Science.gov

Sample records for advanced materials including

  1. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  2. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  3. Advanced desiccant materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Thomas, T.M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  4. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  5. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  6. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  7. Research on materials for advanced electronic and aerospace application. [including optical and magnetic data processing, stress corrosion and H2 interaction, and polymeric systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Development and understanding of materials most suitable for use in compact magnetic and optical memory systems are discussed. Suppression of metal deterioration by hydrogen is studied. Improvement of mechanical properties of polymers is considered, emphasizing low temperature ductility and compatibility with high modulus fiber materials.

  8. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  9. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  10. Video Fact Sheets: Everyday Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-06

    What are Advanced Materials? Ames Laboratory is behind some of the best advanced materials out there. Some of those include: Lead-Free Solder, Photonic Band-Gap Crystals, Terfenol-D, Aluminum-Calcium Power Cable and Nano Particles. Some of these are in products we use every day.

  11. Video Fact Sheets: Everyday Advanced Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    What are Advanced Materials? Ames Laboratory is behind some of the best advanced materials out there. Some of those include: Lead-Free Solder, Photonic Band-Gap Crystals, Terfenol-D, Aluminum-Calcium Power Cable and Nano Particles. Some of these are in products we use every day.

  12. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  13. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  14. Advanced materials and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Flemings, M.C.

    1986-10-01

    Advances in materials science and engineering have impact quickly throughout the economy. On the average, every person in the US requires the securing and processing of some 20,000 pounds of nonrenewable, nonfuel mineral resources each year. Industries engaged in the direct production of primary materials employ approximately 1.5 million wage and salaried personnel, or about 1.5% of the labor force. On each person employed in the primary materials industries depend the jobs of from two to three workers in other sectors. The value of shipments of advanced materials is about $70 billion, or approximately 14% of total materials shipments. The production of such materials occupies about 10% of the total labor force of the materials industries. As in the case of employment, the indirect effect of the presence of these materials on the rest of the economy is highly significant. The reason is that advanced materials are not an end product; they are assembled into components critical to the successful performance and operation of such large, complex systems as aircraft and aerospace vehicles, electronic devices and automobiles. Advanced materials are essential to the future growth of these and other industries. In fact, progress in materials science sets ultimate limits on the rate at which key sectors of the economy can grown.

  15. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  16. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced thermoelectric material for radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) applications is reported. A number of materials were explored. The bulk of the effort, however, was devoted to improving silicon germanium alloys by the addition of gallium phosphide, the synthesis and evaluation of lanthanum chrome sulfide and the formulation of various mixtures of lanthanum sulfide and chrome sulfide. It is found that each of these materials exhibits promise as a thermoelectric material.

  17. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  18. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  19. Fatigue of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. . Center for Advanced Materials); Cox, B.N. )

    1993-08-01

    The development of toughened ceramics over the past 10 to 15 years is arguably one of the most important materials breakthroughs of this century. Monolithic and composite ceramic materials having fracture toughnesses up to an order of magnitude higher than those available 20 years ago have been produced using technologies based on scientific understanding and micromechanical models for in situ phase transformation, fiber bridging, ductile-particle toughening, and other toughening mechanisms. The irony of this, however, is that although ceramics can now be seriously considered for many structural applications, they can also, contrary to popular belief, be susceptible to degradation under cyclic fatigue loading. This is true even when the loading is fully compressive. As a result, a great deal of attention is now being paid to ceramic fatigue, largely because of the importance of cyclic loading in many of the potential applications for ceramics, such as gas-turbine and reciprocating engines. However, because the field is in its infancy, only limited fatigue property data have been documented, understanding of salient fatigue mechanisms has not been achieved, and the design of ceramic microstructures for optimum fatigue resistance has yet to be attempted.

  20. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  1. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  2. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  3. Future requirements for advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  4. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-04

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  5. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-01

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  6. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Liby, Alan L; Rogers, Hiram

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  7. Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access)   Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.

  8. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  9. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  10. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  11. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  12. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  13. Advanced fiber/matrix material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Work completed in Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology program is discussed. Two towpreg forms (commingled yarns and fused powder towpregs) are being characterized under the program. These towpregs will be used to evaluate textile fabrication technologies for advanced aircraft composite structures. The unique characteristic of both of these material forms is that both fiber and matrix resin are handled in a single operation such as weaving, braiding, or fiber placement. The evaluation of both commingled and fused powder towpreg is described. Various polymer materials are considered for both subsonic and supersonic applications. Polymers initially being evaluated include thermoplastic polyimides such as Larc-TPI and New-TPI, thermoplastics such as PEEK and PEKEKK as well as some toughened crosslinked polyimides. Preliminary mechanical properties as well as tow handling are evaluated.

  14. Task 8.9 - Advanced ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    Advanced ceramic materials such as Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CFCCs) have had promising results on the companion program entitled ``Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine`` (CSGT). In particular, CFCCs have outperformed monolithic tiles in structural integrity as a combustor liner. Also, CFCCs have provided the higher temperature operation and improved emissions performance that is required for the ATS combustor. The demonstrated advantages on CSGT justified work to explore the use of advanced ceramic composite materials in other gas turbine components. Sub-tasks include development of a practical, cost effective component fabrication process, development of finite element stress analysis to assure 30,000 hours of component life, and fabrication of a demonstration article.

  15. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  16. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  17. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  18. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Gibbson, Murray

    2016-07-12

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  19. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  20. Development of Specialized Advanced Materials Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmgren, Thomas; And Others

    This course is intended to give students a comprehensive experience in current and future manufacturing materials and processes. It familiarizes students with: (1) base of composite materials; (2) composites--a very light, strong material used in spacecraft and stealth aircraft; (3) laminates; (4) advanced materials--especially aluminum alloys;…

  1. Recent advances in nanoscale bioinspired materials.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Melik C; Cetinkaya, Murat; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun

    2015-03-01

    Natural materials have been a fundamental part of human life since the dawn of civilization. However, due to exploitation of natural resources and cost issues, synthetic materials replaced bio-derived materials in the last century. Recent advances in bio- and nano-technologies pave the way for developing eco-friendly materials that could be produced easily from renewable resources at reduced cost and in a broad array of useful applications. This feature article highlights structural and functional characteristics of bio-derived materials, which will expedite the design fabrication and synthesis of eco-friendly and recyclable advanced nano-materials and devices.

  2. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  3. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  4. Recent Advances in Superhard Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Tian, Yongjun

    2016-07-01

    In superhard materials research, two topics are of central focus. One is to understand hardness microscopically and to establish hardness models with atomic parameters, which can be used to guide the design or prediction of novel superhard crystals. The other is to synthesize superhard materials with enhanced comprehensive performance (i.e., hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal stability), with the ambition of achieving materials harder than natural diamond. In this review, we present recent developments in both areas. The microscopic hardness models of covalent single crystals are introduced and further generalized to polycrystalline materials. Current research progress in novel superhard materials and nanostructuring approaches for high-performance superhard materials are discussed. We also clarify a long-standing controversy about the criterion for performing a reliable indentation hardness measurement.

  5. Micromechanical modeling of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, S.A.; Taylor, P.A.; Wise, J.L.; Furnish, M.D.

    1994-04-01

    Funded as a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project, the work reported here focuses on the development of a computational methodology to determine the dynamic response of heterogeneous solids on the basis of their composition and microstructural morphology. Using the solid dynamics wavecode CTH, material response is simulated on a scale sufficiently fine to explicitly represent the material`s microstructure. Conducting {open_quotes}numerical experiments{close_quotes} on this scale, the authors explore the influence that the microstructure exerts on the material`s overall response. These results are used in the development of constitutive models that take into account the effects of microstructure without explicit representation of its features. Applying this methodology to a glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) composite, the authors examined the influence of various aspects of the composite`s microstructure on its response in a loading regime typical of impact and penetration. As a prerequisite to the microscale modeling effort, they conducted extensive materials testing on the constituents, S-2 glass and epoxy resin (UF-3283), obtaining the first Hugoniot and spall data for these materials. The results of this work are used in the development of constitutive models for GRP materials in transient-dynamics computer wavecodes.

  6. Shock-loading response of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-08-01

    Advanced materials, such as composites (metal, ceramic, or polymer-matrix), intermetallics, foams (metallic or polymeric-based), laminated materials, and nanostructured materials are receiving increasing attention because their properties can be custom tailored specific applications. The high-rate/impact response of advanced materials is relevant to a broad range of service environments such as the crashworthiness of civilian/military vehicles, foreign-object-damage in aerospace, and light-weight armor. Increased utilization of these material classes under dynamic loading conditions requires an understanding of the relationship between high-rate/shock-wave response as a function of microstructure if we are to develop models to predict material behavior. In this paper the issues relevant to defect generation, storage, and the underlying physical basis needed in predictive models for several advanced materials will be reviewed.

  7. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems (DCSs) that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. Background information includes an introduction to DCSs and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The water vapor sorption performance criteria used for screening the modified polymers prepared include the water sorption capacity from 5% to 80% relative humidity (R.H.), isotherm shape, and rate of adsorption and desorption. Measurements are presented for the sorption performance of modified polymeric advanced desiccant materials with the quartz crystal microbalance. Isotherms of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) taken over a 5-month period show that the material has a dramatic loss in capacity and that the isotherm shape is time dependent. The adsorption and desorption kinetics for PSSA and all the ionic salts of it studied are easily fast enough for commercial DCS applications with a wheel rotation speed of 6 min per revolution. Future activities for the project are addressed, and a 5-year summary of the project is included as Appendix A. 34 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the

  9. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  10. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  11. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  12. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2008-08-19

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  13. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2005-12-13

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  14. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    PubMed

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described.

  15. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  16. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  17. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  18. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  19. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  20. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  1. Materials performance in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-12-01

    A number of advanced technologies are being developed to convert coal into clean fuels for use as feedstock in chemical plants and for power generation. From the standpoint of component materials, the environments created by coal conversion and combustion in these technologies and their interactions with materials are of interest. The trend in the new or advanced systems is to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the process effluents. This paper discusses several systems that are under development and identifies requirements for materials application in those systems. Available data on the performance of materials in several of the environments are used to examine the performance envelopes for materials for several of the systems and to identify needs for additional work in different areas.

  2. NASA Trapezoidal Wing Computations Including Transition and Advanced Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing is computed with several turbulence models by using grids from the first High Lift Prediction Workshop in an effort to advance understanding of computational fluid dynamics modeling for this type of flowfield. Transition is accounted for in many of the computations. In particular, a recently-developed 4-equation transition model is utilized and works well overall. Accounting for transition tends to increase lift and decrease moment, which improves the agreement with experiment. Upper surface flap separation is reduced, and agreement with experimental surface pressures and velocity profiles is improved. The predicted shape of wakes from upstream elements is strongly influenced by grid resolution in regions above the main and flap elements. Turbulence model enhancements to account for rotation and curvature have the general effect of increasing lift and improving the resolution of the wing tip vortex as it convects downstream. However, none of the models improve the prediction of surface pressures near the wing tip, where more grid resolution is needed.

  3. Advanced composite materials: a strong growth industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced composites represent a material form that will see significant growth in structural applications. The authors notes that Du Pont sees a broad opportunity for these materials and proceeds to review reasons for the company's optimism as well as their approach to this technology. Substitution of composites for metals is shown graphically since 1960 and projected to 2025. Price reductions vs. steel of five materials also shown graphically since 1970 and projected to 1990. Today, use of advanced composites is primarily when high performance, is required, e.g., aerospace and sporting goods. The author sees a shift into higher-volume applications in the next 15 years, primarily the automotive industry. Finally, as the next century approaches, the author sees a possible capture of 50% of the structure-materials market, mostly in lightweight bridging structures and the top portion of large high-rise structures.

  4. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  5. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  6. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  7. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  8. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2008-02-05

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties

  9. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  10. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  11. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the chemical system characterized by chrome sulfide, chrome selenide, lanthanum selenide, and lanthanum sulfide is described. Most materials within the chemical systems possess the requisites for attractive thermoelectric materials. The preparation of the alloys is discussed. Graphs show the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of various materials within the chemical systems. The results of selected doping are included.

  12. Reliability Testing of Advanced Interconnect Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R. R.; Strus, M. C.; Chiaramonti, A. N.; Kim, Y. L.; Jung, Y. J.; Read, D. T.

    2011-11-01

    We describe the development of electrical test methods to evaluate damage that determines reliability in advanced, small-scale conductors, including damascene copper and aligned carbon nanotube networks. Rapid thermal cycling induced during high-current AC stressing provides a means for measuring lifetimes associated with cyclic plasticity and/or diffusive damage in damascene copper. The specific type of damage that develops depends on the line geometry and the nature of the stress state induced within the lines during cycling. Voids form in both fully passivated and partially passivated lines under high levels of hydrostatic tension. Dislocation activity takes place in partially passivated lines in the presence of high shears. High-current DC stressing provides a means for evaluating the fabrication quality of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) networks, in what we believe to be the first lifetime degradation tests of such materials. While classic electromigration is unlikely in nanocarbon, we observed through resistance changes two forms of degradation that we believe are tied to the nanotube packing and resulting conduction path density through the network: a gradual build-up of damage, and a more abrupt, unpredictable form of damage accumulation, which may be linked to sudden changes in network morphology due to stressing.

  13. Advanced materials and nanotechnology for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-08-20

    Many biological barriers are of great importance. For example, stratum corneum, the outmost layer of skin, effectively protects people from being invaded by external microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling substances to enter and leave cells. However, on the other hand, these biological barriers seriously restrict drug delivery. For instance, stratum corneum has a very dense structure and only allows very small molecules with a molecular weight of below 500 Da to permeate whereas most drug molecules are much larger than that. A wide variety of drugs including genes needs to enter cells for proper functioning but cell membranes are not permeable to them. To overcome these biological barriers, many drug-delivery routes are being actively researched and developed. In this research news, we will focus on two advanced materials and nanotechnology approaches for delivering vaccines through the skin for painless and efficient immunization and transporting drug molecules to cross cell membranes for high-throughput intracellular delivery.

  14. Materials and light thermal structures research for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The Light Thermal Structures Center at the University of Virginia sponsors educational and research programs focused on the development of reliable, lightweight structures to function in hostile thermal environments. Technology advances in materials and design methodology for light thermal structures will contribute to improved space vehicle design concepts with attendant weight savings. This paper highlights current research activities in three areas relevant to space exploration: low density, high temperature aluminum alloys, composite materials, and structures with thermal gradients. Advances in the development of new aluminum-lithium alloys and mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys are described. Material properties and design features of advanced composites are highlighted. Research studies in thermal structures with temperature gradients include inelastic panel buckling and thermally induced unstable oscillations. Current and future research is focused on the integration of new materials with applications to structural components with thermal gradients.

  15. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  16. Cladding material, tube including such cladding material and methods of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-layered cladding material including a ceramic matrix composite and a metallic material, and a tube formed from the cladding material. The metallic material forms an inner liner of the tube and enables hermetic sealing of thereof. The metallic material at ends of the tube may be exposed and have an increased thickness enabling end cap welding. The metallic material may, optionally, be formed to infiltrate voids in the ceramic matrix composite, the ceramic matrix composite encapsulated by the metallic material. The ceramic matrix composite includes a fiber reinforcement and provides increased mechanical strength, stiffness, thermal shock resistance and high temperature load capacity to the metallic material of the inner liner. The tube may be used as a containment vessel for nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant or other reactor. Methods for forming the tube comprising the ceramic matrix composite and the metallic material are also disclosed.

  17. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  18. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  19. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  20. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  1. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry; Hunag, C.-K.; Cheng, S.; Chi, S. C.; Gogna, P.; Paik, J.; Ravi, V.; Firdosy, S.; Ewell, R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress and processes involved in creating new and advanced thermoelectric materials to be used in the design of new radioiootope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). In a program with Department of Energy, NASA is working to develop the next generation of RTGs, that will provide significant benefits for deep space missions that NASA will perform. These RTG's are planned to be capable of delivering up to 17% system efficiency and over 12 W/kg specific power. The thermoelectric materials being developed are an important step in this process.

  2. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  4. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-06-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together {approx}100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  5. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  6. Deformation and Damage Studies for Advanced Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advancements made in understanding deformation and damage of advanced structural materials have enabled the development of new technologies including the attainment of a nationally significant NASA Level 1 Milestone and the provision of expertise to the Shuttle Return to Flight effort. During this collaborative agreement multiple theoretical and experimental research programs, facilitating safe durable high temperature structures using advanced materials, have been conceived, planned, executed. Over 26 publications, independent assessments of structures and materials in hostile environments, were published within this agreement. This attainment has been recognized by 2002 Space Flight Awareness Team Award, 2004 NASA Group Achievement Award and 2003 and 2004 OAI Service Awards. Accomplishments in the individual research efforts are described as follows.

  7. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.; Paulik, S.

    1996-12-31

    Purpose of the research is to improve the properties of current state- of-the-art materials used for SOFCs. The project includes interconnect development, high-performance cathode, electrochemical testing, and accelerated testing. This document reports results of mechanical tests (bend strength, elastic modulus, fracture strength) of acceptor-substituted lanthanum chromite (interconnect material).

  8. Recent advances in organic semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2011-10-01

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their low cost, easy fabrication, and tunable properties. Applications of organic materials in thin-film transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and many other devices have been actively explored. Recent advances in organic synthesis, material processing, and device fabrication led to significant improvements in (opto)electronic device performance. However, a number of challenges remain. These range from lack of understanding of basic physics of intermolecular interactions that determine optical and electronic properties of organic materials to difficulties in controlling film morphology and stability. In this presentation, current state of the field will be reviewed and recent results related to charge carrier and exciton dynamics in organic thin films will be presented.[4pt] In collaboration with Whitney Shepherd, Mark Kendrick, Andrew Platt, Oregon State University; Marsha Loth and John Anthony, University of Kentucky.

  9. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  10. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G; Williams, T; Wendelin, T

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development program at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  11. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The recycling dilemma for advanced materials use: Automobile materials substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Field, F.R. III; Clark, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties. Today's automobile recycling problem again derives from technological and economic factors, but regulatory influences have spurred some of them. While there are no lack of technological solutions to the problem of automobile shredder fluff, none of these solutions yet provides scrap processors with the kind of profit opportunity necessary to implement them. In some ways, it is implicit in advanced materials markets that there is little to no demand for recycled forms of these materials, and, in the absence of these markets, there are few reasons to expect that the solution to today's problems will be quite so neat.

  13. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  14. Spacecraft materials guide. [including: encapsulants and conformal coatings; optical materials; lubrication; and, bonding and joining processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Materials which have demonstrated their suitability for space application are summarized. Common, recurring problems in encapsulants and conformal coatings, optical materials, lubrication, and bonding and joining are noted. The subjects discussed include: low density and syntactic foams, electrical encapsulants; optical glasses, interference filter, mirrors; oils, greases, lamillar lubricants; and, soldering and brazing processes.

  15. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  16. NREL Advances Spillover Materials for Hydrogen Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in advancing spillover materials for hydrogen storage and improving the reproducible synthesis, long-term durability, and material costs of hydrogen storage materials. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  17. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  18. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  19. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael; Louie, Steven G.; Ringe, Emilie; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Akinwande, Deji; Zhu, Jun; Schuller, John; Schaak, Raymond; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  20. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene. PMID:26544756

  1. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  2. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; et al

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulkmore » solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.« less

  3. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. PMID:27812480

  4. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  5. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials. PMID:26939357

  6. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  7. Hydrofluoride decomposition of natural materials including zirconium-containing minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptash, N.; Maslennikova, I.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, interest in ammonium hydrogen difluoride (NH4HF2) as a versatile fluorinating agent for the decomposition of natural materials resumed. It is considered to be a new and more efficient than hydrofluoric acid (HF) reagent in analytical chemistry. Thermodynamically possible fluorination reactions with NH4HF2 are exothermic and proceed even at room temperature with the entropy reserve. The fluorination products are of high symmetry phases (tetragonal or cubic) with partial substitution of fluoride ion for oxide (or hydroxide). The fluorination of refractory silicate zircon (ZrSiO4) is kinetically hindered, and its complete decomposition requires the use of a Teflon autoclave at 200oC. The fluorination products are cubic (NH4)3Zr(OH)xF7-x (x ≤ 0.3) and tetragonal double salt (NH4)3SiF7, which can be separated due to incongruent sublimation of (NH4)2SiF6. The mechanism of the latter process is proposed.

  8. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  9. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  10. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  11. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  12. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  13. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  14. Advanced thermal management materials for concentrator photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2010-08-01

    Thermal management is a critical issue for photovoltaics (PVs), especially concentrator photovoltaic systems. Thermal management problems are similar for all semiconductors, including those used in microelectronics and other optoelectronic applications, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), detectors and displays. We divide the thermal management problem into two parts: heat dissipation and thermal stresses. Heat dissipation affects efficiency and lifetime. Thermal stresses affect manufacturing yield and lifetime. Traditional thermal management materials all have serious deficiencies. Copper and aluminum have high coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), which can cause severe thermal stresses during manufacturing and in service. Compliant attach materials, used to minimize thermal stresses, all have major drawbacks. Traditional low-CTE thermal management materials have relatively low thermal conductivities and are hard to machine. In response to these deficiencies, new thermal management materials have been, and are continuing to be developed, which have low CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times that of copper. Some are reportedly are cheaper than copper. In this paper, we survey the six categories of advanced thermal materials, including properties, state of maturity and cost. We also review a CPV application in which an advanced metal matrix composite with a tailored CTE eliminated solder joint failure and provided other benefits.

  15. Advanced textile materials and biopolymers in wound management.

    PubMed

    Petrulyte, Salvinija

    2008-02-01

    New generation medical textiles are an important growing field with great expansion in wound management products. Virtually new products are coming but also well known materials with significantly improved properties using advanced technologies and new methods are in the centre of research which are highly technical, technological, functional, and effective oriented. The key qualities of fibres and dressings as wound care products include that they are bacteriostatic, anti-viral, fungistatic, non-toxic, high absorbent, non-allergic, breathable, haemostatic, biocompatible, and manipulatable to incorporate medications, also provide reasonable mechanical properties. Many advantages over traditional materials have products modified or blended with also based on alginate, chitin/chitosan, collagen, branan ferulate, carbon fibres. Textile structures used for modern wound dressings are of large variety: sliver, yarn, woven, non-woven, knitted, crochet, braided, embroidered, composite materials. Wound care also applies to materials like hydrogels, matrix (tissue engineering), films, hydrocolloids, foams. Specialized additives with special functions can be introduced in advanced wound dressings with the aim to absorb odours, provide strong antibacterial properties, smooth pain and relieve irritation. Because of unique properties as high surface area to volume ratio, film thinness, nano scale fibre diameter, porosity, light weight, nanofibres are used in wound care. The aim of this study is to outline and review the latest developments and advance in medical textiles and biopolymers for wound management providing the overview with generalized scope about novelties in products and properties.

  16. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  17. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents work to identify a next-generation, low-cost material with which solar energy or heat from another low-cost energy source can be used for regenerating the water vapor sorption activity of the desiccant. The objective of the work is to determine how the desired sorption performance of advanced desiccant materials can be predicted by understanding the role of the material modifications and material surfaces. The work concentrates on solid materials to be used for desiccant cooling systems and which process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. The work involved preparing modifications of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt, synthesizing a hydrogel, and evaluating the sorption performances of these and similar commercially available polymeric materials; all materials were studied for their potential application in solid commercial desiccant cooling systems. Background information is also provided on desiccant cooling systems and the role of a desiccant material within such a system, and it includes the use of polymers as desiccant materials. 31 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  19. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  20. Advances in computational studies of energy materials.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C R A; Guo, Z X; Miskufova, M; Shevlin, S A; Smith, A G H; Sokol, A A; Walsh, A; Wilson, D J; Woodley, S M

    2010-07-28

    We review recent developments and applications of computational modelling techniques in the field of materials for energy technologies including hydrogen production and storage, energy storage and conversion, and light absorption and emission. In addition, we present new work on an Sn2TiO4 photocatalyst containing an Sn(II) lone pair, new interatomic potential models for SrTiO3 and GaN, an exploration of defects in the kesterite/stannite-structured solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4, and report details of the incorporation of hydrogen into Ag2O and Cu2O. Special attention is paid to the modelling of nanostructured systems, including ceria (CeO2, mixed Ce(x)O(y) and Ce2O3) and group 13 sesquioxides. We consider applications based on both interatomic potential and electronic structure methodologies; and we illustrate the increasingly quantitative and predictive nature of modelling in this field. PMID:20566517

  1. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  2. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Several NASA-sponsored benefit-cost studies have shown that very substantial benefits can be obtained by increasing material capability for aircraft gas turbines. Prealloyed powder processing holds promise for providing superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. The developement of advanced powder metallurgy disk alloys must be based on a design of optimum processing and heat treating procedures. Materials considered for high temperature application include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, directionally solidified superalloys, ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, materials combining the high strength of a gamma prime strengthened alloy with the elevated temperature strength of an ODS, and composites. Attention is also given to the use of high pressure turbine seals, approaches for promoting environmental protection, and turbine cooling technology.

