modifications. The origin of these applications lies in the reduction of undesirable thermal effects, the non-equilibrium surface and volume structural modifications which may give rise to complex and unusual structures, the supression of photochemical effects in molecular substrates, the possibility of optimization of energy dissipation by temporal pulse shaping and the exploitation of filamentation effects. Diverse applications will be discussed, including the development and functionalization of laser engineered surfaces, the laser transfer of biomolecules and the functionalization of 3D structures constructed by multiphoton stereolithography. Two examples will be presented in this context: A new approach for the development of superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces [1,2] and the fabrication of functional scaffolds for tissue engineering applications [3-5]. [4pt] References: [0pt] [1] V. Zorba et al., ``Biomimetic artificial surfaces quantitatively reproduce the water repellency of a Lotus leaf'', Advanced Materials 20, 4049 (2008).[0pt] [2] V. Zorba et al., ``Tailoring the wetting response of silicon surfaces via fs laser structuring'', Applied Physics A 93, 819 (2008).[0pt] [3] V. Dinca et al., ``Quantification of the activity of biomolecules in microarrays obtained by direct laser transfer'', Biomedical Microdevices 10, 719 (2008).[0pt] [4] B. Hopp et al., ``Laser-based techniques for living cell pattern formation'', Applied Physics A 93, 45 (2008).[0pt] [5] V. Dinca et al., ``Directed three-dimensional patterning of self-assembled peptide fibrils'', Nano Letters 8, 538 (2008).

  19. Recent advances in controlling the internal and external properties of self-assembling cyclic peptide nanotubes and dimers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, N; Amorín, M; Granja, J R

    2017-04-04

    One of the most powerful strategies for the preparation of nanotubes is based on the stacking of flat-shaped cyclic peptide components. This strategy allows precise control of the nanotube internal diameter, the external properties and, more recently, the structural characterisitics of the internal cavity. The recent advances in these technologies and the applications of the resulting materials are described.

  20. Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

  1. 10 CFR 37.77 - Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of radioactive material. 37.77 Section 37.77 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.77 Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material. As specified...

  2. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  3. Recent Advances in Materials for All-Ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The past three years of research on materials for all-ceramic veneers, inlays, onlays, single-unit crowns, and multi-unit restorations are reviewed. The primary changes in the field were the proliferation of zirconia-based frameworks and computer-aided fabrication of prostheses, as well as, a trend toward more clinically relevant in vitro test methods. This report includes an overview of ceramic fabrication methods, suggestions for critical assessment of material property data, and a summary of clinical longevity for prostheses constructed of various materials. PMID:17586152

  4. Recent advances and developments in composite dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cramer, N B; Stansbury, J W; Bowman, C N

    2011-04-01

    Composite dental restorations represent a unique class of biomaterials with severe restrictions on biocompatibility, curing behavior, esthetics, and ultimate material properties. These materials are presently limited by shrinkage and polymerization-induced shrinkage stress, limited toughness, the presence of unreacted monomer that remains following the polymerization, and several other factors. Fortunately, these materials have been the focus of a great deal of research in recent years with the goal of improving restoration performance by changing the initiation system, monomers, and fillers and their coupling agents, and by developing novel polymerization strategies. Here, we review the general characteristics of the polymerization reaction and recent approaches that have been taken to improve composite restorative performance.

  5. Advanced testing methods for studying the mechanical behavior of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipilov, Sergei A.

    2005-03-01

    This article considers some problems associated with the selection of metallic materials used in engineering structures and environments. A common dilemma in engineering is the proliferation of newly designed (mostly high-strength and/or corrosion-resistant) steels and alloys that are unusable in industry as they are highly susceptible to failure under operating conditions including environmentally assisted cracking. The problem of materials failure has several sources, the most significant of which is how engineers select which material to use in which industry.

  6. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  7. Recent advances in materials for all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jason A

    2007-07-01

    The past 3 years of research on materials for all-ceramic veneers, inlays, onlays, single-unit crowns, and multi-unit restorations are reviewed in this article. The primary changes in the field were the proliferation of zirconia-based frameworks and computer-aided fabrication of prostheses, and a trend toward more clinically relevant in vitro test methods. This article includes an overview of ceramic fabrication methods, suggestions for critical assessment of material property data, and a summary of clinical longevity for prostheses constructed of various materials.

