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Sample records for advanced maternal age

  1. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  2. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  3. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-01-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  4. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  5. Miscarriage at advanced maternal age and the search for meaning.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Marsha; Wright, Rebecca J

    2017-03-01

    Although it has been documented that miscarriage is a common pregnancy outcome and more likely to happen among women aged 35 years and older, there is very little research on the quality of such a lived experience. This study features phenomenological interviews of 10 women aged 35 years and older. Theoretical frameworks of ambiguous loss and feminism guide the design and analysis. The salient themes suggest that women experience miscarriage from a physical, emotional, temporal, and social context that includes intense loss and grief, having a sense of otherness, a continuous search for meaning, and feelings of regret and self-blame.

  6. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests.

  7. Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated with Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Gross, Raz; MacCabe, James H.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal age and autism. Method: Using recommended guidelines for performing meta-analyses, we systematically selected, and extracted results from, epidemiological scientific studies reported before January 2012. We calculated pooled risk…

  8. Comprehensive embryo analysis of advanced maternal age-related aneuploidies and mosaicism by short comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Rius, Mariona; Daina, Gemma; Obradors, Albert; Ramos, Laia; Velilla, Esther; Fernández, Sílvia; Martínez-Passarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2011-01-01

    The short comparative genomic hybridization (short-CGH) method was used to perform a comprehensive cytogenetic study of isolated blastomeres from advanced maternal age embryos, discarded after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), detecting aneuploidies (38.5% of which corresponded to chromosomes not screened by 9-chromosome FISH), structural aberrations (31.8%), and mosaicism (77.3%). The short-CGH method was subsequently applied in one PGS, achieving a twin pregnancy.

  9. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  10. The frequency and mutation rate of balanced autosomal rearrangements in man estimated from prenatal genetic studies for advanced maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, D L; Weiss, L; Roberson, J R; Babu, V R

    1983-01-01

    The frequencies of balanced chromosome rearrangements were estimated from three series of advanced maternal-age prenatal genetic studies, and were compared to the frequencies that had been estimated from consecutive newborn surveys. In the maternal-age prenatal studies, the frequencies were: Robertsonian translocations, 0.11%; reciprocal translocations, 0.17%; and inversions, 0.12%. The total frequency of balanced rearrangements in the prenatal genetic studies performed with banding (0.40%, or 1 in 250) was twice that in the consecutive newborn surveys performed without banding (0.19%, or 1 in 526). The difference was limited to inversions and reciprocal translocations; the frequency of Robertsonian translocations was similar in the prenatal series and the newborn surveys. Both familial and de novo rearrangements were more common than anticipated. The de novo cases provided a mutation rate estimate of 4.3 per 10,000 gametes per generation (compared with 1.78 to 2.2 per 10,000 gametes in other surveys). These higher estimates may more reliably approximate the true mutation rate and frequencies of balanced rearrangements in the newborn population than do the newborn surveys. PMID:6837576

  11. Impact of sperm genome decay on Day-3 embryo chromosomal abnormalities from advanced-maternal-age patients.

    PubMed

    Kaarouch, Ismail; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Madkour, Aicha; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Sefrioui, Omar

    2015-10-01

    Infertile male patients often exhibit unconventional semen parameters, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin dispersion, and aneuploidy-collectively referred to as sperm genome decay (SGD). We investigated the correlation of SGD to embryo chromosomal abnormalities and its effect on clinical pregnancy rates in patients with advanced maternal age (AMA) (>40 years) who were undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection-preimplantation genetic screening (ICSI-PGS). Three groups were assessed: patients with AMA and male partners with normal sperm (AMA-N); AMA patients and male partners presenting with SGD (AMA-SGD); and young fertile female patients and male partners with SGD (Y-SGD). We found a significant increase in embryonic chromosomal abnormalities-polyploidy, nullisomy, mosaicism, and chaotic anomaly rates-when semen parameters are altered (76% vs. 67% and 66% in AMA-SGD vs. AMA-N and Y-SGD groups, respectively). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between SGD and aneuploidies of embryonic chromosomes 13, 16, 21, X, and Y, as well as negative clinical outcomes. Incorporation of molecular sperm analyses should therefore significantly minimize the risk of transmission of chromosomal anomalies from spermatozoa to embryos, and may provide better predictors of pregnancy than conventional sperm analyses. We also demonstrated that an ICSI-PGS program should be implemented for SGD patients in order to limit transmission of chromosomal paternal anomalies and to improve clinical outcome.

  12. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals. PMID:26014424

  14. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  15. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  16. Maternal Immunization: Opportunities for Scientific Advancement

    PubMed Central

    Beigi, Richard H.; Fortner, Kimberly B.; Munoz, Flor M.; Roberts, Jeff; Gordon, Jennifer L.; Han, Htay Htay; Glenn, Greg; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Gu, Xing Xing; Read, Jennifer S.; Edwards, Kathryn; Patel, Shital M.; Swamy, Geeta K.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization is an effective strategy to prevent and/or minimize the severity of infectious diseases in pregnant women and their infants. Based on the success of vaccination programs to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus, maternal immunization has been well received in the United States and globally as a promising strategy for the prevention of other vaccine-preventable diseases that threaten pregnant women and infants, such as influenza and pertussis. Given the promise for reducing the burden of infectious conditions of perinatal significance through the development of vaccines against relevant pathogens, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a series of meetings to foster progress toward clinical development of vaccines for use in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary group of stakeholders convened at the NIH in December 2013 to identify potential barriers and opportunities for scientific advancement in maternal immunization. PMID:25425719

  17. Advanced maternal age causes adverse programming of mouse blastocysts leading to altered growth and impaired cardiometabolic health in post-natal life

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, M.A.; Smith, C.G.C.; Smyth, N.R.; Osmond, C.; Fleming, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does advanced maternal age (AMA) in mice affect cardiometabolic health during post-natal life in offspring derived from an assisted reproduction technology (ART) procedure? SUMMARY ANSWER Offspring derived from blastocysts collected from aged female mice displayed impaired body weight gain, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and organ allometry during post-natal life compared with offspring derived from blastocysts from young females; since all blastocysts were transferred to normalized young mothers, this effect is independent of maternal pregnancy conditions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Although studies in mice have shown that AMA can affect body weight and behaviour of offspring derived from natural reproduction, data on the effects of AMA on offspring cardiometabolic health during post-natal development are not available. Given the increasing use of ART to alleviate infertility in women of AMA, it is pivotal to develop ART–AMA models addressing the effects of maternal aging on offspring health. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Blastocysts from old (34–39 weeks) or young (8–9 weeks) C57BL/6 females mated with young CBA males (13–15 weeks) were either subjected to differential cell staining (inner cell mass and trophectoderm) or underwent embryo transfer (ET) into young MF1 surrogates (8–9 weeks) to produce young (Young-ET, 9 litters) and old (Old-ET, 10 litters) embryo-derived offspring. Offspring health monitoring was carried out for 30 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All animals were fed with standard chow. Blood pressure was measured at post-natal Weeks 9, 15 and 21, and at post-natal Week 30 a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. Two days after the GTT mice were killed for organ allometry. Blastocyst cell allocation variables were evaluated by T-test and developmental data were analysed with a multilevel random effects regression model. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The total number of cells in blastocysts from

  18. Disease spread in age structured populations with maternal age effects.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica; Garbutt, Jennie S; McNally, Luke; Little, Tom J

    2017-04-01

    Fundamental ecological processes, such as extrinsic mortality, determine population age structure. This influences disease spread when individuals of different ages differ in susceptibility or when maternal age determines offspring susceptibility. We show that Daphnia magna offspring born to young mothers are more susceptible than those born to older mothers, and consider this alongside previous observations that susceptibility declines with age in this system. We used a susceptible-infected compartmental model to investigate how age-specific susceptibility and maternal age effects on offspring susceptibility interact with demographic factors affecting disease spread. Our results show a scenario where an increase in extrinsic mortality drives an increase in transmission potential. Thus, we identify a realistic context in which age effects and maternal effects produce conditions favouring disease transmission.

  19. Can we define maternal age as a genetic disease?

    PubMed

    Wilding, M

    2014-01-01

    >Maternal age is strongly associated with a decrease in the probability of achieving pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. Among current theories of the mechanism of this decrease is the hypothesis that a progressive degeneration of the respiratory capacity of mitochondria in eggs of women of advanced age leads to an energy deficit and consequent secondary effects on the oocyte and developing embryo. Mitochondria are uniquely inherited through the female germ line and these organelles contain DNA sequences that are independent from the genome. It is therefore possible that offspring born to females of advanced age inherit suboptimal mitochondria and that these persist throughout the life of the new being. This could in turn lead to long-term consequences for the offspring of females of advanced age such as a reduced potential lifespan in relation to the age of the mother at conception. In this review and hypothesis, we discuss the evidence relating to this theory and suggest that on this basis the maternal age effect could be classified as an inheritable genetic disease.

  20. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  1. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494

  2. Maternal-age effect in aneuploidy: Does altered embryonic selection play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Aymé, Ségolène; Lippman-Hand, Abby

    1982-01-01

    The age of mothers of children with trisomy 21 (47,+21) is elevated no matter if the extra chromosome is of maternal or paternal origin, and it has been postulated that decreasing maternal selection against affected conceptuses with advancing age might explain this observation. Since the absence of sufficient data on 47,+21 abortuses precludes a direct test of this hypothesis, we have taken an indirect approach. Pooled data from spontaneous abortions and live births with autosomal trisomies, XXY and XXX, were examined to determine the natural history of these aneuploid conceptuses and its relation to maternal age. The results are consistent with decreasing embryonic selection in older women. PMID:6213153

  3. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  4. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  5. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  6. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Mason, John; Crum, Jennifer; Cappa, Claudia; Hotchkiss, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs) was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results 1) There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10), but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180). 2) For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group). 3) The association (adjusted) continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4) The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts) in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions The effect of low maternal age on child height

  7. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Mason, John; Crum, Jennifer; Cappa, Claudia; Hotchkiss, David R

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15-24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs) was estimated in age bands of 0-11, 12-23, 24-35, 36-47, and 48-59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15-17, 18-19, and 20-24 years. Results 1) There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10), but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180). 2) For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15-17 or 15-19 years vs. the older group). 3) The association (adjusted) continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4) The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts) in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions The effect of low maternal age on child height restriction from 0 to

  8. Maternal Age at First Birth and Boys' Risk for Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Gordon, Rachel A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Loeber, Rolf; Green, Stephanie M.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2000-01-01

    Studied multigenerational links between maternal history of problem behavior, mother's age at birth of first child, and child conduct disorder in boys. Found that maternal age at first birth was associated with child's conduct disorder, and maternal history of problem behavior was also associated with early maternal age at first birth and the…

  9. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  10. Sister kinetochore splitting and precocious disintegration of bivalents could explain the maternal age effect

    PubMed Central

    Zielinska, Agata P; Holubcova, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and Down’s syndrome. Aneuploid eggs result from chromosome segregation errors when an egg develops from a progenitor cell, called an oocyte. The mechanisms that lead to an increase in aneuploidy with advanced maternal age are largely unclear. Here, we show that many sister kinetochores in human oocytes are separated and do not behave as a single functional unit during the first meiotic division. Having separated sister kinetochores allowed bivalents to rotate by 90 degrees on the spindle and increased the risk of merotelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Advanced maternal age led to an increase in sister kinetochore separation, rotated bivalents and merotelic attachments. Chromosome arm cohesion was weakened, and the fraction of bivalents that precociously dissociated into univalents was increased. Together, our data reveal multiple age-related changes in chromosome architecture that could explain why oocyte aneuploidy increases with advanced maternal age. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11389.001 PMID:26670547

  11. Multicohort analysis of the maternal age effect on recombination

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Hilary C.; Christ, Ryan; Hussin, Julie G.; O'Connell, Jared; Gordon, Scott; Mbarek, Hamdi; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; McAloney, Kerrie; Willemsen, Gonnecke; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Nicola; Montgomery, Grant W.; Navarro, Pau; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Vitart, Veronique; Wilson, James F.; Marchini, Jonathan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that the number of crossovers increases with maternal age in humans, but others have found the opposite. Resolving the true effect has implications for understanding the maternal age effect on aneuploidies. Here, we revisit this question in the largest sample to date using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-chip data, comprising over 6,000 meioses from nine cohorts. We develop and fit a hierarchical model to allow for differences between cohorts and between mothers. We estimate that over 10 years, the expected number of maternal crossovers increases by 2.1% (95% credible interval (0.98%, 3.3%)). Our results are not consistent with the larger positive and negative effects previously reported in smaller cohorts. We see heterogeneity between cohorts that is likely due to chance effects in smaller samples, or possibly to confounders, emphasizing that care should be taken when interpreting results from any specific cohort about the effect of maternal age on recombination. PMID:26242864

  12. Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Čulić, Vida

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  13. Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bommarito, Kerry; Madden, Tessa; Olsen, Margaret A; Subramaniam, Harini; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-06-01

    We utilized an updated nationally representative database to examine associations between maternal age and prevalence of maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery. We used hospital inpatient billing data from the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. To determine whether the likelihood that maternal morbidity during complications of labor and delivery differed among age groups, separate logistic regression models were run for each complication. Age was the main independent variable of interest. In analyses that controlled for demographics and clinical confounders, we found that complications with the highest odds among women, 11-18 years of age, compared to 25-29 year old women, included preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis, endometritis, and mild preeclampsia. Pregnant women who were 15-19 years old had greater odds for severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, poor fetal growth, and fetal distress. Pregnant women who were ≥35 years old had greater odds for preterm delivery, hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, and decreased risk for chorioamnionitis. Older women (≥40 years old) had increased odds for mild preeclampsia, fetal distress, and poor fetal growth. Our findings underscore the need for pregnant women to be aware of the risks associated with extremes of age so that they can watch for signs and symptoms of such complications.

  14. Postponing parenthood to advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the Postponing Parenthood project was to investigate several aspects of the delaying of childbearing phenomenon in Sweden and Norway, such as medical risks and parental experiences. Data were retrieved from the Swedish and Norwegian Medical Birth Registers and three different cohorts: the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, and the Swedish Women’s Experiences of Childbirth cohort. Postponing childbirth to age 35 years and later increased the risk of rare but serious pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth and very preterm birth. Older first-time parents were slightly more anxious during pregnancy, and childbirth overall was experienced as more difficult, compared with younger age groups. First-time mothers’ satisfaction with life decreased from about age 28 years, both when measured during pregnancy and early parenthood. Delaying parenthood to mid-30 or later was more related to lifestyle than socioeconomic factors, suggesting that much could be done in terms of informing young persons about the limitations of fertility and assisted reproductive techniques, and the risks associated with advanced parental age. PMID:27385461

  15. Screening gestational diabetes mellitus: The role of maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chun-Heng; Chen, Szu-Chi; Fang, Chi-Tai; Nien, Feng-Jung; Wu, En-Tzu; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using a specific cutoff of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to screen gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can reduce the use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Since the prevalence of GDM increases with age, this screening method may not be appropriate in healthcare systems where women become pregnant at older ages. Therefore, we aimed to develop a screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration. Methods We included 945 pregnant women without history of GDM who received 75g OGTT to diagnose GDM in 2011. Screening algorithms using FPG with or without age were developed. Another 362 pregnant women were recruited in 2013–2015 as the validation cohort. Results Using FPG criteria alone, more GDM diagnoses were missed in women ≥35 years than in women <35 years (13.2% vs. 5.8%, p <0.001). Among GDM women ≥35 years, 63.6% had FPG <92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L). Use of the algorithm with an “age plus FPG” cutoff could reduce the use of OGTT (OGTT%) from 77.6% to 62.9%, while maintaining good sensitivity (from 91.9% to 90.2%) and specificity (from 100% to 100%). Similar reduction in OGTT% was found in the validation cohort (from 86.4% to 76.8%). In the simulation, if the percentage of women ≥35 years were 40% or more, the screening algorithm with an “age plus FPG” cutoff could further reduce OGTT% by 11.0%-18.8%. Conclusions A screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration can reduce the use of OGTT when women become pregnant at older ages. PMID:28296923

  16. Mother-child disagreement in reports of child anxiety: effects of child age and maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Niditch, Laura A; Varela, R Enrique

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is high and the child is older, maternal report of anxiety is relatively higher, and when maternal anxiety is high and the child is younger, child report of anxiety is relatively higher. When maternal anxiety is low, the reporting discrepancy is relatively stable across age. Results may help explain previous mixed findings regarding effects of age and maternal anxiety on reporting discrepancies. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  17. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  18. Maternal age at child birth, birth order, and suicide at a young age: a sibling comparison.

    PubMed

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have reported strong associations between birth order, maternal age, and suicide, but these results might have been confounded by socioeconomic and other factors. To control for such factors, we compared suicide risk between siblings and studied how maternal age at child birth and birth order influenced risk in a cohort study of 1,690,306 Norwegians born in 1967-1996 who were followed up until 2008. Using stratified Cox regression, we compared suicide risk within families with 2 or more children in which one died from suicide. Altogether, 3,005 suicides occurred over a mean follow-up period of 15 years; 2,458 of these suicides occurred among 6,741 siblings within families of 2 or more siblings. Among siblings, a higher position in the birth order was positively associated with risk; each increase in birth order was associated with a 46% (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.66) higher risk of suicide. For each 10-year increase in maternal age at child birth, the offspring's suicide risk was reduced by 57% (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.62). Our study suggests that confounding due to familial factors is not likely to explain the associations of birth order and maternal age at child birth with suicide risk.

  19. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  20. Modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure: a review of epidemiological studies of maternal age, diet, and smoking.

    PubMed

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2008-06-01

    Prenatal programming of adult disease is well established in animals. In humans the impact of common in utero exposures on long-term offspring health is less clear. We reviewed epidemiology studies of modifiable maternal exposures and offspring blood pressure (BP). Three maternal exposures were identified for review and meta-analyzed where possible: smoking during pregnancy, diet, and age at childbirth. Meta-analysis suggested there was a modest association between higher offspring BP and prenatal exposure to smoke (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.62 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.05, I = 16.4%). However, the level of confounder adjustment varied between studies, which in some studies attenuated the association to the null. There was no strong evidence that any component of maternal diet during pregnancy (maternal protein, energy, calcium, and various other nutrients) influences offspring BP. The results of studies of maternal age varied and there was strong evidence of heterogeneity in the pooled analysis. The association with maternal age, if present, was modest (confounder-adjusted beta = 0.09 mm Hg/y, 95% confidence interval: -0.03 to 0.21, I = 89.8%). In sum, there is little empirical evidence that the maternal exposures reviewed program offspring BP. Other components of offspring health may be more susceptible to effects of programming in utero.

  1. Association between nondisjunction and maternal age in meiosis-II human oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, T.; Cohen, J.; Munne, S.; Dale, B.

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between advanced maternal age and increased risk of trisomic offspring is well know clinically but not clearly understood at the level of the oocyte. A total of 383 oocytes that failed fertilization from 107 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were analyzed by FISH using X-, 18-, and 13/21-chromosome probes simultaneously. The corresponding polar bodies were also analyzed in 188 of these oocytes. The chromosomes in the oocyte and first polar body complement each other and provide an internal control to differentiate between aneuploidy and technical errors. Two mechanisms of nondisjunction were determined. First, nondisjunction of bivalent chromosomes resulting in two univalents going to the same pole and, second, nondisjunction by premature chromatid separation (predivision) of univalent chromsomes producing either a balanced (2 + 2) or unbalanced (3 + 1) distribution of chromatids into the first polar body and M-II oocytes. Balanced predivision of chromatids, previously proposed as a major mechanism of aneuploidy, was found to increase significantly with time in culture (P < .005), which suggests that this phenomenon should be interpreted carefully. Unbalanced predivision and classical nondisjunction were unaffected by oocyte aging. In comparing oocytes from women <35 years of age with oocytes from women {ge}40 years of age, a significant increase (P < .001) in nondisjunction of full dyads was found in the oocytes with analyzable polar bodies and no FISH errors. Premature predivision of chromatids was also found to cause nondisjunction, but it did not increase with maternal age. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Social Development in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Inokuchi, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    Difficulties in social communication are not necessarily observed only in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there are many subclinical cases in the general populations. Although advanced parental age at childbirth has often been considered a possible risk factor of ASD, it might contribute to poor social functioning in…

  3. Effects of maternal age and environment on offspring vital rates in the oleander aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Parris, Melissa A; Hunter, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    Maternal effects have the potential to affect population dynamics and evolution. To affect population dynamics, maternal effects must influence offspring vital rates (birth, death, or movement). Here, we explore the magnitude of nongenetic maternal influence on the vital rates of an insect herbivore and explore predictability of maternal effects with reference to published studies. We experimentally studied the effects of maternal age, host plant species (two Asclepias spp.), and density on offspring vital rates in Aphis nerii, the oleander aphid. Older mothers produced offspring that lived shorter lives, consistent with the "Lansing Effect." Older mothers also produced offspring that matured at a younger age. As maternal age increased, offspring mass at maturity decreased when mothers were on Asclepias syriaca. However, offspring mass was highest from intermediate aged mothers on A. viridis. The absence of maternal density effects seems to exclude maternal density as a potential source of delayed density dependence in A. nerii. Our results indicate that maternal effects have some influence on A. nerii vital rates. However, references to published studies suggest that only the Lansing Effect is a predictable response to maternal age in insects. Moreover, the magnitude of observed effects was generally low.

  4. [Maternal mortality in Spain, 1980-1992. Relationship with birth distributions according to the mother's age].

    PubMed

    Valero Juan, L F; Sáenz González, M C

    1997-11-01

    The maternal mortality evolution in Spain during the 1980-1992 period is reported. The influence of birth distribution according to maternal age is analyzed. The information was gathered from vital statistics published by Instituto Nacional de Estadística. The mortality rates have stabilized since 1985 (4.8 per 10(5) for 1992) associated with the increase in the proportion of births in women aged > or = 30 years (40.6% for 1992). Birth distributions according to maternal age account for 13.1% of the deaths observed. The predictions point to an increase in maternal mortality for the year 2000.

  5. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  6. Maternal age effects on myometrial expression of contractile proteins, uterine gene expression, and contractile activity during labor in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew; Szyszka, Alexandra; Pauliat, Caroline; Clifford, Bethan; Daniel, Zoe; Cheng, Zhangrui; Wathes, Claire; McMullen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Advanced maternal age of first time pregnant mothers is associated with prolonged and dysfunctional labor and significant risk of emergency cesarean section. We investigated the influence of maternal age on myometrial contractility, expression of contractile associated proteins (CAPs), and global gene expression in the parturient uterus. Female Wistar rats either 8 (YOUNG n = 10) or 24 (OLDER n = 10) weeks old were fed laboratory chow, mated, and killed during parturition. Myometrial strips were dissected to determine contractile activity, cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TAG) content, protein expression of connexin-43 (GJA1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and caveolin 1 (CAV-1). Maternal plasma concentrations of prostaglandins PGE2, PGF2α, and progesterone were determined by RIA. Global gene expression in uterine samples was compared using Affymetrix Genechip Gene 2.0 ST arrays and Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA). Spontaneous contractility in myometrium exhibited by YOUNG rats was threefold greater than OLDER animals (P < 0.027) but maternal age had no significant effect on myometrial CAP expression, lipid profiles, or pregnancy-related hormones. OLDER myometrium increased contractile activity in response to PGF2α, phenylephrine, and carbachol, a response absent in YOUNG rats (all P < 0.002). Microarray analysis identified that maternal age affected expression of genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, lipid transport and metabolism, steroid metabolism, tissue remodeling, and smooth muscle contraction. In conclusion YOUNG laboring rat myometrium seems primed to contract maximally, whereas activity is blunted in OLDER animals and requires stimulation to meet contractile potential. Further work investigating maternal age effects on myometrial function is required with focus on lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. PMID:25876907

  7. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  8. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages.

  9. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    PubMed

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  10. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in advanced age].

    PubMed

    Haag, G

    1985-02-01

    The psychosocial rehabilitation of older persons is one of the main problems in health policy. About one quarter of the over 65-year-olds face psychic problems, without, to a large extent, receiving adequate treatment and rehabilitative care. Substantial deficits exist above all in the out-patient and non-residential service sectors. In in-patient care, existing methods for psychosocial intervention (such as psychoanalysis, behavioural, client-centered, family, Gestalt, milieu, or music and dance therapy, psychodrama, reality orientation training, or resensitization techniques) are hardly ever used. This absence of applied geronto-psychology is attributable to the shortcomings of available assessment methods, multiple methodical problems of intervention research, and--above all--to insufficient staff positions for psychosocial professions in the gerontological sector. Provision of further permanent posts for psychosocial workers; development of age-specific assessment methods; interdisciplinary and systematic interventional research; the development of ambulatory, community-based services as well as intensive support for existing self-help efforts are therefore called for.

  11. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  12. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  13. Agreement between maternal interview- and medical record-based gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hakim, R B; Tielsch, J M; See, L C

    1992-09-01

    Agreement between maternal interview- and medical record-based gestational age was assessed by using data from a case-control study of childhood strabismus. The sample consisted of 383 cases of strabismus and their age-matched controls, diagnosed between 1985 and 1986 in Baltimore, Maryland, who were under age 7 years when diagnosed. Medical record-based gestational age was derived, in order of priority, from early ultrasound examination, time from the last menstrual period, pediatric examination, and obstetric examination. The intraclass correlation coefficient, kappa, and mean difference were used to compare agreement between maternal interview- and medical record-based gestational age by maternal and pregnancy characteristics and characteristics related to study design. Overall, 86 percent of mothers were within 2 weeks of the gestational age reported in the medical record. The intraclass correlation coefficient comparing maternal and medical record-based gestational age was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.86). Agreement was positively associated with shorter length of recall, low birth order, and having a neonatal illness related to prematurity. Agreement was poor among mothers of healthy preterm infants. There was a weak positive association between recall and some sociodemographic covariates. There was greater misclassification of prematurity in the controls than in the cases. The results suggest that, in general, women recall gestational age well, which supports the use of gestational age derived from maternal interviews.

  14. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  15. Cardiovascular KATP channels and advanced aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua-Qian; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Coetzee, William A.

    2016-01-01

    With advanced aging, there is a decline in innate cardiovascular function. This decline is not general in nature. Instead, specific changes occur that impact the basic cardiovascular function, which include alterations in biochemical pathways and ion channel function. This review focuses on a particular ion channel that couple the latter two processes, namely the KATP channel, which opening is promoted by alterations in intracellular energy metabolism. We show that the intrinsic properties of the KATP channel changes with advanced aging and argue that the channel can be further modulated by biochemical changes. The importance is widespread, given the ubiquitous nature of the KATP channel in the cardiovascular system where it can regulate processes as diverse as cardiac function, blood flow and protection mechanisms against superimposed stress, such as cardiac ischemia. We highlight questions that remain to be answered before the KATP channel can be considered as a viable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27733235

  16. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birthweight: a multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2008-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20-45 years from Chicago, USA in 1997-2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 g to an increase of 10 g per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4% of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences.

  17. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Jiang Zheng; Byers, B.

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  18. The Association between Maternal Reproductive Age and Progression of Refractive Error in Urban Students in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jin, Zi Bing; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhou, Hong Jia; Wang, Ning Li; Liang, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children’ refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. Methods The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student’s refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. Results At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993–1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003–2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (β = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (β = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (β = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. Conclusions In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades. PMID:26421841

  19. Maternal Size and Age Shape Offspring Size in a Live-Bearing Fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni

    PubMed Central

    Kindsvater, Holly K.; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies of offspring size focus on differences in maternal investment that arise from ecological factors such as predation or competition. Classic theory predicts that these ecological factors will select for an optimal offspring size, and therefore that variation in a given environment will be minimized. Yet recent evidence suggests maternal traits such as size or age could also drive meaningful variation in offspring size. The generality of this pattern is unclear, as some studies suggest that it may represent non-adaptive variation or be an artifact of temporal or spatial differences in maternal environments. To clarify this pattern, we asked how maternal size, age and condition are related to each other in several populations of the swordtail Xiphophorus birchmanni. We then determined how these traits are related to offspring size, and whether they could resolve unexplained intra-population variation in this trait. We found that female size, age, and condition are correlated within populations; at some of these sites, older, larger females produce larger offspring than do younger females. The pattern was robust to differences among most, but not all, sites. Our results document a pattern that is consistent with recent theory predicting adaptive age- and size-dependence in maternal investment. Further work is needed to rule out non-adaptive explanations for this variation. Our results suggest that female size and age could play an under-appreciated role in population growth and evolution. PMID:23139785

  20. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  1. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤ 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤ 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (<15 years or <2 years post-menarche) on infant outcomes is moderate; that is, future studies are likely to refine the estimate of effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar

  2. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis.

  3. Obstetric Complications, Neonatal Morbidity, and Indications for Cesarean Delivery by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Julia; Reddy, Uma M.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita W.; Landy, Helain J.; Laughon, S. Katherine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To delineate adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as indications for cesarean delivery by maternal age in a contemporaneous large national cohort. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records from 12 centers and 203,517 (30,673 women aged 35 years or older) women with singleton gestations stratified by maternal age. Logistic regression was performed to investigate maternal and neonatal outcomes for each maternal age strata (referent group, age 25.0–29.9 years), adjusting for race, parity, body mass index, insurance, pre-existing medical conditions, substance and tobacco use, and site. Documented indications for cesarean delivery were analyzed. RESULTS Neonates born to women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest risk of birth weight less than 2,500 g (7.2%; P<.001), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (11.5%; P<.001), and perinatal mortality (0.7%; P<.001). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were higher in women aged 35 years or older (cumulative rate 8.5% compared with 7.8%; 25.0–29.9 years; P<.001). Previous uterine scar was the leading indication for cesarean delivery in women aged 25.0 years or older (36.9%; P<.001). For younger women, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion (37.0% for those younger than age 20.0 years and 31.1% for those aged 20.0– 24.9-years; P<.001) and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing (28.7% for those younger than 20.0 years and 21.2% for those aged 20.0–24.9-years; P<.001) predominated as indications. Truly elective cesarean delivery rate was 20.2% for women aged 45.0 years or older (adjusted odds ratio 1.85 [99% confidence interval 1.03–3.32] compared with the referent age group of 25.0–29.9 years). CONCLUSIONS Maternal and obstetric complications differed by maternal age, as did rates of elective cesarean delivery. Women aged 25.0–29.9 years had the lowest rate of serious neonatal morbidity. PMID:24201681

  4. The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable.

    PubMed

    Schulkey, Claire E; Regmi, Suk D; Magnan, Rachel A; Danzo, Megan T; Luther, Herman; Hutchinson, Alayna K; Panzer, Adam A; Grady, Mary M; Wilson, David B; Jay, Patrick Y

    2015-04-09

    Maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease even in the absence of any chromosomal abnormality in the newborn. Whether the basis of this risk resides with the mother or oocyte is unknown. The impact of maternal age on congenital heart disease can be modelled in mouse pups that harbour a mutation of the cardiac transcription factor gene Nkx2-5 (ref. 8). Here, reciprocal ovarian transplants between young and old mothers establish a maternal basis for the age-associated risk in mice. A high-fat diet does not accelerate the effect of maternal ageing, so hyperglycaemia and obesity do not simply explain the mechanism. The age-associated risk varies with the mother's strain background, making it a quantitative genetic trait. Most remarkably, voluntary exercise, whether begun by mothers at a young age or later in life, can mitigate the risk when they are older. Thus, even when the offspring carry a causal mutation, an intervention aimed at the mother can meaningfully reduce their risk of congenital heart disease.

  5. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-05-03

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  6. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.

  7. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  8. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  9. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  10. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Allen J.; Xu, Zongli; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Harlid, Sophia; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Håberg, Siri E.; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lie, Rolv T.; Wade, Paul A.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child’s DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers’ age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7). These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother’s age at pregnancy could affect her child’s health through epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27383059

  11. Recombination and maternal age-dependent nondisjunction: Molecular studies of trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Hassold, T.; Merrill, M.; Adkins, K.