  3. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  4. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  5. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L.

    2012-05-31

    Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM), the NRC/Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) raised numerous safety-related issues regarding elevated-temperature structural integrity criteria. Most of these issues remained unresolved today. These critical licensing reviews provide a basis for the evaluation of underlying technical issues for future advanced sodium-cooled reactors. Major materials performance issues and high temperature design methodology issues pertinent to the ARR are addressed in the report. The report is organized as follows: the ARR reference design concepts proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory and four industrial consortia were reviewed first, followed by a summary of the major code qualification and licensing issues for the ARR structural materials. The available database is presented for the ASME Code-qualified structural alloys (e.g. 304, 316 stainless steels, 2.25Cr-1Mo, and mod.9Cr-1Mo), including physical properties, tensile properties, impact properties and fracture toughness, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, microstructural stability during long-term thermal aging, material degradation in sodium environments and effects of neutron irradiation for both base metals and weld metals. An assessment of modified versions of Type 316 SS, i.e. Type 316LN and its Japanese version, 316FR, was conducted to provide a perspective for codification of 316LN or 316FR in Subsection NH. Current status and data availability of four new advanced alloys, i.e. NF616, NF616+TMT, NF709, and HT-UPS, are also addressed to identify the R&D needs for their code qualification for ARR applications. For both conventional and new alloys, issues related to high temperature design methodology are described to address the needs for improvements for the ARR design and licensing. Assessments have shown that there are significant data gaps for the full qualification and licensing of the ARR structural materials. Development and evaluation of structural

  7. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  8. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  9. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  10. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector

  11. Supramolecular polymer adhesives: advanced materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Weder, Christoph; de Espinosa, Lucas Montero

    2016-01-21

    Due to their dynamic, stimuli-responsive nature, non-covalent interactions represent versatile design elements that can be found in nature in many molecular processes or materials, where adaptive behavior or reversible connectivity is required. Examples include molecular recognition processes, which trigger biological responses or cell-adhesion to surfaces, and a broad range of animal secreted adhesives with environment-dependent properties. Such advanced functionalities have inspired researchers to employ similar design approaches for the development of synthetic polymers with stimuli-responsive properties. The utilization of non-covalent interactions for the design of adhesives with advanced functionalities such as stimuli responsiveness, bonding and debonding on demand capability, surface selectivity or recyclability is a rapidly emerging subset of this field, which is summarized in this review. PMID:26203784

  12. Analysis of an advanced technology subsonic turbofan incorporating revolutionary materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Successful implementation of revolutionary composite materials in an advanced turbofan offers the possibility of further improvements in engine performance and thrust-to-weight ratio relative to current metallic materials. The present analysis determines the approximate engine cycle and configuration for an early 21st century subsonic turbofan incorporating all composite materials. The advanced engine is evaluated relative to a current technology baseline engine in terms of its potential fuel savings for an intercontinental quadjet having a design range of 5500 nmi and a payload of 500 passengers. The resultant near optimum, uncooled, two-spool, advanced engine has an overall pressure ratio of 87, a bypass ratio of 18, a geared fan, and a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 3085 R. Improvements result in a 33-percent fuel saving for the specified misssion. Various advanced composite materials are used throughout the engine. For example, advanced polymer composite materials are used for the fan and the low pressure compressor (LPC).

  13. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  14. New Advances in SuperConducting Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, new materials science concepts are bringing this essential technology closer to widespread industrial use.

  15. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Rolllins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  16. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  17. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  18. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  19. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  20. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  1. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  2. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-02

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  3. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  4. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  5. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  6. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  7. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  8. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  9. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  10. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through

  11. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  12. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  13. Advanced diffusion studies with isotopically controlled materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Haller, Eugene E.

    2004-11-14

    The use of enriched stable isotopes combined with modern epitaxial deposition and depth profiling techniques enables the preparation of material heterostructures, highly appropriate for self- and foreign-atom diffusion experiments. Over the past decade we have performed diffusion studies with isotopically enriched elemental and compound semiconductors. In the present paper we highlight our recent results and demonstrate that the use of isotopically enriched materials ushered in a new era in the study of diffusion in solids which yields greater insight into the properties of native defects and their roles in diffusion. Our approach of studying atomic diffusion is not limited to semiconductors and can be applied also to other material systems. Current areas of our research concern the diffusion in the silicon-germanium alloys and glassy materials such as silicon dioxide and ion conducting silicate glasses.

  14. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  15. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  16. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  17. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  18. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  19. Advances in glazing materials for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    No one type of glazing is suitable for every application. Many materials are available that serve different purposes. Moreover, consumers may discover that they need two types of glazing for a home because of the directions that the windows face and the local climate. To make wise purchases, consumers should first examine their heating and cooling needs and prioritize desired features such as daylighting, solar heating, shading, ventilation, and aesthetic value. Research and development into types of glazing have created a new generation of materials that offer improved window efficiency and performance for consumers. While this new generation of glazing materials quickly gains acceptance in the marketplace, the research and development of even more efficient technology continues.

  20. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  1. ADVANCED ABRASION RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, G.M.

    2004-04-08

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  2. Advance Abrasion Resistant Materials for Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.

    2004-06-01

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of. wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  3. Decreasing geothermal energy conversion costs with advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1988-03-01

    If the Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) is to meet its programmatic objectives in hydrothermal fluid production and energy conversion, it is essential that new materials of construction be available. Level III Program Objectives include (1) reducing the costs associated with lost circulation episodes by 30% by 1992, (2) reducing the costs of deep wells and directionally dried wells by 10% by 1992, (3) reducing well-cementing problems for typical hydrothermal wells by 20% by 1991, and (4) the development of a corrosion-resistant and low-fouling heat exchanger tube material costing no more than three times the cost of carbon steel tubes by 1991. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) materials program is focused on meeting these objectives. Currently, work is in progress on (1) high temperature chemical systems for lost circulation control, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C), lightweight (approx. 1.1 g/cc), CO/sub 2/-resistant well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, and (4) ultra high temperature (600/sup 0/C) cements for magma wells. In addition, high temperature elastomer technology developed earlier in the program is being transferred for use in the Geothermal Drilling Organization programs on drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, and blow-out preventors. Recent accomplishments and the current status of work in each subtask are summarized in the paper.

  4. Fabrication of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials by Hierarchical Nanovoid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare an advanced thermoelectric material has hierarchical structures embedded with nanometer-sized voids which are key to enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Solution-based thin film deposition technique enables preparation of stable film of thermoelectric material and void generator (voigen). A subsequent thermal process creates hierarchical nanovoid structure inside the thermoelectric material. Potential application areas of this advanced thermoelectric material with nanovoid structure are commercial applications (electronics cooling), medical and scientific applications (biological analysis device, medical imaging systems), telecommunications, and defense and military applications (night vision equipments).

  5. Evaluation of advanced materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Clauer, A.H.; Shetty, D.K.; Tucker, T.R.; Stropki, J.T.

    1982-11-18

    Cemented tungsten carbides with a binder level in the range of 5 to 6 percent exhibited the best resistance to erosion for this class of materials. Other practical cermet meterials were diamond - Si/SiC, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C-Cr, and B/sub 4/C-Co. SiAlON exhibited erosion resistance equivalent to the best WC-cermet. The only coating system to show promise of improved erosion resistance was CVD TiB/sub 2/ on cemented TiB/sub 2/-Ni. Cracking and/or spalling of a TiC coating and a proprietary TMT coating occurred in the standard slurry erosion test. Ranking of cemented tungsten carbide materials in the laboratory erosion test was the same as that found in service in the Wilsonville pilot plant. Specimens from the Fort Lewis pilot plant which performed well in service exhibited low erosion in the laboratory test. A substitute slurry, was found to be 2 to 4 times more erosive than the coal-derived slurry 8 wt% solids. Ranking of materials in the substitute slurry was nearly identical to that in the coal-derived slurry. Three modes of erosion were: ductile cutting; elastic-plastic indentation and fracture; and intergranular fracture. Erosion of a given material was closely related to its microstructure. In the substitute slurry, the angle-dependence of erosion of two forms of SiC, hot-pressed and sintered, were similar, but the sintered material eroded slower. Laser fusing of preplaced powder mixtures can produce cermet-like structures with potential for erosive and sliding wear resistance. TiC particles in Stellite 6 matrix proved less prone to cracking than WC particles in the same matrix. 74 figures, 14 tables.

  6. Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2011-12-06

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  7. Advances in electrode materials for AMTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Williams, R. M.; Lara, L.; Fiebig, B. G.; Cortez, R. H.; Kisor, A. K.; Shields, V. B.; Homer, M. L.

    2001-02-01

    A mixed conducting electrode for the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) has been made and tested. The electrode is made from a slurry of metal and TiO2 powders which is applied to the electrolyte and fired to sinter the electrode material. During the first 48-72 hours of operation in a SETC, the electrode takes up Na from low pressure sodium vapor to make a metal-Na-Ti-O compound. This compound is electronically conducting and ionically conducting to sodium; electronic conduction is also provided by the metal in the electrode. With a mixed conducting electrode made from robust, low vapor pressure materials, the promise for improved performance and lifetime is high. .

  8. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  9. PREFACE: Advanced Materials for Demanding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Alison; Schofield, Stephen; Kelly, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This was a special conference. It was small enough (60+ delegates) but covering a wide range of topics, under a broad end-use focussed heading. Most conferences today either have hundreds or thousands of delegates or are small and very focussed. The topics ranged over composite materials, the testing of durability aspects of materials, and an eclectic set of papers on radar screening using weak ionized plasmas, composites for microvascular applications, composites in space rockets, and materials for spallation neutron sources etc. There were several papers of new characterisation techniques and, very importantly, several papers that started with the end-user requirements leading back into materials selection. In my own area, there were three talks about the technology for the ultra-precise positioning of individual atoms, donors, and complete monolayers to take modern electronics and optoelectronics ideas closer to the market place. The President of the Institute opened with an experience-based talk on translating innovative technology into business. Everyone gave a generous introduction to bring all-comers up to speed with the burning contemporary issues. Indeed, I wish that a larger cohort of first-year engineering PhD students were present to see the full gamut of what takes a physics idea to a success in the market place. I would urge groups to learn from Prof Alison McMillan (a Vice President of the Institute of Physics) and Steven Schofield, to set up conferences of similar scale and breadth. I took in more than I do from mega-meetings, and in greater depth. Professor Michael Kelly Department of Engineering University of Cambridge

  10. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T; Klueh, Ronald L; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  11. Cladding and duct materials for advanced nuclear recycle reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.; Klueh, R. L.; Maloy, S. A.; Toloczko, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP’s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP’s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  12. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  13. Advanced new materials with various applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu-Claudiu, Fierascu; Rodica-Mariana, Ion; Irina, Dumitriu

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manufacture and science of materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer scale [1]. Many nanomaterials have novel chemical and biological properties and most of them are not naturally occurring. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an example of a carbon-based nanomaterial which has won enormous popularity in nanotechnology for its unique properties and applications [2]. CNTs have highly desirable physicochemical properties for use in commercial, environmental and medical sectors. The inclusion of CNTs to improve the quality and performance of many widely used products, as well as potentially in medicine, will dramatically affect occupational and public exposure to CNT based nanomaterials in the near future [3].

  14. Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

  15. Fabrication and application of advanced functional materials from lignincellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sixiao

    This dissertation explored the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into advanced functional materials and their potential applications. Lignocellulosic biomass represents an as-of-yet underutilized renewable source for not only biofuel production but also functional materials fabrication. This renewable source is a great alternative for fossil fuel based chemicals, which could be one of the solutions to energy crisis. In this work, it was demonstrated a variety of advanced materials including functional carbons, metal and silica nanoparticles could be derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 1 provided overall reviewed of the lignin structures, productions and its utilizations as plastics, absorbents and carbons, as well as the preparation of nano-structured silver, silica and silicon carbide/nitride from biomass. Chapter 2, 3 and 4 discussed the fabrication of highly porous carbons from isolated lignin, and their applications as electric supercapacitors for energy storage. In chapter 2, ultrafine porous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. Chapter 3 covered the fabrication of supercapacitor based on the porous carbon fibers and the investigation of their electrochemical performances. In chapter 4, porous carbon particulates with layered carbon nano plates structures were produced by simple oven-drying followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. The effects of heat processing parameters on the resulting carbon structures and their electrochemical properties were discussed in details. Chapter 5 and 6 addressed the preparation of silver nanoparticles using lignin. Chapter 5 reported the synthesis, underlying kinetics and mechanism of monodispersed silver nanospheres with diameter less than 25 nm in aqueous solutions using lignin as dual reducing and capping agents. Chapter 6 covered the preparation of silver nanoparticles on electrospun celluloses ultrafine fibers using lignin as both

  16. Review of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) materials irradiation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to document as accurately as possible the present and future needs for neutron irradiation capacity and facilities as related to the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) which will be the next generation steady-state research reactor. The report provides the findings and recommendations of the working group. After introductory and background information is presented, the discussion includes the status of the ANS design, in particular in-core materials irradiation facilities design and important experimental parameters. The summary of workshop discussions describes a survey of irradiation-effects research community and opportunities for ex-core irradiation facilities. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  17. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  18. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  19. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  20. Thermoelectric material including conformal oxide layers and method of making the same using atomic layer deposition

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Jung Young; Ahn, Dongjoon; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2016-06-07

    A thermoelectric material includes a substrate particle and a plurality of conformal oxide layers formed on the substrate particle. The plurality of conformal oxide layers has a total oxide layer thickness ranging from about 2 nm to about 20 nm. The thermoelectric material excludes oxide nanoparticles. A method of making the thermoelectric material is also disclosed herein.

  1. Advanced magneto-optical materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shaoying

    The magneto-optical materials with both high Faraday rotation and high transmittance capabilities are greatly desired in high speed switches, isolators, and visible imaging systems. In this thesis work, new magneto-optical materials that possess both high Faraday effect and high transmittance in the visible range of the spectrum were studied and synthesized. New Bismuth iron gallium garnet thin-films (Bi3Fe4Ga 1O12, BIGG) have been successfully deposited on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique in our lab. X-ray diffraction analyses have proven that the BIGG films are of good epitaxial quality with a lattice constant close to 12.61+/-0.01Á. The bandwidth of BIGG's transmittance spectrum has been extended and its left edge has been shifted about 50nm towards the shorter wavelengths relative to those of Bi3Fe5O12 (BIG) films. The BIGG film is more transparent than a BIG film although BIGG's Faraday rotation angle is slightly less than that of a BIG film. The figure of merit of the BIGG garnet film has reached 16.5°, which is about 1.8 times that of a typical BIG film. Currently, the switches using BIGG films were tested and a 2.4 ns response time had been reached with a phi1 mm circular aperture at the wavelength of 532 nm. Iron Borate (FeBO3) is another material that is far superior in terms of the transmittance in the visible spectrum at room temperature to most garnet materials. The FeBO3 is one of the orthoferrites with a large natural birefringence for the light propagated along the magnetization direction. The effect of birefringence on Faraday rotation reduced the maximum obtainable rotation. In order to eliminate the birefringence and further improve the transmittance, a high energy ball-milling technique was used to synthesize FeBO3 nanoparticles. Our numerical simulation shows the nanoparticles could eliminate the birefringence, and concurrently keep the intrinsic Faraday rotation. After milling and centrifuging

  2. Surface chemical deposition of advanced electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron

    The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current--time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an airexposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this layer will inhibit reformation of an oxide during the Cu electroplating process. A novel method for epitaxial graphene growth directly on a dielectric substrate of systematically variable thickness was studied. Mono/multilayers of BN(111) were grown on Ru(0001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), exhibiting a flat (non-nanomesh) R30(✓3x✓3) structure. BN(111) was used as a template for growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C2H4 at 1000 K. Characterization by LEED, Auger, STM/STS and Raman indicate the graphene is in registry with the BN substrate, and exhibits a HOPG-like 0 eV bandgap density

  3. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Monica Sorescu

    2004-09-22

    The work described in this grant report was focused mainly on the properties of novel magnetic intermetallics. In the first project, we synthesized several 2:17 intermetallic compounds, namely Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Al{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiAl and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiMn, as well as several 1:12 intermetallic compounds, such as NdFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}Al{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}SiAl and NdFe{sub 10}MnAl. In the second project, seven compositions of Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 100-x-y}B{sub y} ribbons were prepared by a melt spinning method with Nd and B content increasing from 7.3 and 3.6 to 11 and 6, respectively. The alloys were annealed under optimized conditions to obtain a composite material consisting of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}-Fe phases, typical of a spring magnet structure. In the third project, intermetallic compounds of the type Zr{sub 1}Cr{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}T{sub 0.8} with T = Al, Co and Fe were subjected to hydrogenation. In the fourth project, we performed three crucial experiments. In the first experiment, we subjected a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling, for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 14 hours. In the second experiment, we ball-milled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} (x = 0.1) for time intervals between 2.5 and 17.5 hours. Finally, we exposed a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Co (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours. In all cases, the structural and magnetic properties of the systems involved were elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis loop measurements. The four projects resulted in four papers, which were published in Intermetallics, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Journal of Materials Science Letters and Materials Chemistry and Physics. The contributions reveal for the first time in literature the effect of

  4. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  5. Simulation Toolkit for Renewable Energy Advanced Materials Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter

    2013-11-13

    STREAMM is a collection of python classes and scripts that enables and eases the setup of input files and configuration files for simulations of advanced energy materials. The core STREAMM python classes provide a general framework for storing, manipulating and analyzing atomic/molecular coordinates to be used in quantum chemistry and classical molecular dynamics simulations of soft materials systems. The design focuses on enabling the interoperability of materials simulation codes such as GROMACS, LAMMPS and Gaussian.

  6. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  7. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  8. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  9. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khateeb, Mohammad Y.

    2015-10-01

    It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference of Advanced Materials ICAM 2015" that will take place at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan. This year, the conference coincides with the coming of spring in Jordan; we hope the participants will enjoy the colors and fragrance of April in Jordan. The call for papers attracted submissions of over a hundred abstracts from twenty one different countries. These papers are going to be classified under four plenary lectures, fifteen invited papers, thirty five oral presentations and more than sixty posters covering the different research areas of the conference. The ICAM conference focuses on new advances in research in the field of materials covering chemical, physical and biological aspects. ICAM includes representatives from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and disseminate research in all fields of advanced materials. Topics range from synthesis, applications, and solid state to nano-materials. In addition, talented junior investigators will present their best ongoing research at a poster session. We have also organized several workshops contiguous to the main conference, such as the one-day workshop on "Particle Surface Modification for Improved Applications". The purpose of this short course was to introduce interested materials technologists to several methodologies that have been developed to modify the surfaces of particulate matter. Moreover, a pre-conference workshop on "Communication in Science" was conducted for young scientists. The main goal of this workshop was to train young scientists in matters of interdisciplinary scientific communications. In addition to the scientific program, the attendees will have a chance to discover the beauty of Jordan, a land of rich history and varied culture. Numerous social events that will provide opportunities to renew old contacts and

  11. Zebrafish Caudal Fin Angiogenesis Assay—Advanced Quantitative Assessment Including 3-Way Correlative Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Correa Shokiche, Carlos; Schaad, Laura; Triet, Ramona; Jazwinska, Anna; Tschanz, Stefan A.; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Background Researchers evaluating angiomodulating compounds as a part of scientific projects or pre-clinical studies are often confronted with limitations of applied animal models. The rough and insufficient early-stage compound assessment without reliable quantification of the vascular response counts, at least partially, to the low transition rate to clinics. Objective To establish an advanced, rapid and cost-effective angiogenesis assay for the precise and sensitive assessment of angiomodulating compounds using zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. It should provide information regarding the angiogenic mechanisms involved and should include qualitative and quantitative data of drug effects in a non-biased and time-efficient way. Approach & Results Basic vascular parameters (total regenerated area, vascular projection area, contour length, vessel area density) were extracted from in vivo fluorescence microscopy images using a stereological approach. Skeletonization of the vasculature by our custom-made software Skelios provided additional parameters including “graph energy” and “distance to farthest node”. The latter gave important insights into the complexity, connectivity and maturation status of the regenerating vascular network. The employment of a reference point (vascular parameters prior amputation) is unique for the model and crucial for a proper assessment. Additionally, the assay provides exceptional possibilities for correlative microscopy by combining in vivo-imaging and morphological investigation of the area of interest. The 3-way correlative microscopy links the dynamic changes in vivo with their structural substrate at the subcellular level. Conclusions The improved zebrafish fin regeneration model with advanced quantitative analysis and optional 3-way correlative morphology is a promising in vivo angiogenesis assay, well-suitable for basic research and preclinical investigations. PMID:26950851

  12. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  13. 40 CFR 60.1065 - What must I include in my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... combustion and making them available for recycling. A materials separation plan may include such elements...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1065 - What must I include in my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... combustion and making them available for recycling. A materials separation plan may include such elements...

  15. 40 CFR 60.1065 - What must I include in my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... combustion and making them available for recycling. A materials separation plan may include such elements...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1065 - What must I include in my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30... combustion and making them available for recycling. A materials separation plan may include such elements...

  17. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  18. ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reome; Dan Davies

    2004-04-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

  19. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davies

    2004-10-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

  20. Advanced materials: Looking ahead to the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Michelove, L.D.; Caruso, R.P.; Adams, P.; Fossey, W.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following papers: Ballistic energy absorption of composites; Design trade-off for ceramic/composite armor materials; Impact damage tolerance testing of bonded sandwich panels; Non-destructive evaluation of advanced composites using high resolution computed tomography.

  1. Materials/manufacturing support element for the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Hoffman, E.E.; Parks, W.P.

    1994-12-31

    In 1993, DOE initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbines for power generation in utility and industrial applications. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in several stages with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. This plan was developed by a small advanced materials and turbine technology team over a 6-month period. The technology plan calls for initiation of several high priority projects in FY 1995. The technical program for the materials/manufacturing element focuses on generic materials issues, components, and manufacturing processes. Categories include coatings and process development, turbine airfoil development, ceramics adaptation, directional solidification and single crystal airfoils manufactoring technology, materials characterization, catalytic combustor materials, and technology information exchange.

  2. Ultrathin coatings of nanoporous materials as property enhancements for advanced functional materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a five-month LDRD project funded through Sandia's NTM Investment Area. The project was aimed at providing the foundation for the development of advanced functional materials through the application of ultrathin coatings of microporous or mesoporous materials onto the surface of substrates such as silicon wafers. Prior art teaches that layers of microporous materials such as zeolites may be applied as, e.g., sensor platforms or gas separation membranes. These layers, however, are typically several microns to several hundred microns thick. For many potential applications, vast improvements in the response of a device could be realized if the thickness of the porous layer were reduced to tens of nanometers. However, a basic understanding of how to synthesize or fabricate such ultra-thin layers is lacking. This report describes traditional and novel approaches to the growth of layers of microporous materials on silicon wafers. The novel approaches include reduction of the quantity of nutrients available to grow the zeolite layer through minimization of solution volume, and reaction of organic base (template) with thermally-oxidized silicon wafers under a steam atmosphere to generate ultra-thin layers of zeolite MFI.

  3. Modelling of advanced structural materials for GEN IV reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, M.; Hoffelner, W.; Victoria, M.

    2007-09-01

    The choice of suitable materials and the assessment of long-term materials damage are key issues that need to be addressed for the safe and reliable performance of nuclear power plants. Operating conditions such as high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment degrade materials properties, posing the risk of very expensive or even catastrophic plant damage. Materials scientists are faced with the scientific challenge to determine the long-term damage evolution of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the microscopic level of single defect damage effects all the way up to macroscopic effects. To overcome lengthy and expensive trial-and-error experiments, the multiscale modelling of materials behaviour is a promising tool, bringing new insights into the fundamental understanding of basic mechanisms. This paper presents the multiscale modelling methodology which is taking root internationally to address the issues of advanced structural materials for Gen IV reactors.

  4. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.