  8. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement: Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shatkin, J. A.; Ong, Kimberly J.; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J.; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T.; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J.; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M.; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H.

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  9. Advanced Material Intelligent Processing Center: Next Generation Scalable Lean Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-04

    machines and have made significant advances to automated tape laying (ATL) and automated fiber placement (AFP) technologies. Companies are moving...beyond standard thermoplastic and thermoset prepregs and are looking at placing 00A prepregs as well as dry fabrics. Today. Automated Tape Laying (ATL...References [1] Michael N. Grimshaw, " Automated Tape Laying ." in ASM Handbook Vol. 21 Composites.. ASM International, 2001. [2] Obaid Younossi. Michael

  10. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Material categories as well as coatings and recent turbine cooling developments are reviewed. Current state of the art is identified, and as assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions is provided.

  11. Advance assessment for movement of Haz Cat 3 radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Vosburg, Susan K.

    2010-04-01

    The current packaging of most HC-3 radioactive materials at SNL/NM do not meet DOT requirements for offsite shipment. SNL/NM is transporting HC-3 quantities of radioactive materials from their storage locations in the Manzano Nuclear Facilities bunkers to facilities in TA-5 to be repackaged for offsite shipment. All transportation of HC-3 rad material by SNL/NM is onsite (performed within the confines of KAFB). Transport is performed only by the Regulated Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department. Part of the HC3T process is to provide the CAT with the following information at least three days prior to the move: (1) RFt-Request for transfer; (2) HC3T movement report; (3) Radiological survey; and (4) Transportation Route Map.

  12. Advances in nonfouling materials: perspectives for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Mérian, Tiphaine; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-03-28

    Fouling of complex food components onto food-processing materials affects food quality, food safety, and operating efficiency. Developments in nonfouling and fouling-release materials for biomedical and marine applications enable the potential for adaptation to food applications; however, challenges remain. The purpose of this review is to present different strategies to prevent fouling and/or facilitate foulant removal with a critical point of view for an application of such materials on food-processing surfaces. Nonfouling, self-cleaning, and amphiphilic materials are reviewed, including an explanation of the mechanism of action, as well as inherent limitations of each technology. Perspectives on future research directions for the design of food processing surfaces with antifouling and/or fouling release properties are provided.

  13. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  14. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-09

    application . Scheme 4. Synthesis of TATP (10) and HMTD (11). ork spearheaded by Winter in 2015, however, has shown that organic perox des can be...processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable , are discussed in detail. Keywords: energetic materials...explosives; synthesis; organic chemistry; processing 1. Introduction There is an ever-increasing need for the development of new energetic materials for

  15. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  16. Advanced and In Situ Analytical Methods for Solar Fuel Materials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Tüysüz, Harun; Braun, Artur; Ranjan, Chinmoy; La Mantia, Fabio; Miller, Benjamin K; Zhang, Liuxian; Crozier, Peter A; Haber, Joel A; Gregoire, John M; Park, Hyun S; Batchellor, Adam S; Trotochaud, Lena; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-01-01

    In situ and operando techniques can play important roles in the development of better performing photoelectrodes, photocatalysts, and electrocatalysts by helping to elucidate crucial intermediates and mechanistic steps. The development of high throughput screening methods has also accelerated the evaluation of relevant photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties for new solar fuel materials. In this chapter, several in situ and high throughput characterization tools are discussed in detail along with their impact on our understanding of solar fuel materials.

  17. Validation Testing and Numerical Modeling of Advanced Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    constitutive material strength response with an appropriate yield surface model. The research is sub-divided into three areas: engineering design...and specimen preparation for Taylor impact testing, analytical solution for the dynamic yield strength of the materials used, and numerical modeling...aluminum alloy only. We perform a detailed analysis of the deformed specimen shapes to determine the dynamic yield strength . Additionally, hydrocode

  18. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; ...

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  19. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-07

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm.

  20. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.