    1995-10-01

    Trisomy 16 is the most common human trisomy, occurring in {ge} 1% of all clinically recognized pregnancies. It is thought to be completely dependent on maternal age and thus provides a useful model for studying the association of increasing maternal age and nondisjunction. We have been conducting a study to determine the parent and meiotic stage of origin of trisorny 16 and the possible association of nondisjunction and aberrant recombination. In the present report, we summarize our observations on 62 spontaneous abortions with trisomy 16. All trisomies were maternally derived, and in virtually all the error occurred at meiosis I. In studies of genetic recombination, we observed a highly significant reduction in recombination in the trisomy-generating meioses by comparison with normal female meioses. However, most cases of trisomy 16 had at least one detectable crossover between the nondisjoined chromosomes, indicating that it is reduced-and not absent-recombination that is the important predisposing factor. Additionally, our data indicate an altered distribution of crossing-over in trisomy 16, as we rarely observed crossovers in the proximal long and short arms. Thus, it may be that, at least for trisomy 16, the association between maternal age and trisomy is due to diminished recombination, particularly in the proximal regions of the chromosome. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fatigue, depression, maternal confidence, and maternal satisfaction during the first month postpartum: A comparison of Japanese mothers by age and parity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maternal confidence or satisfaction among older primiparae during the first month postpartum. The number of older Japanese primiparae has rapidly increased. Older primiparae are believed to be at high risk for puerperal morbidity. A multicentre prospective cohort study design was used. Data were examined from 2854 Japanese women who participated in a 6-month prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and September 2013. The women were classified into 4 groups based on maternal age and parity. All participants completed the Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale, Japanese Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Postpartum Maternal Confidence Scale, and Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Primiparae in all age groups were more severely fatigued and had a higher risk of postpartum depression than multiparous mothers during the first month postpartum. Older primiparae had significantly lower scores on maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction than the other 3 groups at 1 month postpartum. These findings suggest that postpartum nursing should focus on promoting adequate sleep, providing emotional support, and fostering the process of maternal role adaptation among older Japanese primiparae, particularly during the first postpartum month.

  13. Gestational age, sex and maternal parity correlate with bone turnover in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hany; Moustafa, Mohamed F; Amer, Hanna A; Hassanein, Sahar; Keeves, Christine; Patel, Kantilal

    2005-05-01

    Factors affecting bone turnover in premature infants are not entirely clear but certainly are different from those influencing bones of adults and children. To identify fetal and maternal factors that might influence bone turnover, we prospectively studied 50 infants (30 preterm and 20 full-term) born at Ain Shams University Obstetric Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Maternal parity and medical history and infant's weight, gestational age, gender and anthropometrical measurements were recorded. Cord blood samples were collected and serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) was assessed as a marker for fetal bone formation. First morning urine samples were collected and pyridinoline cross-links of collagen (Pyd) were measured as an index for bone resorption. Serum PICP was higher in premature infants when compared with full-term infants (73.30 +/- 15.1 versus 64.3 +/- 14.7, p = 0.022) and was higher in male premature infants when compared with females (81.64 +/- 9.06 versus 66.0 +/- 15.7, p = 0.018). In a multiple regression model using PICP as the dependent variable and controlling for different infant and maternal conditions, PICP significantly correlated with infant gender (r = 8.26 +/- 4.1, p = 0.05) maternal parity (r = -2.106 +/- 0.99, p = 0.041) and diabetes (r = 22.488 +/- 8.73, p = 0.041). Urine Pyd tended to increase in premature infants (612 +/- 308 versus 434 +/- 146, p = 0.057) and correlated significantly with gestational age (r = -63.93 +/- 19.55, p = 0.002). Therefore, bone formation (PICP) is influenced by fetal age and gender, as well as maternal parity and diabetes. Bone resorption (Pyd) is mostly dependent on gestational age only. Further in-depth studies are needed to enrich management of this vulnerable population.

  14. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  15. Light and maternal influence in the entrainment of activity circadian rhythm in infants 4-12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.

  16. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Kato, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-08

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.

  17. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Katoh, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-01

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected. PMID:28075338

  18. Prevention of maternal aging-associated oocyte aneuploidy and meiotic spindle defects in mice by dietary and genetic strategies.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Muhlhauser, Ailene; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2011-07-26

    Increased meiotic spindle abnormalities and aneuploidy in oocytes of women of advanced maternal ages lead to elevated rates of infertility, miscarriage, and trisomic conceptions. Despite the significance of the problem, strategies to sustain oocyte quality with age have remained elusive. Here we report that adult female mice maintained under 40% caloric restriction (CR) did not exhibit aging-related increases in oocyte aneuploidy, chromosomal misalignment on the metaphase plate, meiotic spindle abnormalities, or mitochondrial dysfunction (aggregation, impaired ATP production), all of which occurred in oocytes of age-matched ad libitum-fed controls. The effects of CR on oocyte quality in aging females were reproduced by deletion of the metabolic regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thus, CR during adulthood or loss of PGC-1α function maintains female germline chromosomal stability and its proper segregation during meiosis, such that ovulated oocytes of aged female mice previously maintained on CR or lacking PGC-1α are comparable to those of young females during prime reproductive life.

  19. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized human oocytes is unrelated to maternal age

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Nureddin, Aida.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Racowsky, Catherine

    2004-12-04

    Purpose: To study whether maternal meiotic errors in failed-fertilized oocytes involving chromosome 1 occur at frequencies similar to those involving other autosomes, and whether their frequency is affected by maternal age. Methods: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), frequencies of aneusomy and chromatid pre-division involving chromosomes 1, 16, 18, and 21 were determined for 273 failed-fertilized oocytes. Results: The aneuploidy rate for chromosome 1 was 15.8 percent, and was neither age-dependent nor significantly different from that for chromosomes 16,18 or 21. Only chromosome 16 exhibited an age-dependent increase in aneusomy rates. The frequency of chromatid pre-division was lower for chromosome 1 than for chromosome 18 (11.9 percent vs. 25.4 percent; P=0.01), but not different from that for chromosomes 16 or 21. Conclusion: Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 in failed-fertilized oocytes is unrelated to maternal age and occurs at a frequency similar to that for chromosomes 16, 18 and 21.

  20. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  1. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozkosem, Burak; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old), adult (8-month-old), and old (20-month-old) Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice. PMID:25796034

  2. Pretend Play and Maternal Scaffolding: Comparisons of Toddlers with Advanced Development, Typical Development, and Hearing Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morelock, Martha J.; Brown, P. Margaret; Morrissey, Anne-Marie

    2003-01-01

    A study involving three children with impaired hearing, three typical children, and three showing intellectual advancement, found children scoring above 130 IQ at age four demonstrated significantly advanced pretend play as toddlers. Mothers of the high IQ children engaged in scaffolding behaviors involving higher stages of pretend transformation,…

  3. Extremes of maternal age and child mortality: analysis between 2000 and 2009☆

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fanciele Dinis; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Sant'Anna, Flávia Lopes; Dalmas, José Carlos; Girotto, Edmarlon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of infant mortality at the extremes of maternal age. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional quantitative study using data from Live Birth Certificates, Death Certificates and from Child Death Investigation records in Londrina, Paraná, in the years of 2000-2009. RESULTS: During the 10-year study period , there were 176 infant deaths among mothers up to 19 years of age, and 113 deaths among mothers aged 35 years or more. The infant mortality rate among young mothers was 14.4 deaths per thousand births, compared to 12.9 deaths in the other age group. For adolescent mothers, the following conditions prevailed: lack of a stable partner (p<0.001), lack of a paid job (p<0.001), late start of prenatal care in the second trimester of pregnancy (p<0.001), fewer prenatal visits (p<0.001) and urinary tract infections (p<0.001). On the other hand, women aged 35 or more had a higher occurrence of hypertension during pregnancy (p<0.001), and of surgical delivery (p<0.001). Regarding the underlying cause of infant death, congenital anomalies prevailed in the group of older mothers (p=0.002), and external causes were predominant in the group of young mothers (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: Both age groups deserve the attention of social services for maternal and child health, especially adolescent mothers, who presented a higher combination of factors deemed hazardous to the child's health. PMID:25511003

  4. Delivery of a Small for Gestational Age Infant and Greater Maternal Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Davis, Karen E.; Wilson, Peter W. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant has been associated with increased maternal risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is uncertain whether giving birth to SGA infant is a specific determinant of later IHD, independent of other risk factors, or a marker of general poor health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between delivery of a SGA infant and maternal risk for IHD in relation to traditional IHD risk factors. Methods and Findings Risk of maternal IHD was evaluated in a population based cross-sectional study of 6,608 women with a prior live term birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006), a probability sample of the U.S. population. Sequence of events was determined from age at last live birth and at diagnosis of IHD. Delivery of a SGA infant is strongly associated with greater maternal risk for IHD (age adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.8; 1.2, 2.9; p = 0.012). The association was independent of the family history of IHD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes (family history-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.9; 1.2, 3.0; p = 0.011) as well as other risk factors for IHD (risk factor-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.1, 2.7; p = 0.025). Delivery of a SGA infant was associated with earlier onset of IHD and preceded it by a median of 30 (interquartile range: 20, 36) years. Conclusions Giving birth to a SGA infant is strongly and independently associated with IHD and a potential risk factor that precedes IHD by decades. A pregnancy that produces a SGA infant may induce long-term cardiovascular changes that increase risk for IHD. PMID:22431995

  5. Risk of Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes by Maternal Age: Quantifying Individual and Population Level Risk Using Routine UK Maternity Data

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Nicole; Pipi, Maria; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Doyle, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether moderately increased maternal age is associated with obstetric and neonatal outcome in a contemporary population, and to consider the possible role of co-morbidities in explaining any increased risk. Study Design Secondary analysis of routinely collected data from a large maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 51,225 singleton deliveries (≥22 weeks) occurring to women aged ≥20 between 2004 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios for the association between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcome (delivery type, postpartum haemorrhage, stillbirth, low birthweight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal unit admission), using the reference group 20–24 years. Population attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the population impact. Results We found an association between increasing maternal age and major postpartum haemorrhage (≥1000ml blood loss) (RR 1.36 95% CI 1.18–1.57 for age 25–29 rising to 2.41 95% CI 2.02–2.88 for age ≥40). Similar trends were observed for caesarean delivery, most notably for elective caesareans (RR 1.64 95% CI 1.36–1.96 for age 25–29 rising to 4.94 95% CI 4.09–5.96 for age ≥40). There was evidence that parity modified this association, with a higher prevalence of elective caesarean delivery in older nulliparous women. Women aged ≥35 were at increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We found no evidence that the risk of stillbirth, small for gestational age, or neonatal unit admission differed by maternal age. Conclusions Our results suggest a gradual increase in the risk of caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage from age 25, persisting after taking into account maternal BMI, hypertension and diabetes. The risk of low birthweight and preterm birth was elevated in women over 35. Further research is needed to understand the reasons behind the high prevalence of

  6. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  7. Schizencephaly: association with young maternal age, alcohol use, and lack of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Dies, Kira A; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S; Barkovich, A James; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly.

  8. Parental age and unbalanced Robertsonian translocations associated with Down syndrome and Patau syndrome: comparison with maternal and paternal age effects for 47, +21 and 47, +13.

    PubMed

    Hook, E B

    1984-10-01

    Data are analysed on livebirths with trisomic syndromes associated with unbalanced Robertsonian translocations born from 1968 to 1981 and reported to the New York State Chromosome Registry. The maternal ages of reported cases were compared with those of the livebirths in the general population who were born in the same year. The number of translocations studied, the mean case-control differences in years in maternal age (and the standard errors of the mean) were respectively, as follows: D/21 mutants, n = 36, -0.1 (+/- 0.9); G/21 mutants, n = 46, +1.5 (+/-0.8); D/13 mutants, n = 16, +0.6 (+/-1.5); D/21 inherited, n = 12, -1.0 (+/-1.4); G/21 inherited, n = 3, -0.3 (+/-4.4); and D/13 inherited, n = 6, +2.1 (+/-2.4). There was little change in any category if the few cases diagnosed prenatally were included. Only the value for the G/21 mutants is significantly different from zero at the 0.05 level. (The results on G/21 mutants in maternal age are consistent with an earlier Japanese report of an increase of about 2 years over the control values.) The distribution of maternal ages suggests that G/21 mutants may be produced both by maternal age-independent and maternal age-dependent components. The data on D/21 mutants, however, do not indicate the negative association with maternal age reported in Japan. Differences between this study and the Japanese study in analyses of controls may explain this slight variation. But in any event both studies reveal no evidence for an increase in maternal age for unbalanced D/21 mutant or D/21 inherited translocations associated with Down syndrome. This is evidence against the hypothesis that relaxed selection during gestation, after recognition of pregnancy, accounts for the maternal age effects of 47, +21. In comparison with the results on Robertsonian translocations, the case-control differences in maternal age in years (and the standard errors of the mean) for 47, +21 for 2148 livebirths was +4.6 (+/-0.2), and for 2354 cases

  9. Relationship between maternal hypoglycaemia and small-for-gestational-age infants according to maternal weight status: a retrospective cohort study in two hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Satoshi; Uchida, Yuzo; Hirai, Mitsuo; Hirata, Shuji; Suzuki, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and low glucose challenge test (GCT) results by maternal weight status has not been examined. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between a low GCT result and small for gestational age (SGA) by maternal weight status. Design A retrospective cohort study in 2 hospitals. Setting This study evaluated the obstetric records of women who delivered in a general community hospital and a tertiary perinatal care centre. Participants The number of women who delivered in both hospitals between January 2012 and December 2013 and underwent GCT between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation was 2140. Participants with gestational diabetes mellitus or diabetes during pregnancy, and GCT results of ≥140 mg/dL were excluded. Finally, 1860 women were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The participants were divided into low-GCT (≤90 mg/dL) and non-low-GCT groups (91–139 mg/dL). The χ2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between low GCT results and SGA by maternal weight status. Results The incidence of SGA was 11.4% (212/1860), and 17.7% (330/1860) of the women showed low GCT results. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their BMI (underweight, normal weight and obese). When the patients were analysed separately by their weight status after controlling for maternal age, pre-pregnancy maternal weight, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension, thyroid disease and difference in hospital, low GCT results were significantly associated with SGA (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14 to 3.89; p=0.02) in the underweight group. Conclusions Low GCT result was associated with SGA at birth among underweight women. Examination of maternal glucose tolerance and fetal growth is necessary in future investigations. PMID:27913562

  10. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  11. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  12. Maternal age at birth and risk of breast cancer in daughters.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Janerich, D T

    1990-03-01

    Data from a large case-control study of breast cancer were examined to test the hypothesis that maternal age at the birth of female offspring is related to the incidence of breast cancer in daughters. Participants were between the ages of 20 and 54 at the time of the study. Based on results for 2,492 parous women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 2,687 parous controls from the general population, a 15-year increase in maternal age was found to be associated with a 29% increase in the risk of breast cancer in daughters. Adjustment for the daughter's age, her own reproductive history, and other potential confounding factors yielded an estimate of 25% for this increase in risk (95% CI, 8% to 46%). The corresponding increase among 499 nulliparous cases and 457 nulliparous controls was 7%, which was not statistically significantly different in magnitude from the increase among parous women. These findings provide evidence for perinatal influences on the subsequent incidence of breast cancer during adulthood. Although specific mechanisms cannot be inferred directly, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations in the genes of the human egg or sperm play a role in the etiology of breast cancer in female offspring.

  13. Implications of Advancing Paternal Age: Does It Affect Offspring School Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Anna C.; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI −3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30–34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers. PMID:21957460

  14. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  15. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  16. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  17. Maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure in childhood in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Leary, S D; Smith, G Davey; Ness, A R

    2005-11-01

    Associations between maternal age in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure (BP) at age 7(1/2) were investigated in 7623 singletons from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In models adjusted for age and sex there was an inverse relationship between maternal age and BP in children: beta = -0.06 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.10 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for systolic BP and beta = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to -0.01, P = 0.02) for diastolic BP. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for confounding factors: beta = -0.02 mmHg per year of maternal age (95% CI -0.07 to 0.04, P = 0.5) for systolic BP and beta = -0.03 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.01, P = 0.2) for diastolic BP. We conclude that there is no evidence of a relationship between maternal age in pregnancy and childhood BP in this contemporary birth cohort.

  18. Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Lauren E.; Glover, Vivette; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Evans, Jonathan; O’Connor, Thomas G.; Stein, Alan; Murphy, Susannah E.; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of childhood behavioural and emotional problems in offspring; it remains unclear to what extent this is due to a maternal biological impact on foetal development. Here, we compare associations between maternal and paternal antenatal depression and anxiety with offspring anxiety disorders, thus controlling for some genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We used data from the ALSPAC population cohort including measures of antenatal parental depression and anxiety. At 18 years, offspring completed the CIS-R interview, yielding diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including parental postnatal depression and anxiety. Results Children of women with antenatal depression (18 weeks gestation), had an increased risk of anxiety disorders at 18 years of age (11.1% vs. 6.2%; adj. OR 1.75 (1.19, 2.58); p=0.01). Children of women with antenatal anxiety had increased risk of co-morbid anxiety and depression (adj. OR 1.39 (1.06, 1.82); p=0.02). No such associations were found with paternal antenatal depression or anxiety. Limitations There was a high attrition rate from the original cohort to the CIS-R completion at 18 years postpartum. Parental mood was only assessed together at one time point during the antenatal period. Conclusions The differences in the association between maternal and paternal mood during pregnancy and child outcomes supports the hypothesis that foetal programming may account, at least in part, for this association. We highlight the potential opportunity for preventative intervention by optimising antenatal mental health. PMID:26301478

  19. Maternal age, gravidity, and pregnancy spacing effects on spontaneous fetal mortality.

    PubMed

    Casterline, J B

    1989-01-01

    Differentials in the probability of pregnancy loss are examined using pregnancy history data from eight WFS surveys in developing countries. Multiple logistic regression equations are estimated. The probability of loss varies substantially over the reproductive career. Both higher-order pregnancies and those conceived at older ages are more likely to terminate in loss. maternal age differentials are more pronounced for lower-order pregnancies. First and second pregnancies conceived over age thirty suffer especially high levels of loss. Pregnancies conceived relatively soon after the termination of the previous pregnancy are more likely to be lost, as are pregnancies conceived after long intervals. Risk of loss is higher for women previously experiencing loss, and the effect persists beyond the pregnancy following the loss.

  20. Maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Reddy, Uma M.; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H.; Hibbard, Judith U.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Branch, D. Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Hatjis, Christos G.; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Kominiarek, Michelle; Landy, Helain J.; Learman, Lee A.; Troendle, James; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Wilkins, Isabelle; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age. STUDY DESIGN We used electronic medical records data from 10 US institutions in the Consortium on Safe Labor on 115,528 deliveries from 2002 through 2008. Deliveries were divided by labor onset type (spontaneous, elective induction, indicated induction, unlabored cesarean). Neonatal and maternal outcomes were calculated by labor onset type and gestational age. RESULTS Neonatal intensive care unit admissions and sepsis improved with each week of gestational age until 39 weeks (P < .001). After adjusting for complications, elective induction of labor was associated with a lower risk of ventilator use (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 – 0.53), sepsis (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26 – 0.49), and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.48 – 0.57) compared to spontaneous labor. The relative risk of hysterectomy at term was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.08 – 9.54) with elective induction, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.24 – 5.58) with indicated induction, and 6.57 (95% CI, 1.78 – 24.30) with cesarean without labor compared to spontaneous labor. CONCLUSION Some neonatal outcomes improved until 39 weeks. Babies born with elective induction are associated with better neonatal outcomes compared to spontaneous labor. Elective induction may be associated with an increased hysterectomy risk. PMID:20207242

  1. The influence of maternal age and mating frequency on egg size and offspring performance in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W

    1993-10-01

    Maternal age influences offspring quality of many species of insects. This observed maternal age influence on offspring performance may be mediated through maternal age effects on egg size, which in turn may be directly influenced by the female's nutritional state. Thus, behaviors that influence a female's nutritional status will indirectly influence egg size, and possibly offspring life histories. Because males provide nutrients to females in their ejaculate, female mating frequency is one behavior which may influence her nutritional status, and thus the size of her eggs and the performance of her offspring. In this paper, I first quantify the influences of maternal age on egg size and offspring performance of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. I then examine whether nutrients transferred during copulation reduce the magnitude of maternal age effects on egg size and larval performance when mothers are nutrient-stressed. Egg size and egg hatchability decreased, and development time increased, with increasing maternal age. Multiple mating and adult feeding by females both resulted in increased egg size. This increase in egg size of females mated multiply did not translate into reduced development time or increased body size and egg hatchability, but did correlate with improved survivorship of offspring produced by old mothers. Thus, it appears that because the influence of mating frequency on egg size is small relative to the influence of maternal age, the influence of nutrients derived from multiple mating on offspring life history is almost undetectable (detected only as a small influence on survivorship). For C. maculatus, female multiple mating has been demonstrated to increase adult female survivorship (Fox 1993a), egg production (Credland and Wright 1989; Fox 1993a), egg size, and larval survivorship, but, contrary to the suggestion of Wasserman and Asami (1985), multiple mating had no detectable influence on offspring development time or body size.

  2. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge; Bacelis, Jonas; Lengyel, Candice; Teramo, Kari; Hallman, Mikko; Helgeland, Øyvind; Johansson, Stefan; Myhre, Ronny; Sengpiel, Verena; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background Observational epidemiological studies indicate that maternal height is associated with gestational age at birth and fetal growth measures (i.e., shorter mothers deliver infants at earlier gestational ages with lower birth weight and birth length). Different mechanisms have been postulated to explain these associations. This study aimed to investigate the casual relationships behind the strong association of maternal height with fetal growth measures (i.e., birth length and birth weight) and gestational age by a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using phenotype and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of 3,485 mother/infant pairs from birth cohorts collected from three Nordic countries (Finland, Denmark, and Norway). We constructed a genetic score based on 697 SNPs known to be associated with adult height to index maternal height. To avoid confounding due to genetic sharing between mother and infant, we inferred parental transmission of the height-associated SNPs and utilized the haplotype genetic score derived from nontransmitted alleles as a valid genetic instrument for maternal height. In observational analysis, maternal height was significantly associated with birth length (p = 6.31 × 10−9), birth weight (p = 2.19 × 10−15), and gestational age (p = 1.51 × 10−7). Our parental-specific haplotype score association analysis revealed that birth length and birth weight were significantly associated with the maternal transmitted haplotype score as well as the paternal transmitted haplotype score. Their association with the maternal nontransmitted haplotype score was far less significant, indicating a major fetal genetic influence on these fetal growth measures. In contrast, gestational age was significantly associated with the nontransmitted haplotype score (p = 0.0424) and demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0234) causal effect of every 1 cm increase in maternal

  3. Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder. PMID:22182364

  4. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years.

  5. Effects of maternal age on teratogenicity of di-n-butyltin diacetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Noda, T; Yamano, T; Shimizu, M

    2001-10-30

    The present study was designed to assess changes in the teratogenic potency of di-n-butyltin diacetate (DBTA) with increasing maternal age in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats of 3, 7.5 or 12 months were treated orally with DBTA at 0, 7.5, 10, 15 or 22 mg/kg on day 8 of gestation. Cesarean sections were performed on day 20 of gestation. Maternal age had greater impact on litter size in the 7.5- and 12-month dams than the 3-month dams. The death of most of the fetuses of the 12-month dams made it difficult to evaluate the teratogenic potency of DBTA. In 3-month groups, fetuses with external malformation, such as cleft mandible, cleft lower lip, ankyloglossia and/or schistoglossia, which are malformations typical of DBTA, were observed at 15 and 22 mg/kg, while similar malformations were observed in 7.5-month groups at doses of 10 mg/kg and above. At 15 and 22 mg/kg, the incidences of these malformations in 7.5-month groups were similar to these from 3-month groups. In our previous studies, however, single DBTA-treatment at 10 mg/kg on day 8 of gestation has not produced such malformations from 3-month dams. The results suggest that the teratogenic potency of DBTA in 7.5-month dams may be greater than in 3-month dams.

  6. The Relationship of Maternal Age, Quickening, and Physical Symptoms of Pregnancy on the Development of Maternal-Fetal Attachment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Monographs, 95, 55-96. Lips, H. (1985). A longitudinal study of the reporting of emotional and somatic symptoms during and after pregnancy. Social ... Medicine , 21(6), 631-640. LoBiondo-Wood, G. (1985). The Progression of Pregnancy _ Symptoms in Pregnancy and the Development of Maternal-Fetal Attachment

  7. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  8. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  9. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Tint, Mya-Thway; Chia, Airu; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Saw, Seang-Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2016-01-01

    Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), subscapular skinfold (SS), and triceps skinfold (TS) were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME)) and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1) vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR); (2) seafood-and-noodles (SfN); and (3) pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB). In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD) increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS) at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity. PMID:28025503

  10. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse.

  11. [Maternal Predictors of Body Mass Index of Pre-school and School Age Children].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Félix, Rosario E; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Cárdenas-Villareal, Valia M; Moral de la Rubia, José; Ruvalcaba Rodríguez, María D; Hernandez-Carranco, Roandy G

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to identify maternal variables that could be used as predictors of the child's body mass index (BMI). We considered the following variables: (a) socio-demographic (age, education, occupation, marital status and family income); (b) anthropometric (BMI); and (c) upbringing strategies (monitoring and limits for eating habits, monitoring and sedentary behavior limits, discipline and control in feeding. A predictive correlational study was carried out with 537 dyads (mother-child). Children enrolled in 4 public schools (2 for pre-school children and 2 for primary school children) were selected for probabilistic, random sampling. The mothers answered the Feeding and Activity Upbringing Strategies Scale, giving socio-demographic information and the dyads' weight and height was measured. The data were analyzed for correlations and path analysis. It was found that the average age of mothers was 34.25 years (SD=6.91), with 12.40 years of education (SD=3.36), 53.3% mentioned that they were housewives and 46.7% had a paid job outside of the home; 38.5% showed pre-OB and 27.3% some degree of OB. The child's average age was 7.26 years (SD=2.46), and 3.2% showed low weight, 59.6% normal weight and 37.2% OW-0B. It was found that working outside the home, having a higher maternal BMI, less control and more discipline in feeding are variables that predict higher BMI in the child. We recommend the design of interventions to reduce and treat the child's OW-OB taking into account the predictors that were found.

  12. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood.

  13. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  14. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  15. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  16. Management and counseling of the male with advanced paternal age.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Michael O; Owen, Ryan C; Keefe, David; Kim, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    Increasing percentages of children are being born to older fathers. This has resulted in concerns about the potential adverse effects of advanced paternal age. To help clinicians counsel couples, a systemic review was performed to attempt to address questions that these couples may ask: Should routine sperm testing be performed in older males? Should preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) be performed? How do providers counsel patients about risk? Should young males freeze sperm if they plan to delay paternity? Using the terms "advanced paternal age", "semen testing", "preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening", and "cryopreservation", a comprehensive search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library, and numerous international societal guidelines were reviewed. In total, 42 articles or guidelines were reviewed. There were no limits placed on the timing of the articles. Thirty articles were found to be relevant and beneficial to answering the above questions. Each question was answered separately by the supporting literature. While primary research exists to support the role of semen testing, PGD/preimplantation genetic screening, and sperm banking in males who may be affected by advancing age, comprehensive studies on the possible clinical benefit of these interventions have yet to be performed. As a result, societal guidelines have yet to incorporate distinct best-practice guidelines on advanced paternal age.

  17. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  18. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  19. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  20. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  1. Effects of maternal age on embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes using testicular sperm with intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Won; Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Chun Kyu; Seo, Ju Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal age on fertilization, embryo quality, and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia. Methods A total of 416 ICSI cycles using testicular spermatozoa from partners with obstructive azoospermia (OA, n=301) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA, n=115) were analyzed. Female patients were divided into the following age groups: 27 to 31 years, 32 to 36 years, and 37 to 41 years. The rates of fertilization, high-quality embryos, clinical pregnancy, and delivery were compared across maternal age groups between the OA and NOA groups. Results The rates of fertilization and high-quality embryos were not significantly different among the maternal age groups. Similarly, the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates were not significantly different. The fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group than in the NOA group (p<0.05). Age-group analysis revealed that the fertilization and high-quality embryo rates were significantly different between the OA and NOA groups in patients aged 27 to 31 years old, but not for the other age groups. Although the clinical pregnancy and delivery rates differed between the OA and NOA groups across all age groups, significant differences were not observed. Conclusion In couples using testicular sperm from male partners with azoospermia, pregnancy and delivery outcomes were not affected by maternal age. However, women older than 37 years using testicular sperm from partners with azoospermia should be advised of the increased incidence of pregnancy failure. PMID:28090461

  2. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets.

  3. Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2011-10-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

  4. Germline mosaicism does not explain the maternal age effect on trisomy.

    PubMed

    Rowsey, Ross; Kashevarova, Anna; Murdoch, Brenda; Dickenson, Carrie; Woodruff, Tracey; Cheng, Edith; Hunt, Patricia; Hassold, Terry

    2013-10-01

    A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the association between trisomy and increasing maternal age in humans, virtually all of which assume that the underlying mechanisms involve meiotic errors. However, recently Hultén and colleagues [Hulten et al., 2010b] proposed a provocative model-the Oocyte Mosaicism Selection Model (OMSM)-that links age-dependent trisomy 21 to pre-meiotic errors in the ovary. Specifically, they propose that nondisjunctional events occur in a proportion of germ cells as they mitotically proliferate, resulting in mosaicism for trisomy 21. Assuming that the presence of an additional chromosome 21 delays meiotic progression, these cells would be ovulated later in reproductive life, resulting in an age-dependent increase in aneuploid eggs. Because this model has important clinical implications, we initiated studies to test it. We first analyzed oocytes from two trisomy 21 fetuses, combining immunostaining with FISH to determine the likelihood of detecting the additional chromosome 21 at different stages of meiosis. The detection of trisomy was enhanced during the earliest stage of prophase (leptotene), before homologs synapsed. Accordingly, in subsequent studies we examined the chromosome content of leptotene oocytes in seven second trimester female fetuses, analyzing three chromosomes commonly associated with human trisomies (i.e., 13, 16, and 21). In contrast to the prediction of the OMSM, we found no evidence of trisomy mosaicism for any chromosome. We conclude that errors in pre-meiotic germ cells are not a major contributor to human aneuploidy and do not provide an explanation for the age-related increase in trisomic conceptions.

  5. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  6. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. Results: There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. PMID:27759818

  7. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  8. Mediational pathways connecting secondary education and age at marriage to maternal mortality: A comparison between developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hagues, Rachel Joy; Bae, DaYoung; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-02-01

    While studies have shown that maternal mortality rates have been improving worldwide, rates are still high across developing nations. In general, poor health of women is associated with higher maternal mortality rates in developing countries. Understanding country-level risk factors can inform intervention and prevention efforts that could bring high maternal mortality rates down. Specifically, the authors were interested in investigating whether: (1) secondary education participation (SEP) or age at marriage (AM) of women were related to maternal mortality rates, and (2) adolescent birth rate and contraceptive use (CU) acted as mediators of this association. The authors add to the literature with this current article by showing the relation of SEP and AM to maternal mortality rates globally (both directly and indirectly through mediators) and then by comparing differences between developed and developing/least developed countries. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model using country level longitudinal data from 2000 to 2010 obtained from United Nations publications, World Health Organization materials, and World Bank development reports. Findings include a significant correlation between SEP and AM for developing countries; for developed countries the relation was not significant. As well, SEP in developing countries was associated with increased CU. Women in developing countries who finish school before marriage may have important social capital gains.

  9. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

    2012-08-15

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30-34 and ≥35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ≥35. For offspring with paternal age of <25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD.

