Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.
1999-01-01
Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)
Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minor, Elizabeth Covay
2016-01-01
Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…
Teacher Leaders: Advancing Mathematics Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinzer, Cathy J.; Rincón, Mari; Ward, Jana; Rincón, Ricardo; Gomez, Lesli
2014-01-01
Four elementary school instructors offer insights into their classrooms, their unique professional roles, and their leadership approaches as they reflect on their journey to advance teacher and student mathematics learning. They note a "teacher leader" serves as an example to other educators and strives to impact student learning;…
Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrari, Pier Luigi
2004-01-01
This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…
Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin
2012-01-01
Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…
Mathematical Proof as Formal Procept in Advanced Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chin, Erh-Tsung
2003-01-01
In this paper the notion of "procept" (in the sense of Gray & Tall, 1994) is extended to advanced mathematics by considering mathematical proof as "formal procept". The statement of a theorem as a symbol may theoretically evoke the proof deduction as a process that may contain sequential procedures and require the synthesis of distinct cognitive…
Gestures and insight in advanced mathematical thinking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy
2011-10-01
What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding - in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities. One participant uses gestures to clarify the relationships between a function, its derivative and its antiderivative. We show how these gestures help create a virtual mathematical construct, which in turn leads to a new problem-solving strategy. These results suggest that gestures are a productive, but potentially undertapped resource for generating new insights in advanced levels of mathematics.
Tasks to Advance the Learning of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenes, Carole
2014-01-01
Tasks to Advance the Learning of Mathematics (TALMs) were developed to stimulate grades 5-8 students' curiosity about complex mathematical relationships, inspire them to reason abstractly and quantitatively, encourage them to consider and create alternative solution approaches, develop their skills to persuade others about the viability of one…
Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy
2011-01-01
What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…
For the Technologically Challenged: Four Free Online Tools to Liven up a Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northcote, Maria
2015-01-01
Use of technology in the mathematics classroom has the potential to advance children's learning of mathematics and enhance their attitudes about mathematics. When used in conjunction with purposeful planning, teachers can use technological tools to reinforce their pedagogical intentions and to facilitate relevant learning activities for students.…
Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.
2015-07-01
We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our interventions act along two complementary directions. One of them regards ontology, since questions induce one to look closely at the electric charge, from different perspectives, promoting reflections about its nature and reinforcing the corresponding concept. Formal manipulations rely on the identification of concepts with symbols, and the other direction concerns the spatial extension of mathematical structures. Our questions and their somewhat unusual answers help disclosing information which is not present in many textbooks, and show that Mathematics can be used as an efficient epistemological tool in Physics teaching.
Some mathematical tools for a modeller's workbench
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohen, E.
1984-01-01
The development of a mathematical software tools in workbench environment to model related objects more straightforward is outlined. A computer model from informal drawings and a plastic model of a helicopter is discussed. Lofting was the predominant, characteristic modelling technique. Ships and airplane designs use lofting as a technique because they have defined surfaces, (hulls and fuselages) from vertical station cuts perpendicular to the vertical center plane defining the major axis of reflective symmetry. A turbine blade from a jet engine was modelled in this way. The aerodynamic portion and the root comes from different paradigms. The union of these two parts into a coherent model is shown.
Mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics: An advanced short course
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moretti, Valter
2016-08-01
This paper collects and extends the lectures I gave at the “XXIV International Fall Workshop on Geometry and Physics” held in Zaragoza (Spain) during September 2015. Within these lectures I review the formulation of Quantum Mechanics, and quantum theories in general, from a mathematically advanced viewpoint, essentially based on the orthomodular lattice of elementary propositions, discussing some fundamental ideas, mathematical tools and theorems also related to the representation of physical symmetries. The final step consists of an elementary introduction the so-called (C∗-) algebraic formulation of quantum theories.
Computer Mathematical Tools: Practical Experience of Learning to Use Them
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Semenikhina, Elena; Drushlyak, Marina
2014-01-01
The article contains general information about the use of specialized mathematics software in the preparation of math teachers. The authors indicate the reasons to study the mathematics software. In particular, they analyze the possibility of presenting basic mathematical courses using mathematical computer tools from both a teacher and a student,…
Mathematics for What? High School Students Reflect on Mathematics as a Tool for Social Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brelias, Anastasia
2015-01-01
This study examines high school students' views of mathematics as a tool for social inquiry in light of their classroom experiences using mathematics to explore social issues. A critical theoretical perspective on mathematics literacy is used to ascertain the ways in which their views challenge or affirm the dominant image of mathematics in…
Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.
Designer Functions: Power Tools for Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinhold, Marcia Weller
2008-01-01
This article describes a student-oriented classroom activity for exploring polynomials. In this activity teacher candidates apply technology to explore mathematics that they will teach but that they have not studied since high school. (Contains 10 figures.)
Advanced Mathematics Course-Taking: A Focus on Gender Equifinality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
You, Sukkyung; Sharkey, Jill D.
2012-01-01
High school mathematics achievement predicts future success. Potentially different factors that lead to success for boys versus girls, termed equifinality, are not well understood. Such factors are needed to inform interventions to increase numbers of students taking advanced mathematics courses and going on into science and mathematics careers.…
Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 3, Formal Geometry. Student's Text.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.
This text is the second of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. This volume is devoted to a rigorous development of theorems in plane geometry from 22…
ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS
Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb
2001-08-31
The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is
Building a Case for Blocks as Kindergarten Mathematics Learning Tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinzer, Cathy; Gerhardt, Kacie; Coca, Nicole
2016-01-01
Kindergarteners need access to blocks as thinking tools to develop, model, test, and articulate their mathematical ideas. In the current educational landscape, resources such as blocks are being pushed to the side and being replaced by procedural worksheets and academic "seat time" in order to address standards. Mathematics research…
Mathematical Practices in a Technological Workplace: The Role of Tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Triantafillou, Chrissavgi; Potari, Despina
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the role of tools in the formation of mathematical practices and the construction of mathematical meanings in the setting of a telecommunication organization through the actions undertaken by a group of technicians in their working activity. The theoretical and analytical framework is guided by the first-generation activity…
Proposing a Mathematical Software Tool in Physics Secondary Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baltzis, Konstantinos B.