    1995-10-01

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  5. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  6. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  7. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  8. Advanced materials characterization based on full field deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, A. Paige

    Accurate stress-strain constitutive properties are essential for understanding the complex deformation and failure mechanisms for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. Among such materials, glass-fiber- and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer--matrix composites play a critical role in advanced structural designs. The large number of different methods and specimen types currently required to generate three-dimensional allowables for structural design slows down the material characterization. Also, some of the material constitutive properties are never measured due to the prohibitive cost of the specimens needed. This work shows that simple short-beam shear (SBS) specimens are well-suited for measurement of multiple constitutive properties for composite materials and that can enable a major shift toward accurate material characterization. The material characterization is based on the digital image correlation (DIC) full-field deformation measurement. The full-field-deformation measurement enables additional flexibility for assessment of stress--strain relations, compared to the conventional strain gages. Complex strain distributions, including strong gradients, can be captured. Such flexibility enables simpler test-specimen design and reduces the number of different specimen types required for assessment of stress--strain constitutive behavior. Two key elements show advantage of using DIC in the SBS tests. First, tensile, compressive, and shear stress--strain relations are measured in a single experiment. Second, a counter-intuitive feasibility of closed-form stress and modulus models, normally applicable to long beams, is demonstrated for short-beam specimens. The modulus and stress--strain data are presented for glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy material systems. The applicability of the developed method to static, fatigue, and impact load rates is also demonstrated. In a practical method to determine stress-strain constitutive relations, the stress

  9. Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a guest editorial for a special issue in Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. The papers collected in this special issue emphasize significant challenges, current approaches and future strategies necessary to advance the development of polymer-based materials. They were partly presented at the symposium of 'Bridging microstructure, properties and processing of polymer based advanced materials' in the TMS 2011 annual conference meeting, which was held in San Diego, US, on Feb 28 to March 3, 2011. This symposium was organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA) and the Institute of Mechanics of Fluids and Solids of the University of Strasbourg (France). The organizers were D.S. Li, S. Ahzi, and M. Khaleel.

  10. Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a final report for the period of 12/1/03 through 11/30/04 for NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-776, entitled "Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials." During this final period, major efforts were focused on both the determination of mechanical properties of advanced ceramic materials and the development of mechanical test methodologies under several different programs of the NASA-Glenn. The important research activities made during this period are: 1. Mechanical properties evaluation of two gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides. 2) Mechanical testing for fuel-cell seal materials. 3) Mechanical properties evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and CFCCs and 4) Foreign object damage (FOD) testing.

  11. PREFACE: International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalia O.

    2015-01-01

    In October 15-17, 2014 International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists: Advanced Materials in Construction and Engineering (TSUAB2014) took place at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia). The Conference became a discussion platform for researchers in the fields of studying structure and properties of advanced building materials and included open lectures of leading scientists and oral presentations of master, postgraduate and doctoral students. A special session was devoted to reports of school children who further plan on starting a research career. The Conference included an industrial exhibition where companies displayed the products and services they supply. The companies also gave presentations of their products within the Conference sessions.

  12. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    PubMed

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma. PMID:6539811

  13. Institute for Advanced Materials at University of Louisville

    SciTech Connect

    Sunkara, Mahendra; Sumaneskara, Gamini; Starr, Thomas L; Willing, G A; Robert W, Cohn

    2009-10-29

    In this project, a university-wide, academic center has been established entitled Institute for Advanced Materials and Renewable Energy. In this institute, a comprehensive materials characterization facility has been established by co-locating several existing characterization equipment and acquiring several state of the art instrumentation such as field emission transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, Particle Size Distribution/Zeta Potential measurement system, and Ultra-microtome for TEM specimen. In addition, a renewable energy conversion and storage research facility was also established by acquiring instrumentation such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Atomic Layer Deposition reactor, Solar light simulator, oxygen-free glove box, potentiostat/galvanostats and other miscellaneous items. The institute is staffed with three full-time staff members (one senior research technologist, a senior PhD level research scientist and a junior research scientist) to enable proper use of the techniques. About thirty faculty, fifty graduate students and several researchers access the facilities on a routine basis. Several industry R&D organizations (SudChemie, Optical Dynamics and Hexion) utilize the facility. The established Institute for Advanced Materials at UofL has three main objectives: (a) enable a focused research effort leading to the rapid discovery of new materials and processes for advancing alternate energy conversion and storage technologies; (b) enable offering of several laboratory courses on advanced materials science and engineering; and (c) develop university-industry partnerships based on the advanced materials research. The Institute's efforts were guided by an advisory board comprising eminent researchers from outside KY. Initial research efforts were focused on the discovery of new materials and processes for solar cells and Li ion battery electrodes. Initial sets of results helped PIs to

  14. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  15. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  16. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  17. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  18. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  19. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  20. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  1. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  2. Nanostructured Materials For Advanced Technological Applications: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisch, W.; Freudenstein, R.; Ruiz, A.; Valsesia, A.; Sirghi, L.; Ponti, J.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    In this contribution a short introduction to nanostructured materials for advanced technological applications is presented. A major aim is to demonstrate, on the one hand, the diversity of approaches, methods, techniques and solutions, which are used currently worldwide — but also by the authors of the contributions collected in this book — in the field of nano-structured materials, but also that, on the other hand, these diverse topics are based on the same principles, face similar problems, and bear similar prospects for future applications. For this reason, frequent reference is made to the contributions to this book. Some examples to illustrate current topics, advances and problems are taken from the recent work of the present home institute of the author, the NanoBioTech group of the IHCP at the JRC.

  3. Corrosion performance of materials for advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-12-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operating at more elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. This report characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over the wide temperature range that is of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials (alumina, Hexoloy, SiC/SiC, SiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, ZIRCONIA, INCONEL 677 and 617) with potential for application in these systems.

  4. A combinatorial approach to the discovery of advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong

    This thesis discusses the application of combinatorial methods to the search of advanced materials. The goal of this research is to develop a "parallel" or "fast sequential" methodology for both the synthesis and characterization of materials with novel electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Our hope is to dramatically accelerate the rate at which materials are generated and studied. We have developed two major combinatorial methodologies to this end. One involves generating thin film materials libraries using a combination of various thin film deposition and masking strategies with multi-layer thin film precursors. The second approach is to generate powder materials libraries with solution precursors delivered with a multi-nozzle inkjet system. The first step in this multistep combinatorial process involves the design and synthesis of high density libraries of diverse materials aimed at exploring a large segment of the compositional space of interest based on our understanding of the physical and structural properties of a particular class of materials. Rapid, sensitive measurements of one or more relevant physical properties of each library member result in the identification of a family of "lead" compositions with a desired property. These compositions are then optimized by continuously varying the stoichiometries of a more focused set of precursors. Materials with the optimal composition are then synthesized in quantities sufficient for detailed characterization of their structural and physical properties. Finally, the information obtained from this process should enhance our predictive ability in subsequent experiments. Combinatorial methods have been successfully used in the synthesis and discovery of materials with novel properties. For example, a class of cobaltite based giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ceramics was discovered; Application of this method to luminescence materials has resulted in the discovery of a few highly efficient tricolor

  5. ADVANCED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC MATERIAL MODELS FOR FDTD ELECTROMAGNETIC CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Nelson, S D; Langdon, S

    2005-05-05

    The modeling of dielectric and magnetic materials in the time domain is required for pulse power applications, pulsed induction accelerators, and advanced transmission lines. For example, most induction accelerator modules require the use of magnetic materials to provide adequate Volt-sec during the acceleration pulse. These models require hysteresis and saturation to simulate the saturation wavefront in a multipulse environment. In high voltage transmission line applications such as shock or soliton lines the dielectric is operating in a highly nonlinear regime, which require nonlinear models. Simple 1-D models are developed for fast parameterization of transmission line structures. In the case of nonlinear dielectrics, a simple analytic model describing the permittivity in terms of electric field is used in a 3-D finite difference time domain code (FDTD). In the case of magnetic materials, both rate independent and rate dependent Hodgdon magnetic material models have been implemented into 3-D FDTD codes and 1-D codes.

  6. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/ Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this sub-element are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines.

  7. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  8. Implicit Solution of Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion Including Reactive Heating Source in Material Energy Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Shumaker, D E; Woodward, C S

    2005-05-03

    In this paper, the authors investigate performance of a fully implicit formulation and solution method of a diffusion-reaction system modeling radiation diffusion with material energy transfer and a fusion fuel source. In certain parameter regimes this system can lead to a rapid conversion of potential energy into material energy. Accuracy in time integration is essential for a good solution since a major fraction of the fuel can be depleted in a very short time. Such systems arise in a number of application areas including evolution of a star and inertial confinement fusion. Previous work has addressed implicit solution of radiation diffusion problems. Recently Shadid and coauthors have looked at implicit and semi-implicit solution of reaction-diffusion systems. In general they have found that fully implicit is the most accurate method for difficult coupled nonlinear equations. In previous work, they have demonstrated that a method of lines approach coupled with a BDF time integrator and a Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver could efficiently and accurately solve a large-scale, implicit radiation diffusion problem. In this paper, they extend that work to include an additional heating term in the material energy equation and an equation to model the evolution of the reactive fuel density. This system now consists of three coupled equations for radiation energy, material energy, and fuel density. The radiation energy equation includes diffusion and energy exchange with material energy. The material energy equation includes reaction heating and exchange with radiation energy, and the fuel density equation includes its depletion due to the fuel consumption.

  9. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  10. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  11. Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Energy Technologies II

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Dr Josef; Ohji, Tatsuki; Liu, Xingbo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Devanathan, Ram; Fox, Kevin; Singh, Mrityunjay; Wong-ng, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science and Technology 2012 Conference and Exhibition (MS&T'12) was held October 7-11, 2012, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of the major themes of the conference was Environmental and Energy Issues. Papers from five of the symposia held under that theme are invluded in this volume. These symposia included Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management for the 21st Century; Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing IV; Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications; Energy Conversion-Photovoltaic, Concentraing Solar Power and Thermoelectric; and Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments.

  12. Characterisation of pore structures in nanoporous materials for advanced bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heo, K; Yoon, J; Jin, K S; Jin, S; Ree, M

    2006-08-01

    Porous materials are potential candidates for applications in various fields, such as bionanotechnology, gas separation, catalysts and micro-electronics. In particular, their applications in bionanotechnology include biosensors, biomedical implants and microdevices, biosupporters, bio-encapsules, biomolecule separations and biomedical therapy. All these bionanotechnology applications utilise the shape, size and size distribution of pores in porous materials. Therefore the controlled creation of pores with desired shape, size and size distribution is most important in the development of nanoporous materials. Accordingly, the accurate evaluation of pore structure is necessary in the development of nanoporous materials and their applications. This article reviews recent developments in analytical techniques to characterise the pore structures of nanoporous materials.

  13. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  14. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Williams, Brian; Mc Clure, Patrick; Nelson, Ralph A

    2010-01-01

    Many evolving nuclear energy programs plan to use advanced predictive multi-scale multi-physics simulation and modeling capabilities to reduce cost and time from design through licensing. Historically, the role of experiments was primary tool for design and understanding of nuclear system behavior while modeling and simulation played the subordinate role of supporting experiments. In the new era of multi-scale multi-physics computational based technology development, the experiments will still be needed but they will be performed at different scales to calibrate and validate models leading predictive simulations. Cost saving goals of programs will require us to minimize the required number of validation experiments. Utilization of more multi-scale multi-physics models introduces complexities in the validation of predictive tools. Traditional methodologies will have to be modified to address these arising issues. This paper lays out the basic aspects of a methodology that can be potentially used to address these new challenges in design and licensing of evolving nuclear technology programs. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety related environments. To achieve this goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation and quantification of uncertainties that allow for extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments, which might include extension of the modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to required selective data so that required testing can be minimized for cost

  15. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  16. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.; Stebbins, J. P.; Smith, A. W.; Pullen, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method for the prediction of propellant-material compatibility for periods of time up to ten years is presented. Advanced sensitive measurement techniques used in the prediction method are described. These include: neutron activation analysis, radioactive tracer technique, and atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite tube furnace sampler. The results of laboratory tests performed to verify the prediction method are presented.

  17. Bricklaying Curriculum: Advanced Bricklaying Techniques. Instructional Materials. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Raymond J.; Hendrix, Laborn J.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist bricklaying instructors in providing performance-based instruction in advanced bricklaying. Included in the first section of the guide are units on customized or architectural masonry units; glass block; sills, lintels, and copings; and control (expansion) joints. The next two units deal with cut,…

  18. State of the Art Assessment of Simulation in Advanced Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kristopher E.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in both the underlying theory and in the practical implementation of molecular modeling techniques have increased their value in the advanced materials development process. The objective is to accelerate the maturation of emerging materials by tightly integrating modeling with the other critical processes: synthesis, processing, and characterization. The aims of this report are to summarize the state of the art of existing modeling tools and to highlight a number of areas in which additional development is required. In an effort to maintain focus and limit length, this survey is restricted to classical simulation techniques including molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. New data evaluation procedure including advanced background subtraction for radiography using the example of insect mandibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangold, Stefan; van de Kamp, Thomas; Steininger, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    The usefulness of full field transmission spectroscopy is shown using the example of mandible of the stick insect Peruphasma schultei. An advanced data evaluation tool chain with an energy drift correction and highly reproducible automatic background correction is presented. The results show significant difference between the top and the bottom of the mandible of an adult stick insect.

  20. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  1. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  2. Characterization and development of materials for advanced textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy; Greene, Timothy L.; Taske, Leo E.

    1993-01-01

    Work ongoing under the NASA Langley - Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program is discussed. The primary emphasis of the work centers around the development and characterization of graphite fiber that has been impregnated with an epoxy powder. Four epoxies have been characterized in towpreg form as to their weaveability and braidability. Initial mechanical properties have been generated on each resin system. These include unidirectional as well as 8-harness satin cloth. Initial 2D and 3D weaving and braiding trials will be reported on as well as initial efforts to develop towpreg suitable for advanced tow placement.

  3. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.; Cooley, C.R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  4. Testing of Alternative Materials for Advanced Suit Bladders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Makinen, Janice; Tang, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate advanced pressure bladder membrane materials have been developed for NASA Johnson Space Center by DSM Biomedical for selective permeability of carbon dioxide and water vapor. These materials were elasthane and two other formulations of thermoplastic polyether polyurethane. Each material was tested in two thicknesses for permeability to carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Although oxygen leaks through the suit bladder would amount to only about 60 cc/hr in a full size suit, significant amounts of carbon dioxide would not be rejected by the system to justify its use. While the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen permeability is about 48 to 1, this is offset by the small partial pressure of carbon dioxide in acceptable breathing atmospheres of the suit. Humidity management remains a possible use of the membranes depending on the degree to which the water permeability is inhibited by cations in the sweat. Tests are underway to explore cation fouling from sweat.

  5. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  6. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  8. Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.

    1993-10-22

    As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

  9. Recent advances in material science for developing enzyme electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Anil Kumar; Vatsyayan, Preety; Goswami, Pranab; Minteer, Shelley D

    2009-04-15

    The enzyme-modified electrode is the fundamental component of amperometric biosensors and biofuel cells. The selection of appropriate combinations of materials, such as: enzyme, electron transport mediator, binding and encapsulation materials, conductive support matrix and solid support, for construction of enzyme-modified electrodes governs the efficiency of the electrodes in terms of electron transfer kinetics, mass transport, stability, and reproducibility. This review investigates the varieties of materials that can be used for these purposes. Recent innovation in conductive electro-active polymers, functionalized polymers, biocompatible composite materials, composites of transition metal-based complexes and organometallic compounds, sol-gel and hydro-gel materials, nanomaterials, other nano-metal composites, and nano-metal oxides are reviewed and discussed here. In addition, the critical issues related to the construction of enzyme electrodes and their application for biosensor and biofuel cell applications are also highlighted in this article. Effort has been made to cover the recent literature on the advancement of materials sciences to develop enzyme electrodes and their potential applications for the construction of biosensors and biofuel cells.

  10. 24 CFR 232.254 - Withdrawal of project funds, including for repayments of advances from the borrower, operator, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of project funds, including for repayments of advances from the borrower, operator, or management agent. 232.254 Section 232... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations § 232.254 Withdrawal of project funds, including for repayments...

  11. 24 CFR 232.254 - Withdrawal of project funds, including for repayments of advances from the borrower, operator, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of project funds, including for repayments of advances from the borrower, operator, or management agent. 232.254 Section 232... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations § 232.254 Withdrawal of project funds, including for repayments...

  12. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Advanced low-activation materials. Fibre-reinforced ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenici, P.; Scholz, H. W.

    1994-09-01

    A serious safety and environmental concern for thermonuclear fusion reactor development regards the induced radioactivity of the first wall and structural components. The use of low-activation materials (LAM) in a demonstration reactor would reduce considerably its potential risk and facilitate its maintenance. Moreover, decommissioning and waste management including disposal or even recycling of structural materials would be simplified. Ceramic fibre-reinforced SiC materials offer highly appreciable low activation characteristics in combination with good thermomechanical properties. This class of materials is now under experimental investigation for structural application in future fusion reactors. An overview on the recent results is given, covering coolant leak rates, thermophysical properties, compatibility with tritium breeder materials, irradiation effects, and LAM-consistent purity. SiC/SiC materials present characteristics likely to be optimised in order to meet the fusion application challenge. The scope is to put into practice the enormous potential of inherent safety with fusion energy.

  14. Four advances in carbon-carbon materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Kowbel, Witold

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are a specialty class of materials having many unique properties making these composites attractive for a variety of demanding engineering applications. Chief among these properties are exceptional retention of mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 4000 F, excellent creep resistance, and low density (1.6 to 1.8 g/cu cm). Although carbon-carbon composites are currently in service in a variety of applications, much development work remains to be accomplished before these materials can be considered to be fully mature, realizing their full potential. Four recent technology advances holding particular promise for overcoming current barriers to the wide-spread commercialization of carbon-carbon composites are described. These advances are: markedly improved interlaminar strengths (more than doubled) of two dimensional composites achieved by whiskerization of the fabric reinforcing plies, simultaneously improved oxidation resistance and mechanical properties achieved by the incorporation of matrix-phase oxidation inhibitors based on carborane chemistry, improved oxidation resistance achieved by compositionally graded oxidation protective coatings, and markedly reduced processing times (hours as opposed to weeks or months) accomplished through a novel process of carbon infiltration and coatings deposition based on the use of liquid-phase precursor materials.

  15. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of planetary exploration vehicles will rely heavily on robust aero-assist technologies, especially those that include aerocapture. This paper provides an overview of an ongoing development program, led by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and aimed at introducing high-temperature structures, adhesives, and advanced thermal protection system (TPS) materials into the aeroshell design process. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate TPS materials that can withstand the higher heating rates of NASA's next generation planetary missions, and to validate high-temperature structures and adhesives that can reduce required TPS thickness and total aeroshell mass, thus allowing for larger science payloads. The effort described consists of parallel work in several advanced aeroshell technology areas. The areas of work include high-temperature adhesives, high-temperature composite materials, advanced ablator (TPS) materials, sub-scale demonstration test articles, and aeroshell modeling and analysis. The status of screening test results for a broad selection of available higher-temperature adhesives is presented. It appears that at least one (and perhaps a few) adhesives have working temperatures ranging from 315-400 C (600-750 F), and are suitable for TPS-to-structure bondline temperatures that are significantly above the traditional allowable of 250 C (482 F). The status of mechanical testing of advanced high-temperature composite materials is also summarized. To date, these tests indicate the potential for good material performance at temperatures of at least 600 F. Application of these materials and adhesives to aeroshell systems that incorporate advanced TPS materials may reduce aeroshell TPS mass by 15% - 30%. A brief outline is given of work scheduled for completion in 2006 that will include fabrication and testing of large panels and subscale aeroshell test articles at the Solar-Tower Test Facility located at Kirtland AFB and operated by Sandia

  16. A Novel Microcharacterization Technique in the Measurement of Strain and Orientation Gradient in Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmestai, H.; Harris, K.; Lourenco, L.

    1997-01-01

    Representation of morphology and evolution of the microstructure during processing and their relation to properties requires proper experimental techniques. Residual strains, lattice distortion, and texture (micro-texture) at the interface and the matrix of a layered structure or a functionally gradient material and their variation are among parameters important in materials characterization but hard to measure with present experimental techniques. Current techniques available to measure changes in interred material parameters (residual stress, micro-texture, microplasticity) produce results which are either qualitative or unreliable. This problem becomes even more complicated in the case of a temperature variation. These parameters affect many of the mechanical properties of advanced materials including stress-strain relation, ductility, creep, and fatigue. A review of some novel experimental techniques using recent advances in electron microscopy is presented here to measure internal stress, (micro)texture, interracial strength and (sub)grain formation and realignment. Two of these techniques are combined in the chamber of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to measure strain and orientation gradients in advanced materials. These techniques which include Backscattered Kikuchi Diffractometry (BKD) and Microscopic Strain Field Analysis are used to characterize metallic and intermetallic matrix composites and superplastic materials. These techniques are compared with the more conventional x-ray diffraction and indentation techniques.

  17. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  18. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M A; Pettit, F; Meier, G H; Yanar, M; Helminiak, M; Chyu, M; Siw, S; Slaughter, W S; Karaivanov, V; Kang, B S; Feng, C; Tannebaum, J M; Chen, R; Zhang, B; Fu, T; Richards, G A; Sidwell, T G; Straub, D; Casleton, K H; Dogan, O M

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ~1425-1760°C (~2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.

  19. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  20. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  1. Corrosion and its effect on mechanical properties of materials for advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Freeman, M.; Mathur, M.

    1996-05-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces that can operate at temperatures much higher than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development and application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The objectives of the present program are to evaluate (a) the chemistry of gaseous and condensed products that arise during combustion of coal; (b) the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in air, slag and salt environments for application in the combustion environments; and (c) the residual mechanical properties of the materials after corrosion. The program emphasizes temperatures in the range of 1000-1400{degrees}C for ceramic materials and 600-1000{degrees}C for metallic alloys. Coal/ash chemistries developed on the basis of thermodynamic/kinetic calculations, together with slags from actual combustors, are used in the program. The materials being evaluated include monolithic silicon carbide from several sources: silicon, nitride, silicon carbide in alumina composites, silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide- matrix composite, and some advanced nickel-base alloys. The paper presents results from an ongoing program on corrosion performance of candidate ceramic materials exposed to air, salt and slag environments and their affect on flexural strength and energy absorbed during fracture of these materials.

  2. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  3. Advanced material separation technique based on dual energy CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamyatin, Alexander A.; Natarajan, Anusha; Zou, Yu

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method for material separation using dual energy data. Our method is suitable to separation of three or more materials. In this work we describe our method and show results of numerical simulation and with real dual-energy data of a head phantom. The proposed method of constructing the material separation map consists of the following steps: Data-domain dual energy decomposition - Vector plot - Density plot - Clustering - Color assignment. Density plots are introduced to allow automatic cluster separation. We use special image processing methods, including Gaussian decomposition, to improve the accuracy of material separation. We also propose using the HSL color model for better visualization and to bring a new dimension in material separation display. We study applications of bone removal and virtual contrast removal. Evaluation shows improved accuracy compared to standard methods.

  4. Prediction of Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Fabricated Components

    SciTech Connect

    A. Anderko; G. Engelhardt; M.M. Lencka; M.A. Jakab; G. Tormoen; N. Sridhar

    2007-09-29

    The goal of this project is to provide materials engineers, chemical engineers and plant operators with a software tool that will enable them to predict localized corrosion of process equipment including fabricated components as well as base alloys. For design and revamp purposes, the software predicts the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and assists the user in selecting the optimum alloy for a given environment. For the operation of existing plants, the software enables the users to predict the remaining life of equipment and help in scheduling maintenance activities. This project combined fundamental understanding of mechanisms of corrosion with focused experimental results to predict the corrosion of advanced, base or fabricated, alloys in real-world environments encountered in the chemical industry. At the heart of this approach is the development of models that predict the fundamental parameters that control the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environmental conditions and alloy composition. The fundamental parameters that dictate the occurrence of localized corrosion are the corrosion and repassivation potentials. The program team, OLI Systems and Southwest Research Institute, has developed theoretical models for these parameters. These theoretical models have been applied to predict the occurrence of localized corrosion of base materials and heat-treated components in a variety of environments containing aggressive and non-aggressive species. As a result of this project, a comprehensive model has been established and extensively verified for predicting the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and temperature by calculating the corrosion and repassivation potentials.To support and calibrate the model, an experimental database has been developed to elucidate (1) the effects of various inhibiting species as well as aggressive species on localized corrosion of nickel

  5. Recent Advances in Materials for All-Ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The past three years of research on materials for all-ceramic veneers, inlays, onlays, single-unit crowns, and multi-unit restorations are reviewed. The primary changes in the field were the proliferation of zirconia-based frameworks and computer-aided fabrication of prostheses, as well as, a trend toward more clinically relevant in vitro test methods. This report includes an overview of ceramic fabrication methods, suggestions for critical assessment of material property data, and a summary of clinical longevity for prostheses constructed of various materials. PMID:17586152

  6. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  7. A finite element technique for non-deterministic thermal deformation analyses including temperature dependent material properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, W. R., Jr.; Walston, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A technique utilizing the finite element displacement method is developed for the static analysis of structures subjected to non-deterministic thermal loading in which the material properties, assumed isotropic, are temperature dependent. Matrix equations are developed for the first two statistical moments of the displacements using a third order series expansion for the displacements in terms of the random temperatures. Sample problems are included to demonstrate the range of applicability of the third order series solutions. These solutions are compared with results from Monte Carlo analyses and also, for some problems, with solutions obtained by numerically integrating equations for the statistical properties of the displacements. In general, it is shown that the effect of temperature dependent material properties can have a significant effect on the covariances of the displacements.