  10. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  11. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  12. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  13. Predicting Elements of Early Maternal Elaborative Discourse from 12 to 18 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontai, Lenna L.; Virmani, Elita Amini

    2010-01-01

    To date, much of the research investigating maternal-child discourse has focused on the preschool period of children's development, with little attention paid to how these styles develop. The current study aimed to assess whether maternal elaborative discourse elements seen in preschool are also evident during the toddler years, and whether the…

  14. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of mood and behavioral problems at age 5: evidence for mediation by maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smarius, Laetitia Joanna Clara Antonia; Strieder, Thea G A; Loomans, Eva M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J; van Eijsden, Manon

    2017-03-01

    The onset of behavioral problems starts in early life. This study examined whether excessive infant crying (maternal ratings) is a determinant of emotional and behavioral problems at age 5-6 years. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a large prospective, observational, population-based multiethnic birth cohort, excessive infant crying (crying for three or more hours per 24 h day over the past week) during the 13th week after birth (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks), maternal burden of infant care and maternal aggressive behavior (either angry speaking, or physical aggression) was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's behavioral and emotional problems at the age of 5-6 were assessed by Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), by the subscale of generalized anxiety of the preschool anxiety scale (PAS), and by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Inclusion criterion was singleton birth. Exclusion criteria were preterm born babies or congenital disorders. Among 3389 children, excessive infant crying (n = 102) was associated with a twofold increased risk of the overall problem behavior, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6 [ORs between 1.75 (95 % CI 1.09-2.81) and 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30-3.46)]. This association was mediated by maternal burden of infant care (change in odds' ratio 1-17 %) and maternal aggressive behavior (change in odds' ratio 4-10 %). There was no effect modification by the child's gender or maternal parity. Excessive infant crying was not associated with general anxiety problems. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of behavioral, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6, as reported by their mother. Maternal burden of infant care partially mediates the association between excessive crying and behavioral and mood problems. Special care for mothers with a high burden of care for their excessive crying infant, notwithstanding their own good

  15. Moderate to severe, but not mild, maternal anemia is associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kozuki, Naoko; Lee, Anne C; Katz, Joanne

    2012-02-01

    Anemia is highly prevalent globally, estimated at 40-50% in women of reproductive age. Prior studies have produced inconclusive evidence as to the association between maternal anemia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We conducted a systematic review of the literature containing associations between maternal anemia and small for gestational age (SGA) outcomes (as a proxy for IUGR). A meta-analysis was performed to pool associations, categorized by the hemoglobin cutoffs presented by the authors. We identified 12 studies reporting associations between maternal anemia and SGA. For the meta-analysis, there were 7 associations with a hemoglobin cutoff <110 g/L, 7 with a cutoff <100 g/L, and 5 with a cutoff <90 or <80 g/L. Although the <110- and <100-g/L categories showed no significant relationship with SGA, the <90- or <80-g/L category was associated with a 53% increase in risk of the newborn being SGA [pooled OR = 1.53 (95% CI: 1.24-1.87); P < 0.001]. Moderate to severe, but not mild, maternal anemia appears to have an association with SGA outcomes, but the findings must be viewed with caution due to the great heterogeneity of the studies. Further examination should be conducted using datasets with better standardized definitions and measurements of exposure and outcome.

  16. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  17. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    PubMed

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  18. Zinc uptake by human placental microvillous membrane vesicles: effects of gestational age and maternal serum zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Vargas Zapata, C L; Trugo, N M; Donangelo, C M

    2000-02-01

    Zinc uptake by syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane vesicles (SMMV) from human placentas was characterized and the effects of maternal serum zinc levels at term and of gestational age on kinetic parameters were evaluated. Zinc uptake at pH 7.2 was rapid for the first 2 min, followed by a slower increase, approaching equilibrium after 30 min. Uptake was saturable at a zinc concentration of 30 micromol/L, higher than the upper range of the physiological serum zinc level. Kinetic analysis of uptake at 1 min in SMMV from term placenta showed similar Km values (mean: 6.9+/-0.6 micromol/L) for different levels of maternal serum zinc. However, Vmax was higher (p < 0.05) in SMMV from mothers with serum zinc lower than 7.6 micromol/L compared to those with higher serum zinc levels (35.8+/-1.6 and 26.6+/-1.6 nmol 65Zn/mg protein/min, respectively). Km values were similar in term (>37 wk of gestation) and preterm (20-25 wk of gestation) placentas, whereas Vmax was higher (p < 0.05) in the preterm (34.3+/-1.6 nmol Zn/mg protein/min) compared to term placentas from mothers with serum zinc levels above 7.6 micromol/L. These results suggest that whereas afffinity for zinc was not altered with gestational age or maternal serum zinc levels, zinc-uptake capacity in human placenta is influenced both by gestational age and by low levels of maternal serum zinc in order to ensure an adequate maternal-fetal zinc transfer.

  19. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas; McElhoe, Jennifer A; Dickins, Benjamin; Blankenberg, Daniel; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Nielsen, Rasmus; Holland, Mitchell M; Paul, Ian M; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D

    2014-10-28

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis. For deleterious heteroplasmies, a severe bottleneck may abruptly transform a benign (low) frequency in a mother into a disease-causing (high) frequency in her child. Here we present a high-resolution study of heteroplasmy transmission conducted on blood and buccal mtDNA of 39 healthy mother-child pairs of European ancestry (a total of 156 samples, each sequenced at ∼20,000× per site). On average, each individual carried one heteroplasmy, and one in eight individuals carried a disease-associated heteroplasmy, with minor allele frequency ≥1%. We observed frequent drastic heteroplasmy frequency shifts between generations and estimated the effective size of the germ-line mtDNA bottleneck at only ∼30-35 (interquartile range from 9 to 141). Accounting for heteroplasmies, we estimated the mtDNA germ-line mutation rate at 1.3 × 10(-8) (interquartile range from 4.2 × 10(-9) to 4.1 × 10(-8)) mutations per site per year, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome.

  20. Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Yong Ping, Erin; Laplante, David P; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Hillerer, Katharina M; Brunet, Alain; O'Hara, Michael W; King, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts psychosocial development in offspring. It has been hypothesized that during PNMS, glucocorticoids pass the placenta, reaching the foetus, leading to a long-term reprogramming and dysregulation of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, results are inconsistent across PNMS studies. One problem may be the confounding of objective degrees of hardship due to the stressor and subjective degrees of distress in the mother. The present study investigated the association between objective and subjective PNMS due to a natural disaster, the June 2008 Iowa floods, and stress reactivity in the offspring at 2½ years of age. Women who were pregnant during the floods were recruited, on average, within three months of the floods and their stress levels assessed. Mothers and their toddlers (n = 94 dyads) participated in a brief mother-toddler separation to induce physiological stress responses in the offspring. Salivary cortisol samples were collected four times during the procedure. We computed absolute change in cortisol (baseline to 20-minute post-stressor; baseline to 45-minute post-stressor) and Area Under the Curve with respect to increase and ground (AUCi; AUCg). Objective and subjective PNMS were positively correlated with AUCi, as was timing in gestation: the later in pregnancy the exposure occurred, the greater the cortisol increase. Controlling for objective hardship and other covariates, sex-by-subjective PNMS interactions showed a significant and positive association between subjective PNMS and Absolute Increase (45 min) and AUCi in females only, with little effect in males. These results suggest that PNMS leads to long-term alterations in the functioning of the HPA axis, evident as early as 30-months of age.

  1. Maternal age and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in infertile couples at Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Shareef, Osama; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was considered as the mainstay of treatment for male infertility. Nowadays, the scope of ICSI has been widened to include other causes of infertility. There are few published data on ICSI in countries with low incomes. Aims A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad AbuAlla and Banoun Centers, Khartoum, Sudan to investigate outcomes of ICSI and to determine the parameters that might predict pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Methods The study included 191 infertile couples who underwent 296 ICSI cycles between 1st April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Results One hundred and ninety one couples (comprising 296 cycles of ICSI) were enrolled to the study. The mean (SD) number of retrieved oocytes was 9.7 (7.5).  The mean (SD) number of transferred embryos was 2.9 (1.0). Out of these, 50 (26.2%) and 40 (20.9%) had chemical and clinical pregnancy, respectively. Thirty–six couples (18.8%) and five couples (2.6%) had miscarriage and had ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Under logistic regression, younger age (OR = 0.8, 95% CI= 0.81 ─ 0.96, P = 0.004) and endometrial thickness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI= 1.07─1.60, P = 0.009) were the significant predictors for the success of ICSI in inducing pregnancy. Conclusion                 The rates of successful fertilisation and pregnancy-to-term rates in this setting depend mainly on the maternal age. PMID:27347370

  2. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress.

  3. Relationship between decreasing fertility during the post-war period and maternal age in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mariko; Ali, Moazzam; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    This research was performed in an effort to understand the decrease in fertility that has occurred over the past few decades. The objective of the study was to analyze female fertility according to maternal age; data were based on the number of children born per mother. The records of 18-year-old college students were obtained, and the mothers of the students were categorized into age groups according to the year of their birth (1915 to 1949). The number of children born to each mother was then analyzed. The total sample size was 4078. The results showed that an increase in two-children families led to a reduction in the mean number of children per mother. While the decrease in the maternal age at the time of the birth of the last child in the family was observed, the maternal age at the time of the first birth did not increase. Thus, the reduction in fertility may not be the result of delayed motherhood. The group of mothers, who gave birth to the largest number of children, had their highest fertility rate in the twenties. In addition, their fertility rate in the thirties was almost equal to other groups, who had the same fertility level in their twenties.

  4. Oxidative stress in aging: advances in proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual's Quality of Life (QOL). Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS]), which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8), naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in aging.

  5. Oxidative Stress in Aging: Advances in Proteomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual's Quality of Life (QOL). Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS]), which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8), naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in aging. PMID:24688629

  6. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  7. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets

  8. New Politics, an Opportunity for Maternal Health Advancement in Eastern Myanmar: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammed; Loyer, Diana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect. PMID:25395910

  9. New politics, an opportunity for maternal health advancement in eastern myanmar: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Loyer, Adam B; Ali, Mohammed; Loyer, Diana

    2014-09-01

    Myanmar (formerly Burma) is a southeast Asian country, with a long history of military dictatorship, human rights violations, and poor health indicators. The health situation is particularly dire among pregnant women in the ethnic minorities of the eastern provinces (Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen and Karenni regions). This integrative review investigates the current status of maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar in the context of armed conflict between various separatist groups and the military regime. The review examines the underlying factors contributing to high maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar and assesses gaps in the existing research, suggesting areas for further research and policy response. Uncovered were a number of underlying factors uniquely contributing to maternal mortality in eastern Myanmar. These could be grouped into the following analytical themes: ongoing conflict, health system deficits, and political and socioeconomic influences. Abortion was interestingly not identified as an important contributor to maternal mortality. Recent political liberalization may provide space to act upon identified roles and opportunities for the Myanmar Government, the international community, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in a manner that positively impacts on maternal healthcare in the eastern regions of Myanmar. This review makes a number of recommendations to this effect.

  10. The Evaluation of the Effects of Paternal and Maternal Silent Coeliac Disease on Birthweight and Gestational Age in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Kahveci, H; Turan, MI; Cayir, A; Laloglu, F; Ertekin, V; Orbak, Z

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Coeliac disease is a chronic disease and is common all over the world. It has many other associated systemic side effects. This study investigated the effect of paternal and maternal silent coeliac disease on birthweight and gestational age in newborns. Methods: The study group consisted of 81 newborns who were hospitalized for prematurity or term-intrauterine growth retardation. The parents of premature and/or small for gestational age babies born with coeliac disease-specific antigens were investigated. Results: The differences were not statistically significant in fathers' tissue transglutaminase levels between premature appropriate gestational age, premature small gestational age and term small gestational age infants (p > 0.05), but statistically significant in mothers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Silent coeliac disease may occur in parents, especially in mothers of preterm and small for gestational age infants, even in the absence of apparent clinical indications. PMID:25781285

  11. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs): involvement in aging and in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Grillo, M A; Colombatto, S

    2008-06-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed from the so-called Amadori products by rearrangement followed by other reactions giving rise to compounds bound irreversibly. The structure of some of them is shown and the mechanism of formation is described. Several AGE binding molecules (Receptors for AGE, RAGE) are known and it is thought that many of the effects caused by AGEs are mediated by RAGE. Some of these were shown to be toxic, and called TAGE. The mechanism of detoxification of glyoxal and methylglyoxal by the glyoxalase system is described and also the possibility to eliminate glycated proteins by deglycation enzymes. Compounds able to inhibit AGEs formation are also taken into consideration.

  12. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  13. An Advanced Model to Precisely Estimate the Cell-Free Fetal DNA Concentration in Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huixin; Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Weiwei; Chen, Fang; Zeng, Peng; Li, Xuchao; Xie, Yifan; Liu, Hongtai; Huang, Guodong; Chen, Dayang; Liu, Ping; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background With the speedy development of sequencing technologies, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely applied in clinical practice for testing for fetal aneuploidy. The cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) concentration in maternal plasma is the most critical parameter for this technology because it affects the accuracy of NIPT-based sequencing for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. Several approaches have been developed to calculate the cffDNA fraction of the total cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. However, most approaches depend on specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele information or are restricted to male fetuses. Methods In this study, we present an innovative method to accurately deduce the concentration of the cffDNA fraction using only maternal plasma DNA. SNPs were classified into four maternal-fetal genotype combinations and three boundaries were added to capture effective SNP loci in which the mother was homozygous and the fetus was heterozygous. The median value of the concentration of the fetal DNA fraction was estimated using the effective SNPs. A depth-bias correction was performed using simulated data and corresponding regression equations for adjustments when the depth of the sequencing data was below 100-fold or the cffDNA fraction is less than 10%. Results Using our approach, the median of the relative bias was 0.4% in 18 maternal plasma samples with a median sequencing depth of 125-fold. There was a significant association (r = 0.935) between our estimations and the estimations inferred from the Y chromosome. Furthermore, this approach could precisely estimate a cffDNA fraction as low as 3%, using only maternal plasma DNA at the targeted region with a sequencing depth of 65-fold. We also used PCR instead of parallel sequencing to calculate the cffDNA fraction. There was a significant association (r = 98.2%) between our estimations and those inferred from the Y chromosome. PMID:27662469

  14. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  15. Evolutionary perspectives on pregnancy: maternal age at menarche and infant birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coall, David A; Chisholm, James S

    2003-11-01

    We present a novel evolutionary analysis of low birth weight (LBW). LBW is a well-known risk factor for increased infant morbidity and mortality. Its causes, however, remain obscure and there is a vital need for new approaches. Life history theory, the most dynamic branch of evolutionary ecology, provides important insights into the potential role of LBW in human reproductive strategies. Life history theory's primary rationale for LBW is the trade-off between current and future reproduction. This trade-off underlies the prediction that under conditions of environmental risk and uncertainty (experienced subjectively as psychosocial stress) it can be evolutionarily adaptive to reproduce at a young age. One component of early reproduction is early menarche. Early reproduction tends to maximise offspring quantity, but parental investment theory's assumption of a quantity-quality trade-off holds that maximizing offspring quantity reduces quality, of which LBW may be the major component. We therefore predict that women who experienced early psychosocial stress and had early menarche are more likely to produce LBW babies. Furthermore, the extension of parent-offspring conflict theory in utero suggests that the fetus will attempt to resist its mother's efforts to reduce its resources, allocating more of what it does receive to the placenta in order to extract more maternal resources to increase its own quality. We propose that LBW babies born to mothers who experience early psychosocial stress and have early menarche are more likely to have a higher placental/fetal weight ratio. We review evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications for public health.

  16. [Risk of maternal and fetal disease among women older than 40 years].

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Devosa, Iván; Bártfai, György

    2015-12-06

    A rising trend in advanced maternal age has been observed over the last few decades. Several studies have assessed the association between advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome, including miscarriage, stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, delivery of a small- or large-for-gestational-age neonates and elective or emergency Cesarean section. These studies reported contradictory findings. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence-based information regarding advanced maternal age and pregnancy outcomes.

  17. An advanced glycation endproduct (AGE)-rich diet promotes accumulation of AGEs in Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Svensson, Rene B; Scheijen, Jean; Eliasson, Pernilla; Mogensen, Pernille; Hag, Anne Mette F; Kjær, Michael; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Schjerling, Peter; Magnusson, Stig P; Couppé, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) accumulate in long-lived tissue proteins like collagen in bone and tendon causing modification of the biomechanical properties. This has been hypothesized to raise the risk of orthopedic injury such as bone fractures and tendon ruptures. We evaluated the relationship between AGE content in the diet and accumulation of AGEs in weight-bearing animal Achilles tendon. Two groups of mice (C57BL/6Ntac) were fed with either high-fat diet low in AGEs high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 14) or normal diet high in AGEs (ND) (n = 11). AGE content in ND was six to 50-fold higher than HFD The mice were sacrificed at week 40 and Achilles and tail tendons were carefully excised to compare weight and nonweight-bearing tendons. The amount of the AGEs carboxymethyllysine (CML), methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in Achilles and tail tendon was measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and pentosidine with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescent detection. AGEs in Achilles tendon were higher than in tail tendon for CML (P < 0.0001), CEL (P < 0.0001), MG-H1 and pentosidine (for both ND and HFD) (P < 0.0001). The AGE-rich diet (ND) resulted in an increase in CML (P < 0.0001), MG-H1 (P < 0.001) and pentosidine (P < 0.0001) but not CEL, in Achilles and tail tendon. This is the first study to provide evidence for AGE accumulation in injury-prone, weight-bearing Achilles tendon associated with intake of an AGE-rich diet. This indicates that food-derived AGEs may alter tendon properties and the development of tendon injuries.

  18. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Browne, Marilyn; Richardson, Sandra; Romitti, Paul; Druschel, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

  19. Definition of advanced age in HIV infection: looking for an age cut-off.

    PubMed

    Blanco, José R; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50-59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07-11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people.

  20. Definition of Advanced Age in HIV Infection: Looking for an Age Cut-Off

    PubMed Central

    Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52–0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46–0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37–1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31–1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50–59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07–11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people. PMID:22607516

  1. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  2. Meiosis and Maternal Aging: Insights from Aneuploid Oocytes and Trisomy Births

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Mary; Kalleas, Dimitrios; Cooney, Daniel; Lamb, Mahdi; Lister, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In most organisms, genome haploidization requires reciprocal DNA exchanges (crossovers) between replicated parental homologs to form bivalent chromosomes. These are resolved to their four constituent chromatids during two meiotic divisions. In female mammals, bivalents are formed during fetal life and remain intact until shortly before ovulation. Extending this period beyond ∼35 years greatly increases the risk of aneuploidy in human oocytes, resulting in a dramatic increase in infertility, miscarriage, and birth defects, most notably trisomy 21. Bivalent chromosomes are stabilized by cohesion between sister chromatids, which is mediated by the cohesin complex. In mouse oocytes, cohesin becomes depleted from chromosomes during female aging. Consistent with this, premature loss of centromeric cohesion is a major source of aneuploidy in oocytes from older women. Here, we propose a mechanistic framework to reconcile data from genetic studies on human trisomy and oocytes with recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chromosome segregation during meiosis in model organisms. PMID:25833844

  3. Meiosis and maternal aging: insights from aneuploid oocytes and trisomy births.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mary; Kalleas, Dimitrios; Cooney, Daniel; Lamb, Mahdi; Lister, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    In most organisms, genome haploidization requires reciprocal DNA exchanges (crossovers) between replicated parental homologs to form bivalent chromosomes. These are resolved to their four constituent chromatids during two meiotic divisions. In female mammals, bivalents are formed during fetal life and remain intact until shortly before ovulation. Extending this period beyond ∼35 years greatly increases the risk of aneuploidy in human oocytes, resulting in a dramatic increase in infertility, miscarriage, and birth defects, most notably trisomy 21. Bivalent chromosomes are stabilized by cohesion between sister chromatids, which is mediated by the cohesin complex. In mouse oocytes, cohesin becomes depleted from chromosomes during female aging. Consistent with this, premature loss of centromeric cohesion is a major source of aneuploidy in oocytes from older women. Here, we propose a mechanistic framework to reconcile data from genetic studies on human trisomy and oocytes with recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of chromosome segregation during meiosis in model organisms.

  4. Impact of maternal age on birth outcomes: a population-based study of primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of maternal age at first birth on low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores at one minute and at five minutes among live births delivered to primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo. Analyses were based on 73,820 birth records from the 1998 birth cohort. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal age and each outcome variable, controlling for the following risk factors: delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Maternal ages below 20 and above 30 years were significantly associated with the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth, but no association was found between maternal ages and Apgar score, with the exception that ages 15-19 reduced the odds of a low one-minute score. Even though this result seems to be inconsistent, low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores measure different dimensions of newborn well-being, and the association of each measure with maternal age is expected to diverge.

  5. Effect of maternal antibodies and pig age on the antibody response after vaccination against Glässers disease.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2011-08-01

    The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the development and duration of postvaccinal antibody response against Glässer's disease were investigated. Pigs born to immune (MDA-positive) and non-immune (MDA-negative) sows were vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Vaccination was done according to three different protocols: at 1 and 4, at 2 and 5 or at 4 and 7 weeks of age. There were also two control groups for MDA-negative and MDA-positive pigs. The level of Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) specific antibodies were determined using commercial ELISA test. No serological responses were seen in any of the groups after the first vaccination. Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against Hps were above the positive level until approximately 3 weeks of life in MDA-positive pigs. In those pigs the strongest postvaccinal humoral response was observed in piglets vaccinated at 4 and 7 weeks of age. In the remaining MDA-positive piglets only slight seroconversion was noted but levels of antibodies never exceeded values considered as positive. All MDA-negative pigs produced Hps-specific antibodies after the second vaccination. The results of the present study indicated that MDA may alter the development and duration of active postvaccinal antibody response. Age of pigs at the moment of vaccination was not associated with the significant differences in the magnitude of antibody response, however influenced the kinetics of decline of Hps-specific antibodies.

  6. Maternal Employment, Infant Child Care and Security of Attachment at Age 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, L. J.; Ungerer, J. A.

    This study examined the relationship between varying patterns of maternal employment, the use of child care, and the infant's establishment of a reciprocal, responsive relationship with the mother. Parental and non-parental caregivers were located within a family system to examine attachment theory within an ecological framework. The subjects were…

  7. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  8. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  9. Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?

    PubMed

    Hayward, Christina E; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Baker, Philip N; Challis, John R G; Jones, Rebecca L

    2012-01-15

    Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P < 0.05). In adults, placental system A activity was lower in SGA infants than appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants (P < 0.05). In teenagers, AGA and SGA infants had lower placental system A activity than AGA infants born to adults (P < 0.05). Placental system A activity was higher in growing teenagers than in nongrowing teenagers (P < 0.001). Placental mRNA expression of system A transporter isoforms SLC38A1 and -2 was lower in teenagers than in adults (P < 0.05) but did not differ between growing and nongrowing teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters.

  10. The influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T.; Bhatt, Suraj K.; Calixte, Rose E.; Cnaan, Avital

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. Methods In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families [TANF], Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP], Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children [WIC], child care subsidy, and public housing) was self-reported at child’s birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. Results The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR= 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34–0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. Conclusions During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age. PMID:23990157

  11. Maternally Transmitted and Food-Derived Glycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Mericq, Veronica; Piccardo, Cecilia; Cai, Weijing; Chen, Xue; Zhu, Li; Striker, Gary E.; Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs) found in thermally processed foods correlate with serum AGEs (sAGEs) and promote type 1 and type 2 diabetes in mice. Herein we assess the relationship of maternal blood and food AGEs to circulating glycoxidants, inflammatory markers, and insulin levels in infants up to age 1 year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AGEs (Nε-carboxymethyllysine [CML] and methylglyoxal derivatives) were tested in sera of healthy mothers in labor (n = 60), their infants, and infant foods. Plasma 8-isoprostane, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were assessed in 12-month-old infants. RESULTS Significant correlations were found between newborn and maternal serum CML (sCML) (r = 0.734, P = 0.001) serum methylglyoxal derivatives (sMGs) (r = 0.593, P = 0.001), and 8-isoprostanes (r = 0.644, P = 0.001). Infant adiponectin at 12 months negatively correlated with maternal sCML (r = −0.467, P = 0.011), whereas high maternal sMGs predicted higher infant insulin or homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.027). Infant sAGEs significantly increased with the initiation of processed infant food intake, raising daily AGE consumption by ∼7.5-fold in year 1. CONCLUSIONS Maternal blood and food-derived AGEs prematurely raise AGEs in children to adult norms, preconditioning them to abnormally high oxidant stress and inflammation and thus possibly to early onset of disease, such as diabetes. PMID:20628088

  12. How can we utilize livers from advanced aged donors for liver transplantation for hepatitis C?

    PubMed

    Uemura, Tadahiro; Nikkel, Lucas E; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Ramprasad, Varun; Schaefer, Eric; Kadry, Zakiyah

    2012-06-01

    Advanced age donors have inferior outcomes of liver transplantation for Hepatitis C (HCV). Aged donors grafts may be transplanted into young or low model for end stage liver disease (MELD) patients in order to offset the effect of donor age. However, it is not well understood how to utilize liver grafts from advanced aged donors for HCV patients. Using the UNOS database, we retrospectively studied 7508 HCV patients who underwent primary liver transplantation. Risk factors for graft failure and graft survival using advanced aged grafts (donor age ≥ 60 years) were analyzed by Cox hazards models, donor risk index (DRI) and organ patient index (OPI). Recipient's age did not affect on graft survival regardless of donor age. Advanced aged grafts had significant inferior survival compared to younger aged grafts regardless of MELD score (P < 0.0001). Risk factors of HCV patients receiving advanced aged grafts included donation after cardiac death (DCD, HR: 1.69) and recent hospitalization (HR: 1.43). Advanced aged grafts showed significant difference in graft survival of HCV patients with stratification of DRI and OPI. In conclusion, there was no offsetting effect by use of advanced aged grafts into younger or low MELD patients. Advanced aged grafts, especially DCD, should be judiciously used for HCV patients with low MELD score.

  13. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of < or =2 servings/week was not associated with a benefit. Dietary recommendations for pregnant women should incorporate the nutritional benefits as well as the risks of fish intake.

  14. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  15. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease.

  16. Historical perspective on induced abortion through the ages and its links with maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Drife, James Owen

    2010-08-01

    Abortion is mentioned in ancient medical texts but the effectiveness of the methods described is doubtful. Attitudes varied from apparent disapproval by Hippocrates to open approval in Ancient Rome. In mediaeval times abortion was practised by women in secret and this continued during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite being illegal in England induced abortion became more common in Victorian times as the population grew. At the same time the link between criminal abortion and maternal mortality became increasingly clear, and if a woman died after a procedure the abortionist (sometimes a midwife) could be sentenced to death. The law was more tolerant of abortions performed by registered doctors. In the 20th century pressure grew for its legalisation. At the time of the 1967 Abortion Act, abortion was the leading cause of maternal death in the UK but within fifteen years death from illegal abortion had been abolished.

  17. Advanced paternal age and stillbirth rate: a nationwide register-based cohort study of 944,031 pregnancies in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Davey Smith, George; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-01

    Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents. The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio for fathers aged more than 40 years when paternal age was modelled using restricted cubic splines. When modelled categorically, the adjusted hazard ratios of stillbirth were as follows: <25, 1.16 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.34); 25-29, 1.03 (95% CI 0.95-1.11); 35-39, 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.26); 40-44, 1.41 (95% CI 1.26-1.59); 45-49, 1.20 (95% CI 0.97-1.49); 50+, 1.58 (95% CI 1.18-2.11), compared with fathers aged 30-34 years. These estimates attenuated slightly when further adjusted for parental education. Our study showed that paternal age was associated with the relative rate of stillbirth in a J-shaped manner with the highest hazard ratios among fathers aged more than 40 years.

  18. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines.

  19. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings.

  20. Notes on the Age of Maternity, Population Growth and Family Structure in the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Franklin F.

    1978-01-01

    Emphasizes that the age of marriage was effective in determining the birth rate and the rate of population growth; measures the magnitude of the effects of the age of marriage; and offers some observations on the relationships between age of marriage, age of male and female fertility, and family structure. (Author)

  1. The Contribution of Maternal ADHD Symptomatology, Maternal DAT1, and Home Atmosphere to Child ADHD Symptomatology at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith G; Zilberman-Hayun, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Berger, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Children of mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased genetic and environmental risk for ADHD. The unique and interactive contributions of a maternal dopamine receptor gene (DAT1), maternal ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive), and home atmosphere to the prediction of ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive) in 7- year-old boys (N = 96) were examined using data from a longitudinal study of familial risk for ADHD. During the first 6 months of the study, mothers and their spouses completed a questionnaire about the mother's ADHD symptoms. Home atmosphere questionnaire data were collected 4 years later. At the 7-year assessment, mothers reported on their child's ADHD symptoms. Negative home atmosphere was significantly associated with child hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms. Maternal inattentive symptoms were significantly correlated with both child symptom dimensions. Regression models, with child genotype and maternal education controlled, showed main effects for maternal inattentive symptoms, maternal DAT1 10/10 genotype, and home atmosphere in the prediction of child inattentive symptoms. Only home atmosphere predicted child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was a significant home atmosphere x maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms interaction in the prediction of child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Boys with higher levels of symptoms came from homes characterized by higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with higher levels of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was also a trend (p = 0.075) for a maternal DAT1 x home atmosphere interaction. Boys with higher levels of inattentive symptoms came from homes with higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with the homozygous 10/10 genotype. The maternal heterozygous 9/10 genotype did not predict child symptoms.

  2. Maternal age as a predictive factor of pre-term birth. An epidemiological study from 1999 to 2008 in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mousiolis, A; Baroutis, G; Sindos, M; Costalos, C; Antsaklis, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of pre-term birth in women giving birth in Greece in different age groups. Data about women giving birth in Greece were retrieved from the Hellenic Vital Statistics covering the years from 1999 to 2008. Relative risk using χ(2) contingency tables was estimated among maternal age groups formed. These groups included mothers < 15 years of age, 15-19, 20-34 (used as a control group) and women > 34 (35-39, 40-44, 45-49 and ≥ 50) years of age. Relative risk of each age group was compared with mothers 20-34 years of age. A total of 1,069,413 valid births were included in the study and 72,156 of them were pre-term (6.75% of total count). Results exhibit a 'U'-shaped distribution of risk. Higher risk of pre-term birth is noted in the groups of < 15 years (Pearson χ(2) = 14.964, p < 0.001, risk = 1.569, CI = 1.249-1.970) and above 34 years of age (Pearson χ(2) = 2991.26, p < 0.001, risk = 1.572, CI = 1.546-1.597). For older women, a steep rise in the relative risk for pre-term birth was noted beyond the 40-44 years of age group. Finally, of interest is the fact that 'late' pre-terms (34-36 gestational weeks) account for most of the pre-term birth in mothers beyond 34 years of age.

  3. Maternal Glycemia and Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Babies in a Population-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kerényi, Zsuzsa; Tamás, Gyula; Kivimäki, Mika; Péterfalvi, Andrea; Madarász, Eszter; Bosnyák, Zsolt; Tabák, Adam G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns, but many LGA babies are born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance. We aimed to clarify the association of maternal glycemia across the whole distribution with birth weight and risk of LGA births in mothers with normal glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a population-based gestational diabetes screening in an urban area of Hungary in 2002–2005. All singleton pregnancies of mothers ≥18 years of age, without known diabetes or gestational diabetes (World Health Organization criteria) and data on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 22–30 weeks of gestation, were included (n = 3,787, 78.9% of the target population). LGA was determined as birth weight greater than the 90th percentile using national sex- and gestational age–specific charts. RESULTS Mean ± SD maternal age was 30 ± 4 years, BMI was 22.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose was 4.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l, and postload glucose was 5.5 ± 1.0 mmol/l. The mean birth weight was 3,450 ± 476 g at 39.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation. There was a U-shaped association of maternal fasting glucose with birth weight (Pcurve = 0.004) and risk of having an LGA baby (lowest values between 4 and 4.5 mmol/l, Pcurve = 0.0004) with little change after adjustments for clinical characteristics. The association of postload glucose with birth weight (P = 0.03) and the risk of an LGA baby (P = 0.09) was weaker and linear. CONCLUSIONS Both low and high fasting glucose values at 22–30 weeks of gestation are associated with increased risk of an LGA newborn. We suggest that the excess risk related to low glucose reflects the increased use of nutrients by LGA fetuses that also affects the mothers' fasting glucose. PMID:19729526

  4. Effect of age and maternally-derived antibody status on humoral and cellular immune responses to vaccination of pigs against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-01

    The effects of age and maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) on the immune response to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were investigated in piglets orally vaccinated with a live E. rhusiopathiae vaccine at 6, 8 or 10 weeks of age. Seroconversion, determined by ELISA, was evident in MDA positive piglets vaccinated at 8 or 10 weeks of age and in all MDA negative vaccinates. Two weeks after vaccination in the presence of MDA, a T cell response, measured by a lymphocyte proliferation assay, was observed in 25% of piglets vaccinated at 6 weeks of age and in 100% of piglets vaccinated at 8 or 10 weeks of age. The post-vaccinal response to E. rhusiopathiae was more strongly influenced by the maternal antibody status of the piglet at the time of vaccination than the age of the piglet.