2009-01-01
MathCad® is a very popular software tool for mathematical and statistical analysis in science and engineering. Its low cost, ease of use, extensive function library, and worksheet-like user interface distinguish it among other commercial packages. Its features are also well suited to educational process. The use of natural mathematical notation…
Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.
2015-01-01
We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koichu, Boris
2010-01-01
This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Czocher, Jennifer A.
2016-01-01
This study contributes a methodological tool to reconstruct the cognitive processes and mathematical activities carried out by mathematical modelers. Represented as Modeling Transition Diagrams (MTDs), individual modeling routes were constructed for four engineering undergraduate students. Findings stress the importance and limitations of using…
Communicating Mathematics on the Internet: Synchronous and Asynchronous Tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodges, Charles B.; Hunger, Gail M.
2011-01-01
Communicating and collaborating online are becoming common requirements in education. The specialized notations and symbols necessary for some content areas where mathematical expressions are part of the conversation require that users select appropriate communication tools. The purpose of this article is to describe tools that can be used for…
Making Culturally Responsive Mathematics Teaching Explicit: A Lesson Analysis Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguirre, Julia M.; Zavala, Maria del Rosario
2013-01-01
In the United States, there is a need for pedagogical tools that help teachers develop essential pedagogical content knowledge and practices to meet the mathematical education needs of a growing culturally and linguistically diverse student population. In this article, we introduce an innovative lesson analysis tool that focuses on integrating…
General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Mathematical Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, Steve
2007-01-01
The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development.
Exposing calculus students to advanced mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffiths, Barry J.; Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Erhan
2014-07-01
To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in mathematics. This paper posits that one of the main reasons is that the mathematical community does not expose calculus students to the beauty and complexity of upper-level mathematics, and that by doing so before they fully commit to their programme of study, the number of students with a qualification in mathematics can be increased. The results show a significant increase in the number of students planning to add a minor in mathematics, and an increased likelihood among freshmen and sophomores to change their major.
Conditional Inference and Advanced Mathematical Study: Further Evidence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian
2009-01-01
In this paper, we examine the support given for the "theory of formal discipline" by Inglis and Simpson (Educational Studies Mathematics 67:187-204, "2008"). This theory, which is widely accepted by mathematicians and curriculum bodies, suggests that the study of advanced mathematics develops general thinking skills and, in particular, conditional…
Reassessing the Economic Value of Advanced Level Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew
2016-01-01
In the late 1990s, the economic return to Advanced level (A-level) mathematics was examined. The analysis was based upon a series of log-linear models of earnings in the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS) and the National Survey of 1980 Graduates and Diplomates. The core finding was that A-level mathematics had a unique earnings premium…
All Students Need Advanced Mathematics. Math Works
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Achieve, Inc., 2013
2013-01-01
This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…
Rapid medical advances challenge the tooling industry.
Conley, B
2008-01-01
The requirement for greater performance in smaller spaces has increased demands for product and process innovation in tubing and other medical products. In turn, these developments have placed greater demands on the producers of the advanced tooling for these products. Tooling manufacturers must now continuously design equipment with much tighter tolerances for more sophisticated coextrusions and for newer generations of multilumen and multilayer tubing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ma, Xin
2010-01-01
Based on data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), students were classified into high-, middle-, and low-ability students. The effects of early acceleration in mathematics on the most advanced mathematics coursework (precalculus and calculus) in high school were examined in each category. Results showed that although early…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret; Gillow-Wiles, Henry
2013-01-01
This primarily online Master's degree program focused on advancing K-8 teachers' interdisciplinary mathematical and science content knowledge while integrating appropriate digital technologies as learning and teaching tools. The mixed-method, interpretive study examined in-service teachers' technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK)…
TBell: A mathematical tool for analyzing decision tables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoover, D. N.; Chen, Zewei
1994-01-01
This paper describes the development of mathematical theory and software to analyze specifications that are developed using decision tables. A decision table is a tabular format for specifying a complex set of rules that chooses one of a number of alternative actions. The report also describes a prototype tool, called TBell, that automates certain types of analysis.
An Enquiry Into Adverse Attitudes Towards Advanced Level Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Selkirk, Jack
1975-01-01
The adverse attitudes of many students in advanced mathematics courses were explored. Results indicated students felt the gap between regular and advanced courses was too great, and that students pursuing arts or social sciences would benefit from courses with broader application. (SD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangpom, Wasukree; Suthisung, Nisara; Kongthip, Yanin; Inprasitha, Maitree
2016-01-01
Mathematical teaching in Thai tertiary education still employs traditional methods of explanation and the use of rules, formulae, and theories in order for students to memorize and apply to their mathematical learning. This results in students' inability to concretely learn, fully comprehend and understand mathematical concepts and practice. In…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin
2013-04-01
The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.
Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology
Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN
2013-10-09
Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.
Advanced Algebra and Calculus. High School Mathematics Curricula. Instructor's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Natour, Denise M.
This manual is an instructor's guide for the utilization of the "CCA High School Mathematics Curricula: Advanced Algebra and Calculus" courseware developed by the Computer-based Education Research Laboratory (CERL). The curriculum comprises 34 algebra lessons within 12 units and 15 calculus lessons that are computer-based and require mastery for…
Who Succeeds in Advanced Mathematics and Science Courses?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Korpershoek, Hanke; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Bosker, Roel
2011-01-01
Few students (particularly few girls) currently choose to take their Final School Examination (FSE) in advanced mathematics, chemistry and physics, a combination of subjects that is the best preparation for a science-oriented study in higher education. Are these subjects attainable by more students than is currently the case? This study examined…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koichu, Boris
2010-03-01
This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of three mathematical worlds; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of proof schemes and heuristic behaviours. The relationships between mathematical knowledge and problem-solving behaviours are analysed in the contexts of solving an insight geometry problem, posing algebraic problems and calculus exploration. A particularly knowledgeable and skilled university student was involved in all the episodes. The presented examples substantiate the claim that advanced mathematical knowledge and advanced problem-solving behaviours do not always support each other. More advanced behaviours were observed when the student worked within her conceptual-embodied mathematical world, and less advanced ones when she worked within her symbolic and formal-axiomatic worlds. Alternative explanations of the findings are discussed. It seems that the most comprehensive explanation is in terms of the Principle of Intellectual Parsimony. Implications for further research are drawn.