  8. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  9. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  10. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  11. Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Johnson, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion synthesis, otherwise known as self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), can be used to produce engineered advanced porous material implants which offer the possibility for bone ingrowth as well as a permanent structure framework for the long-term replacement of bone defects. The primary advantage of SHS is based on its rapid kinetics and favorable energetics. The structure and properties of materials produced by SHS are strongly dependent on the combustion reaction conditions. Combustion reaction conditions such as reaction stoichiometry, particle size, green density, the presence and use of diluents or inert reactants, and pre-heating of the reactants, will affect the exothermicity of the reaction. A number of conditions must be satisfied in order to obtain high porosity materials: an optimal amount of liquid, gas and solid phases must be present in the combustion front. Therefore, a balance among these phases at the combustion front must be created by the SHS reaction to successfully engineer a bone replacement material system. Microgravity testing has extended the ability to form porous products. The convective heat transfer mechanisms which operate in normal gravity, 1 g, constrain the combustion synthesis reactions. Gravity also acts to limit the porosity which may be formed as the force of gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during reaction. Infiltration of the porous product with other phases can modify both the extent of porosity and the mechanical properties.

  12. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  13. Fluorescence thermometry for advanced high-temperature materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.R.; Beshears, D.L.; Allison, S.W.

    1996-05-01

    Advanced high-temperature materials, such as ceramics, metals, and composites, are of critical importance to the development of new and improved technologies worldwide. For aircraft, automobiles, or other combustion-engine powered systems, major efficiency improvements depend on the ability to operate at temperatures closer to the adiabatic limit of the chemical processes involved. Materials able to function at higher temperatures must therefore be introduced into improved designs. Jet turbine engines, for example, already require air cooled rotors and stators in order that the nickel alloys used will not deteriorate and fail from overheating. In the case of ceramics, optimum temperature usage will often cause the refractory surfaces to glow red hot and the material itself to become partially translucent. For composites, especially where structural integrity, vibration resistance, and strength are concerned, the temperature behavior of dissimilar components must be well known and well understood before appropriate designs can be effected. As the need for higher temperature materials becomes increasingly more important, so does the requirement to properly measure the temperatures involved. Phosphor thermometry offers measurement solutions at very high temperatures that often cannot be achieved by more conventional methods. In this paper we discuss the phosphor technique and several examples of its application to high-temperature measurement.

  14. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  15. Vibration and damping of laminated, composite-material plates including thickness-shear effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.; Siu, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation of sinusoidally forced vibration of laminated, anisotropic plates including bending-stretching coupling, thickness-shear flexibility, all three types of inertia effects, and material damping is presented. In the analysis the effects of thickness-shear deformation are considered by the use of a shear correction factor K, analogous to that used by Mindlin for homogeneous plates. Two entirely different approaches for calculating the thickness-shear factor for a laminate are presented. Numerical examples indicate that the value of K depends on the layer properties and the stacking sequence of the laminate.

  16. Neoclassical Transport Including Impurities and the Bootstrap Current in Advanced Helical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Shin; Sugama, Hideo

    2004-07-15

    A recently developed method to calculate the neoclassical viscosity, diffusion, and current coefficients in general nonsymmetric toroidal plasmas by using the direct solution of the linearized drift kinetic equation with the pitch-angle-scattering collision operator is applied to impurity transport problems and bootstrap current calculations in stellarators. In this new method based on the basic idea of the so-called moment approach, the collisional momentum conservation is taken into account, and thus, it is applicable to the heat and particle diffusivity in advanced stellarators with quasi symmetry, and also to plasma flows currents, and viscosities in general nonsymmetric multispecies plasmas. In this paper, the impurity flow and the bootstrap current observed in the neoclassical internal transport barrier operation in the Compact Helical System are compared with theoretical calculations. Another topic is the benchmark test of existing analytical expressions for the bootstrap currents by comparing with numerically obtained current coefficients. The geometric factor, which is required for the current calculation based on the moment method, given by our new method is compared with these formulas.

  17. Review of the proposed materials of construction for the SBWR and AP600 advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.

    1994-06-01

    Two advanced light water reactor (LWR) concepts, namely the General Electric Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) and the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe Reactor (AP600), were reviewed in detail by Argonne National Laboratory. The objectives of these reviews were to (a) evaluate proposed advanced-reactor designs and the materials of construction for the safety systems, (b) identify all aging and environmentally related degradation mechanisms for the materials of construction, and (c) evaluate from the safety viewpoint the suitability of the proposed materials for the design application. Safety-related systems selected for review for these two LWRs included (a) reactor pressure vessel, (b) control rod drive system and reactor internals, (c) coolant pressure boundary, (d) engineered safety systems, (e) steam generators (AP600 only), (f) turbines, and (g) fuel storage and handling system. In addition, the use of cobalt-based alloys in these plants was reviewed. The selected materials for both reactors were generally sound, and no major selection errors were found. It was apparent that considerable thought had been given to the materials selection process, making use of lessons learned from previous LWR experience. The review resulted in the suggestion of alternate an possibly better materials choices in a number of cases, and several potential problem areas have been cited.

  18. PREFACE Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMAN 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aidy

    2011-02-01

    This special issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials science and Engineering contains papers contributed to the Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMAN 2009) held on 3-5 November 2009 in Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of the congress is to provide a platform for professionals, academicians and researchers to exchange views, findings, ideas and experiences on advanced science and technology. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, 50 papers were selected for publications in this issue. The policy of editing was the content of the material and its rapid dissemination was more important than its form. In 2009, the conference received close to 120 papers from leading researchers and participants from countries such as Iran, India, Switzerland, Myanmar, Nigeria, Canada, Yemen and Malaysia. We strongly hope the new ideas and results presented will stimulate and enhance the progress of research on the above conference theme. We are grateful to all the authors for their papers and presentations in this conference. They are also the ones who help make this conference possible through their hard work in the preparation of the manuscripts. We would also like to offer our sincere thanks to all the invited speakers who came to share their knowledge with us. We would also like to acknowledge the untiring efforts of the reviewers, research assistants and students in meeting deadlines and for their patience and perseverance. We wish to thank all the authors who contributed papers to the conference and all reviewers for their efforts to review the papers as well as the sponsors. We would also like to thank the members of the CAMAN 2009 Organising Committee and the International Advisory Committee for their efforts in making the conference a success. Thank you very much indeed. Guest Editor Aidy Ali

  19. Discuss the impact technological advances in equipment and materials have made on the delivery and outcome of endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lababidi, Emad Aldin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in endodontic equipment and materials have considerably changed the manner in which endodontic treatment is delivered. Specific technological advances, including nickel-titanium instruments, ultrasonic instruments and the dental operating microscope have been associated with increased efficiency and efficacy of treatment and simplification of delivery. The effects of most of these changes have been tested via in vitro studies and case reports. Ongoing studies should constantly investigate what effects technological advances might have on the outcome of endodontic treatment.

  20. 78 FR 40508 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers... Are Reported Through PV Powered, Currently Known as AE Solar Energy, Inc., Bend, Oregon; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade...

  1. 77 FR 4368 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... energy inverters. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2011(76 FR 77556). At... Employment and Training Administration Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers... Through PV Powered, Currently Known as AE Solar Energy, Inc. Bend, OR; Amended Certification...

  2. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials. PMID:20183856

  3. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials.

  4. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  5. A Revolution in the Making: Advances in Materials That May Transform Future Exploration Infrastructures and Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Dicus, Dennis L.; Shuart, Mark J.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal to provide safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable research, human exploration, and the commercial development of space; and to conduct human and robotic missions to planets and other bodies in our solar system. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology necessary to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. This paper discusses those materials best suited for aerospace vehicle structure and highlights the enormous potential of one revolutionary new material, carbon nanotubes.

  6. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  7. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask ‘how are nanoshapes created?’, ‘how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?’, ‘how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?’. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

  8. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  9. Overview of bacterial cellulose composites: a multipurpose advanced material.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial interest owing to its unique structural features and impressive physico-mechanical properties. BC has a variety of applications in biomedical fields, including use as biomaterial for artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and wound dressing. However, pristine BC lacks certain properties, which limits its applications in various fields; therefore, synthesis of BC composites has been conducted to address these limitations. A variety of BC composite synthetic strategies have been developed based on the nature and relevant applications of the combined materials. BC composites are primarily synthesized through in situ addition of reinforcement materials to BC synthetic media or the ex situ penetration of such materials into BC microfibrils. Polymer blending and solution mixing are less frequently used synthetic approaches. BC composites have been synthesized using numerous materials ranging from organic polymers to inorganic nanoparticles. In medical fields, these composites are used for tissue regeneration, healing of deep wounds, enzyme immobilization, and synthesis of medical devices that could replace cardiovascular and other connective tissues. Various electrical products, including biosensors, biocatalysts, E-papers, display devices, electrical instruments, and optoelectronic devices, are prepared from BC composites with conductive materials. In this review, we compiled various synthetic approaches for BC composite synthesis, classes of BC composites, and applications of BC composites. This study will increase interest in BC composites and the development of new ideas in this field.

  10. [Development of advanced educational programs, including research programs, for undergraduate students in National Universities: the facts in 2010].

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Yuji; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Santa, Tomofumi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes detailed facts obtained from the questionnaire conducted in 2010 at about 14 National Universities on the topic of "Research programs and advanced educational programs for undergraduate students". The contents of the questionnaire included: (1) Research programs based on the coalition of university and hospital and/or community pharmacy, other Graduate Schools, such as School of Medicine etc., and the University Hospital, (2) Educational systems for the achievement of research programs and their research outcomes, (3) Research programs based on pharmacist practices, (4) Ongoing advanced educational programs for undergraduate students, taking advantage of the coalition with Graduate School, School of Medicine (and Dentistry), and University Hospital. Some of the advanced educational programs outlined in this questionnaire will be carried out by our group in the coming years and the educational benefits together with associated problems shall as well be clarified. This approach will be informative for the development of the leader-oriented pharmacist programs for the college of Pharmacy.

  11. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  12. A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G.S.; Atzmon, M.; Wang, L.

    1999-12-22

    OAK B188 A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Year one of this project had three major goals. First, to specify, order and install a new high current ion source for more rapid and stable proton irradiation. Second, to assess the use low temperature irradiation and chromium pre-enrichment in an effort to isolate a radiation damage microstructure in stainless steels without the effects of RIS. Third, to prepare for the irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and Zircaloy. In year 1 quarter 1, the project goal was to order the high current ion source and to procure and prepare samples of stainless steel for low temperature proton irradiation.

  13. A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G.S.; Atzmon, M.; Wang, L.

    2000-06-27

    OAK B188 A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Year one of this project had three major goals. First, to specify, order and install a new high current ion source for more rapid and stable proton irradiation. Second, to assess the use of low temperature irradiation and chromium pre-enrichment in an effort to isolate a radiation damage microstructure in stainless steel without the effects of RIS. Third, to initiate irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and Zircaloy. In year 1 quarter 3, the project goal was to complete irradiation of model alloys of RPV steels for a range of doses and begin sample characterization. We also planned to prepare samples for microstructure isolation in stainless steels, and to identify sources of Zircaloy for irradiation and characterization.

  14. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.

  15. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  16. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm. PMID:25773383

  17. ECUT energy data reference series: high-temperature materials for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of high-temperature materials in advanced heat engines for ground transportation applications is summarized. Applications discussed are: automobiles, light trucks, and medium and heavy trucks. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  18. Process For Controlling Flow Rate Of Viscous Materials Including Use Of Nozzle With Changeable Openings

    DOEpatents

    Ellingson, William A.; Forster, George A.

    1999-11-02

    Apparatus and a method for controlling the flow rate of viscous materials through a nozzle includes an apertured main body and an apertured end cap coupled together and having an elongated, linear flow channel extending the length thereof. An end of the main body is disposed within the end cap and includes a plurality of elongated slots concentrically disposed about and aligned with the flow channel. A generally flat cam plate having a center aperture is disposed between the main body and end cap and is rotatable about the flow channel. A plurality of flow control vane assemblies are concentrically disposed about the flow channel and are coupled to the cam plate. Each vane assembly includes a vane element disposed adjacent the end of the flow channel. Rotation of the cam plate in a first direction causes a corresponding rotation of each of the vane elements for positioning the individual vane elements over the aperture in the end cap blocking flow through the flow channel, while rotation in an opposite direction removes the vane elements from the aperture and positions them about the flow channel in a nested configuration in the full open position, with a continuous range of vane element positions available between the full open and closed positions.

  19. Reliability Analysis of Brittle Material Structures - Including MEMS(?) - With the CARES/Life Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.

    2002-01-01

    Brittle materials are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts. thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The CARES/Life code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. For this presentation an interview of the CARES/Life program will be provided. Emphasis will be placed on describing the latest enhancements to the code for reliability analysis with time varying loads and temperatures (fully transient reliability analysis). Also, early efforts in investigating the validity of using Weibull statistics, the basis of the CARES/Life program, to characterize the strength of MEMS structures will be described as as well as the version of CARES/Life for MEMS (CARES/MEMS) being prepared which incorporates single crystal and edge flaw reliability analysis capability. It is hoped this talk will open a dialog for potential collaboration in the area of MEMS testing and life prediction.

  20. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  1. Creep-fatigue effects in structural materials used in advanced nuclear power generating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of time-dependent fatigue behavior of a number of structural alloys in use or planned for use in advanced nuclear power generating systems are reviewed. Materials included are types 304 and 316 stainless steel, Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, and alloy 800H. Examples of environmental effects, including both chemical and physical interaction, are presented for a number of environments. The environments discussed are high-purity liquid sodium, high vacuum, air, impure helium, and irradiation damage, including internal helium bubble generation.

  2. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  3. The use of advanced materials in space structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. C. G.; Slachmuylders, E. J.

    The last decade has seen the Space applications of composite materials become almost commonplace in the construction of configurations requiring high stiffness and/or dimensional stability, particularly in the field of antennas. As experience has been accumulated, applications for load carrying structures utilizing the inherent high specific strength/stiffness of carbon fibres have become more frequent. Some typical examples of these and their design development criteria are reviewed. As these structures and the use of new plastic matrices emerge, considerable attention has to be given to establishing essential integrity control requirements from both safety and cost aspects. The advent of manned European space flight places greater emphasis on such requirements. Attention is given to developments in the fields of metallic structures with discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of their application. The design and development of hot structures, thermal protection systems and air-breathing engines for future launch vehicles necessitates the use of the emerging metal/matrix and other advanced materials. Some of their important features are outlined. Means of achieving such objectives by greater harmonization within Europe are emphasized. Typical examples of on-going activities to promote such collaboration are described.

  4. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  5. P and n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements, devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1988-10-04

    An n-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; a method of fabricating p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including a band gap widening element; and electronic and photovoltaic devices incorporating said n-type and p-type materials.

  6. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, N. G.; Vogan, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic material systems are being considered for potential use as turbine blade tip gas path seals at temperatures up to 1370 1/4 C. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride structures were selected for study since an initial analysis of the problem gave these materials the greatest potential for development into a successful materials system. Segments of silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials over a range of densities, processed by various methods, a honeycomb structure of silicon nitride and ceramic blade tip inserts fabricated from both materials by hot pressing were tested singly and in combination. The evaluations included wear under simulated engine blade tip rub conditions, thermal stability, impact resistance, machinability, hot gas erosion and feasibility of fabrication into engine components. The silicon nitride honeycomb and low-density silicon carbide using a selected grain size distribution gave the most promising results as rub-tolerant shroud liners. Ceramic blade tip inserts made from hot-pressed silicon nitride gave excellent test results. Their behavior closely simulated metal tips. Wear was similar to that of metals but reduced by a factor of six.

  7. On pore-fluid viscosity and the wave properties of saturated granular materials including marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Michael J

    2007-09-01

    The grain-shearing (GS) theory of wave propagation in a saturated granular material, such as a marine sediment, is extended to include the effects of the viscosity of the molecularly thin layer of pore fluid separating contiguous grains. An equivalent mechanical system consisting of a saturating, strain-hardening dashpot in series with a Hookean spring represents the intergranular interactions. Designated the VGS theory, the new model returns dispersion curves that differ mildly from those of the GS theory at lower frequencies, below 10 kHz, where effects due to the viscosity of the pore fluid may be non-negligible. At higher frequencies, the VGS dispersion curves approach those of the GS theory asymptotically. The VGS theory is shown to match the SAX99 dispersion curves reasonably well over the broad frequency band of the measurements, from 1 to 400 kHz. This includes the frequency regime between 1 and 10 kHz occupied by Schock's chirp sonar data, where the viscosity of the pore fluid appears to have a discernible effect on the dispersion curves.

  8. Second-principles method for materials simulations including electron and lattice degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Junquera, Javier

    2016-05-01

    We present a first-principles-based (second-principles) scheme that permits large-scale materials simulations including both atomic and electronic degrees of freedom on the same footing. The method is based on a predictive quantum-mechanical theory—e.g., density functional theory—and its accuracy can be systematically improved at a very modest computational cost. Our approach is based on dividing the electron density of the system into a reference part—typically corresponding to the system's neutral, geometry-dependent ground state—and a deformation part—defined as the difference between the actual and reference densities. We then take advantage of the fact that the bulk part of the system's energy depends on the reference density alone; this part can be efficiently and accurately described by a force field, thus avoiding explicit consideration of the electrons. Then, the effects associated to the difference density can be treated perturbatively with good precision by working in a suitably chosen Wannier function basis. Further, the electronic model can be restricted to the bands of interest. All these features combined yield a very flexible and computationally very efficient scheme. Here we present the basic formulation of this approach, as well as a practical strategy to compute model parameters for realistic materials. We illustrate the accuracy and scope of the proposed method with two case studies, namely, the relative stability of various spin arrangements in NiO (featuring complex magnetic interactions in a strongly-correlated oxide) and the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (featuring subtle electron-lattice couplings and screening effects). We conclude by discussing ways to overcome the limitations of the present approach (most notably, the assumption of a fixed bonding topology), as well as its many envisioned possibilities and future extensions.

  9. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  10. Breakthrough and future: nanoscale controls of compositions, morphologies, and mesochannel orientations toward advanced mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Norihiro; Radhakrishnan, Logudurai; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Currently, ordered mesoporous materials prepared through the self-assembly of surfactants have attracted growing interests owing to their special properties, including uniform mesopores and a high specific surface area. Here we focus on fine controls of compositions, morphologies, mesochannel orientations which are important factors for design of mesoporous materials with new functionalities. This Review describes our recent progress toward advanced mesoporous materials. Mesoporous materials now include a variety of inorganic-based materials, for example, transition-metal oxides, carbons, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, polymers, and even metals. Mesoporous metals with metallic frameworks can be produced by using surfactant-based synthesis with electrochemical methods. Owing to their metallic frameworks, mesoporous metals with high electroconductivity and high surface areas hold promise for a wide range of potential applications, such as electronic devices, magnetic recording media, and metal catalysts. Fabrication of mesoporous materials with controllable morphologies is also one of the main subjects in this rapidly developing research field. Mesoporous materials in the form of films, spheres, fibers, and tubes have been obtained by various synthetic processes such as evaporation-mediated direct templating (EDIT), spray-dried techniques, and collaboration with hard-templates such as porous anodic alumina and polymer membranes. Furthermore, we have developed several approaches for orientation controls of 1D mesochannels. The macroscopic-scale controls of mesochannels are important for innovative applications such as molecular-scale devices and electrodes with enhanced diffusions of guest species.

  11. Recent advances in the characterization of transportation geo-materials. Geotechnical special publication No. 89

    SciTech Connect

    Tutumluer, E.; Papagiannakis, A.T.

    1999-07-01

    This special publication, sponsored by the Pavements Committee of the Geo-Institute, contains five papers from sessions of the Third National Conference of the Geo-Institute. The goal of the project was to encourage the application of geotechnical fundamentals in pavement design, and help the transfer of new developments in dealing with other earth-supported structures subjected to static, dynamic, and cyclic loads. Papers focus on recent advances in field and laboratory characterization of transportation geo-materials, including the use of various nondestructive testing techniques (falling weight deflecometer, spectral analysis of surface waves, ground penetrating radar, seismic pavement analyzer, Humbold stiffness gauge) and cone penetration testing for field characterization, application of a new Tube Suction test method for characterizing durability of pavement foundation core samples, and laboratory stress path testing of granular materials under dynamic confinement conditions using a new advanced triaxial test device.

  12. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  13. Open literature review of threats including sabotage and theft of fissile material transport in Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John Russell; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2005-06-01

    This report is a review of open literature concerning threats including sabotage and theft related to fissile material transport in Japan. It is intended to aid Japanese officials in the development of a design basis threat. This threat includes the external threats of the terrorist, criminal, and extremist, and the insider threats of the disgruntled employee, the employee forced into cooperation via coercion, the psychotic employee, and the criminal employee. Examination of the external terrorist threat considers Japanese demographics, known terrorist groups in Japan, and the international relations of Japan. Demographically, Japan has a relatively homogenous population, both ethnically and religiously. Japan is a relatively peaceful nation, but its history illustrates that it is not immune to terrorism. It has a history of domestic terrorism and the open literature points to the Red Army, Aum Shinrikyo, Chukaku-Ha, and Seikijuku. Japan supports the United States in its war on terrorism and in Iraq, which may make Japan a target for both international and domestic terrorists. Crime appears to remain low in Japan; however sources note that the foreign crime rate is increasing as the number of foreign nationals in the country increases. Antinuclear groups' recent foci have been nuclear reprocessing technology, transportation of MOX fuel, and possible related nuclear proliferation issues. The insider threat is first defined by the threat of the disgruntled employee. This threat can be determined by studying the history of Japan's employment system, where Keiretsu have provided company stability and lifetime employment. Recent economic difficulties and an increase of corporate crime, due to sole reliability on the honor code, have begun to erode employee loyalty.

  14. Analytical model for radiative transfer including the effects of a rough material interface.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Thomas E; Kellems, Anthony R

    2016-08-20

    The reflected and transmitted radiance due to a source located above a water surface is computed based on models for radiative transfer in continuous optical media separated by a discontinuous air-water interface with random surface roughness. The air-water interface is described as the superposition of random, unresolved roughness on a deterministic realization of a stochastic wave surface at resolved scales. Under the geometric optics assumption, the bidirectional reflection and transmission functions for the air-water interface are approximated by applying regular perturbation methods to Snell's law and including the effects of a random surface roughness component. Formal analytical solutions to the radiative transfer problem under the small-angle scattering approximation account for the effects of scattering and absorption as light propagates through the atmosphere and water and also capture the diffusive effects due to the interaction of light with the rough material interface that separates the two optical media. Results of the analytical models are validated against Monte Carlo simulations, and the approximation to the bidirectional reflection function is also compared to another well-known analytical model.