  5. Social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity: a study of their interrelation in six Italian centres.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, I; Boracchi, P; De Scrilli, A; Milani, S; Bertulessi, C; Zuliani, G; Bevilacqua, G; Corchia, C; Davanzo, R; Selvaggi, L

    1986-01-01

    "Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to describe the complex structure formed by those sociodemographic variables, whose association with the occurrence of prenatal and neonatal deaths and diseases has been most frequently stressed in literature: social class, prenatal care, maternal age and parity. The study regards 41,537 women included in a multicentre survey of perinatal preventive medicine, which was carried out, between 1973 and 1979, in six Italian centres...." It is found that "in all centres there are distinct groups of women characterized by a set of unfavourable factors closely interrelated: low social class implies lower prenatal care, higher occurrence of precocious or belated childbearing and higher number of pregnancies, often unintended." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  6. Maternal Age-Specific Rates for Trisomy 21 and Common Autosomal Trisomies in Fetuses from a Single Diagnostic Center in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaruthamsophon, Kanoot; Sriplung, Hutcha; Charalsawadi, Chariyawan

    2016-01-01

    To provide maternal age-specific rates for trisomy 21 (T21) and common autosomal trisomies (including trisomies 21, 18 and 13) in fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed prenatal cytogenetic results obtained between 1990 and 2009 in Songklanagarind Hospital, a university teaching hospital, in southern Thailand. Maternal age-specific rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were established using different regression models, from which only the fittest models were used for the study. A total of 17,819 records were included in the statistical analysis. The fittest models for predicting rates of T21 and common autosomal trisomies were regression models with 2 parameters (Age and Age2). The rate of T21 ranged between 2.67 per 1,000 fetuses at the age of 34 and 71.06 per 1,000 at the age of 48. The rate of common autosomal trisomies ranged between 4.54 per 1,000 and 99.65 per 1,000 at the same ages. This report provides the first maternal age-specific rates for T21 and common autosomal trisomies fetuses in a Southeast Asian population and the largest case number of fetuses have ever been reported in Asians. PMID:27812158

  7. Early maternal separation impacts cognitive flexibility at the age of first independence in mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A Wren; Caporale, Natalia; Wu, Claudia; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Early life adversity is associated with increased risk for mental and physical health problems, including substance abuse. Changes in neural development caused by early life insults could cause or complicate these conditions. Maternal separation (MS) is a model of early adversity for rodents. Clear effects of MS have been shown on behavioral flexibility in rats, but studies of effects of MS on cognition in mice have been mixed. We hypothesized that previous studies focused on adult mice may have overlooked a developmental transition point when juvenile mice exhibit greater flexibility in reversal learning. Here, using a 4-choice reversal learning task we find that early MS leads to decreased flexibility in post-weaning juvenile mice, but no significant effects in adults. In a further study of voluntary ethanol consumption, we found that adult mice that had experienced MS showed greater cumulative 20% ethanol consumption in an intermittent access paradigm compared to controls. Our data confirm that the MS paradigm can reduce cognitive flexibility in mice and may enhance risk for substance abuse. We discuss possible interpretations of these data as stress-related impairment or adaptive earlier maturation in response to an adverse environment.

  8. Factors Associated With Increased Rates of Caesarean Section in Women of Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Janoudi, Ghayath; Kelly, Sherrie; Yasseen, Abdool; Hamam, Heba; Moretti, Felipe; Walker, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Objectif : Comparer les taux de césarienne des mères d’âge avancé (de 35 à 40 ans et de plus de 40 ans) à ceux des mères âgées de 20 à 34 ans, en utilisant le système de classification de Robson en vue d’examiner des facteurs maternels additionnels. Méthodes : Au total, 134 088 accouchements s’étant déroulés en milieu hospitalier en Ontario entre le 1er avril 2011 et le 31 mars 2012 ont été groupés en fonction des 10 catégories mutuellement exclusives et totalement inclusives de Robson. Les dossiers des trois groupes Robson ayant le plus contribué au taux global de césarienne ont été stratifiés en fonction de l’âge maternel, de l’état de santé, des complications obstétricales, du recours à des techniques de procréation assistée, du tabagisme pendant la grossesse et du statut socioéconomique. Résultats : Les taux de césarienne étaient proportionnels à l’âge maternel : chez les femmes de 20 à 34 ans, de 35 à 40 ans et de plus de 40 ans, les taux ont été de 26,2 %, de 35,9 % et de 43,1 %, respectivement. Les trois groupes Robson ayant le plus contribué au taux global de césarienne étaient composés de femmes qui présentaient un ou plusieurs des facteurs suivants : antécédents de césarienne, primiparité, conception au moyen de techniques de procréation assistée, hypertension chronique, diabète gestationnel, diabète sucré, prééclampsie, placenta praevia, décollement placentaire ou hypertrophie fœtale. Bien que la prévalence de ces facteurs ait été proportionnelle à l’âge maternel, les mères âgées de 35 ans ou plus qui comptaient un ou plusieurs troubles de santé (ou complications obstétricales) présentaient des taux de césarienne supérieurs à ceux des mères âgées de 20 à 34 ans qui comptaient le ou les mêmes troubles (ou complications). Conclusion : Les taux accrus de césarienne chez les femmes plus âgées ne peuvent être attribués qu’à la seule présence de troubles de santé et de complications obstétricales. Les préférences des fournisseurs de soins et des mères en matière d’accouchement pourraient jouer un rôle clé en ce qui concerne les taux de césarienne, ce qui nécessite la tenue d’études plus approfondies.

  9. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24-28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Leng, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks with 0-3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11-1.13), 1.05 (1.04-1.06), 1.07 (1.06-1.08), and 1.11 (1.10-1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m(2)) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10-1.17), 1.01 (0.99-1.03), 0.99 (0.96-1.01), and 1.00 (0.97-1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI.

  10. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24–28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks with 0–3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11–1.13), 1.05 (1.04–1.06), 1.07 (1.06–1.08), and 1.11 (1.10–1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m2) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10–1.17), 1.01 (0.99–1.03), 0.99 (0.96–1.01), and 1.00 (0.97–1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI. PMID:28251156

  11. Novel Interpretation of Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis According to Gestational Age at the Time of Maternal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Pratlong, Francine; Albaba, Sahar; Loubersac, Julie; Picot, Marie-Christine; Pretet, Vanessa; Issert, Eric; Boulot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    From a prospective cohort of 344 women who seroconverted for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, 344 amniotic fluid, 264 placenta, and 216 cord blood samples were tested for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis using the same PCR assay. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR assay using amniotic fluid were 86.3% and 97.2%, respectively, and both specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. Using placenta and cord blood, sensitivities were 79.5% and 21.2%, and specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the calculation of pretest and posttest probabilities and the use of logistic regression allowed us to obtain curves that give a dynamic interpretation of the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis according to gestational age at maternal infection, as represented by the three sample types (amniotic fluid, placenta, and cord blood). Two examples are cited here: for a maternal infection at 25 weeks of amenorrhea, a negative result of prenatal diagnosis allowed estimation of the probability of congenital toxoplasmosis at 5% instead of an a priori (pretest) risk estimate of 33%. For an infection at 10 weeks of amenorrhea associated with a pretest congenital toxoplasmosis risk of 7%, a positive PCR result using placenta at birth yields a risk increase to 43%, while a negative result damps down the risk to 0.02%. Thus, with a molecular diagnosis performing at a high level, and in spite of the persistence of false negatives, posttest risk curves using both negative and positive results prove highly informative, allowing a better assessment of the actual risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and finally an improved decision guide to treatment. PMID:23035201

  12. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  13. Postmenopausal Motherhood Reloaded: Advanced Age and In Vitro Derived Gametes

    PubMed Central

    Cutas, Daniela; Smajdor, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we look at the implications of an emerging technology for the case in favor of, or against, postmenopausal motherhood. Technologies such as in vitro derived gametes (sperm and eggs derived from nonreproductive cells) have the potential to influence the ways in which reproductive medicine is practiced, and are already bringing new dimensions to debates in this area. We explain what in vitro derived gametes are and how their development may impact on the case of postmenopausal motherhood. We briefly review some of the concerns that postmenopausal motherhood has raised—and the implications that the successful development, and use in reproduction, of artificial gametes might have for such concerns. The concerns addressed include arguments from nature, risks and efficacy, reduced energy of the mother, and maternal life expectancy. We also consider whether the use of in vitro derived gametes to facilitate postmenopausal motherhood would contribute to reinforcing a narrow, geneticized account of reproduction and a pro-reproductive culture that encourages women to produce genetically related offspring at all costs. PMID:26074667

  14. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  15. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  16. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  17. Zinc Content in Cord Blood Is Associated with Maternal Age and Parity.

    PubMed

    Youssof, Ayman Lee; Kassim, Noor Lide Abu; Rashid, Siti Aishah; De Ley, Marc; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2017-01-01

    At childbirth (parturition), zinc (Zn) homeostasis in cord blood (CB) can be affected by a number of factors: Zn in maternal blood, parturition related stress as well as metallothionein (MT). Both Zn and stress are known inducers of MT which is primarily involved in Zn homeostasis. This study analyzed Zn concentration [Zn], in CB components and MT-2A transcription in CB mononuclear cells (MNC) in relation to primiparous and multiparous childbirth. [Zn] in CB (n = 47) plasma, erythrocytes, and MNCs were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ = 213.9 nm). The MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC was quantified using real-time PCR. Significant correlations (Pearson r) were found between: plasma-[Zn] and erythrocyte-[Zn] (p = 0.002); [Zn] and MT-2A messenger RNA (mRNA) (p = 0.000) in CB-MNC. Student's t tests showed higher levels of MT-2A mRNA and MNC-[Zn] in CB of older (≥25 years) compared to younger mothers (≤24 years) (p = 0.043 and p = 0.016, respectively). Significantly higher [Zn] was found in CB plasma (p = 0.017) and MNC (p = 0.041) of older primiparous compared to the younger primiparous and older multiparous mothers respectively. MT-2A mRNA in CB-MNC was significantly lower in CB of younger primiparous mothers compared to their older counterparts (p = 0.001). Path analysis showed that MNC-[Zn] (β = 0.83; p = 0.000) had a greater influence on MT-2A mRNA expression, compared to parity (β = -0.14; p = 0.033). Higher [Zn] in CB of primiparous mothers could be linked to higher stress during parturition, however, might be beneficial for the growth and development of the child. Together MNC-[Zn] and parity contributed ~70 % of the MT-2A transcription in CB-MNC.

  18. Age-related body weight constraints on prenatal and milk provisioning in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) affect allocation of maternal resources.

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, T; García, A; Carrión, D; Estevez, J A; Ceacero, F; Gaspar-López, E; Gallego, L

    2009-02-01

    Maternal phenotypic characteristics can influence key life history variables of their offspring through maternal effects. In this study, we examined how body size constraints on maternal weight in yearling and subadult compared to adult hinds (age class effects) affected prenatal (calf birth weight, calf to hind weight ratio) and postnatal (milk) provisioning of Iberian red deer calves. Age correlated with all prenatal and postnatal investment traits except calf gains, although correlations were weaker than those with maternal weight. Once the effect of linear increase in weight with age was removed from models, yearlings showed additional reductions in calf birth weight, calf gains, and milk provisioning. The low-calf birth weight might increase the risk of calf mortality during lactation, as this occurs primarily during the first day of life and is strongly related to birth weight. Yearlings showed a greater prenatal allocation of resources in terms of greater calf to hind weight ratio probably as an extra effort by yearling mothers to balance calf neonatal mortality. It might compensate young mothers to produce low-quality calves while still growing rather than waiting for the uncertain possibility of surviving to the next reproductive season.

  19. Loneliness and pregnancy in an urban Latino community: associations with maternal age and unscheduled hospital utilization.

    PubMed

    Geller, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to compare loneliness in a pregnant population to a non-pregnant control group, and to evaluate loneliness and unscheduled hospital visits during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study in a Latino urban community including 53 consecutive pregnant women in their first trimester, and 61 non-pregnant women as a control. The UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3, and demographic information was collected. A chart review after delivery determined total number of unscheduled pregnancy related hospital visits. Appropriate data analysis using t-test and regression analysis was used. Forty-eight women continued to delivery. There was no difference in mean loneliness scores between pregnant (41) and non-pregnant groups (43), or that of normal populations (41). There was a significant association between UCLA loneliness scores and total pregnancy related unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.042, beta = 0.06, r= 0.29. There was a significant association between increasing age and increasing loneliness during pregnancy p = 0.007, beta = 0.21, r= 0.36, not seen in the non-pregnant group p = 0.98. Loneliness, when controlling for age, yielded a stronger association with unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.018, beta = 0.076, and r = 0.40. The findings were that increased loneliness is associated with increased unscheduled pregnancy related hospital utilization during pregnancy. Older pregnant women had higher loneliness scores. Loneliness was more significant than age in predicting higher unscheduled hospital visits. The combination of increased loneliness and younger age predicted the highest number of unscheduled hospital visits.

  20. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  1. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  2. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  3. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage.

  4. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  5. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  6. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Materials for the Structure f Aging Aircraft [les Nouveaux Materiaux metalliques pour les structures des aeronefs d’ancienne generation] To order the...corrosion through design, the selection of military and civil aircraft during the last thirty years. Research materials that are resistant to corrosion and...fluid resistance and greater flexibility. New methods of paint stripping and novel processes for the 2.1 Design repair of pre-treatments and metal

  7. Maternal Age at First Delivery Is Associated with the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal Women: From 2008–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jeong Han; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Huh, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies demonstrated that earlier maternal age at first childbirth is correlated with a higher risk of diabetes in postmenopausal women. In this study, we evaluated whether the age at first delivery is associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. Methods A total of 4,261 postmenopausal women aged 45 years or older were analyzed using data generated from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2010). Subjects were divided into three groups according to the maternal age at first delivery as follows: ≤ 20 years (n=878), 21-25 years (n=2314), and ≥ 26 years (n=1069). Results Approximately 37% of subjects had MetS. The prevalence of MetS showed a gradual increase as maternal age at first delivery decreased (≥ 26 years = 30.9% vs. 21-25 years = 39.9% vs. ≤ 20 years = 50.8%, respectively, p < 0.001). Central obesity indices such as trunk fat mass and waist circumference were significantly higher in the group aged ≤ 20 years than other groups. After adjustments for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for predicting the presence of MetS increased gradually as first delivery age decreased (≥ 26 years vs. 21-25 years vs. ≤ 20 years: OR [95% CI] = 1 vs. 1.324 [1.118-1.567] vs. 1.641 [1.322-2.036], respectively). Among components of MetS, younger maternal age at first delivery (≤ 20 years) was significantly associated with increased waist circumference (OR [95% CI] = 1.735 [1.41-2.13]), elevated blood pressure (1.261 [1.02-1.57]), high triglyceride (1.333 [1.072-1.659]), and low HDL-cholesterol (1.335[1.084-1.643]). Conclusions Our findings suggest that younger maternal age at first delivery is independently associated with a higher risk of central obesity and MetS in postmenopausal women. PMID:26010910

  8. Psychometrics in aging and dementia: advances in geropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Oswald, W D; Fleischmann, U M

    1985-12-01

    Description, explanation and prediction of changes occurring in old age, which are based on intervention, are outlined as a basic goal in gerontological research. Appropriate psychological assessment techniques are necessary to reach this goal. The Nuremberg Gerontopsychological Inventory (NAI) is introduced as a set of psychological measurements which enable reliable, valid and sensitive evaluation of intervention-induced changes in old age. Four independent assessment levels, i.e. standardized performance tests, observer-ratings, self-ratings and a personality rating are the core components of this inventory. All assessment techniques are adapted for elderly subjects. Standard scores are available for the age range 55-90 years. Interrelations between the applied independent assessment levels are reported and taken to link different aspects of intervention-induced changes. Measuring psychological performance thus gains practical significance, e.g. in terms of activities-of-daily-living. From 14 independent studies the drug sensitivity of the applied measurements is shown. Finally, some recommendations for future psychometrical research are given.

  9. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  10. Categories of manual asymmetry and their variation with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luis A

    2008-06-01

    Manual asymmetries were analyzed in 18- to 63-year-old right-handers in different motor tasks. This analysis aimed at describing the asymmetry profile for each task and assessing their stability across ages. For this purpose, performance of the right and left hands were analyzed in the following aspects: simple reaction time, rate of sequential finger movements, maximum grip force, accuracy in anticipatory timing, rate of repetitive tapping, and rate of drawing movements. In addition, stability of manual preference across ages was assessed through the Edinburgh inventory (Oldfield, 1971). The results indicated different profiles of manual asymmetry, with identification of three categories across tasks: symmetric performance (asymmetry indices close to zero), inconsistent asymmetry (asymmetry indices variable in magnitude and direction), and consistent asymmetry (asymmetry indices favoring a single hand). The different profiles observed in the young adults were stable across ages with two exceptions: decreased lateral asymmetry for maximum grip force and increased asymmetry for sequential drawing in older individuals. These results indicate that manual asymmetries are task specific. Such task specificity is interpreted to be the result of different sensorimotor requirements imposed by each motor task in association with motor experiences accumulated over the lifetime. Analysis of manual preference showed that strength of preference for the right hand was greater in older individuals.

  11. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: using the children of twins design to test causal hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-02-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behavior. It is not clear, however, if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children of siblings and children of twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant monozygotic twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association.

  12. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

  13. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  14. Maternal serum placental growth factor and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A measured in the first trimester as parameters of subsequent pre-eclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kyung Uk; Roh, Jeong A; Eoh, Kyung Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the first-trimester maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) levels in pregnancies associated with pre-eclampsia (PE) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and determine the predictive accuracy of PlGF and of PAPP-A for either PE or SGA infants. Methods This prospective, observational study included 175 pregnant women, and of these women, due to participant withdrawal or loss to follow-up, delivery data were collected from the medical records of 155 women, including 4 who had twin pregnancies. The women's maternal history was recorded, and the PlGF and PAPP-A levels at 11 to 13 gestational weeks were measured. During the second trimester, the maternal uterine artery's systolic/diastolic ratio was measured. Multiples of the median (MoM) of PlGF and PAPP-A were determined, and the associations of these values with the risk factors of SGA and PE were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether PlGF and PAPP-A are useful markers for predicting SGA infants. Results The PAPP-A MoM level was significantly lower in women with advanced maternal age, multipara women, and women with gestational diabetes than in their counterparts. The PlGF and PAPP-A MoM levels were higher in women with a twin pregnancy than in those with a singleton pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between the maternal serum PAPP-A MoM level in the first trimester and the uterine artery systolic/diastolic ratio in the second trimester. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that low PlGF and PAPP-A MoM levels were predictors of SGA infants (odds ratio, 0.143; 95% confidence interval, 0.025 to 0.806; odds ratio, 0.191; 95% confidence interval, 0.051 to 0.718, respectively). Conclusion PlGF and PAPP-A are potentially useful as first-trimester markers for SGA infants and some hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:28344956

  15. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and heart failure: pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Jasper W L; Voors, Adriaan A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Smit, Andries J; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2007-12-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are molecules formed during a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugar residues, called the Maillard reaction. AGEs accumulate in the human body with age, and accumulation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In patients with diabetes, AGE accumulation is associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction. Enhanced AGE accumulation is not restricted to patients with diabetes, but can also occur in renal failure, enhanced states of oxidative stress, and by an increased intake of AGEs. Several lines of evidence suggest that AGEs are related to the development and progression of heart failure in non-diabetic patients as well. Preliminary small intervention studies with AGE cross-link breakers in heart failure patients have shown promising results. In this review, the role of AGEs in the development of heart failure and the role of AGE intervention as a possible treatment for heart failure are discussed.

  16. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986–1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort. PMID:22705177

  17. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  18. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Heinzow, Birger; Debes, Frodi; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2012-07-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort.

  19. Advancing the Aging and Technology Agenda in Gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T.; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R.; Czaja, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this “Forum” position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area. PMID:25165042

  20. Advancing the Aging and Technology Agenda in Gerontology.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R; Czaja, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this "Forum" position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area.

  1. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning.

  2. [Cognitive capacity in advanced age: initial results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1995-01-01

    This study reports data on intellectual functioning in old and very old age from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; age range = 70-103 years; mean age = 85 years). A psychometric battery of 14 tests was used to assess five cognitive abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the broad fluid-mechanical as well as knowledge and fluency from the broad crystallized-pragmatic domains. Cognitive abilities had a negative linear relationship with age, with more pronounced age-based reductions in fluid-mechanical than crystallized-pragmatic abilities. At the same time, ability intercorrelations formed a highly positive manifold, and did not follow the fluid-crystallized distinction. Interindividual variability was of about equal magnitude across the entire age range studied. There was, however, no evidence for substantial sex differences. As to origins of individual differences, indicators of sensory and sensorimotor functioning were more powerful predictors of intellectual functioning than cultural-biographical variables, and the two sets of predictors were, consistent with theoretical expectations, differentially related to measures of fluid-mechanical (perceptual speed) and crystallized pragmatic (knowledge) functioning. Results, in general indicative of sizeable and general losses with age, are consistent with the view that aging-induced biological influences are a prominent source of individual differences in intellectual functioning in old and very old age. Longitudinal follow-ups are underway to examine the role of cohort effects, selective mortality, and interindividual differences in change trajectories.

  3. Twinning and Multiple Birth Rates According to Maternal Age in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Otta, Emma; Fernandes, Eloisa de S; Acquaviva, Tiziana G; Lucci, Tania K; Kiehl, Leda C; Varella, Marco A C; Segal, Nancy L; Valentova, Jaroslava V

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigates the twinning rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years 2003-2014. The data were drawn from the Brazilian Health Department database of Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos de São Paulo-SINASC (Live Births Information System of São Paulo). In general, more information is available on the incidence of twinning in developed countries than in developing ones. A total of 24,589 twin deliveries and 736 multiple deliveries were registered in 140 hospitals of São Paulo out of a total of 2,056,016 deliveries during the studied time period. The overall average rates of singleton, twin, and multiple births per 1,000 maternities (‰) were 987.43, 11.96 (dizygotic (DZ) rate was 7.15 and monozygotic (MZ) 4.42), and 0.36, respectively. We further regressed maternal age and historical time period on percentage of singleton, twin, and multiple birth rates. Our results indicated that maternal age strongly positively predicted twin and multiple birth rates, and negatively predicted singleton birth rates. The historical time period also positively, although weakly, predicted twin birth rates, and had no effect on singleton or multiple birth rates. Further, after applying Weinberg's differential method, we computed regressions separately for the estimated frequencies of DZ and MZ twin rates. DZ twinning was strongly positively predicted by maternal age and, to a smaller degree, by time period, while MZ twinning increased marginally only with higher maternal age. Factors such as increasing body mass index or air pollution can lead to the slight historical increase in DZ twinning rates. Importantly, consistent with previous cross-cultural and historical research, our results support the existence of an age-dependent physiological mechanism that leads to a strong increase in twinning and multiple births, but not singleton births, among mothers of higher age categories. From the ultimate perspective, twinning and multiple births in

  4. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptors in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Caspar-Bell, Gudrun; Dhar, Indu; Prasad, Kailash

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperthyroidism and its complications. Interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with receptor RAGE (receptor for AGEs) generates reactive oxygen species. Soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) competes with RAGE for binding with AGEs and attenuates the generation of ROS. Low levels sRAGE and high levels AGEs would generate more ROS leading to hyperthyroidism and its complications. The objectives are to determine if levels of serum sRAGE are low and the levels of AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE are high in patients with hyperthyroidism. The study subjects comprised of 33 patients with hyperthyroidism and 20 controls. Levels of serum sRAGE were lower, while that of AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE were higher in patients compared to controls, being significant only for sRAGE and AGEs/sRAGE. When the levels of sRAGE, AGEs, and AGEs/sRAGE were assessed for hyperthyroidism associated with different diseases, the levels of sRAGE were lower in Hashimoto disease, and levels of AGEs were higher in patients with Graves' disease compared to control. The levels of AGEs/sRAGE were elevated in an all except patients with Hashimoto disease. The levels of AGEs, sRAGE, or AGEs/RAGE were not correlated with age, weight, and blood pressures except systolic pressure which was inversely correlated with sRAGE. The levels of sRAGE were negatively correlated with AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE. The levels of AGEs/sRAGE were positively correlated with AGEs. In conclusion, low levels of sRAGE, and high levels of AGEs and AGEs/sRAGE are risk biomarkers in the pathogenesis hyperthyroidism and its complications.

  5. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in vascular damage in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2011-04-01

    A non-enzymatic reaction between ketones or aldehydes and the amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributes to the aging of macromolecules and to the development and progression of various age-related disorders such as vascular complications of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cancer growth and metastasis, insulin resistance and degenerative bone disease. Under hyperglycemic and/or oxidative stress conditions, this process begins with the conversion of reversible Schiff base adducts, and then to more stable, covalently-bound Amadori rearrangement products. Over a course of days to weeks, these early glycation products undergo further reactions and rearrangements to become irreversibly crossed-linked, fluorescent protein derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). There is a growing body of evidence that AGE and their receptor RAGE (receptor for AGEs) interaction elicits oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions and thrombosis, thereby being involved in vascular aging and damage. These observations suggest that the AGE-RAGE system is a novel therapeutic target for preventing diabetic vascular complications. In this paper, we review the pathophysiological role of the AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress system and its therapeutic intervention in vascular damage in diabetes. We also discuss here the potential utility of the restriction of food-derived AGEs in diabetic vascular complications.

  6. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  7. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  8. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  9. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    PubMed

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  10. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102-105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  11. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  12. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 1010/g vs. 1.1 × 1010/g and 2.3 × 1010/g vs. 9.7 × 109/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates. PMID:28245628

  13. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-02-26

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 10(10)/g vs. 1.1 × 10(10)/g and 2.3 × 10(10)/g vs. 9.7 × 10⁸/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates.

  14. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  15. The interplay of birthweight, DRD4 and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L.; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socio-emotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (7-repeat long-form allele or non 7-repeat short form) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study we examined possible 2- and 3-way interactions between child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Method Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele 7-Repeat. Macro-analytic and a micro-analytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20-minutes of non-feeding interaction followed by a 10-minute divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation Procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. Results Results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6 month maternal attention (frequency of

  16. Advanced glycation end-products: Mechanics of aged collagen from molecule to tissue.

    PubMed

    Gautieri, Alfonso; Passini, Fabian S; Silván, Unai; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Carimati, Giulia; Volpi, Piero; Moretti, Matteo; Schoenhuber, Herbert; Redaelli, Alberto; Berli, Martin; Snedeker, Jess G

    2017-05-01

    Concurrent with a progressive loss of regenerative capacity, connective tissue aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs). Besides being part of the typical aging process, type II diabetics are particularly affected by AGE accumulation due to abnormally high levels of systemic glucose that increases the glycation rate of long-lived proteins such as collagen. Although AGEs are associated with a wide range of clinical disorders, the mechanisms by which AGEs contribute to connective tissue disease in aging and diabetes are still poorly understood. The present study harnesses advanced multiscale imaging techniques to characterize a widely employed in vitro model of ribose induced collagen aging and further benchmarks these data against experiments on native human tissues from donors of different age. These efforts yield unprecedented insight into the mechanical changes in collagen tissues across hierarchical scales from molecular, to fiber, to tissue-levels. We observed a linear increase in molecular spacing (from 1.45nm to 1.5nm) and a decrease in the D-period length (from 67.5nm to 67.1nm) in aged tissues, both using the ribose model of in vitro glycation and in native human probes. Multiscale mechanical analysis of in vitro glycated tendons strongly suggests that AGEs reduce tissue viscoelasticity by severely limiting fiber-fiber and fibril-fibril sliding. This study lays an important foundation for interpreting the functional and biological effects of AGEs in collagen connective tissues, by exploiting experimental models of AGEs crosslinking and benchmarking them for the first time against endogenous AGEs in native tissue.

  17. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  18. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  19. Advancing Age and 30-Day Adverse Outcomes Following Non-Emergent General Surgical Operations

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Csaba; Kile, Deidre; Hawn, Mary T.; Finlayson, Emily; Henderson, William G.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background While some single center studies have demonstrated that major surgical operations are safe to perform in older adults, most multicenter database studies find advancing age to independently predict adverse postoperative outcomes. We hypothesized that thirty-day postoperative mortality, complications, failure to rescue rates and postoperative length of stay will increase with advancing age. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Participants Patients undergoing non-emergent major general surgical operations between 2005 and 2008 were studied. Measures Postoperative outcomes of interest were complications occurring within 30 days of the index operation, return to OR within 30 days, failure to rescue after a postoperative complication, post-surgical length of stay and 30 day mortality. Results A total of 165,600 patients were studied. The rates of postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and each type of postoperative complication increased as age increased. The rates of failure to rescue after each type of postoperative complication also increased with age. Mortality rates in patients ≥80 following renal insufficiency (43.3%), stroke (36.5%), myocardial infarction (35.6%), and pulmonary complications (25-39%) were particularly high. Median postoperative length of stay increased with age following surgical site infection, UTI, pneumonia, return to OR, and overall morbidity, but not after venous thromboembolism, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, failure to wean from the ventilator or reintubations. Conclusion Thirty-day mortality, complications and failure to rescue rates increase with advancing age following non-emergent general surgical operations. Patients over 80 years of age have especially high mortality following renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary complications. As patient age advances, surgeons need to be

  20. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H.; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article. PMID:27247673

  1. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article.

  2. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained

  3. Cosmogenic 10Be constraints on Little Ice Age glacial advances in the eastern Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Li, Yingkui; Harbor, Jon; Liu, Gengnian; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Presumed Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented by a set of fresh, sharp-crested, boulder covered and compact moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in the Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have constrained the formation ages of these moraines. We report 31 10Be exposure ages from presumed LIA moraines in six glacial valleys in the Urumqi River headwater area and the Haxilegen Pass area of the eastern Tian Shan, China. Our results reveal that the maximum LIA glacial extent occurred mainly around 430 ± 100 yr, a cold and wet period as indicated by proxy data from ice cores, tree rings, and lake sediments in Central Asia. We also dated a later glacial advance to 270 ± 55 yr. However, 10Be exposure ages on several presumed LIA moraines in front of small, thin glaciers are widely scattered and much older than the globally recognized timing of the LIA. Historical topographic maps indicate that most glaciers were more extensive in the early 1960s, and two of our 10Be sample sites were located close to the ice front at that time. Boulders transported by these small and thin glaciers may be reworked from deposits originally formed prior to the LIA glacial advances, producing apparently old and widely scattered exposure ages due to varied nuclide inheritance. Other published ages indicated an earlier LIA advance around 790 ± 300 yr in the easternmost Tian Shan, but in our study area the more extensive advance around 430 ± 100 yr likely reworked or covered deposits from this earlier event.

  4. Advanced glycoxidation and lipoxidation end products (AGEs and ALEs): an overview of their mechanisms of formation.

    PubMed

    Vistoli, G; De Maddis, D; Cipak, A; Zarkovic, N; Carini, M; Aldini, G

    2013-08-01

    Advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pathogenetic role in the development and progression of different oxidative-based diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurological disorders. AGEs and ALEs represent a quite complex class of compounds that are formed by different mechanisms, by heterogeneous precursors and that can be formed either exogenously or endogenously. There is a wide interest in AGEs and ALEs involving different aspects of research which are essentially focused on set-up and application of analytical strategies (1) to identify, characterize, and quantify AGEs and ALEs in different pathophysiological conditions; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of their biological effects; and (3) to discover compounds able to inhibit AGEs/ALEs damaging effects not only as biological tools aimed at validating AGEs/ALEs as drug target, but also as promising drugs. All the above-mentioned research stages require a clear picture of the chemical formation of AGEs/ALEs but this is not simple, due to the complex and heterogeneous pathways, involving different precursors and mechanisms. In view of this intricate scenario, the aim of the present review is to group the main AGEs and ALEs and to describe, for each of them, the precursors and mechanisms of formation.

  5. Do Maternal Living Arrangements Influence the Vaccination Status of Children Age 12–23 Months? A Data Analysis of Demographic Health Surveys 2010–11 from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although vaccination is an effective intervention to reduce childhood mortality and morbidity, reasons for incomplete vaccination, including maternal living arrangements, have been marginally explored. This study aims at assessing whether maternal living arrangements are associated with vaccination status of children aged 12–23 months in Zimbabwe. It also explores other variables that may be associated with having children not fully vaccinated. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the DHS-VI done in Zimbabwe in 2010–2011 (response rate 93%). Incomplete vaccination of children (outcome), was defined as not having received one dose of BCG and measles, 3 doses of polio and DPT/Pentavalent. Maternal living arrangements (main exposure), and other exposure variables were analysed. Survey logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted OR for exposures against the outcome. Results The dataset included 1,031 children aged 12–23 months. 65.8% of children were fully vaccinated. 65.7% of the mothers were married and cohabitating with a partner, 20.3% were married/partnered but living separately and 14% were not married. Maternal living arrangements were not associated with the vaccination status of children both in crude and adjusted analysis. Factors associated with poorer vaccination status of the children included: no tetanus vaccination for mothers during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.5;3.0), child living away from mother (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.2;1.8), mother’s education (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI 0.4;0.9), high number of children living in the household (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1;2.2), child age (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95%CI 0.5;0.9). Discussion Maternal living arrangements were not associated with vaccination status of Zimbabwean children. Other factors, such as the mother’s health-seeking behaviour and education were major factors associated with the children’s vaccination status. Given the

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM (CHC13). A McDonald, Y M Sey and J E Simmons. NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.
    Disinfection, by chlorination or by ozonation followed by treatment with either chlorine or chloramine, of water containi...