Advanced Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching Practice: Perceptions of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zazkis, Rina; Leikin, Roza
2010-01-01
For the purpose of our research we define Advanced Mathematical Knowledge (AMK) as knowledge of the subject matter acquired during undergraduate studies at colleges or universities. We examine the responses of secondary school teachers about their usage of AMK in teaching. We find that the majority of teachers focus on the purposes and advantages…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor); Franklin, Larry D. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)
2008-01-01
Methods and tool for simultaneously forming a bore in a work piece and forming a series of threads in said bore. In an embodiment, the tool has a predetermined axial length, a proximal end, and a distal end, said tool comprising: a shank located at said proximal end; a pilot drill portion located at said distal end; and a mill portion intermediately disposed between said shank and said pilot drill portion. The mill portion is comprised of at least two drill-tap sections of predetermined axial lengths and at least one transition section of predetermined axial length, wherein each of said at least one transition section is sandwiched between a distinct set of two of said at least two drill-tap sections. The at least two drill-tap sections are formed of one or more drill-tap cutting teeth spirally increasing along said at least two drill-tap sections, wherein said tool is self-advanced in said work piece along said formed threads, and wherein said tool simultaneously forms said bore and said series of threads along a substantially similar longitudinal axis.
Advanced mathematical study and the development of conditional reasoning skills.
Attridge, Nina; Inglis, Matthew
2013-01-01
Since the time of Plato, philosophers and educational policy-makers have assumed that the study of mathematics improves one's general 'thinking skills'. Today, this argument, known as the 'Theory of Formal Discipline' is used in policy debates to prioritize mathematics in school curricula. But there is no strong research evidence which justifies it. We tested the Theory of Formal Discipline by tracking the development of conditional reasoning behavior in students studying post-compulsory mathematics compared to post-compulsory English literature. In line with the Theory of Formal Discipline, the mathematics students did develop their conditional reasoning to a greater extent than the literature students, despite them having received no explicit tuition in conditional logic. However, this development appeared to be towards the so-called defective conditional understanding, rather than the logically normative material conditional understanding. We conclude by arguing that Plato may have been correct to claim that studying advanced mathematics is associated with the development of logical reasoning skills, but that the nature of this development may be more complex than previously thought.
The Impact of Advanced Curriculum on the Achievement of Mathematically Promising Elementary Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Carroll, Susan R.; Sheffield, Linda Jensen
2009-01-01
The primary aim of Project M[superscript 3]: Mentoring Mathematical Minds was to develop and field test advanced units for mathematically promising elementary students based on exemplary practices in gifted and mathematics education. This article describes the development of the units and reports on mathematics achievement results for students in…
Year 11 Advanced Mathematics: Hearing from Students Who Buck the Trend
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ho, Kai Fai
2010-01-01
There are concerns about the trends and patterns in enrolments in senior school mathematics. Shortages of suitably qualified teachers and dwindling students' demand for Advanced Mathematics have led some Western Australian schools to collaborate to provide an otherwise unavailable opportunity for their students to study Advanced Mathematics. It is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schreiber, James B.
The student variables associated with scoring above the international mean on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were studied in a group of U.S. students who took advanced mathematics or advanced mathematics and physics. The total sample was 2,349, with 1,158 females and 1,191 males. Formal parent education level and…
Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.
2004-06-01
This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.
Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report
Lazarus, L.J.
1996-10-01
The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.
Mathematical Tools for Discovery of Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haranczyk, M.; Martin, R. L.
2015-01-01
Porous materials such as zeolites and metal organic frameworks have been of growing importance as materials for energy-related applications such as CO2 capture, hydrogen and methane storage, and catalysis. The current state-of-the-art molecular simulations allow for accurate in silico prediction of materials' properties but the computational cost of such calculations prohibits their application in the characterisation of very large sets of structures, which would be required to perform brute-force screening. Our work focuses on the development of novel methodologies to efficiently characterize and explore this complex materials space. In particular, we have been developing algorithms and tools for enumeration and characterisation of porous material databases as well as efficient screening approaches. Our methodology represents a ensemble of mathematical methods. We have used Voronoi tessellation-based techniques to enable high-throughput structure characterisation, statistical techniques to perform comparison and screening, and continuous optimisation to design materials. This article outlines our developments in material design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorev, Dvora; Gurevich-Leibman, Irina
2015-01-01
This paper presents our experience of integrating technological tools into our mathematics teaching (in both disciplinary and didactic courses) for student-teachers. In the first cycle of our study, a variety of technological tools were used (e.g., dynamic software, hypertexts, video and applets) in teaching two disciplinary mathematics courses.…
Advances of implementing NC machine tools discussed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukuyev, Y. P.; Trukhan, Y. V.
1984-11-01
Numerical control machine tools which are one of the principal resources of reequipment, mechanization and automation of small series and series production in machine building were examined. The continually increasing volume of NC machine tools which are produced and introduced is economically significant for introduction of these machine tools to operation and organization of their effective use. Organizational and technical measures were directed at solving these problems. To insure the fastest introduction of NC machine tools into operation and their technical maintenance, a number of setting up organizations was organized. Setting up services are also provided by the plants manufacturing the NC machine tools, and appropriate subdivisions are created for this purpose.
Visual Programming: A Programming Tool for Increasing Mathematics Achivement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanier, Cheryl A.; Seals, Cheryl D.; Billionniere, Elodie V.