  15. Analytical model for radiative transfer including the effects of a rough material interface.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Thomas E; Kellems, Anthony R

    2016-08-20

    The reflected and transmitted radiance due to a source located above a water surface is computed based on models for radiative transfer in continuous optical media separated by a discontinuous air-water interface with random surface roughness. The air-water interface is described as the superposition of random, unresolved roughness on a deterministic realization of a stochastic wave surface at resolved scales. Under the geometric optics assumption, the bidirectional reflection and transmission functions for the air-water interface are approximated by applying regular perturbation methods to Snell's law and including the effects of a random surface roughness component. Formal analytical solutions to the radiative transfer problem under the small-angle scattering approximation account for the effects of scattering and absorption as light propagates through the atmosphere and water and also capture the diffusive effects due to the interaction of light with the rough material interface that separates the two optical media. Results of the analytical models are validated against Monte Carlo simulations, and the approximation to the bidirectional reflection function is also compared to another well-known analytical model. PMID:27556978

  16. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composite materials for advanced supersonic technology application, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Haskins, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Implementation of metal and resin matrix composites into supersonic vehicle usage is contingent upon accelerating the demonstration of service capacity and design technology. Because of the added material complexity and lack of extensive service data, laboratory replication of the flight service will provide the most rapid method of documenting the airworthiness of advanced composite systems. A program in progress to determine the time temperature stress capabilities of several high temperature composite materials includes thermal aging, environmental aging, fatigue, creep, fracture, and tensile tests as well as real time flight simulation exposure. The program has two parts. The first includes all the material property determinations and aging and simulation exposures up through 10,000 hours. The second continues these tests up to 50,000 cumulative hours. Results are presented of the 10,000 hour phase, which has now been completed.

  17. Statistical Methods Handbook for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Einerson

    2005-05-01

    Fuel materials such as kernels, coated particles, and compacts are being manufactured for experiments simulating service in the next generation of high temperature gas reactors. These must meet predefined acceptance specifications. Many tests are performed for quality assurance, and many of these correspond to criteria that must be met with specified confidence, based on random samples. This report describes the statistical methods to be used. The properties of the tests are discussed, including the risk of false acceptance, the risk of false rejection, and the assumption of normality. Methods for calculating sample sizes are also described.

  18. Advanced Porous Coating for Low-Density Ceramic Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1988-01-01

    The need for improved coatings on low-density reusable surface insulation (RSI) materials used on the space shuttle has stimulated research into developing tougher coatings. The processing of a new porous composite "coating" for RST called toughened unipiece fibrous insulation Is discussed. Characteristics including performance in a simulated high-speed atmospheric entry, morphological structure before and after this exposure, resistance to Impact, and thermal response to a typical heat pulse are described. It is shown that this coating has improved impact resistance while maintaining optical and thermal properties comparable to the previously available reaction-cured glass coating.

  19. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  20. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Yang, Jiong

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  1. Regulations for the transportation of hazardous materials, including liquefied gases, by vessels: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview covers the US domestic regulations enforced by the US Coast Guard and the international standards established by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization regarding the safe maritime transport of hazardous materials; the organizations involved; the types of regulatory requirements imposed; and the interplay between domestic and international standards for the transport of hazardous materials.

  2. Advanced materials development for fossil energy conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.; Youngblood, G.E.; Hurst, J.K.; Bell, A.E.; Grainger, D.W.; Rananavare, S.B.; Roe, D.K.; Thompson, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    Research activities being conducted as part of this project include: (1) fundamental studies of electrochemical processes occurring at surfaces and interfaces in fuel cells, and (2) development of novel materials synthesis and processing methodologies for fossil energy conversion applications. Complex impedance and dc polarization studies of the electrocatalytic activity at the cathode have allowed intrinsic materials properties to be separated from extrinsic properties related to morphology. Mixed conduction in cathode materials was shown to dramatically enhance electrocatalytic activity with this approach. Combustion synthesis methods were used to prepare multicomponent perovskite catalysts in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} system. Electronic properties of these catalysts can be altered by adjusting the composition, which affects both catalytic activity and selectivity. Inverse micelles have been utilized to prepare nanosized nickel sulfide particles, which show promise as hydrodesulfurization catalysts for liquefied coal. Self-assembling organic monolayers and derivatized inorganic surfaces have been used to control nucleation and crystal morphology of inorganic phases.

  3. Damage Prediction Models for Advanced Materials and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Ming; Ahmad, Jalees; Grady, Joseph E. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the assessment and evaluation of various acoustic tile designs were conducted using three-dimensional finite element analysis, which included static analysis, thermal analysis and modal analysis of integral and non-integral tile design options. Various benchmark specimens for acoustic tile designs, including CMC integral T-joint and notched CMC plate, were tested in both room and elevated temperature environment. Various candidate ceramic matrix composite materials were used in the numerical modeling and experimental study. The research effort in this program evolved from numerical modeling and concept design to a combined numerical analysis and experimental study. Many subjects associated with the design and performance of the acoustic tile in jet engine exhaust nozzle have been investigated.

  4. PREFACE: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering - Materials: Proceedings of the International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC) 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sumption, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 joint Cryogenic Engineering and International Cryogenic Materials Conferences were held from June 28 through July 2 at the JW Marriott Starr Pass Resort & Spa in Tucson, Arizona. As at past conferences, the international scope of these meetings was strongly maintained with 26 countries being represented by 561 attendees who gathered to enjoy the joint technical programs, industrial exhibits, special events, and natural beauty of the surrounding Sonoran Desert. The program for the joint conferences included a total of 363 presentations in the plenary, oral, and poster sessions. Four plenary talks gave in-depth discussions of the readiness of bulk superconductors for applications, the role of cryogenics in the development of the hydrogen bomb and vice versa, superconducting turboelectric aircraft propulsion and UPS's uses and plans for LNG fuel. Contributed papers covered a wide range of topics including large-scale and small-scale cryogenics, advances in superconductors and their applications. In total, 234 papers were submitted for publication of which 224 are published in these proceedings. The CEC/ICMC Cryo Industrial Expo displayed the products and services of 38 industrial exhibitors and provided a congenial venue for a reception and refreshments throughout the week as well as the conference poster sessions. Spectacular panoramic views of Saguaro National Park, the Sonoran Desert and the night time lights of Tucson set the stage for a memorable week in the American Southwest. Conference participants enjoyed scenic hikes and bike rides, exploring Old Town Tucson, hot and spicy southwestern cuisine, a nighttime lightning display and a hailstorm. Conference Chairs for 2015 were Peter Kittel, Consultant, for CEC and Michael Sumption from The Ohio State University, Materials Science Department for ICMC. Program Chairs were Jonathan Demko from the LeTourneau University for CEC and Timothy Haugan from AFRL/RQQM for ICMC, assisted by the CEC Program Vice Chair

  5. Advanced materials and device technology for photonic electric field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, James E.; Stenger, Vincent E.; Kingsley, Stuart A.; Pollick, Andrea; Sriram, Sri; Taylor, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Photonic methods for electric field sensing have been demonstrated across the electromagnetic spectrum from near-DC to millimeter waves, and at field strengths from microvolts-per-meter to megavolts-per-meter. The advantages of the photonic approach include a high degree of electrical isolation, wide bandwidth, minimum perturbation of the incident field, and the ability to operate in harsh environments. Aerospace applications of this technology span a wide range of frequencies and field strengths. They include, at the high-frequency/high-field end, measurement of high-power electromagnetic pulses, and at the low-frequency/low-field end, in-flight monitoring of electrophysiological signals. The demands of these applications continue to spur the development of novel materials and device structures to achieve increased sensitivity, wider bandwidth, and greater high-field measurement capability. This paper will discuss several new directions in photonic electric field sensing technology for defense applications. The first is the use of crystal ion slicing to prepare high-quality, single-crystal electro-optic thin films on low-dielectricconstant, RF-friendly substrates. The second is the use of two-dimensional photonic crystal structures to enhance the electro-optic response through slow-light propagation effects. The third is the use of ferroelectric relaxor materials with extremely high electro-optic coefficients.

  6. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  7. Modeling ozone removal to indoor materials, including the effects of porosity, pore diameter, and thickness.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    We develop an ozone transport and reaction model to determine reaction probabilities and assess the importance of physical properties such as porosity, pore diameter, and material thickness on reactive uptake of ozone to five materials. The one-dimensional model accounts for molecular diffusion from bulk air to the air-material interface, reaction at the interface, and diffusive transport and reaction through material pore volumes. Material-ozone reaction probabilities that account for internal transport and internal pore area, γ(ipa), are determined by a minimization of residuals between predicted and experimentally derived ozone concentrations. Values of γ(ipa) are generally less than effective reaction probabilities (γ(eff)) determined previously, likely because of the inclusion of diffusion into substrates and reaction with internal surface area (rather than the use of the horizontally projected external material areas). Estimates of γ(ipa) average 1 × 10(-7), 2 × 10(-7), 4 × 10(-5), 2 × 10(-5), and 4 × 10(-7) for two types of cellulose paper, pervious pavement, Portland cement concrete, and an activated carbon cloth, respectively. The transport and reaction model developed here accounts for observed differences in ozone removal to varying thicknesses of the cellulose paper, and estimates a near constant γ(ipa) as material thickness increases from 0.02 to 0.16 cm.

  8. Recent advances in inorganic materials for LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Shi, C Y; Deng, C H

    2016-05-10

    In this review, various inorganic materials were summarized for the analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Due to its tremendous advantages, such as simplicity, high speed, high throughput, small analyte volumes and tolerance towards salts, LDI-MS has been widely used in various analytes. During the ionization process, a suitable agent is required to assist the ionization, such as an appropriate matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). However, it is normally difficult to analyze small molecules with the MALDI technique because conventional organic matrices may produce matrix-related peaks in the low molecular-weight region, which limits the detection of small molecules (m/z < 700 Da). Therefore, more and more inorganic materials, including carbon-based materials, silicon-based materials and metal-based materials, have been developed to assist the ionization of small molecules. These inorganic materials can transfer energy and improve the ionization efficiency of analytes. In addition, functionalized inorganic materials can act as both an adsorbent and an agent in the enrichment and ionization of small molecules. In this review, we mainly focus on present advances in inorganic materials for the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules in the last five years, which contains the synthetic protocols of novel inorganic materials and the detailed results achieved by inorganic materials. On the other hand, this review also summarizes the application of inorganic materials as adsorbents in the selective enrichment of small molecules, which provides a new field for the application of inorganic materials.

  9. A finite element model for wave propagation in an inhomogeneous material including experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Dahl, Milo D.

    1987-01-01

    A finite element model was developed to solve for the acoustic pressure field in a nonhomogeneous region. The derivations from the governing equations assumed that the material properties could vary with position resulting in a nonhomogeneous variable property two-dimensional wave equation. This eliminated the necessity of finding the boundary conditions between the different materials. For a two media region consisting of part air (in the duct) and part bulk absorber (in the wall), a model was used to describe the bulk absorber properties in two directions. An experiment to verify the numerical theory was conducted in a rectangular duct with no flow and absorbing material mounted on one wall. Changes in the sound field, consisting of planar waves was measured on the wall opposite the absorbing material. As a function of distance along the duct, fairly good agreement was found in the standing wave pattern upstream of the absorber and in the decay of pressure level opposite the absorber.

  10. A finite element model for wave propagation in an inhomogeneous material including experimental validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Dahl, Milo D.

    1987-01-01

    A finite element model was developed to solve for the acoustic pressure field in a nonhomogeneous region. The derivations from the governing equations assumed that the material properties could vary with position resulting in a nonhomogeneous variable property two-dimensional wave equation. This eliminated the necessity of finding the boundary conditions between the different materials. For a two media region consisting of part air (in the duct) and part bulk absorber (in the wall), a model was used to describe the bulk absorber properties in two directions. An experiment to verify the numerical theory was conducted in a rectangular duct with no flow and absorbing material mounted on one wall. Changes in the sound field, consisting of planar waves, was measured on the wall opposite the absorbing material. As a function of distance along the duct, fairly good agreement was found in the standing wave pattern upstream of the absorber and in the decay of pressure level opposite the absorber.

  11. Playing Together: Ideas for Adapting Materials to Include All Children in Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Five charts list toys, playground equipment, and other materials found in most child care settings that promote social, emotional, perceptual, sensory, cognitive, and physical development and that can be used, with little or no modification, by children with disabilities. (MDM)

  12. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vrinda R.; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J.; Doshi, Paras J.; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Methods and Materials: Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Results: Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Conclusions: Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned. PMID:26929541

  13. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  14. Recent advances in the mechanical durability of superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2016-03-01

    Large majority of superhydrophobic surfaces have very limited mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. This problem has restricted their utilization in commercial or industrial applications and resulted in extensive research efforts on improving resistance against various types of wear damage. In this review, advances and developments since 2011 in this field will be covered. As such, we summarize progress on fabrication, design and understanding of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces. This includes an overview of recently published diagnostic techniques for probing and demonstrating tribo-mechanical durability against wear and abrasion as well as other effects such as solid/liquid spray or jet impact and underwater resistance. The review is organized in terms of various types of mechanical wear ranging from substrate adhesion, tangential surface abrasion, and dynamic impact to ultrasonic processing underwater. In each of these categories, we highlight the most successful approaches to produce robust surfaces that can maintain their non-wetting state after the wear or abrasive action. Finally, various recommendations for improvement of mechanical wear durability and its quantitative evaluation are discussed along with potential future directions towards more systematic testing methods which will also be acceptable for industry.

  15. Recent advances in the mechanical durability of superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2016-03-01

    Large majority of superhydrophobic surfaces have very limited mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. This problem has restricted their utilization in commercial or industrial applications and resulted in extensive research efforts on improving resistance against various types of wear damage. In this review, advances and developments since 2011 in this field will be covered. As such, we summarize progress on fabrication, design and understanding of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces. This includes an overview of recently published diagnostic techniques for probing and demonstrating tribo-mechanical durability against wear and abrasion as well as other effects such as solid/liquid spray or jet impact and underwater resistance. The review is organized in terms of various types of mechanical wear ranging from substrate adhesion, tangential surface abrasion, and dynamic impact to ultrasonic processing underwater. In each of these categories, we highlight the most successful approaches to produce robust surfaces that can maintain their non-wetting state after the wear or abrasive action. Finally, various recommendations for improvement of mechanical wear durability and its quantitative evaluation are discussed along with potential future directions towards more systematic testing methods which will also be acceptable for industry. PMID:26792021

  16. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-02-19

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  17. Fabrication method for cores of structural sandwich materials including star shaped core cells

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating structural sandwich materials having a core pattern which utilizes star and non-star shaped cells. The sheets of material are bonded together or a single folded sheet is used, and bonded or welded at specific locations, into a flat configuration, and are then mechanically pulled or expanded normal to the plane of the sheets which expand to form the cells. This method can be utilized to fabricate other geometric cell arrangements than the star/non-star shaped cells. Four sheets of material (either a pair of bonded sheets or a single folded sheet) are bonded so as to define an area therebetween, which forms the star shaped cell when expanded.

  18. Fabrication method for cores of structural sandwich materials including star shaped core cells

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, R.M.

    1997-07-15

    A method for fabricating structural sandwich materials having a core pattern which utilizes star and non-star shaped cells is disclosed. The sheets of material are bonded together or a single folded sheet is used, and bonded or welded at specific locations, into a flat configuration, and are then mechanically pulled or expanded normal to the plane of the sheets which expand to form the cells. This method can be utilized to fabricate other geometric cell arrangements than the star/non-star shaped cells. Four sheets of material (either a pair of bonded sheets or a single folded sheet) are bonded so as to define an area therebetween, which forms the star shaped cell when expanded. 3 figs.

  19. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material, including forming the extrusion die

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1981-11-30

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  20. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  1. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Peterson, Leroy L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  2. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  3. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  4. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  5. Advanced nanoporous materials for micro-gravimetric sensing to trace-level bio/chemical molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-10-13

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  6. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-07-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  7. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  8. Advanced Composites: Mechanical Properties and Hardware Programs for Selected Resin Matrix Materials. [considering space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note presents typical mechanical properties tabulated from industrial and governmental agencies' test programs. All data are correlated to specific products and all of the best known products are presented. The data include six epoxies, eight polyimides and one polyquinoxaline matrix material. Bron and graphite are the fiber reinforcements. Included are forty-two summaries of advanced (resin matrix) composite programs in existence in the United States. It is concluded that the selection of appropriate matrices, the geometric manner in which the fibers are incorporated in the matrix and the durability of the bond between fiber and matrix establish the end properties of the composite material and the performance of the fabricated structure.

  9. Fabrication of advanced particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Wang, Juan; Han, Jun-Jie

    2011-07-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication of complex particles and particle-based materials assisted by droplet-based microfluidics are reviewed. Monodisperse particles with expected internal structures, morphologies, and sizes in the range of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers have received a good deal of attention in recent years. Due to the capability of generating monodisperse emulsions and of executing precise control and operations on the suspended droplets inside the microchannels, droplet-based microfluidic devices have become powerful tools for fabricating complex particles with desired properties. Emulsions and multiple-emulsions generated in the microfluidic devices can be composed of a variety of materials including aqueous solutions, gels, polymers and solutions containing functional nanoparticles. They are ideal microreactors or fine templates for synthesizing advanced particles, such as polymer particles, microcapsules, nanocrystals, and photonic crystal clusters or beads by further chemical or physical operations. These particles are promising materials that may be applicable for many fields, such as photonic materials, drug delivery systems, and bio-analysis. From simple to complex, from spherical to nonspherical, from polymerization and reaction crystallization to self-assembly, this review aims to help readers be aware of the many aspects of this field.

  10. PREFACE: International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials (D2FAM 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2013-07-01

    Intensification of manufacturing processes and expansion of usability envelopes of modern components and structures in many cases result in dynamic loading regimes that cannot be resented adequately employing quasi-static formulations of respective problems of solid mechanics. Specific features of dynamic deformation, damage and fracture processes are linked to various factors, most important among them being: a transient character of load application; complex scenarios of propagation, attenuation and reflection of stress waves in real materials, components and structures; strain-rate sensitivity of materials properties; various thermo-mechanical regimes. All these factors make both experimental characterisation and theoretical (analytical and numerical) analysis of dynamic deformation and fracture rather challenging; for instance, besides dealing with a spatial realisation of these processes, their evolution with time should be also accounted for. To meet these challenges, an International Symposium on Dynamic Deformation and Fracture of Advanced Materials D2FAM 2013 was held on 9-11 September 2013 in Loughborough, UK. Its aim was to bring together specialists in mechanics of materials, applied mathematics, physics, continuum mechanics, materials science as well as various areas of engineering to discuss advances in experimental and theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations of dynamic mechanical phenomena. Some 50 papers presented at the Symposium by researchers from 12 countries covered various topics including: high-strain-rate loading and deformation; dynamic fracture; impact and blast loading; high-speed penetration; impact fatigue; damping properties of advanced materials; thermomechanics of dynamic loading; stress waves in micro-structured materials; simulation of failure mechanisms and damage accumulation; processes in materials under dynamic loading; a response of components and structures to harsh environment. The materials discussed at D2FAM 2013

  11. Time-temperature-stress capabilities of composite materials for advanced supersonic technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, James R.; Haskins, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced composites will play a key role in the development of the technology for the design and fabrication of future supersonic vehicles. However, incorporating the material into vehicle usage is contingent on accelerating the demonstration of service capacity and design technology. Because of the added material complexity and lack of extensive data, laboratory replication of the flight service will provide the most rapid method to document the airworthiness of advanced composite systems. Consequently, a laboratory program was conducted to determine the time-temperature-stress capabilities of several high temperature composites. Tests included were thermal aging, environmental aging, fatigue, creep, fracture, tensile, and real-time flight simulation exposure. The program had two phases. The first included all the material property determinations and aging and simulation exposures up through 10,000 hours. The second continued these tests up to 50,000 cumulative hours. This report presents the results of the Phase 1 baseline and 10,000-hr aging and flight simulation studies, the Phase 2 50,000-hr aging studies, and the Phase 2 flight simulation tests, some of which extended to almost 40,000 hours.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1065 - What must I include in my draft materials separation plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30...) You must prepare and submit a draft materials separation plan for your municipal waste combustion unit... for separating certain components of municipal solid waste for a given service area prior to...

  13. Electronic and structural response of materials to fast intense laser pulses, including light-induced superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland E.

    2016-06-01

    This is a very brief discussion of some experimental and theoretical studies of materials responding to fast intense laser pulses, with emphasis on those cases where the electronic response and structural response are both potentially important (and ordinarily coupled). Examples are nonthermal insulator-to-metal transitions and light-induced superconductivity in cuprates, fullerenes, and an organic Mott insulator.

  14. Homestay Program Orientation Manual, Including Leader's Guides and Preparatory Readings, Plus Materials for Student Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee; Hansel, Bettina

    Developed as orientation materials for foreign students coming to the United States to study English, this manual contains six units to acquaint students with U.S. history, government, and culture. The first unit introduces students to the daily routines and interpersonal relationships of U.S. people. Unit 2 examines the origins and significance…

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis of maghemite/silica nanocomposites: advanced materials for aqueous room-temperature catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manuel; Pineda, Antonio; Romero, Antonio A; Barrón, Vidal; Luque, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and highly reproducible protocol has been developed for the mechanochemical preparation of advanced nanocatalytic materials in a one-pot process. The materials proved to have unprecedented activities in aqueous Suzuki couplings at room temperature, paving the way for a new generation of highly active and stable advanced nanocatalysts.

  16. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  17. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  18. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The cost/benefits of advance commercial gas turbine materials are described. Development costs, estimated payoffs and probabilities of success are discussed. The materials technologies investigated are: (1) single crystal turbine blades, (2) high strength hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (3) advanced oxide dispersion strengthened burner liner, (4) bore entry cooled hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (5) turbine blade tip - outer airseal system, and (6) advance turbine blade alloys.

  19. Multiobjective control design including performance robustness for gust alleviation of a wing with adaptive material actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Jeffrey B.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the use of covariance control to directly design reduced-order multi-objective controllers for gust alleviation using adaptive materials as the control effector. It will use piezoelectric actuators as control effectors in a finite element model of a full-size wing model. More precisely, the finite element model is of the F-16 Agile Falcon/Active Flexible Wing that is modified to use piezoelectric actuators as control effectors. The paper will also examine the interacting roles of important control design constraints and objectives for designing an aeroservoelastic system. The paper will also present some results of multiobjective control design for the model, illustrating the benefits and complexity of modern practical control design for aeroservoelastic systems that use adaptive materials for actuation.

  20. Phonon transport control by nanoarchitecture including epitaxial Ge nanodots for Si-based thermoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaka, Shuto; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Sakai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Phonon transport in Si films was controlled using epitaxially-grown ultrasmall Ge nanodots (NDs) with ultrahigh density for the purpose of developing Si-based thermoelectric materials. The Si/Ge ND stacked structures, which were formed by the ultrathin SiO2 film technique, exhibited lower thermal conductivities than those of the conventional nanostructured SiGe bulk alloys, despite the stacked structures having a smaller Ge fraction. This came from the large thermal resistance caused by phonon scattering at the Si/Ge ND interfaces. The phonon scattering can be controlled by the Ge ND structure, which was independent of Si layer structure for carrier transport. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of ultrasmall epitaxial Ge NDs as phonon scattering sources, opening up a route for the realisation of Si-based thermoelectric materials. PMID:26434678

  1. Recharacterization of Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941 (Serpentes: Uropeltidae), including description of new material.

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

    2016-01-01

    The Sri Lankan uropeltid (shieldtail) snake Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941 was described originally from two specimens that were subsequently lost. The small amount of previously published data and lack of published colour photographs made this one of South Asia's most poorly known snake species, and this resulted in at least one instance of taxonomic misidentification. An additional 10 specimens from a historical collection from the vicinity of the type locality recently came to light. This material is reviewed and documented and the species recharacterized. An additional locality for the species is reported. The newly reported material helps to corroborate the taxonomic validity and distinctiveness of Rhinophis dorsimaculatus. The species is readily distinguished from congeners by having 227 or more ventral scales; a large, dorsally carinate rostral shield; posterior margins of paired anals that are largely separated by the posteriormost ventral scale; and a distinctive colour pattern with bilaterally asymmetrical dark blotches within a broad, pale middorsal stripe and regularly punctate flanks. PMID:27615880

  2. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. PMID:26602927

  3. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Luginbühl, Werner; Kremp, Anke; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Burrell, Stephen; Söderström, Martin; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories' capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  4. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advances in materials, coatings, turbine cooling technology, structural and design concepts, and component-life prediction of helicopter gas-turbine-engine components are presented. Stationary parts including the inlet particle separator, the front frame, rotor tip seals, vanes and combustors and rotating components - compressor blades, disks, and turbine blades - are discussed. Advanced composite materials are considered for the front frame and compressor blades, prealloyed powder superalloys will increase strength and reduce costs of disks, the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys will have 100C higher use temperature in combustors and vanes than conventional superalloys, ceramics will provide the highest use temperature of 1400C for stator vanes and 1370C for turbine blades, and directionally solidified eutectics will afford up to 50C temperature advantage at turbine blade operating conditions. Coatings for surface protection at higher surface temperatures and design trends in turbine cooling technology are discussed. New analytical methods of life prediction such as strain gage partitioning for high temperature prediction, fatigue life, computerized prediction of oxidation resistance, and advanced techniques for estimating coating life are described.