  7. Socioemotional and Behavioral Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities: The Moderating Role of Maternal Personal Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the role of maternal personal resources (mother's attachment style, coping strategies, and affect) in moderating the effects of learning disabilities (LD) on children's socioemotional and behavioral adjustment (self-rated sense of coherence, loneliness, and hope; and mother-rated child behavior checklist measures), as well as on…

  8. Maternal Perinatal Mental Health and Offspring Academic Achievement at Age 16: The Mediating Role of Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have…

  9. Advanced Colorectal Adenomas in Patients Under 45 Years of Age Are Mostly Sporadic

    PubMed Central

    Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Watson, Rao; Goodwin, Jonathan; Safar, Elyas; Chokshi, Reena V.; Azar, Riad R.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of advanced adenomas in younger individuals is a criterion for Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the utility of screening advanced adenomas for loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression to identify suspected LS remains unclear. Aims Determine the prevalence of MMR defects to understand whether these patients harbor a defined genetic risk for CRC. Methods The study cohort included adult patients ≤45 years of age with advanced adenomas (villous histology, ≥1 cm in diameter, ≥3 polyps of any size) endoscopically removed between 2001 and 2011. Clinical records were reviewed along with detailed pathological review and immunohistochemical MMR analysis. Results A total of 76 (40.1 % male, age 40.6 ± 5.4 years) patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Indications for colonoscopy were gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding 39 (51.3 %), CRC in a first-degree relative 17 (22.4 %) and somatic GI symptoms 20 (26.3 %). Index colonoscopy revealed a median of 1 adenoma (range 1–4), mean diameter of 12.9 ±7.1 mm, 40 (52.6 %) with villous histology. The mean follow-up duration was 3.3 ± 2 years. Recurrent adenomas developed in 24 (31.6 %), of which 8 (10.5 %) were advanced adenomas; none of these patients developed CRC. One of 66 (1.5 %) adenomas available for immunohistochemical (IHC) testing revealed loss of MLH1 and PMS2. Conclusions IHC screening of advanced adenomas from patients younger than 45 years of age identified potential LS in one of 64 patients. The low yield of IHC screening in this population suggests that universal IHC screening of advanced adenomas from patients younger than 45 years of age for MMR defects is not an efficient strategy for identifying LS subjects. PMID:24925148

  10. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton’s evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton’s age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species. PMID:26715745

  11. Aging induces cardiac diastolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts and protein modification.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yan; Du, Min; Dolence, E Kurt; Fang, Cindy X; Mayer, Gabriele E; Ceylan-Isik, Asli F; LaCour, Karissa H; Yang, Xiaoping; Wilbert, Christopher J; Sreejayan, Nair; Ren, Jun

    2005-04-01

    Evidence suggests that aging, per se, is a major risk factor for cardiac dysfunction. Oxidative modification of cardiac proteins by non-enzymatic glycation, i.e. advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), has been implicated as a causal factor in the aging process. This study was designed to examine the role of aging on cardiomyocyte contractile function, cardiac protein oxidation and oxidative modification. Mechanical properties were evaluated in ventricular myocytes from young (2-month) and aged (24-26-month) mice using a MyoCam system. The mechanical indices evaluated were peak shortening (PS), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt). Oxidative stress and protein damage were evaluated by glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio and protein carbonyl content, respectively. Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase was determined by immunoblotting. Aged myocytes displayed a larger cell cross-sectional area, prolonged TR90, and normal PS, +/- dL/dt and TPS compared with young myocytes. Aged myocytes were less tolerant of high stimulus frequency (from 0.1 to 5 Hz) compared with young myocytes. Oxidative stress and protein oxidative damage were both elevated in the aging group associated with significantly enhanced p47phox but not gp91phox expression. In addition, level of cardiac AGEs was approximately 2.5-fold higher in aged hearts than young ones determined by AGEs-ELISA. A group of proteins with a molecular range between 50 and 75 kDa with pI of 4-7 was distinctively modified in aged heart using one- or two-dimension SDS gel electrophoresis analysis. These data demonstrate cardiac diastolic dysfunction and reduced stress tolerance in aged cardiac myocytes, which may be associated with enhanced cardiac oxidative damage, level of AGEs and protein modification by AGEs.

  12. Teaching Chilean mothers to massage their full-term infants: effects on maternal breast-feeding and infant weight gain at age 2 and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Maria Sylvia Campos; Doren, Francisca Márquez; Wilson, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage on infant weight gain and exclusive maternal breast-feeding of an intervention that involved teaching mothers to massage their full-term infants. The sample included 100 healthy newborn infants who were receiving primary healthcare at 3 health centers in a low-income neighborhood of Santiago, Chile. The control group included 65 infants and the massage group included 35 infants. During their second well-child clinic visit, clinic nurses provided instruction to massage-group mothers about how to massage their infants, based on the methods of the Baby's First Massage program (http://www.babysfirstmassage.com/Scripts/default.asp). Mothers were encouraged to massage their infants for 10 to 15 minutes at least once a day, starting when their infants were 15 days old. There was no difference in the mean weights of the infants between the massage and control groups at baseline, but at age 2 months, massage group infants weighed significantly more than control-group infants. There were no weight differences between the 2 groups at age 4 months. There were no differences between the 2 groups on the incidence of exclusive maternal breast-feeding at age 2 or 4 months. The findings suggest that teaching mothers to massage their newborn infants may have a beneficial effect on the infant's early weight gain. There is a need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of maternal massage on other health and welfare outcomes for both mothers and infants.

  13. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Shiboski, Stephen; Heyman, Melvin B; Elwan, Deena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres are the protective complexes at the end of chromosomes, required for genomic stability. Little is known about predictors of attrition in young children or the relationship between parental and child patterns of telomere change. Telomere length was assessed twice over one year, at 4 and at 5 years of age, in Latino preschool children (n = 77) and their mothers (n = 70) in whole blood leukocytes. Maternal and child rates of attrition during the same time period were compared in 70 mother-child pairs. More children showed lengthened telomeres over one year compared to their mothers and very few children showed attrition (2.6 %). Approximately 31 % of children and 16 % of mothers displayed lengthening over one year while 66 % of children showed maintenance in contrast with 74 % of mothers. The strongest predictor for child telomere length change was child's baseline telomere length (r = -0.61, p < 0.01). Maternal rate of change was associated with child rate of change (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). After controlling for child baseline telomere length, the relationship between child and maternal rate of change trended towards significance (Coeff = 0.20, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.08). We found primarily maintenance and lengthening from 4 to 5 years of age in children, with minimal telomere attrition, indicating that most of the telomere loss happens in the first 4 years, plateauing by age 4. Lastly, we found close to 10 % of the variance in rate of change in children shared by mothers. While some of this shared variance is genetic, there are likely environmental factors that need to be further identified that impact rate of telomere length change.

  14. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Blumfield, Michelle L.; Nowson, Caryl; Hure, Alexis J.; Smith, Roger; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Collins, Clare E.

    2015-01-01

    The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP), which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E%) polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045), E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03) and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04) were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy) and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy) intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension. PMID:25919307

  15. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The “Brain Age Gap Estimation” (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2

  16. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31 ± 1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  18. Metformin reverts deleterious effects of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Schurman, L; McCarthy, A D; Sedlinsky, C; Gangoiti, M V; Arnol, V; Bruzzone, L; Cortizo, A M

    2008-06-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are implicated in the complications of diabetes and ageing, affecting several tissues, including bone. Metformin, an insulin-sensitizer drug, reduces the risk of life-threatening macrovascular complications. We have evaluated the hypothesis that metformin can abrogate AGE-induced deleterious effects in osteoblastic cells in culture. In two osteoblast-like cell lines (UMR106 and MC3T3E1), AGE-modified albumin induced cell death, caspase-3 activity, altered intracellular oxidative stress and inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. Metformin-treatment of osteoblastic cells prevented these AGE-induced alterations. We also assessed the expression of AGE receptors as a possible mechanism by which metformin could modulate the action of AGEs. AGEs-treatment of osteoblast-like cells enhanced RAGE protein expression, and this up-regulation was prevented in the presence of metformin. Although the precise mechanisms involved in metformin signaling are still elusive, our data implicate the AGE-RAGE interaction in the modulation of growth and differentiation of osteoblastic cells.

  19. Stimulatory effects of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on fibronectin matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Pastino, Alexandra K; Greco, Todd M; Mathias, Rommel A; Cristea, Ileana M; Schwarzbauer, Jean E

    2017-05-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds that form via non-enzymatic glycation of proteins throughout our lifespan and at a higher rate in certain chronic diseases such as diabetes. AGEs contribute to the progression of fibrosis, in part by stimulating cellular pathways that affect gene expression. Long-lived ECM proteins are targets for non-enzymatic glycation but the question of whether the AGE-modified ECM leads to excess ECM accumulation and fibrosis remains unanswered. In this study, cellular changes due to AGE accretion in the ECM were investigated. Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins in a decellularized fibroblast ECM was achieved by incubating the ECM in a solution of methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry of fibronectin (FN) isolated from the glycated matrix identified twenty-eight previously unidentified MGO-derived AGE modification sites including functional sites such as the RGD integrin-binding sequence. Mesangial cells grown on the glycated, decellularized matrix assembled increased amounts of FN matrix. Soluble AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) also stimulated FN matrix assembly and this effect was reduced by function-blocking antibodies against the receptor for AGE (RAGE). These results indicate that cells respond to AGEs by increasing matrix assembly and that RAGE is involved in this response. This raises the possibility that the accumulation of ECM during the progression of fibrosis may be enhanced by cell interactions with AGEs on a glycated ECM.

  20. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are cross-sectionally associated with insulin secretion in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Josephine M; Sourris, Karly C; de Courten, Maximilian P J; Dougherty, Sonia L; Chand, Vibhasha; Lyons, Jasmine G; Bertovic, David; Coughlan, Melinda T; Schlaich, Markus P; Soldatos, Georgia; Cooper, Mark E; Straznicky, Nora E; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; de Courten, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy humans. We report the cross-sectional association between circulating AGE concentrations and insulin secretory function in healthy humans (17 F: 27 M, aged 30 ± 10 years) with a wide range of BMI (24.6-31.0 kg/m(2)). Higher circulating concentrations of AGEs were related to increased first phase insulin secretion during IVGTT (r = 0.43; p < 0.05) and lower 2-h glucose concentrations during OGTT (r = -0.31; p < 0.05). In addition, fasting (r = -0.36; p < 0.05) and 2-h glucose concentrations were negatively related to circulating levels of soluble receptor for AGE (RAGE) isoforms (r = -0.39; p < 0.01). In conclusion, in healthy humans, we show a cross-sectional association between advanced glycation end products and acute insulin secretion during glucose tolerance testing.

  1. Relationship of decrease in fecundity with advancing age to structural changes in mouse endometrium

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, KIYOSHI; YAMADA, JINZO

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between decrease in fecundity and structural changes in the antimesometrial endometrium of the mouse. Fecundity was calculated as the number of animals showing a placental sign/number of copulated animals ×100 (%). Structural changes in the endometrium were examined by electron microscopy. A negative correlation between age and fecundity was found. Fecundity was 50% at 7 mo of age. At this age, amorphous material appeared in the region between the basement membrane deep to the luminal epithelium and the subepithelial cells. This material was sometimes attached to the basement membrane. It increased in amount with advancing age, as fecundity decreased. The structure of the uterine luminal epithelial cells did not alter with age. The results indicated that decrease in fecundity with advancing age is correlated with the appearance of amorphous material beneath the basal lamina of the endometrial epithelium. It is suggested that this could impair communication between the luminal epithelium and the endometrial stroma, which plays an important role in implantation. PMID:10697293

  2. Younger Dryas Age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H. ); Hendy, C.H. )

    1994-06-03

    A corrected radiocarbon age of 11,050 [+-] 14 years before present for an advance of the Franz Josef Glacier to the Waiho Loop terminal moraine on the western flank of New Zealand's Southern Alps shows that glacier advance on a South Pacific island was synchronous with initiation of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Hence, cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas probably reflects global rather than regional forcing. The source for Younger Dryas climatic cooling may thus lie in the atmosphere rather than in a North Atlantic thermohaline switch. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Reduced neutrophil chemotaxis and infiltration contributes to delayed resolution of cutaneous wound infection with advanced age.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Aleah L; Rendon, Juan L; Ramirez, Luis; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-15

    Advanced age is associated with alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to an increased risk of infection in elderly patients. Coupled with this immune dysfunction, elderly patients demonstrate impaired wound healing with elevated rates of wound dehiscence and chronic wounds. To evaluate how advanced age alters the host immune response to cutaneous wound infection, we developed a murine model of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus wound infection in young (3-4 mo) and aged (18-20 mo) BALB/c mice. Aged mice exhibit increased bacterial colonization and delayed wound closure over time compared with young mice. These differences were not attributed to alterations in wound neutrophil or macrophage TLR2 or FcγRIII expression, or age-related changes in phagocytic potential and bactericidal activity. To evaluate the role of chemotaxis in our model, we first examined in vivo chemotaxis in the absence of wound injury to KC, a neutrophil chemokine. In response to a s.c. injection of KC, aged mice recruited fewer neutrophils at increasing doses of KC compared with young mice. This paralleled our model of wound infection, where diminished neutrophil and macrophage recruitment was observed in aged mice relative to young mice despite equivalent levels of KC, MIP-2, and MCP-1 chemokine levels at the wound site. This reduced leukocyte accumulation was also associated with lower levels of ICAM-1 in wounds from aged mice at early time points. These age-mediated defects in early neutrophil recruitment may alter the dynamics of the inflammatory phase of wound healing, impacting macrophage recruitment, bacterial clearance, and wound closure.

  4. Small-for-gestational age and its association with maternal blood glucose, body mass index and stature: a perinatal cohort study among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632

  5. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  6. Acetoacetate promotes the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    PubMed

    Bohlooli, Mousa; Ghaffari-Moghaddam, Mansour; Khajeh, Mostafa; Aghashiri, Zohre; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Acetoacetate (AA) is an important ketone body, which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are defined as final products of glycation process whose production is influenced by the levels of ROS. The accumulation of AGEs in the body contributes to pathogenesis of many diseases including complications of diabetes, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we evaluated the impact of AA on production of AGEs upon incubation of human serum albumin (HSA) with glucose. The effect of AA on the AGEs formation of HSA was studied under physiological conditions after incubation with glucose for 35 days. The physical techniques including circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to assess the impact of AA on formation and structural changes of glycated HSA (GHSA). Our results indicated that the secondary and tertiary structural changes of GHSA were increased in the presence of AA. The fluorescence intensity measurements of AGEs also showed an increase in AGEs formation. Acetoacetate has an activator effect in formation of AGEs through ROS production. The presence of AA may result in enhanced glycation in the presence of glucose and severity of complications associated with accumulation of AGEs.

  7. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) specifically recognizes methylglyoxal-derived AGEs.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Ray, Rashmi; Singer, David; Böhme, David; Burz, David S; Rai, Vivek; Hoffmann, Ralf; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2014-05-27

    Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia increases the extracellular concentration of methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolones (MG-H) form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that accumulate in the serum of diabetic patients. The binding of hydroimidozolones to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) results in long-term complications of diabetes typified by vascular and neuronal injury. Here we show that binding of methylglyoxal-modified albumin to RAGE results in signal transduction. Chemically synthesized peptides containing hydroimidozolones bind specifically to the V domain of RAGE with nanomolar affinity. The solution structure of an MG-H1-V domain complex revealed that the hydroimidazolone moiety forms multiple contacts with a positively charged surface on the V domain. The high affinity and specificity of hydroimidozolones binding to the V domain of RAGE suggest that they are the primary AGE structures that give rise to AGEs-RAGE pathologies.

  8. Linolenic acid prevents early and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) modification of albumin.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Govindarajan; Saraswathi, N T

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we report the protective effects of linolenic acid towards the formation of early (HbA1c) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) based on fluorescence, circular dichroism, confocal microscopy and molecular interaction studies. Linolenic acid was found to be a potent inhibitor of AGEs formed by both glucose and fructose. The HbA1c (early glycation product) level was found to be reduced to 7.4% when compared to glycated control (8.4%). Similarly, linolenic acid also inhibited the methylglyoxal mediated AGEs formation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy studies suggested that the protective effect of linolenic acid for the helical structure of albumin. The molecular interaction studies showed that linolenic acid interacts with arginine residues of albumin with high affinity. Results suggested linolenic acid to be a potent antiglycation compound and also it could be a better lead compound for AGE inhibition.

  9. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    PubMed

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of

  10. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  11. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors.

  12. DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974

  13. [Maternity blues].

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, F

    2007-04-01

    Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.

  14. Angiogenic inhibitors for older patients with advanced colorectal cancer: Does the age hold the stage?

    PubMed Central

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Fontanella, Caterina; Lutrino, Eufemia Stefania; Ferrari, Laura; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Cardellino, Giovanni Gerardo; Rosati, Gerardo; Fasola, Gianpiero

    2013-01-01

    Although major progress has been achieved in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) with the employment of antiangiogenic agents, several questions remain on the use of these drugs in older patients. Since cardiovascular, renal and other comorbidities are common in the elderly, an accurate assessment of the patients’ conditions should be performed before a treatment decision is made. Since most CRC patients enrolled in clinical trials testing antiangiogenic drugs were aged < 65 years, the efficacy and tolerability of these agents in elderly patients has not been adequately explored. Data suggest that patients with advanced CRC derive similar benefit from bevacizumab treatment regardless of age, but the advantage of other antiangiogenic drugs in the same class of patients appears more blurred. Literature data suggest that specific antiangiogenic-related toxicities such as hypertension or arterial thromboembolic events may be higher in the elderly than in the younger patients. In addition, it should be emphasized that the patients included in the clinical studies discussed herein were selected and therefore may not be representative of the usual elderly population. Advanced age alone should not discourage the use of bevacizumab. However, a careful patients’ selection and watchful monitoring of toxicities are required to optimize the use of antiangiogenics in this population. PMID:23847406

  15. Changing perspectives of infectious causes of maternal mortality

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Vijayselvi, Reeta; Jose, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infections significantly contribute to maternal mortality. There is a perceived change in the spectrum of such infections. This study aims to estimate the contribution of various types of infections to maternal mortality. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of maternal death cases that took place between 2003 and 2012 in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. The International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality was used to classify the causes of deaths and World Health Organization near-miss criteria were used to identify organ dysfunction that occurred before death. Infections during pregnancy were divided into three groups, i.e., pregnancy-related infections, pregnancy-unrelated infections, and nosocomial infections. Results In this study, 32.53% of maternal deaths were because of some type of infection as the primary cause. The contribution of pregnancy-related infections was comparable with that of pregnancy-unrelated infections (16.03% vs. 16.50%). Metritis with pelvic cellulitis, septic abortions, tuberculosis, malaria, scrub typhus, and H1N1 influenza (influenza A virus subtype) were among the most commonly encountered causes of maternal death due to infections. Another 7.07% of cases developed severe systemic infection during the course of illness as nosocomial infection. A significant majority of mothers were below 30 years of age, were primiparae, had advanced gestational age, and had operative delivery. Cardiovascular and respiratory system dysfunctions were the most common organ dysfunctions encountered. Conclusion The contribution of pregnancy-unrelated infections to maternal deaths is significant. Control of these diverse community-acquired infections holds the key to a reduction in maternal mortality along with the promotion of clean birthing practices. Nosocomial infections should not be underestimated as a contributor to maternal mortality. PMID:26692770

  16. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 μg 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D.

  17. Chronic kidney disease and pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease complicates an increasing number of pregnancies, and at least 4% of childbearing-aged women are afflicted by this condition. Although diabetic nephropathy is the most common type of chronic kidney disease found in pregnant women, a variety of other primary and systemic kidney diseases also commonly occur. In the setting of mild maternal primary chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine <1.3 mg/dL) without poorly controlled hypertension, most pregnancies result in live births and maternal kidney function is unaffected. In cases of more moderate and severe maternal primary chronic kidney disease, the incidence of fetal prematurity, low birth weight, and death increase substantially, and the risk of accelerated irreversible decline in maternal kidney function, proteinuria, and hypertensive complications rise dramatically. In addition to kidney function, maternal hypertension and proteinuria portend negative outcomes and are important factors to consider when risk stratifying for fetal and maternal complications. In the setting of diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephropathy, other systemic disease features such as disease activity, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and glycemic control play important roles in determining pregnancy outcomes. Concomitant with advances in obstetrical management and kidney disease treatments, it appears that the historically dismal maternal and fetal outcomes have greatly improved.

  18. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Lewis, Karl D; Arron, Sarah T; Migden, Michael R; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-11-15

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age.

  19. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Lewis, Karl D.; Arron, Sarah T.; Migden, Michael R.; Solomon, James A.; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F.; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age. PMID:27764798

  20. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  1. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  2. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: A sibling-comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D’Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly due to increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Since severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers’ age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born 1958–1979 (n=2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course-persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending. PMID:22781852

  3. Self and identity in advanced old age: validation of theory through longitudinal case analysis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P G; Ivani-Chalian, C; Robinson, M

    1999-10-01

    Case studies drawn from a 20-year longitudinal study of aging were examined for the support they provide to two theoretical viewpoints on the self in later life: one focusing on management of self-esteem, the other on development of identity as story. The five cases selected for scrutiny represented diverse trajectories of self-esteem. They furnished ample illustrations of certain key aspects of both theories, including assimilative processes of coping, depression related to absence of accommodation, maintenance of life story themes, and life review processes. They did not, however, give strong support to the dichotomy, drawn within both theoretical models, between younger and older old age. Examples of accommodation, disengagement, and self-transcendence, hypothesized to typify advanced old age, were relatively few in number and emerged only toward the very end of life. It is argued that examination of prototypical cases provides a useful approach to validating and developing theory. A conclusion drawn from this study is that more analysis should be carried out on the lives of persons who exemplify the theoretically ideal characteristics of advanced old age.

  4. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  5. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  6. A structured approach to evaluating aging of the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dwight, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    An aging evaluation program has been developed for the United States Department of Energy's Advanced Test Reactor to support the current goal of operation through the year 2014 and beyond. The Aging Evaluation and Life Extension Program (AELEX) employs a three-phased approach. In Phases 1 and 2, now complete, components were identified, categorized and prioritized. Critical components were selected and aging mechanisms for the critical components identified. An initial evaluation of the critical components was performed and extended life operation for the plant appears to be both technically and economically feasible. Detailed evaluations of the critical components are now in progress in the early stages of Phase 3. Some results are available. Evaluations of many non-critical components and refinements to the program based on probabilistic risk assessment results will follow in later stages of Phase 3. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Advanced paternal age effects in neurodevelopmental disorders—review of potential underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, M; Mill, J; Basson, M A; Goriely, A; Spiers, H; Reichenberg, A; Schalkwyk, L; Fernandes, C

    2017-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between advanced paternal age (APA) at conception and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, particularly with regard to increased risk for autism and schizophrenia. Conclusive evidence about how age-related changes in paternal gametes, or age-independent behavioral traits affect neural development is still lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the origins of APA effects are likely to be multidimensional, involving both inherited predisposition and de novo events. Here we provide a review of the epidemiological and molecular findings to date. Focusing on the latter, we present the evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning the association between late fatherhood and disorder in offspring. We also discuss the limitations of the APA literature. We propose that different hypotheses relating to the origins of the APA effects are not mutually exclusive. Instead, multiple mechanisms likely contribute, reflecting the etiological complexity of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28140401

  8. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  9. Effects of advanced aging on the neural correlates of successful recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tracy H.; Kruggel, Frithjof; Rugg, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have reported that the neural correlates of retrieval success (old>new effects) are larger and more widespread in older than in young adults. In the present study we investigated whether this pattern of age-related ‘over-recruitment’ continues into advanced age. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), retrieval-related activity from two groups (N = 18 per group) of older adults aged 84–96 yrs (‘old-old’) and 64–77 yrs (‘young-old’) was contrasted. Subjects studied a series of pictures, half of which were presented once, and half twice. At test, subjects indicated whether each presented picture was old or new. Recognition performance of the old-old subjects for twice-studied items was equivalent to that of the young-old subjects for once-studied items. Old>new effects common to the two groups were identified in several cortical regions, including medial and lateral parietal and prefrontal cortex. There were no regions where these effects were of greater magnitude in the old-old group, and thus no evidence of over-recruitment in this group relative to the young-old individuals. In one region of medial parietal cortex, effects were greater (and only significant) in the young-old group. The failure to find evidence of over-recruitment in the old-old subjects relative to the young-old group, despite their markedly poorer cognitive performance, suggests that age-related over-recruitment effects plateau in advanced age. The findings for the medial parietal cortex underscore the sensitivity of this cortical region to increasing age. PMID:19428399

  10. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) and Diabetes: Cause, Effect, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Despite new and effective drug therapies, insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and its complications remain major medical challenges. It is accepted that IR, often associated with over-nutrition and obesity, results from chronically elevated oxidant stress (OS) and chronic inflammation. Less acknowledged is that a major cause for this inflammation is excessive consumption of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with the standard western diet. AGEs, which were largely thought as oxidative derivatives resulting from diabetic hyperglycemia, are increasingly seen as a potential risk for islet β-cell injury, peripheral IR and diabetes. Here we discuss the relationships between exogenous AGEs, chronic inflammation, IR, and T2D. We propose that under chronic exogenous oxidant AGE pressure the depletion of innate defense mechanisms is an important factor, which raises susceptibility to inflammation, IR, T2D and its complications. Finally we review evidence on dietary AGE restriction as a non-pharmacologic intervention, which effectively lowers AGEs, restores innate defenses and improves IR, thus, offering new perspectives on diabetes etiology and therapy. PMID:24292971

  11. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and intelligence quotients in the offspring at 8 years of age: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Pearson, Rebecca M; Emmett, Pauline; Heron, Jon; Smith, Andrew D A C; Emond, Alan; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-03-02

    Dietary intake during pregnancy may influence child neurodevelopment and cognitive function. This study aims to investigate the associations between dietary patterns obtained in pregnancy and intelligence quotients (IQ) among offspring at 8 years of age. Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed a food frequency questionnaire at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 12,195). Dietary patterns were obtained by cluster analysis. Three clusters best described women's diets during pregnancy: "fruit and vegetables," "meat and potatoes," and "white bread and coffee." The offspring's IQ at 8 years of age was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Models, using variables correlated to IQ data, were performed to impute missing values. Linear regression models were employed to investigate associations between the maternal clusters and IQ in childhood. Children of women who were classified in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster during pregnancy had lower average verbal (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -3.05; p < .001), performance (β = -1.26; p = .011 and β = -1.75; p < .001), and full-scale IQ (β = -1.74; p < .001 and β = -2.79; p < .001) at 8 years of age when compared to children of mothers in the fruit and vegetables cluster in imputed models of IQ and all confounders, after adjustment for a wide range of known confounders including maternal education. The pregnant women who were classified in the fruit and vegetables cluster had offspring with higher average IQ compared with offspring of mothers in the meat and potatoes cluster and white bread and coffee cluster.

  12. Maternal and perinatal risks for women over 44--a review.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Rosen, Todd

    2009-10-20

    It has been widely documented that advanced maternal age constitutes a risk to both mother and child. The purpose of this review is to examine the risks posed to the pregnant mother over the age of 44 and determine if they are experienced in greater frequency than in their younger cohorts. A review of the recent literature demonstrates a significant increased incidence of cesarean section, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and perinatal mortality. There also appears to be different rates of maternal complications depending on mode of conception with assisted reproductive technology conferring a higher risk in this population. Further study is recommended in mode of conception and parity to examine the effects on maternal and fetal risks.

  13. Oral squamous cell carcinoma among Yemenis: Onset in young age and presentation at advanced stage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaya, Maha; Abdulhuq, Mahmoud; Al-Mandili, Ahmad; Al-Anazi, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide. Up to 90% of oral cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The data on oral SCC in Yemen are lacking. The objective of this study therefore was to describe and analyze the demographic, clinical and histological characteristics of Yemeni patients with oral SCC. Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, two sets of retrospective data for Yemeni cancer patients were obtained officially by two different registries. Patients with oral SCC were included. Their ages were dichotomized using 40 and 45 years alternately as individual cut-points for young and old patients. The patients` demographic, clinical and histological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Results: There were 457 Yemenis with oral SCC; 253 patients (55.4%) were men. The overall mean age was 58.15±14.11 years. The tongue was the most affected oral sub-site accounting for 53% of the reported cases. The well and moderately differentiated oral SCC accounted for 55.5% and 25.6% of the total cases respectively. Noteworthy, 62 patients (14%) were affected by the age of ?40; this increased to 105 patients (23%) aged ?45 years. Additionally, a high proportion of oral SCC patients (62%, 283) were diagnosed at advanced tumor stages (regional extension or metastasized). The distributions of histological grades and tumor stages in young and old patients were significantly different (P=0.006 and 0.026 respectively). Conclusion: The relative frequency of oral SCC among Yemeni young people is high. Unfortunately, most of oral SCC patients in Yemen were diagnosed at advanced stage. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Yemen, young patients, advanced stage. PMID:24558559

  14. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  15. Mothers' depressive symptoms and infant negative emotionality in the prediction of child adjustment at age 3: testing the maternal reactivity and child vulnerability hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Yan, Ni

    2014-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in how mothers' depressive symptoms affect children's early adjustment. It tested whether problematic development among children high in negative emotionality is accentuated by (a) maternal reactivity, the negative reactivity of mothers with depressive symptoms to difficult child characteristics; and (b) child vulnerability, the susceptibility of negatively emotional children to the negative parenting of mothers with depressive symptoms. Based on 1,364 participants from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, results showed that mothers' depressive symptoms predicted greater risk for adjustment problems at age 3 among children who as infants were high rather than low in negative emotionality. Increased risk was evident for behavior problems, low responsiveness, high separation distress, and low social competence. Mediational tests suggested that increased risk reflected maternal reactivity: the stronger mothers' depressive symptoms, the more they responded with negative parenting to children high in negative emotionality. The proposal that child vulnerability mediates the greater impact of mothers' depressive symptoms on negatively emotional children was verified only for separation distress. The results support the proposal that, when mothers are high in depressive symptoms, aversive characteristics of children and their behavior increasingly influence early adjustment and do so because they elicit negative parent behavior.

  16. Advanced paternal age and childhood cancer in offspring: A nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-03

    Cancer initiation is presumed to occur in utero for many childhood cancers and it has been hypothesized that advanced paternal age may have an impact due to the increasing number of mutations in the sperm DNA with increasing paternal age. We examined the association between paternal age and specific types of childhood cancer in offspring in a large nationwide cohort of 1,904,363 children born in Denmark from 1978 through 2010. The children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and were linked to information from other national registers, including the Danish Cancer Registry. In total, 3,492 children were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15 years. The adjusted hazard ratio of childhood cancer according to paternal age was estimated using Cox proportional hazards regressions. We found a 13% (95% confidence interval: 4-23%) higher hazard rate for every 5 years advantage in paternal age for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while no clear association was found for acute myeloid leukemia (hazard ratio pr. 5 years = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.30). The estimates for neoplasms in the central nervous system suggested a lower hazard rate with higher paternal age (hazard ratio pr. 5 years = 0.92, 95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.01). No clear associations were found for the remaining childhood cancer types. The findings suggest that paternal age is moderately associated with a higher rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but not acute myeloid leukemia, in offspring, while no firm conclusions could be made for other specific cancer types.

  17. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jonathan; Xu, Beibei; Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Le, Quynh-Thu; Mell, Loren K.; Murphy, James D.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  18. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults.

  19. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  20. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C.; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J.; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. PMID:26663425

  1. Advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress and metalloproteinases are altered in the cerebral microvasculature during aging.

    PubMed

    Safciuc, Florentina; Constantin, Alina; Manea, Adrian; Nicolae, Manuela; Popov, Doina; Raicu, Monica; Alexandru, Dorin; Constantinescu, Elena

    2007-11-01

    Biological aging is associated with an increased incidence of cerebrovascular disease. Recent findings indicate that oxidative stress promoting age-related changes of cerebral circulation are involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of cerebral microvessels to the oxidative stress during brain aging, by: (i) assessment of precursors for advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation, (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione disulfide reductase (GR), and (iii) the activities of metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, involved in synaptogenesis and memory consolidation. The experiments were performed on two groups of male Wistar rats: 15 young (3-6 months old) and 15 aged (18-24 months old) animals. The cerebral microvessels were isolated by mechanical homogenization, the concentration of protein carbonyls and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography was employed to evaluate MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. The results showed that, by comparison with young rats, aged brain microvessels contain: (i) approximately 106 % increase of protein carbonyls production; (ii) approximately 68% higher GPx activity, unmodified activities of SOD and GR; (iii) approximately 30% diminishment in MMP-2 activity, and the specific occurrence of MMP-9 enzyme. The data suggest that the age-related changes of microvessels could increase the propensity for cerebral diseases and might represent, at least in part, a prerequisite for the deterioration of mental and physical status in the elderly.