2009-01-01
This paper aims to address the need of increasing student achievement in mathematics using a visual programming language such as Scratch. This visual programming language facilitates creating an environment where students in K-12 education can develop mathematical simulations while learning a visual programming language at the same time.…
Placement Tools for Developmental Mathematics and Intermediate Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Donovan, William J.; Wheland, Ethel R.
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the placement of students at an urban Ohio college campus in developmental mathematics and Intermediate Algebra courses. We have found that the ACT Mathematics and COMPASS Domain I (Algebra) Placement scores both correlate well with success in the Intermediate Algebra course and that, although females have lower placement…
Investigating Student Use of Electronic Support Tools and Mathematical Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Kristina N.; Crawford, Lindy; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Horney, Mark
2016-01-01
Mathematical reasoning involves comprehending mathematical information and concepts in a logical way and forming conclusions and generalizations based on this comprehension. Computer-based learning has been incorporated into classrooms across the country, and specific aspects of technology need to be studied to determine how programs are…
A Conversion Tool for Mathematical Expressions in Web XML Files.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohtake, Nobuyuki; Kanahori, Toshihiro
2003-01-01
This article discusses the conversion of mathematical equations into Extensible Markup Language (XML) on the World Wide Web for individuals with visual impairments. A program is described that converts the presentation markup style to the content markup style in MathML to allow browsers to render mathematical expressions without other programs.…
Mathematical Modeling Activities as a Useful Tool for Values Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doruk, Bekir Kursat
2012-01-01
Values education is crucial since it is one of the factors to reach success in education in broader sense and in mathematics education in particular sense. It is also important for educating next generations of societies. However, previous research showed that expected importance for values education was not given in Mathematics courses. In a few…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rasmussen, Chris; Kwon, Oh Nam; Allen, Karen; Marrongelle, Karen; Burtch, Mark
2006-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the Inquiry-Oriented Differential Equations (IO-DE) project and reports on the main results of a study that compared students' beliefs, skills, and understandings in IO-DE classes to more conventional approaches. The IO-DE project capitalizes on advances within mathematics and mathematics education, including the…
Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 8, Systems of Equations. Student's Text.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.
This text is the last of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. In this volume the solution of systems of linear and quadratic equations and inequalities in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weber, Keith
2009-01-01
This paper presents a case study of a highly successful student whose exploration of an advanced mathematical concept relies predominantly on syntactic reasoning, such as developing formal representations of mathematical ideas and making logical deductions. This student is observed as he learns a new mathematical concept and then completes…
Institutional and Student Factors and Their Influence on Advanced Mathematics Achievement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schreiber, James B.
2002-01-01
Examined advanced mathematics achievement among high school students using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Examination of school- and student-level factors indicated that gender and economic disparities existed, even with the most advanced students. This disparity varied by school. Parent education related to…
A Cross-National Comparison of Reported Effort and Mathematics Performance in TIMSS Advanced
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eklöf, Hanna; Pavešic, Barbara Japelj; Grønmo, Liv Sissel
2014-01-01
The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Wolf, Virginia A.
Freshmen placed into the second or third quarter of the first year calculus sequence at the University of Washington were studied. Two major findings were: freshmen eligible for advanced placement earned mean mathematics Grade Point Averages (GPAs) which were quite high; and advanced placement students earned mean mathematics GPAs substantially…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Escuder, Ana
2013-01-01
This study described, analyzed, and compared the internal and external factors that prevented or fostered the implementation of a cognitive tool, GeoGebra, in the mathematics practices of 12 middle school teachers who had completed a master's degree program in mathematics successfully. Through the application of a case study approach as a…
The Importance of Theoretical Frameworks and Mathematical Constructs in Designing Digital Tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trinter, Christine
2016-01-01
The increase in availability of educational technologies over the past few decades has not only led to new practice in teaching mathematics but also to new perspectives in research, methodologies, and theoretical frameworks within mathematics education. Hence, the amalgamation of theoretical and pragmatic considerations in digital tool design…
Design and Use of Computer Tools for Interactive Mathematical Activity (TIMA).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steffe, Leslie P.; Olive, John
2002-01-01
Explains TIMA (Tools for Interactive Mathematical Activity), that were designed to provide elementary schools children with contexts in which they could enact mathematical operations. Discusses differences from drill and practice software; provides examples of how the TIMA were used by children to engage in cognitive play; and emphasizes the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wallace, Johnny M.; Stewart, Grover
This module presents a real-world context in which mathematics skills (geometry and trigonometry) are used as part of a daily routine. The context is the machine tool technology field, and the module aims to help students develop the ability to analyze diagrams in order to make mathematical computations. The modules, which features applications…
Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2010-01-01
The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.
Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2009-01-01
The iconic, orange external tank of the space shuttle launch system not only contains the fuel used by the shuttle s main engines during liftoff but also comprises the shuttle s backbone, supporting the space shuttle orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Given the tank s structural importance and the extreme forces (7.8 million pounds of thrust load) and temperatures it encounters during launch, the welds used to construct the tank must be highly reliable. Variable polarity plasma arc welding, developed for manufacturing the external tank and later employed for building the International Space Station, was until 1994 the best process for joining the aluminum alloys used during construction. That year, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers began experimenting with a relatively new welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW), developed in 1991 by The Welding Institute, of Cambridge, England. FSW differs from traditional fusion welding in that it is a solid-state welding technique, using frictional heat and motion to join structural components without actually melting any of the material. The weld is created by a shouldered pin tool that is plunged into the seam of the materials to be joined. The tool traverses the line while rotating at high speeds, generating friction that heats and softens but does not melt the metal. (The heat produced approaches about 80 percent of the metal s melting temperature.) The pin tool s rotation crushes and stirs the plasticized metal, extruding it along the seam as the tool moves forward. The material cools and consolidates, resulting in a weld with superior mechanical properties as compared to those weld properties of fusion welds. The innovative FSW technology promises a number of attractive benefits. Because the welded materials are not melted, many of the undesirables associated with fusion welding porosity, cracking, shrinkage, and distortion of the weld are minimized or avoided. The process is more energy efficient, safe
Factor Analysis: A Tool for Studying Mathematics Anxiety.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAuliffe, Elizabeth A.; Trueblood, Cecil R.