  5. New materials systems for advanced tribological and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei

    In this study, two different materials systems were developed to address current industrial problems of wear. The first system consisted of sterically hindered aliphatic polyester (SHAP) lubricants for use in hard disk magnetic recording applications. Specific goals included improved adhesion, durability and tribochemical stability compared to commercial perfluoropolyethers. While commercial perfluoropolyether lubricants are subject to catalytic degradation and mechanical scission, or suffer from severe stiction and dewetting problems, SHAP lubricants manifest greatly reduced stiction, superb thermal and oxidation stability, and excellent friction property, and make good candidates for broader applications, such as lubricants for MEMs or general purpose lubricants. The second material system involved a blend of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and an Aromatic Thermosetting Polyester (ATSP) to achieve greatly improved mechanical properties and wear resistance compared to currently available blends of PTFE. The unique solid bonding capability and liquid crystalline nature of ATSP help form high aspect ratio microstructures, which allows fabrication of PTFE/ATSP composites across the entire composition range with greatly improved performance under greatly simplified conditions. A third project involved the design of new wide-spectrum antibacterial filters for point-of-use systems that are robust and can be easily regenerated and maintained. Silver coated fiberglass with colloidal sized silver particles was developed. Systems made of silver coated fiberglass are highly effective, have high capacity and can be regenerated easily. These disinfection units do not leach silver ions, or add taste or disinfection by-products into the treated water. Protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be held by the filter and destroyed during regeneration. They are an inexpensive, cleaner alternative to current point-of-use systems.

  6. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  7. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics... Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield Plastics, including on-site leased workers from... 25, 2010 (75 FR 3934). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the...

  8. Advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Michael G.

    1992-11-01

    Following a program definition phase of 2 years, Task 18 of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling program commenced a 5 year research phase in April 1992. Task 18 investigates a wide range of advanced glazing materials and glazing systems which include monolithic and granular aerogels, transparent insulation materials, chromogenic materials, evacuated glazings, low-emittance coatings, solar collector covers, angular selective transmittance thin films, holographic and light guide materials, and frame and edge seal technology. In addition to materials-centered research, Task 18 concentrates on measurement of key glazing properties such as total energy transmittance, U-value, and spectral directional optical properties, and through the use of building energy analysis software tools the identification of appropriate applications, control strategies, and energy and environmental benefits to be derived from advanced glazing products. Fifteen OECD countries are participating in Task 18 which is led by the United Kingdom.

  9. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  10. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  11. A Model for Predicting Grain Boundary Cracking in Polycrystalline Viscoplastic Materials Including Scale Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Helms, K.L.E.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1999-04-06

    A model is developed herein for predicting the mechanical response of inelastic crystalline solids. Particular emphasis is given to the development of microstructural damage along grain boundaries, and the interaction of this damage with intragranular inelasticity caused by dislocation dissipation mechanisms. The model is developed within the concepts of continuum mechanics, with special emphasis on the development of internal boundaries in the continuum by utilizing a cohesive zone model based on fracture mechanics. In addition, the crystalline grains are assumed to be characterized by nonlinear viscoplastic mechanical material behavior in order to account for dislocation generation and migration. Due to the nonlinearities introduced by the crack growth and viscoplastic constitution, a numerical algorithm is utilized to solve representative problems. Implementation of the model to a finite element computational algorithm is therefore briefly described. Finally, sample calculations are presented for a polycrystalline titanium alloy with particular focus on effects of scale on the predicted response.

  12. A model for thermal oxidation of Si and SiC including material expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, T.; Ioannidis, A.; Winkelmann, C.

    2015-02-01

    A model based on drift-diffusion-reaction kinetics for Si and SiC oxidation is discussed, which takes the material expansion into account with an additional convection term. The associated velocity field is determined self-consistently from the local reaction rate. The approach allows a calculation of the densities of volatile species in an nm-resolution at the oxidation front. The model is illustrated with simulation results for the growth and impurity redistribution during Si oxidation and for carbon and silicon emission during SiC oxidation. The approach can be useful for the prediction of Si and/or C interstitial distribution, which is particularly relevant for the quality of metal-oxide-semiconductor electronic devices.

  13. A model for thermal oxidation of Si and SiC including material expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, T. Ioannidis, A.; Winkelmann, C.

    2015-02-28

    A model based on drift-diffusion-reaction kinetics for Si and SiC oxidation is discussed, which takes the material expansion into account with an additional convection term. The associated velocity field is determined self-consistently from the local reaction rate. The approach allows a calculation of the densities of volatile species in an nm-resolution at the oxidation front. The model is illustrated with simulation results for the growth and impurity redistribution during Si oxidation and for carbon and silicon emission during SiC oxidation. The approach can be useful for the prediction of Si and/or C interstitial distribution, which is particularly relevant for the quality of metal-oxide-semiconductor electronic devices.

  14. Solution Processable White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using New Blue Host Material Including Substituent Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyun; Shin, Hwangyu; Park, Jongwook

    2016-02-01

    New host material of T-TATa isomer substituted t-butyl group was investigated in solution process WOLED device compared with 4-(10-(3',5'-diphenylbiphenyl-4-yl)anthracen-9-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline [TATa]. A two-color WOLED of a co-host system using solution process method was demonstrated. The device configuration was ITO/PEDOT:PSS (40 nm)/emitting layer (50 nm)/TPBi (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/AI. The emitting layer consisted of TATa or T-TATa isomer, NPB, DPAVBi (blue dopant), and rubrene (yellow dopant). NPB was used as not only blue host but also helping hole carrier transport. The device using T-TATa compound as a co-host exhibited a luminance efficiency of 3.39 cd/A, which is about twice higher than TATa device of 1.58 cd/A at 10 mA/cm2. PMID:27433738

  15. Far Ultraviolet Refractive Index of Optical Materials for Solar Blind Channel (SBC) Filters for HST Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.; Petrone, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Refractive index measurements using the minimum deviation method have been carried out for prisms of a variety of far ultraviolet optical materials used in the manufacture of Solar Blind Channel (SBC) filters for the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Some of the materials measured are gaining popularity in a variety of high technology applications including high power excimer lasers and advanced microlithography optics operating in a wavelength region where high quality knowledge of optical material properties is sparse. Our measurements are of unusually high accuracy and precision for this wavelength region owing to advanced instrumentation in the large vacuum chamber of the Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Index values for CaF2, BaF2, LiF, and far ultraviolet grades of synthetic sapphire and synthetic fused silica are reported and compared with values from the literature.

  16. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  17. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  18. On the Use of Accelerated Test Methods for Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.

    2003-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing for material characterization of advanced polymer matrix composites is discussed. The experimental and analytical methods provided should be viewed as a set of tools useful in the screening of material systems for long-term engineering properties in aerospace applications. Consideration is given to long-term exposure in extreme environments that include elevated temperature, reduced temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. Analytical formulations useful for predictive models that are based on the principles of time-based superposition are presented. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for determining specific aging mechanisms.

  19. Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials V: CENTENNIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, George

    2012-05-01

    In 2012 the diffraction community will celebrate 100 years since the prediction of X-ray diffraction by M. Laue, and following his suggestion the first beautiful diffraction experiment by W. Friedrich and P. Knipping. The significance of techniques based on the analysis of the diffraction of X-rays, neutrons, electrons and Mossbauer photons discovered later, has continued to increase in the past 100 years. The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum for discussion of using state-of-the-art neutron and X-ray scattering techniques for probing advanced materials. These techniques have been widely used to characterize materials structures across all length scales, from atomic to nano, meso, and macroscopic scales. With the development of sample environments, in-situ experiments, e.g., at temperatures and applied mechanical load, are becoming routine. The development of ultra-brilliant third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, together with advances in X-ray optics, has created intense X-ray microbeams, which provide the best opportunities for in-depth understanding of mechanical behavior in a broad spectrum of materials. Important applications include ultra-sensitive elemental detection by X-ray fluorescence/absorption and microdiffraction to identify phase and strain with submicrometer spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of crystalline structure, orientation and strain. X-ray microdiffraction is non-destructive with good strain resolution, competitive or superior spatial resolution in thick samples, and with the ability to probe below the sample surface. Advances in neutron sources and instrumentation also bring new opportunities in neutron scattering research. In addition to characterizing the structures, neutrons are also a great tool for elucidating the dynamics of materials. Because neutrons are highly penetrating, neutrons have been used to map stress in engineering systems

  20. Screening of advanced cladding materials and UN-U3Si5 fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Todosow, Michael; Cuadra, Arantxa

    2015-07-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima, a focus of the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign has been the development of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding options with the potential for improved performance in an accident. Uranium dioxide (UO2) fuels with various advanced cladding materials were analyzed to provide a reference for cladding performance impacts. For advanced cladding options with UO2 fuel, most of the cladding materials have some reactivity and discharge burn-up penalty (in GWd/t). Silicon carbide is one exception in that the reactor physics performance is predicted to be very similar to zirconium alloy cladding. Most candidate claddings performed similar to UO2-Zr fuel-cladding in terms of safety coefficients. The clear exception is that Mo-based materials were identified as potentially challenging from a reactor physics perspective due to high resonance absorption. This paper also includes evaluation of UN-U3Si5 fuels with Kanthal AF or APMT cladding. The objective of the U3Si5 phase in the UN-U3Si5 fuel concept is to shield the nitride phase from water. It was shown that UN-U3Si5 fuels with Kanthal AF or APMT cladding have similar reactor physics and fuel management performance over a wide parameter space of phase fractions when compared to UO2-Zr fuel-cladding. There will be a marginal penalty in discharge burn-up (in GWd/t) and the sensitivity to 14N content in UN ceramic composites is high. Analysis of the rim effect due to self-shielding in the fuel shows that the UN-based ceramic fuels are not expected to have significantly different relative burn-up distributions at discharge relative to the UO2 reference fuel. However, the overall harder spectrum in the UN ceramic composite fuels increases transuranic build-up, which will increase long-term activity in a once-thru fuel cycle but is expected to be a significant advantage in a fuel cycle with continuous recycling of transuranic material. It is recognized that the fuel and cladding properties assumed in

  1. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  2. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  3. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  4. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  5. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  6. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  7. Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

  8. Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in advanced ceramic materials using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkansky, Mark; Reintjes, John F.

    2002-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an active optical imaging technique that is capable of three-dimensional resolution better than 10 microns in all dimensions. OCT was originally developed as a non-invasive technique in biomedical field. It also found uses in the NDE of various materials including ceramics, plastics and composites. In various ceramics OCT can be used to detect microscopic, subsurface defects at depths approaching hundreds of microns. The depth of penetration depends on the material and on the wavelength of light. Here we demonstrate an application of OCT to the subsurface imaging in various materials and, in particular, to the detection of a surface-penetrating Hertzian crack in a Si3N4 ceramic ball. We present measured subsurface trajectory of the crack and compare it to theoretical predictions. These cracks represent one of the most important failure mechanisms in advanced ceramic materials. The ability to map subsurface trajectories of cracks is a valuable tool in the evaluation of different existing theories. Better theoretical understanding of various properties of crack initiation and propagation can lead to engineering of improved ceramic materials.

  9. 10 CFR 37.77 - Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of radioactive material. 37.77 Section 37.77 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.77 Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material. As specified...

  10. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  11. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. PMID:27510619

  12. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  13. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  14. [Advances in polymer materials as chiral stationary phase].

    PubMed

    Dai, Rongji; Wang, Huiting; Sun, Weiwei; Deng, Yulin; Lü, Fang; Liu, Xiujie

    2016-01-01

    The applications of chiral drugs had a profound impact on human health. With the development of disciplines of chemistry, materials and life science, the research on the separation and analysis of chiral drugs became intensified. Chromatography and the selection of chiral stationary phase played important roles in resolving chiral drugs. The optimization of polymer materials and their derivatives as chiral stationary phase become the main issue in recent years. Recent studies as well as prospects in polymer materials used as chiral stationary phase are presented in this paper. PMID:27319162

  15. Recent advances on polyoxometalate-based molecular and composite materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Fei; Tsunashima, Ryo

    2012-11-21

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are a subset of metal oxides with unique physical and chemical properties, which can be reliably modified through various techniques and methods to develop sophisticated materials and devices. In parallel with the large number of new crystal structures reported in the literature, the application of these POMs towards multifunctional materials has attracted considerable attention. This critical review summarizes recent progress on POM-based molecular and composite materials, and particularly highlights the emerging areas that are closely related to surface, electronic, energy, environment, life science, etc. (171 references). PMID:22850732

  16. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  17. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-02-24

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs.

  18. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 °C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and

  19. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic

  20. "Ultra"-Fast Fracture Strength of Advanced Structural Ceramic Materials Studied at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate determination of inert strength is important in reliable life prediction of structural ceramic components. At ambient temperature, the inert strength of a brittle material is typically regarded as free of the effects of slow crack growth due to stress corrosion. Therefore, the inert strength can be determined either by eliminating active species, especially moisture, with an appropriate inert medium, or by using a very high test rate. However, at elevated temperatures, the concept or definition of the inert strength of brittle ceramic materials is not clear, since temperature itself is a degrading environment, resulting in strength degradation through slow crack growth and/or creep. Since the mechanism to control strength is rate-dependent viscous flow, the only conceivable way to determine the inert strength at elevated temperatures is to utilize a very fast test rate that either minimizes the time for or eliminates slow crack growth. Few experimental studies have measured the elevated-temperature, inert (or "ultra"-fast fracture) strength of advanced ceramics. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, an experimental study was initiated to better understand the "ultra"-fast fracture strength behavior of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures. Fourteen advanced ceramics - one alumina, eleven silicon nitrides, and two silicon carbides - have been tested using constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing in flexure with a series of stress rates including the "ultra"-fast stress rate of 33 000 MPa/sec with digitally controlled test frames. The results for these 14 advanced ceramics indicate that, notwithstanding possible changes in flaw populations as well as flaw configurations because of elevated temperatures, the strength at 33 000 MPa/sec approached the room-temperature strength or reached a higher value than that determined at the conventional test rate of 30 MPa/sec. On the basis of the experimental data, it can be stated that the elevated

  1. Advances in monoliths and related porous materials for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Knob, Radim; Sahore, Vishal; Sonker, Mukul; Woolley, Adam T

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the use of monolithic porous polymers has seen significant growth. These materials present a highly useful support for various analytical and biochemical applications. Since their introduction, various approaches have been introduced to produce monoliths in a broad range of materials. Simple preparation has enabled their easy implementation in microchannels, extending the range of applications where microfluidics can be successfully utilized. This review summarizes progress regarding monoliths and related porous materials in the field of microfluidics between 2010 and 2015. Recent developments in monolith preparation, solid-phase extraction, separations, and catalysis are critically discussed. Finally, a brief overview of the use of these porous materials for analysis of subcellular and larger structures is given. PMID:27190564

  2. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Material categories as well as coatings and recent turbine cooling developments are reviewed. Current state of the art is identified, and as assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions is provided.

  3. Advance assessment for movement of Haz Cat 3 radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Vosburg, Susan K.

    2010-04-01

    The current packaging of most HC-3 radioactive materials at SNL/NM do not meet DOT requirements for offsite shipment. SNL/NM is transporting HC-3 quantities of radioactive materials from their storage locations in the Manzano Nuclear Facilities bunkers to facilities in TA-5 to be repackaged for offsite shipment. All transportation of HC-3 rad material by SNL/NM is onsite (performed within the confines of KAFB). Transport is performed only by the Regulated Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department. Part of the HC3T process is to provide the CAT with the following information at least three days prior to the move: (1) RFt-Request for transfer; (2) HC3T movement report; (3) Radiological survey; and (4) Transportation Route Map.

  4. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  5. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  6. Advanced and In Situ Analytical Methods for Solar Fuel Materials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Tüysüz, Harun; Braun, Artur; Ranjan, Chinmoy; La Mantia, Fabio; Miller, Benjamin K; Zhang, Liuxian; Crozier, Peter A; Haber, Joel A; Gregoire, John M; Park, Hyun S; Batchellor, Adam S; Trotochaud, Lena; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-01-01

    In situ and operando techniques can play important roles in the development of better performing photoelectrodes, photocatalysts, and electrocatalysts by helping to elucidate crucial intermediates and mechanistic steps. The development of high throughput screening methods has also accelerated the evaluation of relevant photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties for new solar fuel materials. In this chapter, several in situ and high throughput characterization tools are discussed in detail along with their impact on our understanding of solar fuel materials.

  7. Advances in Suture Material for Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A; Clark, Rachel M

    2009-01-01

    Despite millennia of experience with wound closure biomaterials, no study or surgeon has yet identified the perfect suture for all situations. Tissue characteristics, tensile strength, reactivity, absorption rates, and handling properties should be taken into account when selecting a wound closure suture. This review discusses the wound healing process and the biomechanical properties of currently available suture materials to better understand how to choose suture material in obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:19826572

  8. Probing structures of nanomaterials using advanced electron microscopy methods, including aberration-corrected electron microscopy at the Angstrom scale.

    PubMed

    Gai, Pratibha L; Yoshida, Kenta; Shute, Carla; Jia, Xiaoting; Walsh, Michael; Ward, Michael; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Weertman, Julia R; Boyes, Edward D

    2011-07-01

    Structural and compositional studies of nanomaterials of technological importance have been carried out using advanced electron microscopy methods, including aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM), AC-high angle annular dark field scanning TEM (AC-HAADF-STEM), AC-energy filtered TEM, electron-stimulated energy dispersive spectroscopy in the AC-(S)TEM and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) holder. The AC-EM data reveal improvements in resolution and minimization in image delocalization. A JEOL 2200FS double-AC field emission gun TEM/STEM operating at 200 kV in the Nanocentre at the University of York has been used to image single metal atoms on crystalline supports in catalysts, grain boundaries in nanotwinned metals, and nanostructures of tetrapods. Joule heating studies using HRTEM integrated with an STM holder reveal in situ crystallization and edge reconstruction in graphene. Real-time in situ AC-HAADF-STEM studies at elevated temperatures are described. Dynamic in-column energy filtering in an AC environment provides an integral new approach to perform dynamic in situ studies with aberration correction. The new results presented here open up striking new opportunities for atomic scale studies of nanomaterials and indicate future development directions.

  9. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    spectroscopic analysis of thin film LiNiVO[symbol] prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique / S. Selvasekarapandian ... [et al.]. Synthesis and characterization of LiFePO[symbol] cathode materials by microwave processing / J. Zhou ... [et al.]. Characterization of Nd[symbol]Sr[symbol]CoO[symbol] including Pt second phase as the cathode material for low-temperature SOFCs / J. W. Choi ... [et al.]. Thermodynamic behavior of lithium intercalation into natural vein and synthetic graphite / N. W. B. Balasooriya, P. W. S. K. Bandaranayake, Ph. Touzain -- pt. III. Electroactive polymers. Invited papers. Organised or disorganised? looking at polymer electrolytes from both points of view / Y.-P. Liao ... [et al.]. Polymer electrolytes - simple low permittivity solutions? / I. Albinsson, B.-E. Mellander. Dependence of conductivity enhancement on the dielectric constant of the dispersoid in polymer-ferroelectric composite electrolytes / A. Chandra, P. K. Singh, S. Chandra. Design and application of boron compounds for high-performance polymer electrolytes / T. Fujinami. Structural, vibrational and AC impedance analysis of nano composite polymer electrolytes based on PVAC / S. Selvasekarapandian ... [et al.]. Absorption intensity variation with ion association in PEO based electrolytes / J. E. Furneaux ... [et al.]. Study of ion-polymer interactions in cationic and anionic ionomers from the dependence of conductivity on pressure and temperature / M. Duclot ... [et al.]. Triol based polyurethane gel electrolytes for electrochemical devices / A. R. Kulkarni. Contributed papers. Accurate conductivity measurements to solvation energies in nafion / M. Maréchal, J.-L Souquet. Ion conducting behaviour of composite polymer gel electrolyte: PEG-PVA-(NH[symbol]CH[symbol]CO[symbol])[symbol] system / S. L. Agrawal, A. Awadhia, S. K. Patel. Impedance spectroscopy and DSC studies of poly(vinylalcohol)/ silicotungstic acid crosslinked composite membranes / A. Anis, A. K. Banthia. (PEO

  10. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  11. Virtual Welded-Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Babu, S.; Olson, G.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-04-15

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the fatigue life of a welded-joint by 10 times and to reduce energy use by 25% through product performance and productivity improvements using an integrated modeling approach. The fatigue strength of a welded-joint is currently the bottleneck to design high performance and lightweight welded structures using advanced materials such as high strength steels. In order to achieve high fatigue strength in a welded-joint it is necessary to manage the weld bead shape for lower stress concentration, produce preferable residual stress distribution, and obtain the desired microstructure for improved material toughness and strength. This is a systems challenge that requires the optimization of the welding process, the welding consumable, the base material, as well as the structure design. The concept of virtual welded-joint design has been proposed and established in this project. The goal of virtual welded-joint design is to develop a thorough procedure to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, property, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatigue strength by a systematic modeling approach. The systematic approach combines five sub-models: weld thermal-fluid model, weld microstructure model, weld material property model, weld residual stress model, and weld fatigue model. The systematic approach is thus based on interdisciplinary applied sciences including heat transfer, computational fluid dynamics, materials science, engineering mechanics, and material fracture mechanics. The sub-models are based on existing models with further development. The results from modeling have been validated with critical experiments. The systematic modeling approach has been used to design high fatigue resistant welds considering the combined effects of weld bead geometry, residual stress, microstructure, and material property. In particular, a special welding wire has been developed in this project to introduce

  12. Analysis of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Their Functional Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    The world's demand for energy is increasing dramatically, but the best energy conversion systems operate at approximately 30% efficiency. One way to decrease energy loss is in the recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. A TE generator is device that generates electricity by exploiting heat flow across a thermal gradient. The efficiency of a TE material for power generation and cooling is determined by the dimensionless Figure of Merit (ZT): ZT = S(exp. 2)sigmaT/?: where S is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature, and ? is the thermal conductivity. The parameters are not physically independent, but intrinsically coupled since they are a function of the transport properties of electrons. Traditional research on TE materials has focused on synthesizing bulk semiconductor-type materials that have low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity affording ZT values of 1. The optimization of the s/? ratio is difficult to achieve using current material formats, as these material constants are complementary. Recent areas of research are focusing on using nanostructural artifacts that introduce specific dislocations and boundary conditions that scatter the phonons. This disrupts the physical link between thermal (phonon) and electrical (electron) transport. The result is that ? is decreased without decreasing s. These material formats give ZT values of up to 2 which represent approximately 18% energy gain from waste heat recovery. The next challenge in developing the next generation of TE materials with superior performance is to tailor the interconnected thermoelectric physical parameters of the material system. In order to approach this problem, the fundamental physics of each parameter S, sigma, and ? need to be physically understood in their context of electron/phonon interaction for the construction of new high ZT thermoelectric devices. Is it possible to overcome the physical limit

  13. Novel Super-Elastic Materials for Advanced Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Tribological surfaces of mechanical components encounter harsh conditions in terrestrial, marine and aerospace environments. Brinell denting, abrasive wear and fatigue often lead to life-limiting bearing and gear failures. Novel superelastic materials based upon Ni-Ti alloys are an emerging solution. Ni-Ti alloys are intermetallic materials that possess characteristics of both metals and ceramics. Ni-Ti alloys have intrinsically good aqueous corrosion resistance (they cannot rust), high hardness, relatively low elastic modulus, are chemically inert and readily lubricated. Ni-Ti alloys also belong to the family of superelastics and, despite high hardness, are able to withstand large strains without suffering permanent plastic deformation. In this paper, the use of hard, resilient Ni-Ti alloys for corrosion-proof, shockproof bearing and gear applications are presented. Through a series of bearing and gear development projects, it is demonstrated that Ni-Tis unique blend of materials properties lead to significantly improved load capacity, reduced weight and intrinsic corrosion resistance not found in any other bearing materials. Ni-Ti thus represents a new materials solution to demanding tribological applications.

  14. Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate materials when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. Past work has demonstrated that the spectral shift that X-ray beams undergo in traversing an object can be used to detect and quantify nuclear materials. The technique uses a spectrally sensitive detector and an inverse algorithm that varies the composition of the object until the X-ray spectrum predicted by X-ray transport matches the one measured. Here we show that this approach can be adapted to multi-mode radiography, with energy integrating detectors, and that the Cramér-Rao lower bound can be used to choose an optimal set of inspection modes a priori. We consider multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone, or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) sources. We show that for an optimal mode choice, the algorithm can improve discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically between tungsten and plutonium, and estimate plutonium mass within a simulated nuclear material storage system to within 1%.