  2. Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an advanced traveler information system.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; Hulse, M C; Mollenhauer, M A; Fleischman, R N; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving, navigation performance, and safety for drivers who used TravTek, an Advanced Traveler Information System. The first two studies investigated various route guidance configurations on the road in a specially equipped instrumented vehicle with an experimenter present. The third was a naturalistic quasi-experimental field study that collected data unobtrusively from more than 1200 TravTek rental car drivers with no in-vehicle experimenter. The results suggest that with increased experience, drivers become familiar with the system and develop strategies for substantially more efficient and safer use. The results also showed that drivers over age 65 had difficulty driving and navigating concurrently. They compensated by driving slowly and more cautiously. Despite this increased caution, older drivers made more safety-related errors than did younger drivers. The results also showed that older drivers benefited substantially from a well-designed ATIS driver interface.

  3. Direct versus indirect effects of social rank, maternal weight, body condition and age on milk production in Iberian red deer ( Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Estevez, Jose A; Gallego, Laureano

    2010-02-01

    Social rank in cervids and other mammals is not entirely predicted by body weight, but in most cases influences access to food directly. Milk provisioning depends on maternal weight and on daily food intake. Usually, body weight, body condition, age and social rank are inter-correlated making it very difficult to discern the relative importance of each variable to milk production. This study used path analysis to assess direct versus indirect effects of these variables on milk production of 62 Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). Once the known direct effects of body weight and body condition were set as fixed, hind age and social rank did not affect milk production directly. In contrast, they exerted an indirect influence through the correlation both with hind body weight and body condition. Body weight exerted an effect on milk production nearly twice as great as that of body condition. This study shows, for the first time in a wild mammal, the relative importance of social rank, body weight, body condition and age in affecting milk production ability.

  4. Characteristics of RSV-Specific Maternal Antibodies in Plasma of Hospitalized, Acute RSV Patients under Three Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Widjaja, Ivy; Ahout, Inge M. L.; de Groot, Ronald; Guichelaar, Teun; Luytjes, Willem; de Jonge, Marien I.; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Ferwerda, Gerben

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause for respiratory illness that requires hospitalization in infancy. High levels of maternal antibodies can protect against RSV infection. However, RSV-infected infants can suffer from severe disease symptoms even in the presence of high levels of RSV-specific antibodies. This study analyzes several serological characteristics to explore potential deficiencies or surpluses of antibodies that could relate to severe disease symptoms. We compare serum antibodies from hospitalized patients who suffered severe symptoms as well as uninfected infants. Disease severity markers were oxygen therapy, tachypnea, oxygen saturation, admission to the intensive care unit and duration of hospitalization. Antibodies against RSV G protein and a prefusion F epitope correlated with in vitro neutralization. Avidity of RSV-specific IgG antibodies was lower in RSV-infected infants compared to uninfected controls. Severe disease symptoms were unrelated to RSV-specific IgG antibody titers, avidity of RSV-IgG, virus neutralization capacity or titers against pre- and postfusion F or G protein ectodomains and the prefusion F antigenic site Ø. In conclusion, the detailed serological characterization did not indicate dysfunctional or epitope-skewed composition of serum antibodies in hospitalized RSV-infected infants suffering from severe disease symptoms. It remains unclear, whether specific antibody fractions could diminish disease symptoms. PMID:28135305

  5. Decreased resting-state connections within the visuospatial attention-related network in advanced aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Li, Chunlin; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Zhihan; Kurata, Tomoko; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Abe, Koji; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-06-15

    Advanced aging is accompanied by a decline in visuospatial attention. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated dysfunction in specific brain areas related to visuospatial attention. However, it is still unclear how the functional connectivity between brain regions causes the decline of visuospatial attention. Here, we combined task and rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the age-dependent alterations of resting-state functional connectivity within the task-related network. Twenty-three young subjects and nineteen elderly subjects participated in this study, and a modified Posner paradigm was used to define the region of interest (ROI). Our results showed that a marked reduction in the number of connections occurred with age, but this effect was not uniform throughout the brain: while there was a significant loss of communication in the anterior portion of the brain and between the anterior and posterior cerebral cortices, communication in the posterior portion of the brain was preserved. Moreover, the older adults exhibited weakened resting-state functional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and left anterior insular cortex. These findings suggest that, the disrupted functional connectivity of the brain network for visuospatial attention that occurs during normal aging may underlie the decline in cognitive performance.

  6. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  7. DNA methylation errors in cloned mice disappear with advancement of aging.

    PubMed

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hattori, Naka; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Cloned animals have various health problems. Aberrant DNA methylation is a possible cause of the problems. Restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) that enabled us to analyze more than 1,000 CpG islands simultaneously demonstrated that all cloned newborns had aberrant DNA methylation. To study whether this aberration persists throughout the life of cloned individuals, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation status of newborn (19.5 dpc, n=2), adult (8-11 months old, n=3), and aged (23-27 months old, n=4) cloned mice using kidney cells as representatives. In the adult and aged groups, cloning was repeated using cumulus cells of the adult founder clone of each group as nucleus donor. Two newborn clones had three with aberrantly methylated loci, which is consistent with previous reports that all cloned newborns had DNA methylation aberrations. Interestingly, we could detect only one aberrantly methylated locus in two of the three adult clones in mid-age and none of four senescent clones, indicating that errors in DNA methylation disappear with advancement of animals' aging.

  8. Failure to Modulate Attentional Control in Advanced Aging Linked to White Matter Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Shire, Emily H.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced aging is associated with reduced attentional control and less flexible information processing. Here, the origins of these cognitive effects were explored using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that systematically varied demands to shift attention and inhibit irrelevant information across task blocks. Prefrontal and parietal regions previously implicated in attentional control were recruited by the task and most so for the most demanding task configurations. A subset of older individuals did not modulate activity in frontal and parietal regions in response to changing task requirements. Older adults who did not dynamically modulate activity underperformed their peers and scored more poorly on neuropsychological measures of executive function and speed of processing. Examining 2 markers of preclinical pathology in older adults revealed that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), but not high amyloid burden, were associated with failure to modulate activity in response to changing task demands. In contrast, high amyloid burden was associated with alterations in default network activity. These results suggest failure to modulate frontal and parietal activity reflects a disruptive process in advanced aging associated with specific neuropathologic processes. PMID:21765181

  9. The long term effect of age and maternally derived antibodies against foot and mouth disease on the serological response following vaccination in young dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-09-22

    In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological response following vaccinations against FMD in dairy calves. Furthermore, the long term effect of FMD vaccination regimen during early life was rarely assessed. This study was conducted in order to assess both the short and long term effects. In total 44 non-vaccinated calves were divided into four groups of different age. Calves were vaccinated up to four times and 484 serum samples were collected on 11 time points in a period of 70weeks. Virus neutralizing tests were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine strains (homologous serotypes): O-4625, O-Manisa, ASIA-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. The MDA titer was negatively associated with the age of the calves and the MDA half-life was 22days. We demonstrated that early vaccination of calves (younger than three months) resulted in low NAT, even after four repeated vaccinations, compared with vaccination of calves older than three months. The percentage of time in which these calves had a NAT above 2.0 (log10) between the age of six months and 1.5years was significantly lower compared to older calves (older than three months). Additionally, we found that by increasing the frequency of vaccination in calves older than three months, it is possible to reach high NAT by the age of one year. Adoption of such a vaccination regimen in Israel as well as other FMD endemic countries may allow better protection against FMD in dairy calves and reduction in FMD incidence.

  10. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  11. Successful advanced maternal age pregnancy with mosaic turner syndrome conceived after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Hinokio, Kenji; Kiyokawa, Machiko; Morine, Mikio; Iwasa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). The patient's ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  12. Maternal micronutrient imbalance alters gene expression of BDNF, NGF, TrkB and CREB in the offspring brain at an adult age.

    PubMed

    Sable, Pratiksha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-05-01

    Micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12, and fatty acids which are interlinked in the one carbon cycle play a vital role in mediating epigenetic processes leading to an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier study demonstrates that a micronutrient imbalanced diet adversely affects docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and protein levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain and cognition in the offspring by 3 months of age. In this study we attempt to analyze if these effects are a consequence of a change in gene expression of these molecules. Further, we also examined the effect of either a postnatal control diet or a prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on gene expression in the cortex of the offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into control and five treatment groups at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA+DHA) supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups. Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that the imbalanced diet caused a marked reduction in the mRNA levels of BDNF, NGF, TrkB, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the maternal imbalanced diet was able to normalize the mRNA levels of all the above genes. This study demonstrates that a maternal diet imbalanced in micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) influences gene expression of neurotrophins and their signalling molecules and thereby adversely affects the brain of the offspring.

  13. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children’s neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2–12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001–2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children’s cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children’s levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (β = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; β = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children’s IQ scores. Children’s but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm

  14. A risk score for the prediction of advanced age-related macular degeneration: Development and validation in 2 prospective cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We aimed to develop an eye specific model which used readily available information to predict risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) as our training dataset, which consisted of the 4,507 participants (contributing 1,185 affected v...

  15. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) improves glycemic control and decreases adipocyte size in fructose-fed rats by suppressing AGE-RAGE axis.

    PubMed

    Ojima, A; Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Higashimoto, Y; Ueda, S; Fukami, K; Okuda, S; Yamagishi, S

    2015-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) decrease adiponectin expression and suppress insulin signaling in cultured adipocytes through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) via oxidative stress generation. We have recently found that high-affinity DNA aptamer directed against AGE (AGE-aptamer) prevents the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy by blocking the harmful actions of AGEs in the kidney. This study examined the effects of AGE-aptamer on adipocyte remodeling, AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis, and adiponectin expression in fructose-fed rats. Although AGE-aptamer treatment by an osmotic mini pump for 8 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels, it significantly decreased average fasting blood glucose and had a tendency to inhibit body weight gain in fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, AGE-aptamer significantly suppressed the increase in adipocyte size and prevented the elevation in AGEs, RAGE, and an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), levels in adipose tissues of fructose-fed rats at 14-week-old, while it restored the decrease in adiponectin mRNA levels. Our present study suggests that AGE-aptamer could improve glycemic control and prevent adipocyte remodeling in fructose-fed rats partly by suppressing the AGE-RAGE-mediated oxidative stress generation. AGE-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for fructose-induced metabolic derangements.

  16. Recent Demographic Developments in France: Relatively Low Mortality at Advanced Ages

    PubMed Central

    Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali

    2013-01-01

    France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements. The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971–1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality. PMID:24285939

  17. Immunoparesis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are disassociated in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Benjamin M; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Burris, Jason; Korde, Neha; Manasanch, Elisabet; Kwok, Mary; Annunziata, Christina; Roschewski, Mark J; Engels, Eric A; Landgren, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Immunoparesis and a skewed serum free light chain (FLC) ratio are indicators of immune dysfunction predictive of progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM). Previous studies have reported increased prevalence of MGUS by age, but no study has examined the relationship between immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratios in the elderly. We screened 453 older adults (median age, 80 years; range, 65-96) to characterize the patterns of immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratio in relation to MGUS. We defined MGUS in 4.4% of the subjects; the prevalence was 12.5% among individuals of >90 years. In MGUS (vs. non-MGUS) cases, immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 70.0% (vs. 49.0%; P = 0.07) and 50.0% (vs. 12.9%; P = 0.0001), respectively. Based on small numbers, MGUS patients with abnormal FLC ratio were borderline (P = 0.07) more likely to have immunoparesis. Overall, the prevalence of immunoparesis varied in a nonlinear fashion, with lowest frequencies in the youngest and oldest groups. Our observed disassociation between MGUS prevalence and impaired immunoglobulin production suggests that separate mechanisms are involved in the development of MGUS and immunoparesis in advanced age. These findings emphasize the need for molecularly defined methods to characterize myeloma precursor states and better predict progression to MM.

  18. The influence of maternal and paternal history on stone composition and clinical course of calcium nephrolithiasis in subjects aged between 15 and 25.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Angela; Ticinesi, Andrea; Allegri, Franca; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pinelli, Silvana; Folesani, Giuseppina; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the influence of maternal history of stones (MHS) and paternal history of stones (PHS) on composition of calculi and disease course in a group of patients with calcium nephrolithiasis (CN) aged between 15 and 25, the age range with the maximal influence of family history on disease expression. One-hundred thirty-five patients (68 F) with CN and one stone-forming parent were retrospectively selected from the database of our outpatient stone clinic, and categorized according to MHS or PHS. Data about stone disease course and composition of passed calculi, determined by chemical analysis or Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometry, were collected together with information on blood chemistry and 24-h urinary profile of lithogenic risk. The characteristics of disease course and stone composition were compared using logistic regression tests adjusted for age, sex, and BMI or analysis of covariance where appropriate. Patients with MHS (n = 46) had significantly higher urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and ammonium, a higher prevalence of urological treatments (57 vs 27 %, p < 0.001) and mixed calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate stone composition (69 vs 35 %, p = 0.002) than those with PHS. At multivariate logistic regression models, MHS was independently associated with urological treatments (OR 4.5, 95 %CI 1.9-10.7, p < 0.001) and the formation of calculi with mixed calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate composition (OR 5.8, 95 %CI 1.9-17.9, p = 0.002). The method of stone analysis did not affect this result. In conclusion, in subjects aged 15-25, MHS is associated with mixed calcium stones and with a higher risk for urological procedures, and should be, therefore, considered in the management of urolithiasis.

  19. Maternal Plane of Nutrition During Late-Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Steer Calf Longissimus Muscle Adipogenic MicroRNA and Target Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate if different planes of maternal nutrition during late gestation and weaning age alter microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in offspring longissimus muscle (LM). Early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves (n = 30) born to cows that were grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue and red clover pastures with no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)], or supplemented with 2.3 and 9.1 kg of dried distiller's grains with solubles and soy hulls [medium and high plane of nutrition (MPN, HPN), respectively] during the last 105 ± 11 days of gestation were used. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (early weaning), 187 (normal weaning) and 354 days of age. Results indicate a role of pro-adipogenic miRNA in the control of adipogenesis in LM of NW-MPN steers between 78 and 187 days of age through upregulation of (1) miR-103 which inhibits CAV1, a protein that destabilizes INSR and leads to insulin resistance; (2) miR-143 which inhibits DLK1, a protein that inhibits adipocyte differentiation; and (3) miR-21 which impairs TGFBR2-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. Among the studied anti-adipogenic miRNA, cow plane of nutrition resulted in downregulation of miR-34a expression in MPN steers compared with HPN and LPN at 78 days of age. Data for miR-34a provided a potential sign of epigenetic regulation of LM in beef offspring due to the cow plane of nutrition during late gestation.

  20. The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women's Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Duncan, Melanie; Dixson, Alan F

    2015-08-01

    Women's breast morphology is thought to have evolved via sexual selection as a signal of maturity, health, and fecundity. While research demonstrates that breast morphology is important in men's judgments of women's attractiveness, it remains to be determined how perceptions might differ when considering a larger suite of mate relevant attributes. Here, we tested how variation in breast size and areolar pigmentation affected perceptions of women's sexual attractiveness, reproductive health, sexual maturity, maternal nurturing abilities, and age. Participants (100 men; 100 women) rated images of female torsos modeled to vary in breast size (very small, small, medium, and large) and areolar pigmentation (light, medium, and dark) for each of the five attributes listed above. Sexual attractiveness ratings increased linearly with breast size, but large breasts were not judged to be significantly more attractive than medium-sized breasts. Small and medium-sized breasts were rated as most attractive if they included light or medium colored areolae, whereas large breasts were more attractive if they had medium or dark areolae. Ratings for perceived age, sexual maturity, and nurturing ability also increased with breast size. Darkening the areolae reduced ratings of the reproductive health of medium and small breasts, whereas it increased ratings for large breasts. There were no significant sex differences in ratings of any of the perceptual measures. These results demonstrate that breast size and areolar pigmentation interact to determine ratings for a suite of sociosexual attributes, each of which may be relevant to mate choice in men and intra-sexual competition in women.

  1. Maternal Schooling and Children's Relative Inequalities in Developmental Outcomes: Evidence from the 1947 School Leaving Age Reform in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Duckworth, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether mothers' participation in post-compulsory education impacts on children's relative inequalities across four developmental outcomes. The empirical analysis uses information from children born in 1958 in Britain. Mothers of the 1958 British cohort were affected by the 1947 school leaving age reform, which increased…

  2. Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

    2014-05-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGE-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGE-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation.

  3. Curcumin eliminates the effect of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on the divergent regulation of gene expression of receptors of AGEs by interrupting leptin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Youcai; Chen, Anping

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a major risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis. NASH is often found in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, yielding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Effects of AGEs are mainly mediated by two categories of cytoplasmic membrane receptors. Receptor for AGEs (RAGE) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas AGE receptor-1 (AGE-R1) is involved in detoxification and clearance of AGEs. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is crucial to the development of hepatic fibrosis. We recently reported that AGEs stimulated HSC activation likely by inhibiting gene expression of AGE-R1 and inducing gene expression of RAGE in HSC, which were eliminated by the antioxidant curcumin. This study is to test our hypothesis that curcumin eliminates the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of the two receptors of AGEs in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. We observed herein that AGEs activated leptin signaling by inducing gene expression of leptin and its receptor in HSC. Like AGEs, leptin differentially regulated gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1. Curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs in HSC by interrupting leptin signaling and activating transcription factor Nrf2, leading to the elevation of cellular glutathione and the attenuation of oxidative stress. In conclusions, curcumin eliminated the effects of AGEs on the divergent regulation of gene expression of RAGE and AGE-R1 in HSC by interrupting the AGEs-caused activation of leptin signaling, leading to the inhibition of HSC activation. PMID:24614199

  4. Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Blackmore, Heather L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; McConnell, Josie M; Hargreaves, Iain P; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans.

  5. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  6. Clinical profile of patients with advanced age and inflammatoric dilated cardiomyopathy on endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Chen, Ting-Hui; Schmidt, Andreas; Saenger, Joerg; Lauer, Bernward

    2015-01-01

    Background Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an important tool when patients with inflammatoric cardiomyopathy (DCMi) are evaluated. We aimed to assess the clinical profile of elderly patients with DCMi on EMB. Methods Retrospective study of all consecutive patients hospitalized from January 2007 to December 2011 with clinical suspicion of DCMi undergoing EMB. Patients with evidence of DCMi on EMB (Group 1 ≥ 70 years, n = 85; Group 3 < 70 years; n = 418) were compared to patients of the same age group without evidence of DCMi on EMB (Group 2 ≥ 70 years, n = 45; Group 4 < 70 years; n = 147). Results Among 24,275 patients treated at our institution during the study period, 695 had clinical suspicion of DCMi and underwent EMB; 503 (2.1%) patients had DCMi on EMB. There were more male patients in Group 1, mean age was 74 ± 2.8 years, mean ejection fraction was 38% ± 14%. On presentation, signs of hemodynamic compromise (NYHA functional class III/IV, low cardiac output/index, and low cardiac power index) were more frequent in Group 1. EMB revealed viral genome in 78% of the patients, parvovirus B19 (PVB) was frequently encountered in both age groups (Group 1: 69.4% vs. Group 2: 59.6%); detection of more than one viral genome was more frequent in Group 1 (21.2% vs. 11.2%; P = 0.02) whereas the extent of immune response was significantly lower in individuals with advanced age. Conclusions In patients ≥ 70 years with DCMi on EMB signs of hemodynamic compromise, detection of multiple viral genomes together with an overall lower extent of immune response were more frequently observed. PMID:26788036

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Polymorphisms in Advanced Non-exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein Jabbarpoor; Bonyadi, Morteza; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Fotuhi, Nikoo; Shoeibi, Nasser; Saadat, Saeed; Yagubi, Zakieh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene polymorphisms in advanced dry-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a population from Northeastern Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, 50 patients with geographic macular atrophy and 73 gender-matched controls were enrolled. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the peripheral blood. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze 2 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene, namely −1031 thymine (T)/cytosine (C) and −308 guanine (G)/adenine (A). Results: The distribution of the - 1031 T/C genotype was TT, 62%; TC, 36%; CC, 2% in the patients and TT, 60%; TC, 36%; CC, 4% in the controls (P = 0.94). Genotype analysis of TNF-α −308 also revealed no significant difference in distribution between patients (G, 78%; GA, 22%; AA, 0%) and controls (GG, 74%; GA, 23%; AA, 3%) (P = 0.51). None of the haplotypes nor alleles of studied TNF-α polymorphisms were significantly associated with advanced dry-type AMD. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene, do not play an important role in dry-type AMD in the studied population. PMID:26425318

  8. Age of the crowfoot advance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. A glacial event coeval with the Younger Dryas oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, M.A.; Rutter, N.W. ); Osborn, G. )

    1994-05-01

    A suite of sediment core samples was recovered from two lakes, Crowfoot and Bow lakes, that are adjacent to the Crowfoot moraine type locality, to identify and radiocarbon date sediments related to the Crowfoot advance. The Crowfoot moraine system, widely recognized throughout northwestern North America, represents a glacial advance that is post-Wisconsin and pre-Mazama tephra in age. An interval of inorganic sediments bracketed by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of ca. 11,330 and 10,100 [sup 14]C yr B.P. is associated with the Crowfoot moraine. The Crowfoot advance is therefore approximately synchronous with the European Younger Dryas cold event (ca. 11,000-10,000 [sup 14]C yr B.P.). Furthermore, the termination of the Crowfoot advance also appears to have been abrupt. These findings illustrate that the climatic change responsible for the European Younger Dryas event extended beyond the northern Atlantic basin and western Europe. Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) depressions associated with the Crowfoot advance are similar to those determined for the Little Ice Age advance, whereas Younger Dryas ELA depressions in Europe significantly exceed Little Ice Age ELA depressions. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Maternal Competition in Women.

    PubMed

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  10. Maternal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

  11. [Cervico-omo-brachial pain and disability in a person of advanced age].

    PubMed

    Usui, M

    1997-07-01

    A person of advanced age usually has degenerative changes of bone, joint and ligament, which can be causes of cervico-omo-brachial pain and disability. He or she may also suffer from metastatic bone tumor of cervical spine or upper extremity. This article described pathology, signs and symptoms and recent treatment of these diseases. Cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy, which are most common causes of cervico-omo-brachial symptoms, are sometimes accompanied by peripheral entrapment neuropathy such as cubital tunnel syndrome or carpal tunnel syndrome (double crush syndrome). In this complicated situation, decompression of neural tissue in both cervical spine and carpal tunnel are necessary. In treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome, release of transverse carpal ligament under an arthroscope has proven to be useful and has been becoming popular. This minimally invasive surgery is also useful in shoulder surgery such as subacromial decompression in aged patients with rotator cuff tear and removal of calcium deposit in the shoulder joint. Osteoarthritis of the elbow also cause pain or disability of the elbow and the hand. Some metastatic bone tumors are treated by tumor resection and reconstruction with instruments, prosthesis or composite grafts, which are attempted not to cure the disease but to maintain or improve the quality of life of the patient.

  12. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Physical Function in Adults of Advanced Age: The CHS All Stars

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Tooze, Janet A.; Davis, Cralen C.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Hirsch, Calvin H.; Robbins, John A.; Arnold, Alice M.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and physical function in adults of advanced age. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of physical function over 3 years of follow-up in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars. Setting Forsyth County, NC; Sacramento County, CA; Washington County, MD; and Allegheny County, PA. Participants Community-dwelling adults aged 77–100 years (n=988). Measurements Serum 25(OH)D, short physical performance battery (SPPB) and grip and knee extensor strength assessed at baseline. Mobility disability (difficulty walking half a mile or up 10 steps) and activities of daily living (ADL) disability were assessed at baseline and every 6 months over 3 years of follow-up. Results 30.8% of participants had deficient 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL). SPPB scores were lower among those with deficient 25(OH)D compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D (≥30 ng/mL) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, season, health behaviors and chronic conditions (mean±SE: 6.53±0.24 vs. 7.15±0.25, p <0.01). Grip strength adjusted for body size was also lower among those with deficient versus sufficient 25(OH)D (mean±SE: 24.7±0.6 vs. 26.0±0.6 kg, p <0.05). Participants with deficient 25(OH)D were more likely to have prevalent mobility and ADL disability at baseline (OR (95% CI): 1.44 (0.96–2.14) and 1.51 (1.01–2.25), respectively) compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D. Furthermore, participants with deficient 25(OH)D were at increased risk of incident mobility disability over 3 years of follow-up (HR (95% CI): 1.56 (1.06–2.30)). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was common and was associated with poorer physical performance, lower muscle strength, and prevalent mobility and ADL disability among community-dwelling adults of advanced age. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency predicted incident mobility disability. PMID:22091492

  13. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  14. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring).

  15. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Accumulation by Pyridoxamine Modulates Glomerular and Mesangial Cell Estrogen Receptor α Expression in Aged Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Simon, Simone; Rubio, Gustavo A; Xia, Xiaomei; Cai, Weijing; Choi, Rhea; Striker, Gary E; Elliot, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS) play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous). We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation, an important source of oxidant stress, contributes to these glomerular ER expression alterations. We treated 19-month old ovariectomized female mice with pyridoxamine (Pyr), a potent AGE inhibitor, in the presence or absence of E2 replacement. Glomerular ERα mRNA expression was upregulated in mice treated with both Pyr and E2 replacement and TGFβ mRNA expression decreased compared to controls. Histological sections of kidneys demonstrated decreased type IV collagen deposition in mice receiving Pyr and E2 compared to placebo control mice. In addition, anti-AGE defenses Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1) were also upregulated in glomeruli following treatment with Pyr and E2. Mesangial cells isolated from all groups of mice demonstrated similar ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression changes to those of whole glomeruli. To demonstrate that AGE accumulation contributes to the observed age-related changes in the glomeruli of aged female mice, we treated mesangial cells from young female mice with AGE-BSA and found similar downregulation of ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression. These results suggest that inhibition of intracellular AGE accumulation with pyridoxamine may protect glomeruli against age-related oxidant stress by preventing an increase of TGFβ production and by regulation of the estrogen receptor.

  16. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders.

    PubMed

    Gan, J; Zheng, Z; Li, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the patterns of age-specific mortality among the elderly in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The age groups ending in zero were validated with the Weber Index and found to be of good quality among those aged under 97 years. Differences were found between censuses and genders. The data for the aged were adjusted with 2-year moving averages in order to smooth the data. The end age of interval mortality is used. Tables provide single years of age between 60 years and 104 years by sex for the actual number and the adjusted number of each census year: 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990. The pattern of change in age specific mortality rates (ASMRs) was similar in all census years. Mortality rates were highest among infants aged under 1 year, declined with increased age, and were lowest among 10 year olds. Mortality rose gradually after 10 years and sharply after 40-50 years. ASMRs were "U" shaped. Age-specific interval mortality rates among the elderly show that mortality increased drastically as it approached 90 years of age and then grew more slowly or declined. The Gompers rule about exponential increases among the extremely old (over 90 years) does not apply. Male mortality was higher than female mortality until the very old ages, which showed lower male mortality. The ratio declined with rising age until the two genders were equal. Mortality rose to a point and then declined to a lesser extent. The peak was 93 years in 1953, with a sex ratio (SR) of 32.48; 90 years in 1964, with an SR of 35.22; 93 years in 1982, with an SR of 35.96; and 95 years in 1990, with an SR of 32.94.

  17. Aldose reductase (AKR1B3) regulates the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and the expression of AGE receptor (RAGE).

    PubMed

    Baba, Shahid P; Hellmann, Jason; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-05-30

    Diabetes results in enhanced chemical modification of proteins by advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) precursors. These modifications have been linked to the development of several secondary diabetic complications. Our previous studies showed that aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B3) catalyzes the reduction of ALEs and AGEs precursors; however, the in vivo significance of this metabolic pathway during diabetes and obesity has not been fully assessed. Therefore we examined the role of AR in regulating ALEs and AGEs formation in murine models of diet-induced obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In comparison with wild-type (WT) and AR-null mice fed normal chow, mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet (42% kcal fat) showed increased accumulation of AGEs and protein-acrolein adducts in the plasma. AGEs and acrolein adducts were also increased in the epididymal fat of WT and AR-null mice fed a HF diet. Deletion of AR increased the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) protein adduct in the plasma and increased the expression of the AGE receptor (RAGE) in HF fed mice. No change in AGEs formation was observed in the kidneys of HF-fed mice. In comparison, renal tissue from AR-null mice treated with streptozotocin showed greater AGE accumulation than streptozotocin-treated WT mice. These data indicated that AR regulated the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes and AGEs under conditions of severe, but not mild, hyperglycemia and that deletion of AR increased RAGE-induction via mechanisms that were independent of AGEs accumulation.

  18. Toxicokinetics of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB congeners in Baikal seals, Pusa sibirica: age-related accumulation, maternal transfer, and hepatic sequestration.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Okajima, Yuka; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Amano, Masao; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Petrov, Evgeny A

    2004-07-01

    To assess the toxicokinetic behavior and potential toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Baikal seals, congener-specific levels and tissue distribution were evaluated in the liver and blubber, and the effects of biological factors including sex and growth were assessed. Total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) were in the range of 210-920 pgTEQ/g fat wt (180-800 pgTEQ/g wet wt) in the blubber and 290-7800 pgTEQ/g fat wt (10-570 pgTEQ/wet wt) in the liver. Non-ortho coplanar PCB126 was the most TEQ-contributed congener accounting for 37-59% of the total TEQs in the liver. From the unique congener profiles, weak metabolic properties of Baikal seals for 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-P5CDF are suggested. Concentrations of most congeners linearly increased with age in male seals, whereas in adult females the levels revealed an age-related decline. The increasing and declining rates were congener-specific. Maternal transfer rates of 5 representative congeners from adult female to pup through lactation, which was estimated from male-female differences in the body burden, was 1.1 ngTEQ/kg/day for the first pup and decreased with every lactational epoch. The liver-blubber distribution of 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-H6CDD, PCB81, PCB126, and PCB169 was dependent on the hepatic total TEQ, indicating hepatic sequestration by induced cytochrome P450 (CYP). These results indicate that congener profile in Baikal seals is governed by complex factors including sex, tissue concentration, binding to CYP, and rates of absorption and metabolism/excretion.

  19. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners measured shortly after giving birth and subsequent risk of maternal breast cancer before age 50.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth; Plumb, Marj; Cirillo, Piera M

    2012-11-01

    Discrete windows of susceptibility to toxicants have been identified for the breast, including in utero, puberty, pregnancy, and postpartum. We tested the hypothesis that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured during the early postpartum predict increased risk of maternal breast cancer diagnosed before age 50. We analyzed archived early postpartum serum samples collected from 1959 to 1967, an average of 17 years before diagnosis (mean diagnosis age 43 years) for 16 PCB congeners in a nested case-control study in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort (N = 112 cases matched to controls on birth year). We used conditional logistic regression to adjust for lipids, race, year, lactation, and body mass. We observed strong breast cancer associations with three congeners. PCB 167 was associated with a lower risk (odds ratio (OR), 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.2, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.1, 0.8) as was PCB 187 (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1, 1.1). In contrast, PCB 203 was associated with a sixfold increased risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 6.3, 95 % CI 1.9, 21.7). The net association of PCB exposure, estimated by a post-hoc score, was nearly a threefold increase in risk (OR, 75th vs. 25th percentile = 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1, 7.1) among women with a higher proportion of PCB 203 in relation to the sum of PCBs 167 and 187. Postpartum PCB exposure likely also represents pregnancy exposure, and may predict increased risk for early breast cancer depending on the mixture that represents internal dose. It remains unclear whether individual differences in exposure, response to exposure, or both explain risk patterns observed.