Mathematics anxiety and its relationship to other constructs was studied in 138 preservice elementary and special education teachers. The students, primarily women, were enrolled in a variety of professional courses and field experiences. Five instruments were administered, their factor structures were determined, and intercorrelations among the…
Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liang, Hai-Ning; Sedig, Kamran
2010-01-01
Many students find it difficult to engage with mathematical concepts. As a relatively new class of learning tools, visualization tools may be able to promote higher levels of engagement with mathematical concepts. Often, development of new tools may outpace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of these tools, especially in educational…
Some observations on the interdigitation of advances in medical science and mathematics.
Glamore, Michael James; West, James L; O'leary, James Patrick
2013-12-01
The immense advancement of our understanding of disease processes has not been a uniform progression related to the passage of time. Advances have been made in "lurches" and "catches" since the advent of the written word. There has been a remarkable interdependency between such advances in medicine and advances in mathematics that has proved beneficial to both. This work explores some of these critical relationships and documents how the individuals involved contributed to advances in each.
Challenges of Blended E-Learning Tools in Mathematics: Students' Perspectives University of Uyo
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Umoh, Joseph B.; Akpan, Ekemini T.
2014-01-01
An in-depth knowledge of pedagogical approaches can help improve the formulation of effective and efficient pedagogy, tools and technology to support and enhance the teaching and learning of Mathematics in higher institutions. This study investigated students' perceptions of the challenges of blended e-learning tools in the teaching and learning…
Teachers' Use of Computational Tools to Construct and Explore Dynamic Mathematical Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron
2011-01-01
To what extent does the use of computational tools offer teachers the possibility of constructing dynamic models to identify and explore diverse mathematical relations? What ways of reasoning or thinking about the problems emerge during the model construction process that involves the use of the tools? These research questions guided the…
Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen
2016-01-01
Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…
Advanced Skills for Chapter 1 Mathematics: Estimation. Workshop Leader's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Advanced Technology, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.
This Workshop Leader's Guide contains step-by-step procedures for preparing, organizing, and presenting 1-hour and 3-hour workshops on estimation in mathematics. It was designed to assist Technical Assistance Center staff members and other inservice providers in conducting successful workshops on estimation in mathematics for administrators,…
Advances in nanocrystallography as a proteomic tool.
Pechkova, Eugenia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nicolini, Claudio
2014-01-01
In order to overcome the difficulties and hurdles too much often encountered in crystallizing a protein with the conventional techniques, our group has introduced the innovative Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)-based crystallization, as a major advance in the field of both structural and functional proteomics, thus pioneering the emerging field of the so-called nanocrystallography or nanobiocrystallography. This approach uniquely combines protein crystallography and nanotechnologies within an integrated, coherent framework that allows one to obtain highly stable protein crystals and to fully characterize them at a nano- and subnanoscale. A variety of experimental techniques and theoretical/semi-theoretical approaches, ranging from atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, Raman spectroscopy and other spectroscopic methods, microbeam grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering to in silico simulations, bioinformatics, and molecular dynamics, has been exploited in order to study the LB-films and to investigate the kinetics and the main features of LB-grown crystals. When compared to classical hanging-drop crystallization, LB technique appears strikingly superior and yields results comparable with crystallization in microgravity environments. Therefore, the achievement of LB-based crystallography can have a tremendous impact in the field of industrial and clinical/therapeutic applications, opening new perspectives for personalized medicine. These implications are envisaged and discussed in the present contribution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lew, Kristen; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy Patrick; Mejía-Ramos , Juan Pablo; Weber, Keith
2016-01-01
We describe a case study in which we investigate the effectiveness of a lecture in advanced mathematics. We first videorecorded a lecture delivered by an experienced professor who had a reputation for being an outstanding instructor. Using video recall, we then interviewed the professor to determine the ideas that he intended to convey and how he…
Advanced tool kits for EPR security.
Blobel, B
2000-11-01
Responding to the challenge for efficient and high quality health care, the shared care paradigm must be established in health. In that context, information systems such as electronic patient records (EPR) have to meet this paradigm supporting communication and interoperation between the health care establishments (HCE) and health professionals (HP) involved. Due to the sensitivity of personal medical information, this co-operation must be provided in a trustworthy way. To enable different views of HCE and HP ranging from management, doctors, nurses up to systems administrators and IT professionals, a set of models for analysis, design and implementation of secure distributed EPR has been developed and introduced. The approach is based on the popular UML methodology and the component paradigm for open, interoperable systems. Easy to use tool kits deal with both application security services and communication security services but also with the security infrastructure needed. Regarding the requirements for distributed multi-user EPRs, modelling and implementation of policy agreements, authorisation and access control are especially considered. Current developments for a security infrastructure in health care based on cryptographic algorithms as health professional cards (HPC), security services employing digital signatures, and health-related TTP services are discussed. CEN and ISO initiatives for health informatics standards in the context of secure and communicable EPR are especially mentioned. PMID:11154968
Advanced CAN (Controller Area Network) Tool
Terry, D.J.
2000-03-17
The CAN interface cards that are currently in use are PCMCIA based and use a microprocessor and CAN chip that are no longer in production. The long-term support of the SGT CAN interface is of concern due to this issue along with performance inadequacies and technical support. The CAN bus is at the heart of the SGT trailer. If the CAN bus in the SGT trailer cannot be maintained adequately, then the trailer itself cannot be maintained adequately. These concerns led to the need for a CRADA to help develop a new product that would be called the ''Gryphon'' CAN tool. FM and T provided manufacturing expertise along with design criteria to ensure SGT compatibility and long-term support. FM and T also provided resources for software support. Dearborn provided software and hardware design expertise to implement the necessary requirements. Both partners worked around heavy internal workloads to support completion of the project. This CRADA establishes a US source for an item that is very critical to support the SGT project. The Dearborn Group had the same goal to provide a US alternative to German suppliers. The Dearborn Group was also interested in developing a CAN product that has performance characteristics that place the Gryphon in a class by itself. This enhanced product not only meets and exceeds SGT requirements; it has opened up options that were not even considered before the project began. The cost of the product is also less than the European options.
Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park
2013-01-01
We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fiero, Diane M.
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Rick
2006-01-01
The focus of this paper is a group of rural high school students and the factors that contributed to their participation in mathematics classes beyond those minimally required for high school graduation. The author follows Gutierrez (2002) in referring to participation as course taking, particularly in elective and advanced mathematics classes.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nabb, Keith A.
2013-01-01
The research literature has made calls for greater coherence and consistency with regard to the meaning and use of the term advanced mathematical thinking (AMT) in mathematics education (Artigue, Batanero, & Kent, 2007; Selden & Selden, 2005). Educators and researchers agree that students should be engaged in AMT but it is unclear…
Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.
Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas
2016-05-01
The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124
Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians
Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas
2016-01-01
The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit. PMID:27071124
Origins of the brain networks for advanced mathematics in expert mathematicians.
Amalric, Marie; Dehaene, Stanislas
2016-05-01
The origins of human abilities for mathematics are debated: Some theories suggest that they are founded upon evolutionarily ancient brain circuits for number and space and others that they are grounded in language competence. To evaluate what brain systems underlie higher mathematics, we scanned professional mathematicians and mathematically naive subjects of equal academic standing as they evaluated the truth of advanced mathematical and nonmathematical statements. In professional mathematicians only, mathematical statements, whether in algebra, analysis, topology or geometry, activated a reproducible set of bilateral frontal, Intraparietal, and ventrolateral temporal regions. Crucially, these activations spared areas related to language and to general-knowledge semantics. Rather, mathematical judgments were related to an amplification of brain activity at sites that are activated by numbers and formulas in nonmathematicians, with a corresponding reduction in nearby face responses. The evidence suggests that high-level mathematical expertise and basic number sense share common roots in a nonlinguistic brain circuit.
A Survey of Advanced Mathematics Topics: A New High School Mathematics Class
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bellomo, Carryn; Strapp, Remy
2008-01-01
The number of students pursuing undergraduate degrees in mathematics is decreasing. Research reveals students who pursue mathematics majors complained about inadequate high school preparation in terms of disciplinary content or depth, conceptual grasp, or study skills. Unfortunately, the decrease in the number of students studying advanced…
Macromedia Flash as a Tool for Mathematics Teaching and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garofalo, Joe; Summers, Tim
2004-01-01
Macromedia Flash is a powerful and robust development tool. Because of its graphical, sound, and animation capabilities (and ubiquitous browser plug-in), major companies employ it in their website development (see www.nike.com or www.espn.com). These same features also make Flash a valuable environment for building multi-representational "movies"…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorev, Dvora; Gurevich-Leibman, Irina
2015-07-01
This paper presents our experience of integrating technological tools into our mathematics teaching (in both disciplinary and didactic courses) for student-teachers. In the first cycle of our study, a variety of technological tools were used (e.g., dynamic software, hypertexts, video and applets) in teaching two disciplinary mathematics courses. We found that the tool most preferred by the students was dynamic software, while the applets were almost neglected. In the next cycle, we focused on using various applets in both disciplinary and didactic mathematics courses. We found that if the assignments were applet-oriented, i.e., adjusted to the chosen applet, or vice versa - the applet was chosen appropriately to suit the given assignment - then the students were able to make use of applets in an effective way. Furthermore, the students came to see the potential of applets for improving learning.
Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics
Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.
2008-06-11
This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.
Advanced Mathematics. Training Module 1.303.3.77.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.
This document is an instructional module prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with mathematics as applied to water and wastewater treatment plant operation. Included are objectives, instructor guides and student handouts. This is the third level of a three module series and is concerned with statistics, total head, steady…
Block Scheduling and Advanced Placement Mathematics: When Tradition and Reform Collide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howard, Elizabeth
1997-01-01
This case study reflects block scheduling's effects on advanced-placement mathematics courses of one veteran teacher tracking personal progress since 1989. Block scheduling began in 1994, creating problems for the teacher, whose resistance to the reform was based on declining advanced-placement scores. Teacher attitude and insufficient…
The Influence of Applied STEM Coursetaking on Advanced Mathematics and Science Coursetaking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gottfried, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Advanced mathematics and science course taking is critical in building the foundation for students to advance through the STEM pathway-from high school to college to career. To invigorate students' persistence in STEM fields, high schools have been introducing applied STEM courses into the curriculum as a way to reinforce concepts learned in…
Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education: Advanced Designs for Technologies of Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobson, Michael J., Ed.; Kozma, Robert B., Ed.
This collection of essays consists of current work that addresses the challenge not just to put the newest technologies in schools, but to identify advanced ways to design and use these new technologies to advance learning. These essays are intended for science and mathematics educators, educational and cognitive researchers, instructional…
Using the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics with Gifted and Advanced Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.; Sheffield, Linda J., Ed.
2012-01-01
"Using the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics With Gifted and Advanced Learners" provides teachers and administrators examples and strategies to implement the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) with advanced learners at all stages of development in K-12 schools. The book describes--and demonstrates with specific examples from the…
Mathematical Methods in Counterterrorism: Tools and Techniques for a New Challenge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hicks, David L.; Memon, Nasrullah; Farley, Jonathan D.; Rosenørn, Torben
Throughout the years mathematics has served as the most basic and fundamental tool employed by scientists and researchers to study and describe a wide variety of fields and phenomena. One of the most important practical application areas of mathematics has been for national defense and security purposes. For example, during the Second World War, the mathematical principles underlying game theory and cryptography played a very important role in military planning. Since that time, it has become clear that mathematics has an important role to play in securing victory in any global conflict, including the struggle faced by national security and law enforcement officials in the fight against those engaged in terrorism and other illicit activities.