  15. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  16. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John

    2014-04-24

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  17. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Carpenter, John

    2016-07-12

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  18. Recent Advances in Self-Oscillating Polymer Material Systems.

    PubMed

    Tamate, Ryota; Mizutani Akimoto, Aya; Yoshida, Ryo

    2016-08-01

    In 1996, we first reported self-oscillating polymer gels exhibiting autonomous swelling-deswelling oscillations driven by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. In contrast to conventional stimuli-responsive gels, the self-oscillating gel can autonomously and periodically change its volume in a closed solution without any external stimuli. Since the first report, the novel concept of self-oscillating gels has been expanded into various polymer and gel systems. Herein, we summarize recent advances in self-oscillating polymers and gels. PMID:27265869

  19. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Advanced Materials for Damage Prediction and Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Luke

    Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites, are increasingly being used in critical and demanding applications, challenging the current damage prediction, detection, and quantification methodologies. Multiscale computational models offer key advantages over traditional analysis techniques and can provide the necessary capabilities for the development of a comprehensive virtual structural health monitoring (SHM) framework. Virtual SHM has the potential to drastically improve the design and analysis of aerospace components through coupling the complementary capabilities of models able to predict the initiation and propagation of damage under a wide range of loading and environmental scenarios, simulate interrogation methods for damage detection and quantification, and assess the health of a structure. A major component of the virtual SHM framework involves having micromechanics-based multiscale composite models that can provide the elastic, inelastic, and damage behavior of composite material systems under mechanical and thermal loading conditions and in the presence of microstructural complexity and variability. Quantification of the role geometric and architectural variability in the composite microstructure plays in the local and global composite behavior is essential to the development of appropriate scale-dependent unit cells and boundary conditions for the multiscale model. Once the composite behavior is predicted and variability effects assessed, wave-based SHM simulation models serve to provide knowledge on the probability of detection and characterization accuracy of damage present in the composite. The research presented in this dissertation provides the foundation for a comprehensive SHM framework for advanced aerospace materials. The developed models enhance the prediction of damage formation as a result of ceramic matrix composite processing, improve the understanding of the effects of architectural and

  1. Advanced materials development for multi-junction monolithic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.R.; Reno, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    We report results in three areas of research relevant to the fabrication of monolithic multi-junction photovoltaic devices. (1) The use of compliant intervening layers grown between highly mismatched materials, GaAs and GaP (same lattice constant as Si), is shown to increase the structural quality of the GaAs overgrowth. (2) The use of digital alloys applied to the MBE growth of GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub l-x} (a candidate material for a two junction solar cell) provides increased control of the alloy composition without degrading the optical properties. (3) A nitrogen plasma discharge is shown to be an excellent p-type doping source for CdTe and ZnTe, both of which are candidate materials for a two junction solar cell.

  2. Recent Advances and Developments in Composite Dental Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, N.B.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Composite dental restorations represent a unique class of biomaterials with severe restrictions on biocompatibility, curing behavior, esthetics, and ultimate material properties. These materials are presently limited by shrinkage and polymerization-induced shrinkage stress, limited toughness, the presence of unreacted monomer that remains following the polymerization, and several other factors. Fortunately, these materials have been the focus of a great deal of research in recent years with the goal of improving restoration performance by changing the initiation system, monomers, and fillers and their coupling agents, and by developing novel polymerization strategies. Here, we review the general characteristics of the polymerization reaction and recent approaches that have been taken to improve composite restorative performance. PMID:20924063

  3. Recent advances and developments in composite dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cramer, N B; Stansbury, J W; Bowman, C N

    2011-04-01

    Composite dental restorations represent a unique class of biomaterials with severe restrictions on biocompatibility, curing behavior, esthetics, and ultimate material properties. These materials are presently limited by shrinkage and polymerization-induced shrinkage stress, limited toughness, the presence of unreacted monomer that remains following the polymerization, and several other factors. Fortunately, these materials have been the focus of a great deal of research in recent years with the goal of improving restoration performance by changing the initiation system, monomers, and fillers and their coupling agents, and by developing novel polymerization strategies. Here, we review the general characteristics of the polymerization reaction and recent approaches that have been taken to improve composite restorative performance. PMID:20924063

  4. Advanced Strain-Isolation-Pad Material with Bonded Fibrous Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibold, R. W.; Saito, C. A.; Buller, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing air lay and liquid lay felt deposition techniques to fabricate strain isolation pad (SIP) materials for the Space Shuttle Orbiter was demonstrated. These materials were developed as candidate replacements for the present needled felt SIP used between the ceramic tiles and the aluminum skin on the undersurface of the Orbiter. The SIP materials that were developed consisted of high temperature aramid fibers deposited by controlled fluid (air or liquid) carriers to form low density unbonded felts. The deposited felts were then bonded at the fiber intersections with a small amount of high temperature polyimide resin. This type of bonded felt construction can potentially eliminate two of the problems associated with the present SIP, viz., transmittal of localized stresses into the tiles and load history dependent mechanical response. However, further work is needed to achieve adequate through thickness tensile strength in the bonded felts.

  5. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  6. Advances in Organic Near-Infrared Materials and Emerging Applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Qiao, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the field of research on organic near-infrared materials for potential applications in photonics, communications, energy, and biophotonics. This account mainly describes our research work on organic near-infrared materials; in particular, donor-acceptor small molecules, organometallics, and donor-acceptor polymers with the bandgaps less than 1.2 eV. The molecular designs, structure-property relationships, unique near-infrared absorption, emission and color/wavelength-changing properties, and some emerging applications are discussed.

  7. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers.

  8. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers. PMID:23674920

  9. Advances in optical property measurements of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the instruments and experimental approaches, used for measuring the optical properties of thermal control systems, are presented. The instruments' use in studies concerning the effects of combined contaminants and space environment on these materials, and in the qualification of hardware for spacecraft, are described. Instruments for measuring the solar absorptance and infrared emittance offer improved speed, accuracy and data handling. A transient method for directly measuring material infrared emittance is described. It is shown that oxygen exposure before measuring the solar absorptance should be avoided.

  10. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Solomon, N. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Forty-one material systems were evaluated for potential use in turbine blade tip seal applications at 1370 C. Both ceramic blade tip inserts and abradable ceramic tip shoes were tested. Hot gas erosion, impact resistance, thermal stability, and dynamic rub performance were the criteria used in rating the various materials. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride were used, both as blade tips and abradables. The blade tip inserts were fabricated by hot pressing while low density and honeycomb abradables were sintered or reaction bonded.

  11. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  12. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    SciTech Connect

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Emphasis is placed on life characterization based on low cycle fatigue under isothermal conditions and thermomechanical fatigue. Microstructure of failed coated and uncoated specimens is being analyzed. IN 738 LC is the material; the coating is either overlay (NiCoCrAly) or NiAl-based aluminide.

  13. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  14. Recent advances in ionic polymer conductor composite materials as distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, and artificial muscles (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in ionic polymer conductor composites (IPCC) and ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) as biomimetic distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanotransducers and artificial muscles are briefly discussed in this paper. These advances include brief reproduction of some of these advances that appeared in a new book and a recent set of 4 review articles published in the International Journal of Smart Materials and Structures, advances in manufacturing, force optimization, modeling and simulation and new products developed by Environmental Robots Incorporated, as well as numerous potential applications using Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC's) as distributed nanosensors, nanotransducers, nanoactuators and artificial muscles. It is certainly clear that the extent of applications of IPCC's and IPMC's go beyond the scope of this paper or the space allocated to this paper. However, this paper will present the breadth and the depth of all such applications of IPCC's and IPMC's as biomimetic robotic distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanotransducers and artificial/synthetic muscles.

  15. Characterization and Application of Colloidal Nanocrystalline Materials for Advanced Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Khagendra P.

    Solar energy is Earth's primary source of renewable energy and photovoltaic solar cells enable the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. Crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have dominated photovoltaic technology from the beginning and they now constitute more than 90% of the PV market. Thin film (CdTe and CIGS) solar cells and modules come in second position in market share. Some organic, dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells are emerging in the market but are not yet in full commercial scale. Solar cells made from colloidal nanocrystalline materials may eventually provide both low cost and high efficiency because of their promising properties such as high absorption coefficient, size tunable band gap, and quantum confinement effect. It is also expected that the greenhouse gas emission and energy payback time from nanocrystalline solar PV systems will also be least compared to all other types of PV systems mainly due to the least embodied energy throughout their life time. The two well-known junction architectures for the fabrication of quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are the Schottky junction and heterojunction. In Schottky junction cells, a heteropartner semiconducting material is not required. A low work function metal is used as the back contact, a transparent conducting layer is used as the front contact, and the layer of electronically-coupled quantum dots is placed between these two materials. Schottky junction solar cells explain the usefulness of nanocrystalline materials for high efficiency heterojunction solar cells. For heterojunction devices, n-type semiconducting materials such as ZnO , CdS or TiO2 have been used as suitable heteropartners. Here, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated using ZnO and CdS semiconductor films as window layers. Both of the heteropartners are sputter-deposited onto TCO coated glass substrates; ZnO was deposited with the substrate held at room temperature and for CdS the substrate was at 250

  16. Advances in joining newer structural materials; Proceedings of the International Conference, Montreal, Canada, July 23-25, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on advances in joining novel structural materials encompasses such material types as ceramics, plastics and composites, and new metallic materials. Specific issues addressed include the use of conductor electric explosion to join ceramics, the effects of brazing temperature on joint properties of SiC-fiber-reinforced Al-alloy-matrix composites, the in situ structure control of composite materials, and the weldability of polymeric materials that are heterogeneous as to chemical nature from the standpoint of morphology. Also addressed are the joining of the Al-Li alloy 8090, diffusion bonding of a creep-resistant Fe-ODS alloy, the adhesive bonding of zinc-coated steel sheets, welds in thermoplastic composite materials, and hot-melt joints for carbon-fiber-reinforced composites.

  17. Material Innovation in Advancing Organometal Halide Perovskite Functionality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Saldana-Greco, Diomedes; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have garnered much attention recently for their unprecedented rate of increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE), positioning them as a promising basis for the next-generation photovoltaic devices. However, the gap between the rapid increasing PCE and the incomplete understanding of the structure-property-performance relationship prevents the realization of the true potential of OMHPs. This Perspective aims to provide a concise overview of the current status of OMHP research, highlighting the unique properties of OMHPs that are critical for solar applications but still not adequately explained. Stability and performance challenges of OMHP solar cells are discussed, calling upon combined experimental and theoretical efforts to address these challenges for pioneering commercialization of OMHP solar cells. Various material innovation strategies for improving the performance and stability of OMHPs are surveyed, showing that the OMHP architecture can serve as a promising and robust platform for the design and optimization of materials with desired functionalities.

  18. Material Innovation in Advancing Organometal Halide Perovskite Functionality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Saldana-Greco, Diomedes; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have garnered much attention recently for their unprecedented rate of increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE), positioning them as a promising basis for the next-generation photovoltaic devices. However, the gap between the rapid increasing PCE and the incomplete understanding of the structure-property-performance relationship prevents the realization of the true potential of OMHPs. This Perspective aims to provide a concise overview of the current status of OMHP research, highlighting the unique properties of OMHPs that are critical for solar applications but still not adequately explained. Stability and performance challenges of OMHP solar cells are discussed, calling upon combined experimental and theoretical efforts to address these challenges for pioneering commercialization of OMHP solar cells. Various material innovation strategies for improving the performance and stability of OMHPs are surveyed, showing that the OMHP architecture can serve as a promising and robust platform for the design and optimization of materials with desired functionalities. PMID:26631361

  19. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  20. Gravitational Effects on Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Thorne, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion Synthesis (self-Propagating high-temperature synthesis-(SHS)) of porous Ti-TiB(x), composite materials has been studied with respect to the sensitivity to the SHS reaction parameters of stoichiometry, green density, gasifying agents, ambient pressure, diluents and gravity. The main objective of this research program is to engineer the required porosity and mechanical properties into the composite materials to meet the requirements of a consumer, such as for the application of bone replacement materials. Gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during SHS reaction. As a result, gravitational forces affect the microstructure and properties of the SHS products. Reacting these SHS systems in low gravity in the KC-135 aircraft has extended the ability to form porous products. This paper will emphasize the effects of gravity (low g, 1g and 2g) on the SHS reaction process, and the microstructure and properties of the porous composite. Some of biomedical results are also discussed.

  1. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  2. Advances in Materials Research: An Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, Elizabeth A.; Roberson, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    My time at Kennedy Space Center. was spent immersing myself in research performed in the Materials Science Division of the Engineering Directorate. My Chemical Engineering background provided me the ability to assist in many different projects ranging from tensile testing of composite materials to making tape via an extrusion process. However, I spent the majority of my time on the following three projects: (1) testing three different materials to determine antimicrobial properties; (2) fabricating and analyzing hydrogen sensing tapes that were placed at the launch pad for STS-133 launch; and (3) researching molten regolith electrolysis at KSC to prepare me for my summer internship at MSFC on a closely related topic. This paper aims to explain, in detail, what I have learned about these three main projects. It will explain why this research is happening and what we are currently doing to resolve the issues. This paper will also explain how the hard work and experiences that I have gained as an intern have provided me with the next big step towards my career at NASA.

  3. The demand for advanced materials in the automotive industry: Projections for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Graham, Jon

    1996-03-01

    We provide early results of an ongoing study to forecast the market for advanced high strength-to-weight materials in the U.S. automotive industry based on three supporting tasks. The first is a systematic case study of material substitution which emphasizes the application of advanced composite materials and aluminum alloys. This is accomplished by using a minimization model that considers the economic and engineering factors involved in materials substitution for one specific automobile model and is the focus of this paper. The second task will be to predict the weight reduction that would be required for each car type in the domestic fleet to meet post 2000 fuel efficiency requirements. This task will be accomplished using an analytical model of the domestic automobile fleet. The third task involves projections on the size and composition of the eventual market for advanced composite materials and aluminum alloys. This task will be performed using the results of the analytical model and the case study to project graphite fiber, fiberglass, and aluminum alloy use. The result will provide an estimate of the quantity of advanced materials that would be used by the U.S. automobile industry in the time period after 2000 as a function of technology, automobile performance standards and the costs of advanced composites, aluminum alloys, and other materials used in automobile manufacturing. As a follow-on to the subject study, ECON is examining specific market opportunities in this area for private industry clients.

  4. Advanced materials for next generation NiMH portable, HEV and EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Dhar, S.K.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Corrigan, D.A.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Gifford, P.; Koch, J.

    1998-07-01

    While Ovonic NiMH batteries are already in high volume commercial production for portable applications, advances in materials technology have enabled performance improvements in specific energy (100 Wh/kg), specific power (600-1000 W/kg), high temperature operation, charge retention, and voltage stability. Concurrent with technology advances, Ovonic NiMH batteries have established performance and commercial milestones in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as scooter, motorcycle and bicycle applications. As important as these advances, significant manufacturing cost reductions have also occurred which allow continued growth of NiMH technology. In this paper, advances in performance, applications and cost reduction are discussed with particular emphasis on the improved proprietary metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials that make such advances possible.

  5. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.

  6. Microwave Processing for Advance Electro-Optic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2000-06-01

    This project addressed the technical and scientific goals of developing new methods for the formation of striation-free single crystals of potassium tantalate niobate. This solid-solution system has the potential for serving as a general electro-optic material with a wide range of optical applications. The performance of the material is, however, severely limited by the effects of compositional inhomogeneity that is generally induced during the single crystal growth process due to the nature of the binary phase diagram of the mixed tantalatehiobate system. Single-crystal boules of potassium tantalate niobate (KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} or KTN) with varying tantalum-to-niobium ratios (or values of x) were grown under a variety of experimental conditions. The resulting single crystals were characterized in terms of their compositional homogeneity and optical quality. Single crystals were grown using both the most-favorable established set of growth parameters as well as in the presence of programmed oscillatory temperature variations. The purpose of these deliberately induced variations was to introduce controlled compositional variations and associated optical striations in the solid-solution single crystals. The overall objective of the effort was to utilize microwave heating and processing methods to treat the inhomogeneous single crystals for the purpose of eliminating the compositional variations that lead to striations and the associated varying changes in the refractive index of the material. In order to realize the ultimate goal of the effort, it was necessary to develop methods that would lead to the effective coupling of the microwave field to the KTN single crystals. Achieving the technical and commercial goals of this effort would have made it possible to introduce an important new electro-optic product into the market place, to improve our fundamental understanding of solid-state diffusion processes in general (and of microwave-assisted thermal

  7. Compatibility of molten salts with advanced solar dynamic receiver materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Perry, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Metal-coated graphite fibers are being considered as a thermal conductivity enhancement filler material for molten salts in solar dynamic thermal energy storage systems. The successful metal coating chosen for this application must exhibit acceptable wettability and must be compatible with the molten salt environment. Contact angle values between molten lithium fluoride and several metal, metal fluoride, and metal oxide substrates have been determined at 892 C using a modification of the Wilhelmy plate technique. Reproducible contact angles with repeated exposure to the molten LiF indicated compatibility.

  8. Cost - The challenge for advanced materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.; Freeman, William T., Jr.; Siddiqi, Shahid

    1992-01-01

    Information is presented on the cost of various aircraft structures, together with methods for predicting and reducing cost. The need for the development of cost models, and of a comparative cost algorithm which could function as an engineering design tool to evaluate different design concepts, is emphasized. Efforts are underway to develop cost models that establish building-block unit cell elements that represent different material forms, geometric shapes, fabrication processes, and methods of assembly, with the purpose of expressing cost per pound or labor per pound data, with physical design and manufacture variables that a designer can visualize.

  9. Nonlinear mechanical behavior of thermoplastic matrix materials for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent theories of nonlinear mechanical response are quantitatively compared and related to experimental data. Computer techniques are formulated to handle the numerical integration and iterative procedures needed to solve the associated sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Problems encountered during these formulations are discussed and some open questions described. Bearing in mind these cautions, the consequences of changing parameters that appear in the formulations on the resulting engineering properties are discussed. Hence, engineering approaches to the analysis of thermoplastic matrix material can be suggested.

  10. Advances in materials for room temperature hydrogen sensors.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Krishnan, Subramanian; Silva, Hayde; Jean, Sheila; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2012-06-21

    Hydrogen (H(2)), as a source of energy, continues to be a compelling choice in applications ranging from fuel cells and propulsion systems to feedstock for chemical, metallurgical and other industrial processes. H(2), being a clean, reliable, and affordable source, is finding ever increasing use in distributed electric power generation and H(2) fuelled cars. Although still under 0.1%, the distributed use of H(2) is the fastest growing area. In distributed H(2) storage, distribution, and consumption, safety continues to be a critical aspect. Affordable safety systems for distributed H(2) applications are critical for the H(2) economy to take hold. Advances in H(2) sensors are driven by specificity, reliability, repeatability, stability, cost, size, response time, recovery time, operating temperature, humidity range, and power consumption. Ambient temperature sensors for H(2) detection are increasingly being explored as they offer specificity, stability and robustness of high temperature sensors with lower operational costs and significantly longer operational lifetimes. This review summarizes and highlights recent developments in room temperature H(2) sensors.

  11. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furstenau, R.V.; Ingrahm, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA and is owned and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The ATR is operated for the US DOE by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies. In recent years, prime irradiation space in the ATR has been made available for use by customers having irradiation service needs in addition to the reactor`s principal user, the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. To enhance the reactor`s capabilities, the US DOE has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and temperature control for up to 28 experiments. The ATR-ITV will have the flexibility to simultaneously support a variety of experiments requiring fast, thermal or mixed spectrum neutron environments. Temperature control is accomplished by varying the thermal conductivity across a gas gap established between the experiment specimen capsule wall and the experiment `in-pile tube (IPT)` inside diameter. Thermal conductivity is adjusted by alternating the control gas mixture ratio of two gases with different thermal conductivities.

  12. Effects on advanced materials: results of the STS-8 EOIM (effects of oxygen interaction with materials) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meshishnek, M.J.; Stuckey, W.K.; Evangelides, J.S.; Feldman, L.A.; Peterson, R.V.

    1987-07-20

    A variety of materials were exposed to the low-Earth-orbit space environment on shuttle flight STS-8 as a part of NASA's Effects of Oxygen Atoms Interaction with Materials experiment. These materials include carbon and graphites, optical materials, organic and metal films, Kevlar and fiberglass fabric, and high-temperature coatings. The effects noted on these materials included oxidative erosion of the carbon and graphite, loss of tensile strength for the Kevlar fabric, erosion and oxidation of organic films, partial oxidation of infrared optical materials, and loss of reflectance for the high-temperature coatings.

  13. Application of advanced material systems to composite frame elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorente, Steven; Minguet, Pierre; Fay, Russell; Medwin, Steven

    1992-01-01

    A three phase program has been conducted to investigate DuPont's Long Discontinuous Fiber (LDF) composites. Additional tests were conducted to compare LDF composites against toughened thermosets and a baseline thermoset system. Results have shown that the LDF AS4/PEKK offers improved interlaminar (flange bending) strength with little reduction in mechanical properties due to the discontinuous nature of the fibers. In the third phase, a series of AS4/PEKK LDF C-section curved frames (representing a typical rotorcraft light frame) were designed, manufactured and tested. Specimen reconsolidation after 'stretch forming' and frame thickness were found to be key factors in this light frame's performance. A finite element model was constructed to correlate frame test results with expected strain levels determined from material property tests. Adequately reconsolidated frames performed well and failed at strain levels at or above baseline thermoset material test strains. Finally a cost study was conducted which has shown that the use of LDF for this frame would result in a significant cost savings, for moderate to large lot sizes compared with the hand lay-up of a thermoset frame.

  14. Advanced aerospace composite material structural design using artificial intelligent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.H.; Chen, J.L.; Hwang, W.C.

    1993-12-31

    Due to the complexity in the prediction of property and behavior, composite material has not substituted for metal widely yet, though it has high specific-strength and high specific-modulus that are more important in the aerospace industry. In this paper two artificial intelligent techniques, the expert systems and neural network technology, were introduced to the structural design of composite material. Expert System which has good ability in symbolic processing can helps us to solve problem by saving experience and knowledge. It is, therefore, a reasonable way to combine expert system technology to tile composite structural design. The development of a prototype expert system to help designer during the process of composite structural design is presented. Neural network is a network similar to people`s brain that can simulate the thinking way of people and has the ability of learning from the training data by adapting the weights of network. Because of the bottleneck in knowledge acquisition processes, the application of neural network and its learning ability to strength design of composite structures are presented. Some examples are in this paper to demonstrate the idea.

  15. Joining advanced materials into hybrid structures using pressurized combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Messler, R.W. Jr.; Orling, T.T.

    1994-12-31

    Demanding design requirements frequently call for the use and joining of combinations of oxide and nonoxide ceramics, intermetallics, and metals in virtually every imaginable combination in both monolithic and reinforced forms, resulting in hybrid structures. Such new, nontraditional materials and structures can be expected to require new, nontraditional joining processes. One attractive, but embryonic option, is pressurized combustion synthesis, a form of exothermic welding or brazing. Pressurized combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) joining is being systematically studied to understand the mechanism(s) of joint formation, understand the role of processing parameters, evaluate and optimize joint properties, and develop a process model for use in joint design, parameter selection, property prediction, and intelligent process control. This paper presents the results of a study on a model system of 3Ni + Al > Ni{sub 3}Al filler or intermediate between nickel-base superalloy end elements. A Gleeble thermal-mechanical simulator was used to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, hold time, applied pressure, reactant composition, and heating rate, and good insight has been gained to enable more intensive studies of process fundamentals and of techniques for producing more complex, functional gradient material (FGM) joints between dissimilar combinations of ceramics, intermetallics and metals.

  16. Traditional Materials and Techniques Used as Instructional Devices in an Advanced Business Spanish Conversation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivieso, Jorge

    Spanish language training at the Thunderbird Graduate School of International Management is discussed, focusing on the instructional materials and classroom techniques used in advanced Spanish conversation classes. While traditional materials (dialogues, dictation, literature, mass media, video- and audiotapes) and learning activities (recitation,…

  17. Test methodology for elemental sulfur resistant advanced materials for oil and gas field equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbeck, G.; Bruckhoff, W.; Koehler, M.; Schlerkmann, H.; Schmitt, G.