  20. Relations Among Maternal Racial Identity, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Outcomes in Low-Income, Urban, Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.; Csizmadia, Annamaria; Thornburg, Kathy R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined maternal racial identity and its relations to maternal depression, maternal age, maternal parenting behavior, and 5-year-old children's social and cognitive outcomes. Participants included 62 African American mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Mothers completed measures on their…

  1. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  2. Female reproductive dysfunction during ageing: role of methylglyoxal in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in ovaries of reproductively-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tatone, C; Carbone, M C; Campanella, G; Festuccia, C; Artini, P G; Talesa, V; Focarelli, R; Amicarelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction with ageing has been so far extensively characterized in terms of depletion of ovarian follicles and reduced ability to produce gametes competent for fertilization. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In the present study we addressed the hypothesis that methylglyoxal (MG), a major precursor of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGE), may contribute to molecular damage occurring during ovarian ageing. Our results showed that the biochemical activity of glyoxalase 1, the main component of the MG scavenging system, is significantly decreased in ovaries from reproductively-aged mice in comparison with the young group. This effect was associated with decreased expression at protein and RNA level of this enzyme and increased intraovarian level of MG. MG-arginine adducts argpyrimidine as detected with a specific antibody was found to accumulate with ageing in specific ovarian compartments. Separation of ovarian proteins by 2D gels and Western blotting revealed an approximate 30-fold increase in the extent of protein glycation in aged ovaries along with the appearance of eight argpyrimidine modified proteins exclusive for the aged group. In conclusion, the present results show that impaired MG detoxification causing relevant damage to the ovarian proteome might be one of the mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing and/or ageing-like ovarian diseases.

  3. Beneficial effects of metformin and irbesartan on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-RAGE-induced proximal tubular cell injury.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis contributes to diabetic nephropathy. An oral hypoglycemic agent, metformin may have a potential effect on the inhibition of glycation reactions. Further, since a pathophysiological crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and AGEs-RAGE axis is involved in diabetic nephropathy, it is conceivable that metformin and irbesartan additively could protect against the AGEs-RAGE-induced tubular cell injury. In this study, we addressed the issues. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited the formation of AGEs modification of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with AGEs-modified BSA prepared without metformin (AGEs-MF0), those prepared in the presence of 30 mM or 100 mM metformin (AGEs-MF30 or AGEs-MF100) significantly reduced RAGE mRNA level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA level in tubular cells. Irbesartan further inhibited the harmful effects of AGEs-MF0 or AGEs-MF30 on tubular cells. Our present study suggests that combination therapy with metformin and irbesartan may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy; it could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetes not only by inhibiting AGEs formation, but also by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulating RAGE expression and subsequently suppressing ROS generation.

  4. Maternal and Child Anxiety: Do Attachment Beliefs or Children's Perceptions of Maternal Control Mediate Their Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…

  5. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  6. IN SITU ACCUMULATION OF ADVANCED GLYCATION ENDPRODUCTS (AGES) IN BONE MATRIX AND ITS CORRELATION WITH OSTEOCLASTIC BONE RESORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Dong, X. Neil; Qin, An; Xu, Jiake; Wang, Xiaodu

    2011-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been observed to accumulate in bone with increasing age and may impose effects on bone resorption activities. However, the underlying mechanism of AGEs accumulation in bone is still poorly understood. In this study, human cortical bone specimens from young (31±6 years old), middle-aged (51±3 years old) and elderly (76±4 years old) groups were examined to determine the spatial-temporal distribution of AGEs in bone matrix and its effect on bone resorption activities by directly culturing osteoclastic cells on bone slices. The results of this study indicated that the fluorescence intensity (excitation wave length 360 nm and emission wave length 470±40 nm) could be used to estimate the relative distribution of AGEs in bone (pentosidine as its marker) under an epifluorescence microscope. Using the fluorescence intensity as the relative measure of AGEs concentration, it was found that the concentration of AGEs varied with biological tissue ages, showing the greatest amount in the interstitial tissue, followed by the old osteons, and the least amount in newly formed osteons. In addition, AGEs accumulation was found to be dependent on donor ages, suggesting that the younger the donor the less AGEs were accumulated in the tissue. Most interestingly, AGEs accumulation appeared to initiate from the region of cement lines, and spread diffusively to the other parts as the tissue aged. Finally, it was observed that the bone resorption activities of osteoclasts were positively correlated with the in situ concentration of AGEs and such an effect was enhanced with increasing donor age. These findings may help elucidate the mechanism of AGEs accumulation in bone and its association with bone remodeling process. PMID:21530698

  7. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.

  8. Maternal control of early embryogenesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Smith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte quality is a critical factor limiting the efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and pregnancy success in farm animals and humans. ART success is diminished with increased maternal age, suggesting a close link between poor oocyte quality and ovarian-aging. However, the regulation of oocyte quality remains poorly understood. Oocyte quality is functionally linked to ART success because the maternal-to-embryonic transition is dependent on stored maternal factors, which are accumulated in oocytes during oocyte development and growth. The maternal-to-embryonic transition consists of critical developmental processes including maternal RNA depletion and embryonic genome activation. In recent years, key maternal proteins encoded by maternal-effect genes have been determined, primarily using genetically modified mouse models. These proteins are implicated in various aspects of early embryonic development including maternal mRNA degradation, epigenetic reprogramming, signal transduction, protein translation and initiation of embryonic genome activation. Species differences exist in number of cell divisions encompassing the maternal-to-embryonic transition and maternal-effect genes controlling this developmental window. Perturbations of maternal control result in decreased oocyte quality, some of which are associated with ovarian aging. PMID:25695370

  9. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

  10. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  11. Maternal Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Feeding Practices in Elementary School-Aged Latino Children: A Pilot Qualitative Study on the Impact of the Cultural Role of Mothers in the US-Mexican Border Region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  12. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  13. Basic and Clinical Research Against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs): New Compounds to Tackle Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Nenna, Antonio; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Lusini, Mario; Ulianich, Luca; Chello, Massimo; Nappi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and recent advances in research indicate that a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of its effects is mandatory to reduce diabetes-related mortality and morbidity. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) play a central role in the genesis and progression of complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and have been found to be important even in non-diabetic patients as a marker of cardiovascular disease. AGEs have a profound impact on patient's prognosis regardless of the glycemic control, and therefore pharmacologic approaches against AGEs accumulation have been proposed over the years to treat cardiovascular diseases, parallel to a more detailed understanding of AGEs pathophysiology. Compounds with anti-AGEs effects are currently under investigation in both pre-clinical and clinical scenarios, and many of the drugs previously used to treat specific diseases have been found to have AGE-inhibitory effects. Some products are still in "bench evaluation", whereas others have been already investigated in clinical trials with conflicting evidences. This review aims at summarizing the mechanisms of AGEs formation and accumulation, and the most relevant issues in pre-clinical and clinical experiences in anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular research.

  14. [Advanced curriculum for clinical assessment and skill in new age pharmacist education].

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yuji; Masuda, Yutaka; Kamei, Daisuke; Kogo, Mari; Nakamura, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In Showa University School of pharmacy, 7 competencies for outcome-based education were set up in 2011. We are now creating sequential curriculum in order to achieve these competencies. As a member of team medical treatment, pharmacist must share a patient's information with other members, assess each patient's condition, propose the best medication with evidence, and also check the effect of medication. Therefore, many active practices in a hospital and community and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials are carried out in curriculum in School of Pharmacy. As a training for the future pharmacists who positively perform primary care with responsibility in community pharmacy, students study the method of clinical assessment (assessment of condition of disease from the patient's complain, and choice of appropriate proposal). Furthermore, the exercise and training of parenteral medication, physical assessment, and first aid, etc. are also taken in the curriculums as new clinical skill. The systematic and gradual interprofessional education curriculum for the team medical education has been carried out aiming at training of active members in medical team in a hospital and community. At this symposium, I will introduce these systematic advanced curriculums for the pharmacist of a new age, and to show the usefulness and learning effect.

  15. McCune-Albright syndrome revealed by hyperthyroidism at advanced age.

    PubMed

    Elhaï, Muriel; Meunier, Marine; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old woman admitted to our service for diagnosis of osteolytic lesions. She suffered from back, lumbar and costal pain at the time a hyperthyroidism, related to multinodular goiter, was diagnosed. The pain remained despite the cure of hyperthyroidism. Cutaneous examination revealed café au lait skin spots. Analysis of the phosphocalcic metabolism allowed the diagnosis of phosphate diabetes. X-ray showed lytic lesions involving the ribs with thinning of the cortex and vertebral fractures of the dorsal spine. The computed tomography revealed lytic lesions with a typical "ground glass" appearance involving the spine, ribs, sternum, iliac bones and sacrum. The presence of this clinical triad allowed the diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). The treatment consisted in vitamin D supplementation, and high doses of both oral phosphate and calcitriol to treat the phosphate diabetes as well as cycles of intravenous pamidronate administration to relieve bone pain. We report an uncommon case of the diagnosis of MAS at an advanced age following hyperthyroidism. We believe that the disease was revealed by an increase in bone turnover due to hyperthyroidism.

  16. Glycolaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycol-AGEs)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction is regulated by the AGES-receptor (RAGE) axis in endothelium.

    PubMed

    Nam, Mi-Hyun; Son, Won-Rak; Lee, Young Sik; Lee, Kwang-Won

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are involved in the development of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction and the progression of atherosclerosis. However, AGEs may indirectly affect VSMCs via AGEs-induced signal transduction between monocytes and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), rather than having a direct influence. This study was designed to elucidate the signaling pathway underlying AGEs-RAGE axis influence on VSMC dysfunction using a co-culture system with monocytes, HUVECs and VSMCs. AGEs stimulated production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β via extracellular-signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB activation in HUVECs. It was observed that AGEs-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase VSMC proliferation, inflammation and vascular remodeling in the co-culture system. This result implies that RAGE plays a role in AGEs-induced VSMC dysfunction. We suggest that the regulation of signal transduction via the AGEs-RAGE axis in the endothelium can be a therapeutic target for preventing atherosclerosis.

  17. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives and social theories from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own theories or theoretical perspectives. We build on past work to further advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the…

  18. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  19. Vaccination of piglets up to 1 week of age with a single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine induces protective immunity within 2 weeks against virulent challenge in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Van Brussel, Leen; Saunders, Gillian; Runnels, Paul; Taylor, Lucas; Fredrickson, Dan; Salt, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Enzootic pneumonia, resulting from infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is of considerable economic importance to the pig industry and normally is controlled through active vaccination of piglets. We have demonstrated that administration of an inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to piglets less than 1 week old is efficacious under field conditions and reduces the level of lung lesions observed in comparison to that in control pigs. Here, the results of two separate studies, one in piglets with and the second one in piglets without maternal antibodies, conducted to satisfy the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (monograph no. 07/2009:2448), are reported. Piglets received either minimal titer Suvaxyn MH-One or saline at less than 1 week of age and were challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 2 weeks later. The number of lung lesions was recorded 4 weeks after challenge, and bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens were analyzed for quantification of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae DNA. In the presence and absence of maternal antibodies, vaccination of piglets at less than 1 week of age was efficacious, with vaccinated piglets having significantly lower percentages of lung with lesions and lower Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae counts detected in bronchial swab and lung tissue specimens at necropsy. In conclusion, the vaccination of piglets at 1 week of age with Suvaxyn MH-One is efficacious in the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies.

  20. Accelerated Aging in Glaucoma: Immunohistochemical Assessment of Advanced Glycation End Products in the Human Retina and Optic Nerve Head

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Gülgün; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Xiangjun

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to determine the association between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and glaucoma based on the known synergism between oxidative stress with AGEs and the evidence of oxidative stress during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. METHODS The extent and cellular localization of immunolabeling for AGEs and their receptor, RAGE, were determined in histologic sections of the retina and optic nerve head obtained from 38 donor eyes with glaucoma and 30 eyes from age-matched donors without glaucoma. RESULTS The extent of AGE and RAGE immunolabeling was greater in older than in younger donor eyes. However, compared with age-matched controls, an enhanced accumulation of AGEs and an up-regulation of RAGE were detectable in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve head. Although some retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and glia exhibited intracellular immunolabeling for AGEs, increased AGE immunolabeling in glaucomatous eyes was predominantly extracellular and included laminar cribriform plates in the optic nerve head. Some RAGE immunolabeling was detectable on RGCs; however, increased RAGE immunolabeling in glaucomatous eyes was predominant on glial cells, primarily Müller cells. CONCLUSIONS Given that the generation of AGEs is an age-dependent event, increased AGE accumulation in glaucomatous tissues supports that an accelerated aging process accompanies neurodegeneration in glaucomatous eyes. One of the potential consequences of AGE accumulation in glaucomatous eyes appears to be its contribution to increased rigidity of the lamina cribrosa. The presence of RAGE on RGCs and glia also makes them susceptible to AGE-mediated events through receptor-mediated signaling, which may promote cell death or dysfunction during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. PMID:17325164

  1. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged 0-2 Years: The Role of Foetal Haemoglobin and Maternal Antibodies to Two Asexual Malaria Vaccine Candidates (MSP3 and GLURP)

    PubMed Central

    Kangoye, David Tiga; Nebie, Issa; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Debe, Siaka; Traore, Safiatou; Ouedraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume; Soulama, Issiaka; Diarra, Amidou; Tiono, Alfred; Marsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Children below six months are reported to be less susceptible to clinical malaria. Maternally derived antibodies and foetal haemoglobin are important putative protective factors. We examined antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) and glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), in children in their first two years of life in Burkina Faso and their risk of malaria. Methods A cohort of 140 infants aged between four and six weeks was recruited in a stable transmission area of south-western Burkina Faso and monitored for 24 months by active and passive surveillance. Malaria infections were detected by examining blood smears using light microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify total Immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum antigens MSP3 and two regions of GLURP (R0 and R2) on blood samples collected at baseline, three, six, nine, 12, 18 and 24 months. Foetal haemoglobin and variant haemoglobin fractions were measured at the baseline visit using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results A total of 79.6% of children experienced one or more episodes of febrile malaria during monitoring. Antibody titres to MSP3 were prospectively associated with an increased risk of malaria while antibody responses to GLURP (R0 and R2) did not alter the risk. Antibody titres to MSP3 were higher among children in areas of high malaria risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with delayed first episode of febrile malaria and haemoglobin CC type was associated with reduced incidence of febrile malaria. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of association between titres of antibodies to MSP3, GLURP-R0 or GLURP-R2 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and early protection against malaria, although anti-MSP3 antibody titres may reflect increased exposure to malaria and therefore greater risk. Foetal haemoglobin was associated with protection against febrile malaria despite the study limitations and its role is therefore

  2. Contrast medium administration in the elderly patient: is advancing age an independent risk factor for contrast nephropathy after angiographic procedures?

    PubMed

    Detrenis, Simona; Meschi, Michele; Bertolini, Laura; Savazzi, Giorgio

    2007-02-01

    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CMIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal dysfunction. Even if the number of patients over 75 years of age undergoing diagnostic and/or interventional procedures and requiring administration of contrast medium (CM) is growing constantly, at present there is no definitive consensus regarding the role of advancing age and related morphologic or functional renal changes as an independent risk factor for CMIN. The authors review the evidence from recent medical literature on the definition, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of CMIN as well as therapeutic approaches to its prophylaxis. Attention is focused on advancing age as a preexisting physiologic condition that is, per se, able to predispose the patient to CM-induced renal impairment, assuming that every elderly patient is potentially at risk for CMIN.

  3. Effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Qun; Lu, Yan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cheng, Xing-Bo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and the underlying mechanism. Bone marrow cell proliferation was determined by WST-8 assay using Cell Counting Kit-8 under the intervention of AGEs. In addition, the content of maldondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also measured. The proliferation activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was significantly inhibited when AGEs were added to culture medium, and this effect was dose-dependent and time-dependent. As the concentration of AGEs-bovine serum albumin increased, the content of intracellular MDA was significantly increased, but the activity of SOD in cell homogenates was significantly suppressed, which also showed a dose-dependent manner. AGEs could significantly inhibit the proliferation of MSCs in vitro by improving the oxidative stress in MSCs and breaking the homeostasis of intracellular environment.

  4. Advancing knowledge gained from sediment budgets through sediment age dating and fingerprinting in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Gellis, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Hupp, C. R.; Larsen, L.; Noe, G. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schenk, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics and long-term trajectories of fine sediment generally remain poorly quantified in rivers, which have implications for nutrient and contaminant transport and remediation strategies. Here we focus on two streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Difficult Run and Accotink Creek. These streams have varying degrees of urbanization and diverse best management practices, making possible a comparison of sediment sources, sinks, and residence times to illuminate how land management impacts fine sediment transport. Bank erosion and floodplain accumulation in Difficult Run has been previously determined and is ongoing in Accotink Creek. Current work advances sediment budgets by quantifying the role of in-channel fine sediment storage in the bed and margins. To understand the relative storage timescales for various geomorphic features (floodplain, in-channel, etc.) and develop age distributions, sediment is dated using radionuclides of varying half-lives such as Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, bomb radiocarbon, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). To determine the source of sediment that is transported in suspension, sediment fingerprinting has been completed in Difficult Run and initiated in Accotink Creek. Furthermore, the present study furthers our understanding of fine sediment dynamics by fingerprinting sources of stored sediment and evaluating how they evolve over storm events and stream size. For this, we sampled sediment in storage zones before and after storm events of a specified magnitude to determine their chemical signatures with respect to various source-tracking elements and isotopes. This study represents the first such work to integrate sediment dating, sediment fingerprinting and an analysis of storage zones to understand fine sediment dynamics and long-term trajectories.

  5. Estimated Autism Risk and Older Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    King, Marissa D.; Fountain, Christine; Dakhlallah, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to estimate the risk for autism associated with maternal and paternal age across successive birth cohorts. Methods. We linked birth records and autism diagnostic records from the California Department of Developmental Services for children born in California between 1992 and 2000 to calculate the risk associated with maternal and paternal age for each birth cohort as well as for the pooled data. Results. The categorical risks associated with maternal age over 40 years ranged from a high of 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37, 2.47) to a low of 1.27 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.69). The risk associated with paternal age ranged from 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.6) to 1.71 (95% CI = 1.41, 2.08). Conclusions. Pooling data across multiple birth cohorts inflates the risk associated with paternal age. Analyses that do not suffer from problems produced by pooling across birth cohorts demonstrated that advanced maternal age, rather than paternal age, may pose greater risk. Future research examining parental age as a risk factor must be careful to avoid the paradoxes that can arise from pooling data, particularly during periods of social demographic change. PMID:19608957

  6. Food-advanced glycation end products aggravate the diabetic vascular complications via modulating the AGEs/RAGE pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xing; Lv, Gao-Hong; Dai, Guo-Ying; Sun, Hong-Mei; Xu, Hui-Qin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-advanced glycation end products (AGEs) diet on diabetic vascular complications. The Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were fed with high-AGEs diet. Diabetic characteristics, indicators of renal and cardiovascular functions, and pathohistology of pancreas, heart and renal were evaluated. AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway parameters were determined. During the experiments, the diabetic mice exhibited typical characteristics including weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, high-blood glucose, and low-serum insulin levels. However, high-AGEs diet effectively aggravated these diabetic characteristics. It also increased the 24-h urine protein levels, serum levels of urea nitrogen, creatinine, c-reactive protein (CRP), low density lipoprotein (LDL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the diabetic mice. High-AGEs diet deteriorated the histology of pancreas, heart, and kidneys, and caused structural alterations of endothelial cells, mesangial cells and podocytes in renal cortex. Eventually, high-AGEs diet contributed to the high-AGE levels in serum and kidneys, high-levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and low-levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum, heart, and kidneys. It also upregulated RAGE mRNA and protein expression in heart and kidneys. Our results showed that high-AGEs diet deteriorated vascular complications in the diabetic mice. The activation of AGEs/RAGE/ROS pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes.

  7. Metformin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced renal tubular cell injury by suppressing reactive oxygen species generation via reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) expression.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2012-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play a role in tubulointerstitial damage in diabetic nephropathy. Recently, metformin has been shown to ameliorate tubular injury both in cell culture and diabetic animal model. However, effects of metformin on AGEs-induced tubular cell apoptosis and damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how metformin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation and annexin V expression level. AGEs upregulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently increased ROS generation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in human renal proximal tubular cells, all of which were significantly blocked by the treatment of 0.01 and 0.1 mM metformin. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase significantly blocked the effects of metformin on RAGE gene expression and ROS generation in AGEs-exposed tubular cells. Furthermore, metformin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced apoptotic cell death of tubular cells; 1 mM metformin completely suppressed the pro-apoptotic effects of AGEs in 2 different assay systems. Our present study suggests that metformin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and inflammatory and fibrotic reactions in tubular cells probably by reducing ROS generation via suppression of RAGE expression through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Metformin may protect against tubular cell injury in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE-ROS axis.

  8. Resveratrol prevents the impairment of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) on macrophage lipid homeostasis by suppressing the receptor for AGE via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihua; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Qihong; Si, Liangyi

    2010-05-01

    Advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) and its receptor (RAGE) axis is involved in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is critical in the pathogenesis of diabetic atherosclerosis. We investigated the protective role of resveratrol against the AGE-induced impairment on macrophage lipid homeostasis. In THP-1-derived macrophages, RAGE was dose-dependently induced by AGE and played a key role in the AGE-induced cholesterol accumulation. Resveratrol markedly reduced RAGE expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma but not PPARalpha or AMP-activated protein kinase. Importantly, pretreatment with resveratrol significantly ameliorated AGE-induced up-regulation of scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) and down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 and thus effectively prevented the cholesterol accumulation in macrophages as shown by cellular cholesterol analysis and oil red O staining. Moreover, blockade of PPARgamma abolished all these effects of resveratrol. Collectively, our results indicate that resveratrol prevents the impairment of AGE on macrophage lipid homeostasis partially by suppressing RAGE via PPARgamma activation, which might provide new insight into the protective role of resveratrol against diabetic atherosclerosis.

  9. Cell signaling and receptors in toxicity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs): α-dicarbonyls, radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2011-10-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the toxicity of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), including relation to various illnesses. AGEs, generated nonenzymatically from carbohydrates and proteins, comprises large numbers of simple and more complicated compounds. Many reports deal with a role for receptors (RAGE) and cell signaling, including illnesses and aging. Reactive oxygen species appear to participate in signaling. RAGE include angiotensin II type 1 receptors. Many signaling pathways are involved, such as kinases, p38, p21, TGF-β, NF-κβ, TNF-α, JNK and STAT. A recent review puts focus on α-dicarbonyl metabolites, formed by carbohydrate oxidation, and imine derivatives from protein condensation, as a source via electron transfer (ET) of ROS and oxidative stress (OS). The toxic species have been related to illnesses and aging. Antioxidants alleviate the adverse effects.

  10. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  11. Pravastatin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced proximal tubular cell apoptosis and injury by reducing receptor for AGEs (RAGE) level.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Ohta, Keisuke; Tanoue, Ryuichiro; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Okuda, Seiya

    2012-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis play a role in diabetic nephropathy. Statins have been shown to ameliorate renal function and reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the effects of statin on AGEs-induced tubular cell damage remain unknown. We examined here whether and how pravastatin could block the AGEs-RAGE-elicited tubular cell injury in vitro. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with dihydroethidium staining. Apoptosis was analyzed in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) expression was evaluated by immunostaining. Pravastatin dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA level, ROS generation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular cells. Further, AGEs decreased mRNA level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-2, an enzyme that mainly degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and subsequently increased ADMA generation in tubular cells, both of which were also prevented by pravastatin. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) treatment blocked all of the effects of pravastatin on tubular cells. We found that rosuvastatin also significantly blocked the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE mRNA level and ROS generation, both of which were prevented by GGPP. Our present study suggests that pravastatin could inhibit the AGEs-induced apoptosis and ADMA generation in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression probably via inhibition of GGPP synthesis. Pravastatin may exert beneficial effects on tubular damage in diabetic nephropathy by blocking the AGEs-RAGE axis.

  12. Maternal Depression and Parent Management Training Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.

  13. Instrumental and Calibration Advancements for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsalve, Raul A.; Burns, Jack O.; Bradley, Richard F.; Tauscher, Keith; Nhan, Bang; Bowman, Judd D.; Purcell, William R.; Newell, David; Draper, David

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is a space mission concept proposed to NASA to measure with high precision the monopole component of the redshifted 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen originated during cosmic dawn at redshifts 35 > z > 11. For the 21-cm line, these high redshifts correspond to the frequency range 40-120 MHz. Through its spectral features, this signal will provide a wealth of information about the large-scale physics of the first stars, galaxies and black holes. The signal is expected to have an absolute amplitude below 200 mK, which is five orders of magnitude smaller than the diffuse foregrounds dominated by Galactic synchrotron radiation. In order to avoid the impact of the Earth’s ionosphere, which corrupts low-frequency radio waves through refraction, absorption, and emission, this measurement is conducted from orbit above the far side of the Moon. This location is ideal because it enables the Moon to shield the spacecraft from Solar radiation and terrestrial radio-frequency interference. The DARE instrument is designed around a dual-polarization, widefield, wideband, biconical antenna, which provides full-Stokes capabilities in order to measure and remove the low-level polarized component of the foregrounds. The spacecraft is rotated about its boresight axis at 1 RPM to modulate the foregrounds and separate them from the spatially uniform cosmological signal. The instrument requires exquisite calibration to reach a sensitivity of a few mK in the presence of strong foregrounds. For this purpose, the frequency-dependent antenna beam is characterized to 20 ppm. This is accomplished through a combination of electromagnetic simulations, anechoic chamber measurements, and on-orbit mapping using a calibrated high-power ground-based source. The DARE front-end receiver is characterized on the ground in terms of its input impedance, gain, noise properties, and stability. Its performance is verified when operating on-orbit at a fixed temperature

  14. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  15. In skeletal muscle advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibit insulin action and induce the formation of multimolecular complexes including the receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Cassese, Angela; Esposito, Iolanda; Fiory, Francesca; Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Paturzo, Flora; Mirra, Paola; Ulianich, Luca; Giacco, Ferdinando; Iadicicco, Claudia; Lombardi, Angela; Oriente, Francesco; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia

    2008-12-26

    Chronic hyperglycemia promotes insulin resistance at least in part by increasing the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have previously shown that in L6 myotubes human glycated albumin (HGA) induces insulin resistance by activating protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha). Here we show that HGA-induced PKCalpha activation is mediated by Src. Coprecipitation experiments showed that Src interacts with both the receptor for AGE (RAGE) and PKCalpha in HGA-treated L6 cells. A direct interaction of PKCalpha with Src and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has also been detected. In addition, silencing of IRS-1 expression abolished HGA-induced RAGE-PKCalpha co-precipitation. AGEs were able to induce insulin resistance also in vivo, as insulin tolerance tests revealed a significant impairment of insulin sensitivity in C57/BL6 mice fed a high AGEs diet (HAD). In tibialis muscle of HAD-fed mice, insulin-induced glucose uptake and protein kinase B phosphorylation were reduced. This was paralleled by a 2.5-fold increase in PKCalpha activity. Similarly to in vitro observations, Src phosphorylation was increased in tibialis muscle of HAD-fed mice, and co-precipitation experiments showed that Src interacts with both RAGE and PKCalpha. These results indicate that AGEs impairment of insulin action in the muscle might be mediated by the formation of a multimolecular complex including RAGE/IRS-1/Src and PKCalpha.

  16. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  17. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  18. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    PubMed Central

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age < 40). Aged dentin, in which the dentinal tubules were occluded with calcified material, recorded the highest mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen. PMID:26797297

  19. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age < 40). Aged dentin, in which the dentinal tubules were occluded with calcified material, recorded the highest mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen.

  20. The Possible Mechanism of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Shun-Yao; Ko, Hshin-An; Chu, Kuo-Hsiung; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chi, Tzong-Cherng; Chen, Hong-I; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been modified by β and γ-secretase that cause amyloid deposits (plaques) in neuronal cells. Glyceraldhyde-derived AGEs has been identified as a major source of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In a previous study, we demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs increase APP and Aβ via ROS. Furthermore, the combination of AGEs and Aβ has been shown to enhance neurotoxicity. In mice, APP expression is increased by tail vein injection of AGEs. This evidence suggests a correlation between AGEs and the development of AD. However, the role played by AGEs in the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that AGEs up-regulate APP processing protein (BACE and PS1) and Sirt1 expression via ROS, but do not affect the expression of downstream antioxidant genes HO-1 and NQO-1. Moreover, we found that AGEs increase GRP78 expression and enhance the cell death-related pathway p53, bcl-2/bax ratio, caspase 3. These results indicate that AGEs impair the neuroprotective effects of Sirt1 and lead to neuronal cell death via ER stress. Our findings suggest that AGEs increase ROS production, which stimulates downstream pathways related to APP processing, Aβ production, Sirt1, and GRP78, resulting in the up-regulation of cell death related pathway. This in-turn enhances neuronal cell death, which leads to the development of AD. PMID:26587989

  1. Pregnancy among the Hmong: Birthweight, Age, and Parity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, Deborah; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive factors for Hmong immigrants (mothers of 1,937 children) were compared with those of 3,776 white, non-Hispanic women. Despite a high proportion of births at high parity and advanced maternal age, Hmong women gave birth to very low birth weight babies at about the same rate as white women. (SLD)

  2. Well-being affects changes in perceptual speed in advanced old age: longitudinal evidence for a dynamic link.

    PubMed

    Gerstorf, Denis; Lövdén, Martin; Röcke, Christina; Smith, Jacqui; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2007-05-01

    This study examined competing hypotheses about dynamic cross-domain associations between perceptual speed and well-being in advanced old age. We applied the bivariate dual change score model (J. J. McArdle & F. Hamagami, 2001) to 13-year incomplete longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N=516, 70-103 years at T1, M=85 years). Reports of well-being were found to influence subsequent decline in perceptual speed (time lags of 2 years). No evidence was found for a directed effect in the other direction. None of the potential covariates examined (initial health constraints, personality, and social participation) accounted for these differential lead-lag associations. Our results suggest that well-being is not only a consequence of but also a source for successful aging. The discussion focuses on conceptual implications and methodological considerations.

  3. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own. We build on past work to advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the life course perspective. Whereas most prior research has been based on cross-sectional data, we utilize four waves of data from a nationally representative sample of American adults (Americans' Changing Lives Study) collected prospectively over a 15-year period and find that education, employment and marital status, as well as their consequences for income and health, effectively explain the increase in depressive symptoms after age 65. We also found significant cohort differences in age trajectories of mental health that were partly explained by historical increases in education. We demonstrate that a purely structural theory can take us far in explaining later life mental health. PMID:22081728

  4. Laser treatment of drusen to prevent progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Virgili, Gianni; Michelessi, Manuele; Parodi, Maurizio B; Bacherini, Daniela; Evans, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Background Drusen are amorphous yellowish deposits beneath the sensory retina. People with drusen, particularly large drusen, are at higher risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The most common complication in AMD is choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), the growth of new blood vessels in the centre of the macula. The risk of CNV is higher among people who are already affected by CNV in one eye. It has been observed clinically that laser photocoagulation of drusen leads to their disappearance and may prevent the occurrence of advanced disease (CNV or geographic atrophy) associated with visual loss. Objectives To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of laser photocoagulation of drusen in AMD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to August 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 3 August 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of laser treatment of drusen in AMD in which laser treatment had been compared with no intervention or sham treatment. Two types of trials were included. Some trials studied one eye of each participant (unilateral studies); other studies recruited participants with bilateral drusen and randomised one eye to photocoagulation or control and the fellow eye to the other group. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently

  5. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  6. The promise of fetal cells in maternal blood.

    PubMed

    Choolani, Mahesh; Mahyuddin, Aniza P; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2012-10-01

    Delaying childbirth increases the proportion of advanced maternal age pregnancies. This increases the number of pregnancies requiring invasive prenatal testing. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies and monogenic disorders requires fetal cells obtained through invasive procedures (i.e. chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis). These procedures carry a risk of fetal loss, which causes anxiety to at-risk couples. Intact fetal cells entering maternal circulation have raised the possibility of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. Rarity of fetal cells, however, has made it challenging. Fetal nucleated red blood cells are ideal candidate target cells because they have limited lifespan, contain true representation of fetal genotype, contain specific fetal cell identifiers (embryonic and fetal globins), and allow interrogation with chromosomal fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and possibly with array comparative genomic hybridisation. The utility of fetal nucleated red blood cells in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has not reached clinical application because of the inconsistencies in enrichment strategies and rarity of cells.

  7. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions.

  8. Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  9. Gray Matter Atrophy in the Cerebellum-Evidence of Increased Vulnerability of the Crus and Vermis with Advancing Age.