Exploring the Impact of Web-Based Learning Tools in Middle School Mathematics and Science Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kay, Robin
2011-01-01
This study examines the impact of Web-Based Learning Tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, in middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Survey, qualitative, and student performance data were collected from a sample of 18 teachers and 443 students. Teachers were very positive about the learning benefits, quality of WBLTs, and…
Webbing and Orchestration. Two Interrelated Views on Digital Tools in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trouche, Luc; Drijvers, Paul
2014-01-01
The integration of digital tools in mathematics education is considered both promising and problematic. To deal with this issue, notions of "webbing" and "instrumental orchestration" are developed. However, the two seemed to be disconnected, and having different cultural and theoretical roots. In this article, we investigate…
Sella, Francesco; Sader, Elie; Lolliot, Simon; Cohen Kadosh, Roi
2016-09-01
Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic number line task, which required mapping positive and negative numbers on a physical horizontal line, and has been shown to correlate with more advanced numerical abilities and mathematical achievement. We found that mathematicians were more accurate compared with nonmathematicians when mapping positive, but not negative numbers, which are considered numerical primitives and cultural artifacts, respectively. Moreover, performance on positive number mapping could predict whether one is a mathematician or not, and was mediated by more advanced mathematical skills. This finding might suggest a link between basic and advanced mathematical skills. However, when we included visuospatial skills, as measured by block design subtest, the mediation analysis revealed that the relation between the performance in the number line task and the group membership was explained by non-numerical visuospatial skills. These results demonstrate that relation between basic, even specific, numerical skills and advanced mathematical achievement can be artifactual and explained by visuospatial processing. (PsycINFO Database Record
2016-01-01
Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic number line task, which required mapping positive and negative numbers on a physical horizontal line, and has been shown to correlate with more advanced numerical abilities and mathematical achievement. We found that mathematicians were more accurate compared with nonmathematicians when mapping positive, but not negative numbers, which are considered numerical primitives and cultural artifacts, respectively. Moreover, performance on positive number mapping could predict whether one is a mathematician or not, and was mediated by more advanced mathematical skills. This finding might suggest a link between basic and advanced mathematical skills. However, when we included visuospatial skills, as measured by block design subtest, the mediation analysis revealed that the relation between the performance in the number line task and the group membership was explained by non-numerical visuospatial skills. These results demonstrate that relation between basic, even specific, numerical skills and advanced mathematical achievement can be artifactual and explained by visuospatial processing. PMID:26913930
Sella, Francesco; Sader, Elie; Lolliot, Simon; Cohen Kadosh, Roi
2016-09-01
Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic number line task, which required mapping positive and negative numbers on a physical horizontal line, and has been shown to correlate with more advanced numerical abilities and mathematical achievement. We found that mathematicians were more accurate compared with nonmathematicians when mapping positive, but not negative numbers, which are considered numerical primitives and cultural artifacts, respectively. Moreover, performance on positive number mapping could predict whether one is a mathematician or not, and was mediated by more advanced mathematical skills. This finding might suggest a link between basic and advanced mathematical skills. However, when we included visuospatial skills, as measured by block design subtest, the mediation analysis revealed that the relation between the performance in the number line task and the group membership was explained by non-numerical visuospatial skills. These results demonstrate that relation between basic, even specific, numerical skills and advanced mathematical achievement can be artifactual and explained by visuospatial processing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913930
Motion sensors in mathematics teaching: learning tools for understanding general math concepts?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urban-Woldron, Hildegard
2015-05-01
Incorporating technology tools into the mathematics classroom adds a new dimension to the teaching of mathematics concepts and establishes a whole new approach to mathematics learning. In particular, gathering data in a hands-on and real-time method helps classrooms coming alive. The focus of this paper is on bringing forward important mathematics concepts such as functions and rate of change with the motion detector. Findings from the author's studies suggest that the motion detector can be introduced from a very early age and used to enliven classes at any level. Using real-world data to present the main functions invites an experimental approach to mathematics and encourages students to engage actively in their learning. By emphasizing learning experiences with computer-based motion detectors and aiming to involve students in mathematical representations of real-world phenomena, six learning activities, which were developed in previous research studies, will be presented. Students use motion sensors to collect physical data that are graphed in real time and then manipulate and analyse them. Because data are presented in an immediately understandable graphical form, students are allowed to take an active role in their learning by constructing mathematical knowledge from observation of the physical world. By utilizing a predict-observe-explain format, students learn about slope, determining slope and distance vs. time graphs through motion-filled activities. Furthermore, exploring the meaning of slope, viewed as the rate of change, students acquire competencies for reading, understanding and interpreting kinematics graphs involving a multitude of mathematical representations. Consequently, the students are empowered to efficiently move among tabular, graphical and symbolic representation to analyse patterns and discover the relationships between different representations of motion. In fact, there is a need for further research to explore how mathematics teachers
Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.
2005-01-01
The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogness, Jonathan
2011-01-01
Advances in computer graphics have provided mathematicians with the ability to create stunning visualizations, both to gain insight and to help demonstrate the beauty of mathematics to others. As educators these tools can be particularly important as we search for ways to work with students raised with constant visual stimulation, from video games…
Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy
2007-01-01
Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was
Advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis
Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Protopopescu, V.A.
1996-06-01
The global objective of this effort is to develop advanced computational tools for 3-D seismic analysis, and test the products using a model dataset developed under the joint aegis of the United States` Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the European Association of Exploration Geophysicists (EAEG). The goal is to enhance the value to the oil industry of the SEG/EAEG modeling project, carried out with US Department of Energy (DOE) funding in FY` 93-95. The primary objective of the ORNL Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is to spearhead the computational innovations techniques that would enable a revolutionary advance in 3-D seismic analysis. The CESAR effort is carried out in collaboration with world-class domain experts from leading universities, and in close coordination with other national laboratories and oil industry partners.