    1995-10-01

    The great variety of methodologies for testing the performance of advanced materials for resistance to elemental sulfur in oil and gas industry prompted the Technical Committee for Corrosion of the German Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) to define recommended test procedures. These procedures have already found wide acceptance in the German materials and oil and gas industry.

  18. Advanced Materials and Processing for Drug Delivery: The Past and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery. PMID:23088863

  19. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  20. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  1. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery.

  2. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  3. Advanced Material Developments with Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn A.; Cooper, Ken; McGill, Preston; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(Trademark)) process is a new technology to fabricate three-dimensional metallic components directly from CAD solid models. It directly fabricates metal hardware by injecting the metal powder of choice into the focal point of a 700W Nd:Yag laser as it traces the perimeter and fills of a part. The Rapid Prototype Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center is currently operating a OPTOMEC 750 LENS machine in evaluation experiments involving integration of this technology into various manufacturing processes associated with aerospace applications. This paper will cover our research finding about properties of samples created from Inconel 718 & SS316 using this process versus the same materials in cast & wrought conditions.

  4. Irradiation creep of candidate materials for advanced nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Hoffelner, W.

    2013-10-01

    In the present paper, irradiation creep results of an intermetallic TiAl alloy and two ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are summarized. In situ irradiation creep measurements were performed using homogeneous implantation with α- and p-particles to maximum doses of 0.8 dpa at displacement damage rates of 2-8 × 10-6 dpa/s. The strains of miniaturized flat dog-bone specimens were monitored under uniaxial tensile stresses ranging from 20 to 400 MPa at temperatures of 573, 673 and 773 K, respectively. The effects of material composition, ODS particle size, and bombarding particle on the irradiation creep compliance was studied and results are compared to literature data. Evolution of microstructure during helium implantation was investigated in detail by TEM and is discussed with respect to irradiation creep models.

  5. Reliability assessment in advanced nanocomposite materials for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Jérôme; Taddei, Paola; Gremillard, Laurent; Deville, Sylvain; Fantozzi, Gilbert; Bartolomé, J F; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S; Diaz, L A; Torrecillas, R; Affatato, Saverio

    2011-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia nano-composites were recently developed as alternative bearing materials for orthopedics. Previous, preliminary reports show that such alumina-zirconia nanocomposites exhibit high crack resistance and low wear rate. In this paper, additional information is given in terms of wear, crack resistance and ageing behaviour: femoral heads are inspected after 7 million cycles of wear testing on a hip simulator, crack resistance is measured and compared to other ceramics used today in orthopedics, slow crack growth is reported under static and cyclic fatigue, and aging resistance is assessed. We also report on the load to failure of femoral heads prototypes during compression tests. This overall reliability assessment ensures a potential future development for these kinds of new nanocomposites in the orthopedic field.

  6. Advances in optical materials for large aperture lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stokowski, S.E.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Marchi, F.T.; Swain, J.E.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1981-12-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using large aperture Nd: glass lasers to investigate the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion. In our experiments high power laser light is focussed onto a small (100 to 500 micron) target containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture. During the short (1 to 5 ns) laser pulse the fuel is compressed and heated, resulting in fusion reactions. The generation and control of the powerful laser pulses for these experiments is a challenging scientific and engineering task, which requires the development of new optical materials, fabrication techniques, and coatings. LLNL with the considerable cooperation and support from the optical industry, where most of the research and development and almost all the manufacturing is done, has successfully applied several new developments in these areas.

  7. Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Han, Mengdi; Ou, Dapeng; Liu, Yuhao; Lin, Qing; Guo, Xuelin; Fu, Haoran; Xie, Zhaoqian; Gao, Mingye; Huang, Yuming; Kim, JungHwan; Qiu, Yitao; Nan, Kewang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Gutruf, Philipp; Luo, Hongying; Zhao, An; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Capabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality (Q) factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts. PMID:27679820

  8. Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Fei; Han, Mengdi; Ou, Dapeng; Liu, Yuhao; Lin, Qing; Guo, Xuelin; Fu, Haoran; Xie, Zhaoqian; Gao, Mingye; Huang, Yuming; Kim, JungHwan; Qiu, Yitao; Nan, Kewang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Gutruf, Philipp; Luo, Hongying; Zhao, An; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Capabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality (Q) factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts.

  9. Advanced Materials for RSOFC Dual Operation with Low Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eric, Tang; Tony, Wood; Sofiane, Benhaddad; Casey, Brown; Hongpeng, He; Jeff, Nelson; Oliver, Grande; Ben, Nuttall; Mark, Richards; Randy, Petri

    2012-12-27

    Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs) are energy conversion devices. They are capable of operating in both power generation mode (SOFC) and electrolysis modes (SOEC). RSOFC can integrate renewable production of electricity and hydrogen when power generation and steam electrolysis are coupled in a system, which can turn intermittent solar and wind energy into "firm power." In this DOE EERE project, VPS continuously advanced RSOFC cell stack technology in the areas of endurance and performance. Over 20 types of RSOFC cells were developed in the project. Many of those exceeded performance (area specific resistance less than 300 mohmcm2) and endurance (degradation rate less than 4% per 1000 hours) targets in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes at 750C. One of those cells, RSOFC-7, further demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Ultra high current electrolysis over 3 A/cm2 at 75% water electrolysis efficiency voltage of 1.67 V. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of over 600 days with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Over 6000 SOFC/SOEC cycles in an accelerated 20-minute cycling with degradation less than 3% per 1000 cycles. In RSOFC stack development, a number of kW-class RSOFC stacks were developed and demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis operation of over 5000 hours. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of 100 cycles. Scale up capability of using large area cells with 550 cm2 active area showing the potential for large-scale RSOFC stack development in the future. Although this project is an open-ended development project, this effort, leveraging Versa Power Systems' years of development experience, has the potential to bring renewable energy RSOFC storage systems significantly closer to commercial viability through improvements in RSOFC durability, performance, and cost. When unitized and deployed in renewable solar and wind installations, an RSOFC system can enable higher availability for

  10. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  11. Advanced Density Functional Theory Methods for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Steven

    In this work we chiefly deal with two broad classes of problems in computational materials science, determining the doping mechanism in a semiconductor and developing an extreme condition equation of state. While solving certain aspects of these questions is well-trodden ground, both require extending the reach of existing methods to fully answer them. Here we choose to build upon the framework of density functional theory (DFT) which provides an efficient means to investigate a system from a quantum mechanics description. Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2) could be the basis for cheap and highly efficient solar cells. Its use in this regard is limited by the difficulty in n-type doping the material. In an effort to understand the mechanism behind this, the energetics and electronic structure of intrinsic point defects in zinc phosphide are studied using generalized Kohn-Sham theory and utilizing the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional for exchange and correlation. Novel 'perturbation extrapolation' is utilized to extend the use of the computationally expensive HSE functional to this large-scale defect system. According to calculations, the formation energy of charged phosphorus interstitial defects are very low in n-type Zn3P2 and act as 'electron sinks', nullifying the desired doping and lowering the fermi-level back towards the p-type regime. Going forward, this insight provides clues to fabricating useful zinc phosphide based devices. In addition, the methodology developed for this work can be applied to further doping studies in other systems. Accurate determination of high pressure and temperature equations of state is fundamental in a variety of fields. However, it is often very difficult to cover a wide range of temperatures and pressures in an laboratory setting. Here we develop methods to determine a multi-phase equation of state for Ta through computation. The typical means of investigating thermodynamic properties is via 'classical' molecular

  12. Advanced materials based on carbon nanotube arrays, yarns and papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Phlip David

    Carbon nanotubes have hundreds of potential applications but require innovative processing techniques to manipulate the microscopic carbon dust into useful devices and products. This thesis describes efforts to process carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using novel methods with the goals of: (1) improving the properties of energy absorbing and composite carbon nanotube materials and (2) increasing understanding of fundamental structure-property relationships within these materials. Millimeter long CNTs, in the form of arrays, yarns and papers, were used to produce energy absorbing foams and high volume fraction CNT composites. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were grown on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ethylene gas over iron nano-particles. The low density, millimeter thick arrays were tested under compression as energy absorbing foams. With additional CVD processing steps, it was possible to tune the compressive properties of the arrays. After the longest treatment, the compressive strength of the arrays was increased by a factor of 35 with a density increase of only six fold, while also imparting recovery from compression to the array. Microscopy revealed that the post-synthesis CVD treatment increased the number of CNT walls through an epitaxial type radial growth on the surface of the as-grown tubes. The increase in tube radius and mutual support between nanotubes explained the increases in compressive strength while an increase in nanotube roughness was proposed as the morphological change responsible for recovery in the array. Carbon nanotube yarns were used as the raw material for macroscopic textile preforms with a multi-level hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) structure: nanotubes, bundles, spun single yarns, plied yarns and 3-D braids. In prior tensile tests, composites produced from the 3-D braids exhibited unusual mechanical behavior effects. The proposed physical hypotheses explained those effects by molecular level interactions and

  13. Evaluation of advanced materials through experimental mechanics and modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Yii-Ching

    1993-01-01

    Composite materials have been frequently used in aerospace vehicles. Very often defects are inherited during the manufacture and damages are inherited during the construction and services. It becomes critical to understand the mechanical behavior of such composite structure before it can be further used. One good example of these composite structures is the cylindrical bottle of solid rocket motor case with accidental impact damages. Since the replacement of this cylindrical bottle is expensive, it is valuable to know how the damages affects the material, and how it can be repaired. To reach this goal, the damage must be characterized and the stress/strain field must be carefully analyzed. First the damage area, due to impact, is surveyed and identified with a shearography technique which uses the principle of speckle shearing interferometry to measure displacement gradient. Within the damage area of a composite laminate, such as the bottle of solid rocket motor case, all layers are considered to be degraded. Once a lamina being degraded the stiffness as well as strength will be drastically decreased. It becomes a critical area of failure to the whole bottle. And hence the stress/strain field within and around a damage should be accurately evaluated for failure prediction. To investigate the stress/strain field around damages a Hybrid-Numerical method which combines experimental measurement and finite element analysis is used. It is known the stress or strain at the singular point can not be accurately measured by an experimental technique. Nevertheless, if the location is far away from the singular spot, the displacement can be found accurately. Since it reflects the true displacement field locally regardless of the boundary conditions, it is an excellent input data for a finite element analysis to replace the usually assumed boundary conditions. Therefore, the Hybrid-Numerical method is chosen to avoid the difficulty and to take advantage of both experimental

  14. Evaluation of advanced materials through experimental mechanics and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yii-Ching

    1993-11-01

    Composite materials have been frequently used in aerospace vehicles. Very often defects are inherited during the manufacture and damages are inherited during the construction and services. It becomes critical to understand the mechanical behavior of such composite structure before it can be further used. One good example of these composite structures is the cylindrical bottle of solid rocket motor case with accidental impact damages. Since the replacement of this cylindrical bottle is expensive, it is valuable to know how the damages affects the material, and how it can be repaired. To reach this goal, the damage must be characterized and the stress/strain field must be carefully analyzed. First the damage area, due to impact, is surveyed and identified with a shearography technique which uses the principle of speckle shearing interferometry to measure displacement gradient. Within the damage area of a composite laminate, such as the bottle of solid rocket motor case, all layers are considered to be degraded. Once a lamina being degraded the stiffness as well as strength will be drastically decreased. It becomes a critical area of failure to the whole bottle. And hence the stress/strain field within and around a damage should be accurately evaluated for failure prediction. To investigate the stress/strain field around damages a Hybrid-Numerical method which combines experimental measurement and finite element analysis is used. It is known the stress or strain at the singular point can not be accurately measured by an experimental technique. Nevertheless, if the location is far away from the singular spot, the displacement can be found accurately. Since it reflects the true displacement field locally regardless of the boundary conditions, it is an excellent input data for a finite element analysis to replace the usually assumed boundary conditions. Therefore, the Hybrid-Numerical method is chosen to avoid the difficulty and to take advantage of both experimental

  15. Electron beam melting of advanced materials and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahale, Tushar Ramkrishna

    Layered manufacturing has for long been used for the fabrication of non-functional parts using polymer-based processes. Developments in laser beam and electron beam welding technologies and their adoption to layered manufacturing has made it possible to fabricate high-density functional parts in metal irrespective of the level of complexity. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process by Arcam AB is one such layered manufacturing process that utilizes a focused electron beam to process metal powder, layer by layer, in a vacuum environment. Research conducted as part of this body of work looks into the development of both bulk materials in the form of metal alloys and ceramic metal-matrix composites as well as the development of tunable mechanical & thermal metamaterials. Simulation models to approximate electron beam melting were suggested using commercial finite element analysis packages. A framework was developed based on the finite difference method to simulate layered manufacturing using Arcam AB's electron beam melting process. The outputs from the simulation data could be used to better understand the local melting, grain evolution, composition and internal stresses within freeform-fabricated metal parts.

  16. Integrative Chemistry: Advanced functional cellular materials bearing multiscale porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depardieu, M.; Kinadjian, N.; Backov, R.

    2015-07-01

    With this mini review we show through the sol-gel and emulsion-based Integrative Chemistry how it is possible to trigger materials dimensionality and beyond their functionalities when reaching enhanced applications. In here we focus on 3D macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof. We first depict the general background of emulsions focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of PolyHIPE foams, HIPE being the acronym of High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry. Secondly we extend this approach toward the design of hybrid organic-inorganic foams, labeled Organo-Si(HIPE), where photonics and heterogeneous catalysis applications are addressed. In a third section we show how inorganic Si(HIPE) matrices can be employed as sacrificial hard templates for the generation carbonaceous foams, labeled Carbon(HIPE). These foams being conductive we show applications when employed as electrodes for Li-S battery and as hosts for Li(BH4)-based hydrogen storage.

  17. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed.

  18. Fuel, Structural Material and Coolant for an Advanced Fast Micro-Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Nascimento, J. A.; Duimarães, L. N. F.; Ono, S.

    The use of nuclear reactors in space, seabed or other Earth hostile environment in the future is a vision that some Brazilian nuclear researchers share. Currently, the USA, a leader in space exploration, has as long-term objectives the establishment of a permanent Moon base and to launch a manned mission to Mars. A nuclear micro-reactor is the power source chosen to provide energy for life support, electricity for systems, in these missions. A strategy to develop an advanced micro-reactor technologies may consider the current fast reactor technologies as back-up and the development of advanced fuel, structural and coolant materials. The next generation reactors (GEN-IV) for terrestrial applications will operate with high output temperature to allow advanced conversion cycle, such as Brayton, and hydrogen production, among others. The development of an advanced fast micro-reactor may create a synergy between the GEN-IV and space reactor technologies. Considering a set of basic requirements and materials properties this paper discusses the choice of advanced fuel, structural and coolant materials for a fast micro-reactor. The chosen candidate materials are: nitride, oxide as back-up, for fuel, lead, tin and gallium for coolant, ferritic MA-ODS and Mo alloys for core structures. The next step will be the neutronic and burnup evaluation of core concepts with this set of materials.

  19. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  20. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination. PMID:27140543

  1. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    SciTech Connect

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  2. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  3. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  4. Assessment of the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials. Topical report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Advancements have been made during the past five years to not only increase the strength of the as-manufactured clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials, but also to improve their high temperature creep resistance properties. This report reviews these developments, and describes the results of preliminary qualification testing which has been conducted at Westinghouse prior to utilizing the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide filters in high temperature, pressurized, coal-fired combustion and/or gasification applications.

  5. Advanced biohybrid materials based on nanoclays for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo; Darder, Margarita; Wicklein, Bernd; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Castro-Smirnov, Fidel A.; Martín del Burgo, M. Angeles; del Real, Gustavo; Aranda, Pilar

    2012-10-01

    Bio-nanohybrids prepared by assembling natural polymers (polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, etc) to nanosized silicates (nanoclays) and related solids (layered double hydroxides, LDHs) give rise to the so-called bionanocomposites constituting a group of biomaterials with potential applications in medicine. In this way, biopolymers, including chitosan, pectin, alginate, xanthan gum, ι-carrageenan, gelatin, zein, and DNA, as well as phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, have been incorporated in layered host matrices by means of ion-exchange mechanisms producing intercalation composites. Also bio-nanohybrids have been prepared by the assembly of diverse bio-polymers with sepiolite, a natural microfibrous magnesium silicate, in this case through interactions affecting the external surface of this silicate. The properties and applications of these resulting biomaterials as active phases of ion-sensors and biosensors, for potential uses as scaffolds for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and gene transfection systems, are introduced and discussed in this work. It is also considered the use of synthetic bionanocomposites as new substrates to immobilize microorganisms, as for instance to bind Influenza virus particles, allowing their application as effective low-cost vaccine adjuvants and carriers.

  6. Radiative properties of advanced spacecraft heat shield materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.; Mcnab, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are presented to show the effects of simulated reentry exposure by convective heating and by radiant heating on spectral and total emittance of statically oxidized Inconel 617 and Haynes HS188 superalloys to 1260 K and a silicide coatea (R512E) columbium 752 alloy to 1590 K. Convective heating exposures were conducted in a supersonic arc plasma wind tunnel using a wedge-shaped specimen configuration. Radiant tests were conducted at a pressure of .003 atmospheres of dry air at a flow velocity of several meters per second. Convective heating specimens were subjected to 8, 20, and 38 15-min heating cycles, and radiant heating specimens were tested for 10, 20, 50, and 100 30-min heating cycles. Changes in radiative properties are explained in terms of changes in composition resulting from simulated reentry tests. The methods used to evaluate morphological, compositional and crystallographic changes include: Auger electron spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction analysis; and electron microprobe analysis.

  7. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  8. Standardization Efforts for Mechanical Testing and Design of Advanced Ceramic Materials and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems occasionally require the use of very brittle materials such as sapphire and ultra-high temperature ceramics. Although great progress has been made in the development of methods and standards for machining, testing and design of component from these materials, additional development and dissemination of standard practices is needed. ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics and ISO TC 206 have taken a lead role in the standardization of testing for ceramics, and recent efforts and needs in standards development by Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics will be summarized. In some cases, the engineers, etc. involved are unaware of the latest developments, and traditional approaches applicable to other material systems are applied. Two examples of flight hardware failures that might have been prevented via education and standardization will be presented.

  9. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

  10. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  11. Design and characterization of a composite material based on Sr(II)-loaded clay nanotubes included within a biopolymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Del Buffa, Stefano; Bonini, Massimo; Ridi, Francesca; Severi, Mirko; Losi, Paola; Volpi, Silvia; Al Kayal, Tamer; Soldani, Giorgio; Baglioni, Piero

    2015-06-15

    This paper reports on the preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity of a hybrid nanocomposite material made of Sr(II)-loaded Halloysite nanotubes included within a biopolymer (3-polyhydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) matrix. The Sr(II)-loaded inorganic scaffold is intended to provide mechanical resistance, multi-scale porosity, and to favor the in-situ regeneration of bone tissue thanks to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The interaction of the hybrid system with the physiological environment is mediated by the biopolymer coating, which acts as a binder, as well as a diffusional barrier to the Sr(II) release. The degradation of the polymer progressively leads to the exposure of the Sr(II)-loaded Halloysite scaffold, tuning its interaction with osteogenic cells. The in vitro biocompatibility of the composite was demonstrated by cytotoxicity tests on L929 fibroblast cells. The results indicate that this composite material could be of interest for multiple strategies in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  12. Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

    2005-09-01

    The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

  13. Testing of Gas Reactor Fuel and Materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2006-10-01

    The recent growth in interest for high temperature gas reactors has resulted in an increased need for materials and fuel testing for this type of reactor. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, has long been involved in testing gas reactor fuel and materials, and has facilities and capabilities to provide the right environment for gas reactor irradiation experiments. These capabilities include both passive sealed capsule experiments, and instrumented/actively controlled experiments. The instrumented/actively controlled experiments typically contain thermocouples and control the irradiation temperature, but on-line measurements and controls for pressure and gas environment have also been performed in past irradiations. The ATR has an existing automated gas temperature control system that can maintain temperature in an irradiation experiment within very tight bounds, and has developed an on-line fission product monitoring system that is especially well suited for testing gas reactor particle fuel. The ATR’s control system, which consists primarily of vertical cylinders used to rotate neutron poisons/reflectors toward or away from the reactor core, provides a constant vertical flux profile over the duration of each operating cycle. This constant chopped cosine shaped axial flux profile, with a relatively flat peak at the vertical centre of the core, is more desirable for experiments than a constantly moving axial flux peak resulting from a control system of axially positioned control components which are vertically withdrawn from the core.

  14. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  15. Polymer/Graphene Hybrids for Advanced Energy-Conversion and -Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Cui, Linfan; Gao, Jian; Xu, Tong; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2016-04-20

    Polymer/graphene-based materials with interesting physical and chemical properties have been attracting considerable attention and have been shown to have great potential as active materials in the field of energy conversion and storage. In this review, we focus on recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of polymer/graphene hybrids as electrocatalysts and electrode materials. Synthetic strategies and application of these materials in energy conversion and storage are presented, particularly in devices such as fuel cells, actuators, and supercapacitors, accompanied with a discussion of the challenges and research directions necessary for the future development of polymer/graphene hybrids.

  16. MRS International Meeting on Advanced Materials, 1st, Tokyo, Japan, June 2, 3, 1988, Proceedings. Volume 4 - Composites corrosion/Coating of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shiushichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Nii, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Yasutoshi; Umekawa, Sokichi.

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on metal-matrix composites (MMCs) and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) discusses electrodeposited C/Cu MMCs, the quasi-liquid hot press method for SiC/Al composites, die-cast MMCs for tribological applications, the solidification-processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites, the fracture of SiC whisker-reinforced Al-alloy MMCs, the elastic constants of a graphite/magnesium composite, and an elastoplastic analysis of metal/plastic/metal sandwich plates in three-point bending. Also discussed are the fabrication of diamond particle-dispersed glass composites in space, heat-resistant graphite fiber-reinforced phosphate ceramic CMCs, the high-temperature creep of SiC-reinforced alumina CMCs, flexible carbon fiber-reinforced exfoliated graphite composites, and the application of advanced CMCs to advanced railway systems, the corrosion and oxidation of SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and other structural ceramics, corrosion properties of advanced alloys, and novel coating systems for advanced materials.

  17. The removal of organic precursors of DBPs during three advanced water treatment processes including ultrafiltration, biofiltration, and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xiao-Song; Ma, Lu-Ming; Wu, Jin; Liu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    The removal efficiency of organic matter, the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMFP), and the formation potential of haloacetic acids (HAAFP) in each unit of three advanced treatment processes were investigated in this paper. The molecular weight distribution and the components of organic matter in water samples were also determined to study the transformation of organic matter during these advanced treatments. Low-molecular-weight matter was the predominant fraction in raw water, and it could not be removed effectively by ultrafiltration and biofiltration. The dominant species of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) in raw water were chloroform and monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), with average concentrations of 107.3 and 125.9 μg/L, respectively. However, the formation potential of chloroform and MCAA decreased to 36.2 and 11.5 μg/L after ultrafiltration. Similarly, biological pretreatment obtained high removal efficiency for DBPFP. The total THMFP decreased from 173.8 to 81.8 μg/L, and the total HAAFP decreased from 211.9 to 84.2 μg/L. Separate ozonation had an adverse effect on DBPFP, especially for chlorinated HAAFP. Numerous low-molecular-weight compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols were generated during the ozonation, which have been proven to be important precursors of HAAs. However, the ozonation/biological activated carbon (BAC) combined process had a better removal efficiency for DBPFP. The total DBPFP decreased remarkably from 338.7 to 113.3 μg/L after the O3/BAC process, far below the separated BAC of process B (189.1 μg/L). PMID:27180835

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR COMPONENT'S PERFORMANCE BY UTILIZING ADVANCED MATERIALS AND NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES: CASTCON PROCESS FOR MINING APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaodi Huang; Richard Gertsch

    2002-08-27

    The project has seen quite a bit of activity in this quarter, highlighted by the fabrication of a bit insert for field testing. In addition: (1) Several alternative process techniques were attempted to prevent bloating, cracking and delamination of FM material that occurs during binder burnout. The approaches included fabrication of FM material by three pass extrusion and warm isostatic pressing of green material, slow and confined burnouts as well as, burnout of thin plate instead of rod stock. Happily, a confined burnout followed by HIPing, produced FM button inserts without bloating or delamination. (2) Four rock bit inserts were produced from FM material and are ready for use on blast hole bits in the field. (3) Six of the project participants from Michigan Technological University, Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing, and The Robbins Group visited the Superior Rock Bit Company in Minnesota and planned the field test of FM inserts.

  19. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-25

    Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

  20. PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2011-05-01

    Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the