    PubMed

    Yu, Teresa; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M

    2017-04-01

    This study examined patterns of cerebellar volumetric gray matter (GM) loss across the adult lifespan in a large cross-sectional sample. Four hundred and seventy-nine healthy participants (age range: 7-86 years) were drawn from the Brain Resource International Database who provided T1-weighted MRI scans. The spatially unbiased infratentorial template (SUIT) toolbox in SPM8 was used for normalisation of the cerebellum structures. Global volumetric and voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed to evaluate age-associated trends and gender-specific age-patterns. Global cerebellar GM shows a cross-sectional reduction with advancing age of 2.5 % per decade-approximately half the rate seen in the whole brain. The male cerebellum is larger with a lower percentage of GM, however, after controlling for total brain volume, no gender difference was detected. Analysis of age-related changes in GM volume revealed large bilateral clusters involving the vermis and cerebellar crus where regional loss occurred at nearly twice the average cerebellar rate. No gender-specific patterns were detected. These data confirm that regionally specific GM loss occurs in the cerebellum with age, and form a solid base for further investigation to find functional correlates for this global and focal loss.

  10. Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

  11. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE) was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26–31 weeks) and late (32–41 weeks) gestation compared to early (16–25 weeks) gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW) p<0.05). TE further increased from mid to late, for the fetuses with RMSSD of fetal heart rate being larger than 4 msec in the late gestation. This difference was not observed for the fetuses with smaller RMSSD, which could be associated with the quiet sleep state. Delay in the information transfer from mother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26701122

  12. Advances and challenges in screening traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Sheng; Deng, Hong-Bin; Li, Dian-Dong; Li, Zhao-He

    2013-04-01

    To provide a better service for senior health care, we summarized screening studies of traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica (TCAM). We collected and analyzed literature of TCAM screening studies using the lifespan test and animal models of aging from 1984 to 2012. We found 26 screening methods for TCAM, and 153 single herbs or active ingredients of TCAM that have been screened out during the past 28 years. The cell lifespan test, the fruit fly lifespan test, and D-galactose aging model were the most widely used and intensively studied screening methods. However, the method for establishing the D-galactose aging model needs to be standardized, and the D-galactose aging model cannot completely be a substitute for the normal aging mouse model. Great success has been achieved in screening studies in TCAM. To further improve screening studies in TCAM, we suggest that the D-galactose aging model be incorporated into the lifespan test in the New Drugs of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Guide.

  13. Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum [and CD-ROM]. CrossCurrents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamoon, Linda K., Ed.; Howard, Rebecca Moore, Ed.; Jamieson, Sandra, Ed.; Schwegler, Robert A., Ed.

    Part book, part CD-ROM, this publication offers new ideas for transforming advanced writing courses. The 33 essays in the publication describe and offer concrete examples of curriculum that incorporates discipline-based theory and history, that situates writers in public discourse, and that fully prepares students for careers as writers. The…

  14. Foveal-Sparing Scotomas in Advanced Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…

  15. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937.

  16. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

  17. Chemical and Mechanical Defenses Vary among Maternal Lines and Leaf Ages in Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae) and Reduce Palatability to a Generalist Insect

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Christina; Bowers, M. Deane; Blumenthal, Dana; Hufbauer, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-specific variation in host-plant quality affects herbivore foraging decisions and, in turn, herbivore foraging decisions mediate plant fitness. In particular, variation in defenses against herbivores, both among and within plants, shapes herbivore behavior. If variation in defenses is genetically based, it can respond to natural selection by herbivores. We quantified intra-specific variation in iridoid glycosides, trichome length, and leaf strength in common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L, Scrophulariaceae) among maternal lines within a population and among leaves within plants, and related this variation to feeding preferences of a generalist herbivore, Trichopulsia ni Hübner. We found significant variation in all three defenses among maternal lines, with T. ni preferring plants with lower investment in chemical, but not mechanical, defense. Within plants, old leaves had lower levels of all defenses than young leaves, and were strongly preferred by T. ni. Caterpillars also preferred leaves with trichomes removed to leaves with trichomes intact. Differences among maternal lines indicate that phenotypic variation in defenses likely has a genetic basis. Furthermore, these results reveal that the feeding behaviors of T. ni map onto variation in plant defense in a predictable way. This work highlights the importance of variation in host-plant quality in driving interactions between plants and their herbivores. PMID:25127229

  18. [Generative potential in advanced age. Sociological intergenerational considerations of an old topic].

    PubMed

    Höpflinger, F

    2002-08-01

    The concept of generativity--at first related to middle age--is increasingly used to describe developmental processes at higher ages. In previous discussions, however, the concept of generativity has been used without clear references either to stages in later life (independent retirement versus dependent old age) or to different concepts of generations. A stage-oriented approach--based on ideas developed by Margret Baltes--indicates that the dimensions of generativity change with aging (more active generativity for younger retired people, more passive and compensating generativity among fragile and dependent persons). A generational approach--looking at different concepts of generations (family generations, societal generations, welfare generations)--shows that generativity within family generations is underlined by social norms, whereas generativity concerning welfare generations or societal generations remains an unstructured or even anomic developmental task.

  19. The impact of advancing age on postoperative outcomes in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kevin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Qin, Charles; Kim, John Y

    2015-11-01

    Age has been shown to be an independent predictor of complications in general surgery patients. In contrast, the effect of age on outcomes after plastic surgery has yet to be confirmed or refuted. The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate a possible association between age and postoperative outcomes after plastic surgery. The 2005-2012 NSQIP database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing plastic surgery. Patients ≥60 years with procedures under the category of plastic surgery in NSQIP were selected for analysis. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day overall complication rates. Multivariate regression models were constructed to control for potential perioperative confounders. Of the 2,320,920 patients captured in the NSQIP database, 36,819 patients underwent plastic surgery and met inclusion criteria. The incidence of unadjusted overall complications increased with age with an overall complication rate of 9.0% in patients <60 years, 11.6% in patients 60-69 years, 13.2% in patients 70-79 years, and 15.9% in patients 80 or more years (p < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, age was not independently associated with increased overall complications rates in patients 60-69 years (OR = 1.026; 95% CI = 0.927-1.135; p = 0.619) and 70-79 years (OR = 0.933; 95% CI = 0.797-0.919; p = 0.393), although patients 80 years and older experienced more medical complications (OR = 1.626; 95% CI = 1.218-2.172; p = 0.001). Age is not independently associated with overall worse outcomes in patients undergoing plastic surgery. Medical complications and mortality were more likely in extremes of age (>80 years). Age alone should not be included as a decisional factor in patients <80 years old considering plastic surgery.

  20. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  1. Expectant management of severe preeclampsia at 27(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks' gestation: maternal and perinatal outcomes according to gestational age by weeks at onset of expectant management.

    PubMed

    Bombrys, Annette E; Barton, John R; Habli, Mounira; Sibai, Baha M

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine perinatal outcome and maternal morbidities based on gestational age (GA) at onset of expectant management in severe preeclampsia (PE) between 27(0/7) and 33 (6/7) weeks. In this retrospective analysis of outcome in patients with severe preeclampsia, we studied 66 patients (71 fetuses) with severe PE at 27 (0)/ (7) to 33(6/ 7). All patients received corticosteroids. Perinatal and maternal complications were analyzed. Five patients had twin gestations. Median for days of prolongation was 5 days (range, 3 to 35). Birth weights of 19 (27%) were < 10% for gestational age, and 6 (8%) were < 5%. All fetuses survived except for one neonatal death at 27 weeks, and three infants had chronic lung disease-two at 27 and one at 28 weeks-but there were no cases of intraventricular hemorrhage (>or= grade ?). Rate of abruption was significantly higher at 27 to 28 weeks as compared with > 28 weeks (25% vs 6%, p = 0.05). There was no eclampsia, and two had transient renal insufficiency at 27 weeks. Four of 11 (36%) patients with expectant management at >or= 32 weeks had pulmonary edema or hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. During expectant management, rate of respiratory distress syndrome and other serious neonatal complications decrease with increasing GA, supporting a role for such management in early severe preeclampsia. Because there is significant maternal morbidity at >or= 32 weeks with minimal neonatal benefit, consideration should be given for delivery of these pregnancies following corticosteroid administration.

  2. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  3. The ASP at 125: Advancing Science Literacy in an Age of Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim

    2014-01-01

    On February 7, 2014, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific will celebrate its 125th birthday and a century and a quarter of advancing astronomy and astronomy/science education during a period of revolutionary change in our understanding of the universe. In keeping with both the retrospective and forward-looking nature of such milestones, the presenter will: 1) share highlights of the Society’s work in supporting the communication of astronomy research through its professional publications, and creating innovative astronomy education and public outreach projects and networks to advance student, teacher and public understanding of astronomy and science; 2) report on current NASA- and NSF-funded efforts and on plans going forward; 3) and solicit input from the assembled community on how the ASP can best serve its various constituencies and the cause of science education, communication and literacy at a time when both the universe and life on Earth are accelerating at unprecedented rates. Birthdays are for celebrating; come celebrate with us as we rededicate ourselves to a mission of advancing science literacy through astronomy.

  4. Morphometric changes in the aortic arch with advancing age in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    ENDOH, Chihiro; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TSUNODA, Nobuo; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Aortic rupture is a well recognized cause of sudden death in thoroughbred horses. Some microscopic lesions, such as those caused by cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis, can lead to aortic rupture. However, these microscopic lesions are also observed in normal horses. On the other hand, a previous study of aortic rupture suggested that underlying elastin and collagen deposition disorders might be associated with aortic rupture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the structural components of the tunica media of the aortic arch, which is composed of elastin, collagen, smooth muscle cells and mucopolysaccharides (MPS), in fetal to mature thoroughbred horses. The percentage area of elastin was greatest in the young horses and subsequently decreased with aging. The percentage area of collagen increased with aging, and the elderly horses (aged ≥20) exhibited significantly higher percentage areas of collagen than the young horses. The percentage area of smooth muscle cells did not change with age. The percentage area of MPS was inversely proportional to the percentage area of elastin. The fetuses exhibited a markedly larger percentage area of MPS than the mature horses. We concluded that the medial changes seen in the aortic arch, which included a reduction in the amount of elastin and increases in the amounts of collagen and MPS, were age-related variations. PMID:28190824

  5. Fitness Consequences of Advanced Ancestral Age over Three Generations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi; Bazykin, Georgii A.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid rise in age at parenthood in contemporary societies has increased interest in reports of higher prevalence of de novo mutations and health problems in individuals with older fathers, but the fitness consequences of such age effects over several generations remain untested. Here, we use extensive pedigree data on seven pre-industrial Finnish populations to show how the ages of ancestors for up to three generations are associated with fitness traits. Individuals whose fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers fathered their lineage on average under age 30 were ~13% more likely to survive to adulthood than those whose ancestors fathered their lineage at over 40 years. In addition, females had a lower probability of marriage if their male ancestors were older. These findings are consistent with an increase of the number of accumulated de novo mutations with male age, suggesting that deleterious mutations acquired from recent ancestors may be a substantial burden to fitness in humans. However, possible non-mutational explanations for the observed associations are also discussed. PMID:26030274

  6. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  7. Advancing age produces sex differences in vasomotor kinetics during and after skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Shawn E

    2007-09-01

    Little is known of the vasomotor responses of skeletal muscle arterioles during and following muscle contraction. We hypothesized that aging leads to impaired arteriolar responses to muscle contraction and recovery. Nitric oxide (NO) availability, which is age dependent, has been implicated in components of these kinetics. Therefore, we also hypothesized that changes in the kinetics of vascular responses are associated with the NO pathway. Groups were young (3 mo), old (24 mo), endothelial NO synthase knockout (eNOS-/-), and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA)-treated male and female C57BL/6 mice. The kinetics of vasodilation during and following 1 min of contractions of the gluteus maximus muscle were recorded in second-order (regional distribution) and third-order (local control) arterioles. Baseline, peak (during contraction), and maximal diameters (pharmacological) were not affected by age or sex. The kinetics of dilation and recovery were not different between males and females at the young age. There was a significant slowing of vasodilation at the onset of contractions (approximately 2-fold; P < 0.05) and a significant speeding of recovery ( approximately 5-fold; P < 0.05) in old males vs. old females and vs. young eNOS-/-, and L-NA did not affect the kinetics at the onset of muscle contraction. eNOS-/- mimicked the rapid recovery of old males in second-order arterioles; acute NO production (L-NA) explained approximately 50% of this effect. These data demonstrate fundamental age-related differences between the sexes in the dynamic function of skeletal muscle arterioles. Understanding how youthful function persists in females but not males may provide therapeutic insight into clinical interventions to maintain dynamic microvascular control of nutrient supply with age.

  8. The relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, C W; Conrad, B

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment in mothers of hospitalized premature infants. The research instruments administered included: a demographic sheet, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory (MSRI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Leifer's How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. Thirty-two mothers whose premature infants were medically stable and hospitalized in the NICU were studied. Two hypotheses on the positive relationships between maternal self-esteem and maternal attachment, and global self-esteem and maternal attachment could not be tested by correlational analyses due to the inadequate internal consistency of the How I Feel About My Baby Now Scale. A significant correlation was found between maternal self-esteem and global self-esteem. Thus, maternal role influenced general self-concept in mothers. In addition, it was found that there were no significant correlations between the MSRI and demographic variables, such as: maternal age, marital status, income, and educational level. Another result indicated that increased global self-esteem was correlated (p < .05) with maternal age, income, and educational level. The results of this study provide clinical nurses to pay attention not only to caregiving skills but also to the mother's appraisal of herself as a mother and attachment behaviors.

  9. Hydroxy methoxy benzaldehyde from Sesbania grandilfora inhibits the advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-mediated fibrillation in hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, G; Hari, N; Saraswathi, N T

    2017-03-20

    The present study was aimed to identify the active anti-glycation constituent from the leaves of Sesbania grandiflora. Characterization of the active constituent resulted in the identification of hydroxy methoxy benzaldehyde (HMB). The potential of HMB as anti-glycation lead was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular interaction studies. Our results suggested that HMB inhibited formation of early (HbA1c) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The amyloid-like fibrillation in hemoglobin was also inhibited by HMB. SEM images indicated the protective effect against the formation of acanthocytes. Molecular docking studies showed that HMB was interacting with hemoglobin through hydrogen bonds with Arg141, Tyr140, and Thr137. Our findings suggest that HMB could be a better anti-glycation lead molecule towards novel AGEs inhibitors.

  10. Mitoxantrone, teniposide, chlorambucil and prednisone (MVLP) for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The impact of advanced age and performance status.

    PubMed

    Haak, H L; Gerrits, W B; Wijermans, P W; Kerkhofs, H

    1993-04-01

    Fifty-seven patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of low, intermediate and high-grade malignancy were treated with mitoxantrone, teniposide (Vm26), chlorambucil (Leukeran) and prednisone (MVLP). The median age was 71 years; none of the patients was excluded due to poor performance status (PS). Out of 44 patients with PS (according to WHO) < or = 2, 38 responded with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 21.5 months. Of 13 patients with PS > 2, 6 responded with a median PFS of 8.2 months. Haematopoietic toxicity was related to PS rather than to dose intensity or bone marrow involvement. Three patients died within a short time due to toxicity; another two died later as a result of cardiac failure probably due to accumulated toxicity of adriamycin and mitoxantrone. MVLP chemotherapy is effective and feasible and has only moderate toxicity in patients with relapsed NHL and PS < or = 2, despite advanced age.

  11. Early advancing age alters plasma glucose and glucoregulatory hormones in response to supramaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Zouhal, Hassane; Vincent, Sophie; Moussa, Elie; Botcazou, Maïtel; Delamarche, Paul; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2009-11-01

    After the age of 60, the decrease in physical activity and the increase in fat mass (FM) are two essential factors contributing to the alteration of glucose, insulin, and catecholamines responses induced by exercise. To discard these two factors, we compared the glucoregulatory responses in three different groups of men between the ages 21 and 34, and matched pairs: trained groups (T34 and T21) were matched for training level; T21 and U21 (U for untrained) were matched for age; T34 and U21 were matched for FM. The glucoregulatory responses were determined by venous plasma concentrations of glucose ([GLU]), insulin ([INS]), and catecholamines (adrenaline: [A], noradrenaline: [NA]) before and after a Wingate test. [GLU], [INS], and [A] did not differ between T21 and U21, indicating that high-level training had no effects on these parameters. On the other hand, T34 compared to T21 and U21, had higher GLU associated with lower INS post-exercise concentrations. Moreover, [A(max)] was significantly lower in this group. Consequently, T34 only exhibited a significant alteration in glucose and glucoregulatory responses after a Wingate test, which could not be explained by the usual decrease in physical activity and/or the increase in FM. Therefore, aging alone seems to be one main factor of this deterioration.

  12. Executive Control at an Early Age: Advance Planning in Solitary Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besevegis, Elias; Neimark, Edith D.

    Questions concerning the ontogeny of the planning process and its role in the regulation of behavior have been markedly absent from the literature. The present study examines the planning done during solitary play by middle-class children from four public nursery schools in Athens, Greece. One hundred preschool children in five age groups (42, 48,…

  13. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  14. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns

    PubMed Central

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20–90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  15. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    PubMed

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-04-05

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD.

  16. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running.

  17. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods.

  18. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy; Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric; Moreau, Régis; Hagen, Tory

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks. PMID:24944020

  20. Serum Thyroid Function, Mortality and Disability in Advanced Old Age: The Newcastle 85+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Razvi, Salman; Yadegarfar, Mohammad E.; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Kingston, Andrew; Collerton, Joanna; Visser, Theo J.; Kirkwood, Tom B.; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Context: Perturbations in thyroid function are common in older individuals but their significance in the very old is not fully understood. Objective: This study sought to determine whether thyroid hormone status and variation of thyroid hormones within the reference range correlated with mortality and disability in a cohort of 85-year-olds. Design: A cohort of 85-year-old individuals were assessed in their own homes (community or institutional care) for health status and thyroid function, and followed for mortality and disability for up to 9 years. Setting and Participants: Six hundred and forty-three 85-year-olds registered with participating general practices in Newcastle and North Tyneside, United Kingdom. Main Outcomes: All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and disability according to thyroid disease status and baseline thyroid hormone parameters (serum TSH, FT4, FT3, and rT3). Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, body mass index, smoking, and disease count. Results: After adjustment for age and sex, all-cause mortality was associated with baseline serum rT3 and FT3 (both P < .001), but not FT4 or TSH. After additional adjustment for potential confounders, only rT3 remained significantly associated with mortality (P = .001). Baseline serum TSH and rT3 predicted future disability trajectories in men and women, respectively. Conclusions: Our study is reassuring that individuals age 85 y with both subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism do not have a significantly worse survival over 9 years than their euthyroid peers. However, thyroid function tests did predict disability, with higher serum TSH levels predicting better outcomes. These data strengthen the argument for routine use of age-specific thyroid function reference ranges. PMID:27552542

  1. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings

    PubMed Central

    KIETZMAN, KATHRYN G.; TROY, LISA M.; GREEN, CARMEN R.; WALLACE, STEVEN P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

  2. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    PubMed

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research.

  3. Advance care planning for older people in Australia presenting to the emergency department from the community or residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Street, Maryann; Ottmann, Goetz; Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Considine, Julie; Livingston, Patricia M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of advance care planning (ACP) among older people presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) from the community or a residential aged care facility. The study sample comprised 300 older people (aged 65+ years) presenting to three Victorian EDs in 2011. A total of 150 patients transferred from residential aged care to ED were randomly selected and then matched to 150 people who lived in the community and attended the ED by age, gender, reason for ED attendance and triage category on arrival. Overall prevalence of ACP was 13.3% (n = 40/300); over one-quarter (26.6%, n = 40/150) of those presenting to the ED from residential aged care had a documented Advance Care Plan, compared to none (0%, n = 0/150) of the people from the community. There were no significant differences in the median ED length of stay, number of investigations and interventions undertaken in ED, time seen by a doctor or rate of hospital admission for those with an Advance Care Plan compared to those without. Those with a comorbidity of cerebrovascular disease or dementia and those assessed with impaired brain function were more likely to have a documented Advance Care Plan on arrival at ED. Length of hospital stay was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan [median (IQR) = 3 days (2-6) vs. 6 days (2-10), P = 0.027] and readmission lower (0% vs. 13.7%). In conclusion, older people from the community transferred to ED were unlikely to have a documented Advance Care Plan. Those from residential aged care who were cognitively impaired more frequently had an Advance Care Plan. In the ED, decisions of care did not appear to be influenced by the presence or absence of Advance Care Plans, but length of hospital admission was shorter for those with an Advance Care Plan.

  4. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  5. Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

  6. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  7. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  8. Cognitive and motor skills in school-aged children following maternal vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy in rural Nepal: a follow-up of a placebo-controlled, randomised cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Gillian J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation from preconception through postpartum on cognitive and motor development of children at 10–13 years of age in rural Nepal. Design Follow-up assessment of children born to women randomly assigned by a village to receive either supplemental vitamin A (7000 µg retinol equivalents) or placebo weekly during a continuous 3.5-year period from 1994–1997. The participants came from 12 wards, a subset of 270 wards in the original trial. Trained staff tested children for cognition by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and motor ability using four subtests from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Data on schooling, home environment and nutritional and socioeconomic status were also collected. Setting Southern plains district of Sarlahi, Nepal. Participants 390 Nepalese children 10–13 years of age. Main outcome measures Raw scores on UNIT and square-root transformed scores on an abridged version of the MABC tests, expressed as cluster-summarised (mean±SD) values to account for the design of the original trial. Results There were no differences in UNIT (79.61±5.99 vs 80.69±6.71) or MABC (2.64±0.07 vs 2.49±0.09) test scores in children whose mothers were exposed to vitamin A vs placebo (mean differences: −1.07, 95% CI −7.10 to 9.26, p=0.78; 0.15, 95% CI 0.43 to −0.08, p=0.15), respectively. More children in the placebo group had repeated a grade in school (28% of placebo vs 16.7% of vitamin A, p=0.01). Conclusions Preconceptional to postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation, in an undernourished setting, does not improve cognition or motor development at ages 10–13 years. PMID:23667158

  9. Pentosidine in advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) during UVA irradiation generates active oxygen species and impairs human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Okano, Y; Masaki, H; Sakurai, H

    2001-08-01

    Our previous study reported that advanced glycation end-products (AGE)-modified BSA produced active oxygen species, *O2-, H2O2, and *OH under UVA irradiation and enhanced the cytotoxicity of UVA light. We examined whether pentosidine in AGE-modified BSA was involved in one of the mechanisms generating the active oxygen species. In biological investigations, fibroblasts exposed to UVA (20 J/cm2) in the presence of pentosidine-rich compounds (PRCs), which were prepared with L-arginine, L-lysine and glucose, showed a time-dependent leakage of the cytosolic enzyme LDH. In addition, release of LDH was suppressed by addition of DMSO and deferoxamine under UVA irradiation. From these results, it was determined that PRCs exposed to UVA damaged the plasma membrane of human dermal fibroblasts due to the conversion of *OH from H2O2 via a Fenton-like reaction. These features of PRCs exposed to UVA were consistent with those of AGE-modified BSA. In an ESR study, PRCs under UVA irradiation yielded DMPO-OH (DMPO-OH adduct) using DMPO as a spin-trapping reagent. *O2- generation from UVA-irradiated PRCs was also indicated by the combination of NBT reduction and SOD. When PRCs were exposed to UVA light controlled with a long-pass filter, WG-360, it was found that their production of *O2- was prohibited less than 50% in the NBT reduction assay. The *O2- production profile of PRCs depending on the wavelength of UVA light was similar to that of AGE-modified BSA. Furthermore, it was found that the H2O2 level was increased by PRCs exposed to UVA. These results indicated that pentosidine is an important factor of AGE-modified BSA in active oxygen generation under UVA irradiation.

  10. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy; Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric; Moreau, Régis; Hagen, Tory

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  11. Advanced age a risk factor for illness temporally associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, M.; Weld, L. H.; Tsai, T. F.; Mootrey, G. T.; Chen, R. T.; Niu, M.; Cetron, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of severe illnesses and one death, temporally associated with yellow fever (YF) vaccination, in two elderly U.S. residents. Because the cases were unusual and adverse events following YF vaccination had not been studied, we estimated age-related reporting rates for systemic illness following YF vaccination. We found that the rate of reported adverse events among elderly vaccinees was higher than among vaccinees 25 to 44 years of age. We also found two additional deaths among elderly YF vaccinees. These data signal a potential problem but are not sufficient to reliably estimate incidence rates or to understand potential underlying mechanisms; therefore, enhanced surveillance is needed. YF remains an important cause of severe illness and death, and travel to disease-endemic regions is increasing. For elderly travelers, the risk for severe illness and death due to YF infection should be balanced against the risk for systemic illness due to YF vaccine. PMID:11747720

  12. Urinary Interleukin-8 Is a Biomarker of Stress in Emergency Physicians, Especially with Advancing Age — The JOBSTRESS* Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Trousselard, Marion; Perrier, Christophe; Lac, Gérard; Chamoux, Alain; Duclos, Martine; Naughton, Geraldine; Mnatzaganian, George; Schmidt, Jeannot

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency physicians are exposed to greater stress during a 24-hour shift (24 hS) than a 14-hour night shift (14 hS), with an impact lasting several days. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is postulated to be a chronic stress biomarker. However, no studies have tracked IL-8 over several shifts or used it for monitoring short-term residual stress. The IL-8 response to the shifts may also increase with age. Conveniently, IL-8 can be measured non-intrusively from urine. Methods We conducted a shifts-randomized trial comparing 17 emergency physicians’ urinary IL-8 levels during a 24 hS, a 14 hS, and a control day (clerical work on return from leave). Mean levels of IL-8 were compared using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Independent associations of key factors including shifts, stress, and age with IL-8 levels were further assessed in a multivariable generalized estimating equations model. Results Mean urinary IL-8 levels almost doubled during and after a 24 hS compared with a 14 hS or a control day. Furthermore, IL-8 levels failed to return to control values at the end of the third day after the shift despite a rest day following the 24 hS. In the multivariable model, engaging in a 24 hS, self-reported stress, and age were independently associated with higher IL-8 levels. A 24 hS significantly increased IL-8 levels by 1.9 ng (p = .007). Similarly, for every unit increase in self-reported stress, there was a 0.11 ng increase in IL-8 levels (p = .003); and for every one year advance in age of physicians, IL-8 levels also increased by 0.11 ng (p = .018). Conclusion The 24 hS generated a prolonged response of the immune system. Urinary IL-8 was a strong biomarker of stress under intensive and prolonged demands, both acutely and over time. Because elevated IL-8 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and negative psychological consequences, we suggest that emergency physicians limit their exposure to 24 hS, especially with advancing age. PMID:23977105

  13. Inhibition of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of human serum albumin upon incubation with 3-β-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Bohlooli, M; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Taghavi, F; Saboury, A A; Maghami, P; Seyedarabi, A; Moosavi-Movahedi, F; Ahmad, F; Shockravi, A; Habibi-Rezaei, M

    2014-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are the final products of glycation, have a major role in diabetic complication and neurodegenerative disorders. The 3-β-hydroxybutyrate (3BHB), a ketone body which is produced by the liver, can be detected in increased concentrations in individuals post fasting and prolonged exercises and in diabetic (type I) patients. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 3BHB on AGEs formation by glucose from the human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological conditions after 35 days of incubation, using physical techniques such as circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fluorescence intensity measurements of glycated HSA by glucose (GHSA) in the presence of 3BHB indicate a decrease in AGEs formation. The DSC deconvolution profile results also confirm the protective role of 3BHB on incubated with glucose by preventing the enthalpy reduction of the HSA tail segment, compared with the deconvolution profile seen for incubated with glucose alone. The concentration of 3BHB used in this study is in accordance with the concentration detected in the body of individuals post fasting and prolonged exercises.

  14. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  15. Fetal blood group genotyping from DNA from maternal plasma: an important advance in the management and prevention of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Daniels, G; Finning, K; Martin, P; Soothill, P

    2004-11-01

    The cloning of blood group genes and subsequent identification of the molecular bases of blood group polymorphisms has made it possible to predict blood group phenotypes from DNA with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The major application of this technology, which has now become the standard of care, is the determination of a fetal RHD genotype in women with anti-D, to assess whether the fetus is at risk of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Initially, the procurement of fetal DNA required the invasive procedures of amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Since the discovery of fetal DNA in maternal plasma in 1997, the technology of detecting an RHD gene in this very small quantity of fetal DNA has developed rapidly, so that non-invasive fetal D typing can now be provided as a diagnostic service for D-negative pregnant women with anti-D. Within a few years, it is probable that fetuses of all D-negative pregnant women will be tested for RHD, to establish whether the mother requires antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis.

  16. Putting the "M" back in maternal-fetal medicine.

    PubMed

    D'Alton, Mary E; Bonanno, Clarissa A; Berkowitz, Richard L; Brown, Haywood L; Copel, Joshua A; Cunningham, F Gary; Garite, Thomas J; Gilstrap, Larry C; Grobman, William A; Hankins, Gary D V; Hauth, John C; Iriye, Brian K; Macones, George A; Martin, James N; Martin, Stephanie R; Menard, M Kathryn; O'Keefe, Daniel F; Pacheco, Luis D; Riley, Laura E; Saade, George R; Spong, Catherine Y

    2013-06-01

    Although maternal death remains rare in the United States, the rate has not decreased for 3 decades. The rate of severe maternal morbidity, a more prevalent problem, is also rising. Rise in maternal age, in rates of obesity, and in cesarean deliveries as well as more pregnant women with chronic medical conditions all contribute to maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States. We believe it is the responsibility of maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) subspecialists to lead a national effort to decrease maternal mortality and morbidity. In doing so, we hope to reestablish the vital role of MFM subspecialists to take the lead in the performance and coordination of care in complicated obstetrical cases. This article will summarize our initial recommendations to enhance MFM education and training, to establish national standards to improve maternal care and management, and to address critical research gaps in maternal medicine.

  17. Clinical features of colorectal cancer patients in advanced age: a population-based approach.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Stefania; Colantoni, Alessandra; Kaleci, Shaniko; Benatti, Piero; Tesini, Ester; de Leon, Maurizio Ponz

    2016-03-01

    In the immediate future, the number of geriatric patients will continue to rise; consequently we should expect an increase of colorectal cancer, a disease of the elderly population. Through the data of a Cancer Registry, we examined (a) the effect of ageing on the main features of colorectal cancer; (b) changes in management, especially for individuals older than 80 years; and (c) changes in prognosis and survival in subgroups of patients with different age. The Registry provided information on colorectal cancer up to 2010 (27 years). A total of 5293 patients were registered; these were divided into three groups: A (0-64 years), B (65-79) and C (80 or more). Three periods of observation were chosen: 1 (1984-1992), 2 (1993-2001) and 3 (2001-2010). Group A included 1571 patients (29 %), Group B 2539 (48 %) and Group C 1183 (22.3 %). The fraction of old individuals increased during the 27 years of the investigation. In these patients, tumours were predominantly localized to the right colon (42.6 %). The rate of surgery and ratio between curative and palliative approaches were similar among the three groups (p < 0.38). There was disparity (p < 0.002) in the administration of chemotherapy (5.8 % of the elderly vs 34.4 % in remaining patients). Survival increased over time in all three groups. In the elderly, average 5-year survival was 31 % in period 1 and 55 % in period 3. These data show that in Western countries, the standard of care for colorectal cancer diagnosed in geriatric patients has improved over the last 30 years.

  18. Forecasting Epidemiological Consequences of Maternal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ana I.; Rohani, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Background. The increase in the incidence of whooping cough (pertussis) in many countries with high vaccination coverage is alarming. Maternal pertussis immunization has been proposed as an effective means of protecting newborns during the interval between birth and the first routine dose. However, there are concerns regarding potential interference between maternal antibodies and the immune response elicited by the routine schedule, with possible long-term population-level effects. Methods. We formulated a transmission model comprising both primary routine and maternal immunization. This model was examined to evaluate the long-term epidemiological effects of routine and maternal immunization, together with consequences of potential immune interference scenarios. Results. Overall, our model demonstrates that maternal immunization is an effective strategy in reducing the incidence of pertussis in neonates prior to the onset of the primary schedule. However, if maternal antibodies lead to blunting, incidence increases among older age groups. For instance, our model predicts that with 60% routine and maternal immunization coverage and 30% blunting, the incidence among neonates (0–2 months) is reduced by 43%. Under the same scenario, we observe a 20% increase in incidence among children aged 5–10 years. However, the downstream increase in the older age groups occurs with a delay of approximately a decade or more. Conclusions. Maternal immunization has clear positive effects on infant burden of disease, lowering mean infant incidence. However, if maternally derived antibodies adversely affect the immunogenicity of the routine schedule, we predict eventual population-level repercussions that may lead to an overall increase in incidence in older age groups. PMID:27838674

  19. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  20. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.

  1. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters.

    PubMed

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-09-24

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is uncl