Evaluation of reliability modeling tools for advanced fault tolerant systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Robert; Scheper, Charlotte
1986-01-01
The Computer Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) and Automated Reliability Interactice Estimation System (ARIES 82) reliability tools for application to advanced fault tolerance aerospace systems were evaluated. To determine reliability modeling requirements, the evaluation focused on the Draper Laboratories' Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) architecture as an example architecture for fault tolerance aerospace systems. Advantages and limitations were identified for each reliability evaluation tool. The CARE III program was designed primarily for analyzing ultrareliable flight control systems. The ARIES 82 program's primary use was to support university research and teaching. Both CARE III and ARIES 82 were not suited for determining the reliability of complex nodal networks of the type used to interconnect processing sites in the AIPS architecture. It was concluded that ARIES was not suitable for modeling advanced fault tolerant systems. It was further concluded that subject to some limitations (the difficulty in modeling systems with unpowered spare modules, systems where equipment maintenance must be considered, systems where failure depends on the sequence in which faults occurred, and systems where multiple faults greater than a double near coincident faults must be considered), CARE III is best suited for evaluating the reliability of advanced tolerant systems for air transport.
Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris
2009-01-01
Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.
Advanced Placement Mathematics Calculus, Grade 12 Curriculum Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scharf, John; And Others
This document is a guide to the advanced placement program in calculus for grade 12 in the city schools in Warren, Ohio. The program covers analytic geometry, differential and integral calculus of algebraic functions, elementary transcendental functions, and applications of differentiation and integration. The philosophy and aims of the program…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grinstead, Mary L.
2013-01-01
This study explores the relationship between specific advanced mathematics courses and college readiness (as determined by ACT score). The ACT organization has found a consistent relationship between taking a minimum core number of mathematics courses and higher ACT scores (mathematics and composite) (ACT, Inc., 2012c). However, the extent to…
Mathematics Problem Solving: A More Advanced Skill for Chapter 1. Workshop Leader's Guide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Advanced Technology, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.
This guide is designed to assist inservice providers in conducting successful workshops for teachers, administrators, and others associated with Chapter 1 mathematics programs. It contains step-by-step procedures for preparing, organizing, and presenting the workshop. Included in this guide are: (1) an advanced planner, which includes a detailed…
Student Learning in Linear Algebra: The Gateways To Advance Mathematical Thinking Project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manes, Michelle
This document provides a preliminary report of the study Gateways To Advance Mathematical Thinking (GAMT) run by Educational Development Center, Inc. (EDC). The study was designed to see what types of reasoning students who have recently completed a linear algebra course apply to problems in algebraic thinking. Student interviews were used as the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Cinda-Sue; And Others
This volume includes 10 reports that present findings and recommendations for advancing women in science, mathematics and engineering. Critical issues facing women in these disciplines are addressed, including demographic myths and realities at various educational levels; the educational pipeline for girls and women; involvement in education and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DePountis, Vicki M.; Pogrund, Rona L.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Lan, William Y.
2015-01-01
This research examined the perspectives of teachers of students with visual impairments (TVIs) regarding the use and effectiveness of electronic assistive technology (EAT) purported to assist students who are blind in advanced mathematics subjects. The data for this study were collected via an online survey distributed to a convenience sample of…
Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications
Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor
2012-05-31
Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) present higher efficiency, larger production rate, and can be operated in deeper wells than the other geothermal artificial lifting systems. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) applications recommend lifting 300 C geothermal water at 80kg/s flow rate in a maximum 10-5/8-inch diameter wellbore to improve the cost-effectiveness. In this paper, an advanced ESP design tool comprising a 1D theoretical model and a 3D CFD analysis has been developed to design ESPs for geothermal applications. Design of Experiments was also performed to optimize the geometry and performance. The designed mixed-flow type centrifugal impeller and diffuser exhibit high efficiency and head rise under simulated EGS conditions. The design tool has been validated by comparing the prediction to experimental data of an existing ESP product.
Advances in Mass Spectrometric Tools for Probing Neuropeptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchberger, Amanda; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun
2015-07-01
Neuropeptides are important mediators in the functionality of the brain and other neurological organs. Because neuropeptides exist in a wide range of concentrations, appropriate characterization methods are needed to provide dynamic, chemical, and spatial information. Mass spectrometry and compatible tools have been a popular choice in analyzing neuropeptides. There have been several advances and challenges, both of which are the focus of this review. Discussions range from sample collection to bioinformatic tools, although avenues such as quantitation and imaging are included. Further development of the presented methods for neuropeptidomic mass spectrometric analysis is inevitable, which will lead to a further understanding of the complex interplay of neuropeptides and other signaling molecules in the nervous system.
Constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael; Podolak, Ester; Mckay, Christopher
1990-01-01
Scientific model building can be an intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot be easily distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. In this paper, we describe a prototype for a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities. Our prototype has been developed in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling, and is being used to construct models of Titan's atmosphere.
Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong
2010-12-01
With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling
Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong
2011-05-01
With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling
Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Sawyer D.; Nagar, Jogender; Brocker, Donovan E.; Easum, John A.; Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Werner, Douglas H.
2016-05-01
GRadient-INdex (GRIN) lenses have long been of interest due to their potential for providing levels of performance unachievable with traditional homogeneous lenses. While historically limited by a lack of suitable materials, rapid advancements in manufacturing techniques, including 3D printing, have recently kindled a renewed interest in GRIN optics. Further increasing the desire for GRIN devices has been the advent of Transformation Optics (TO), which provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. Meanwhile, there is a critical lack of suitable design tools which can effectively evaluate the optical wave propagation through 3D GRIN profiles produced by TO. Current modeling software packages for optical lens systems also lack advanced multi-objective global optimization capability which allows the user to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as focus quality, FOV, ▵nand focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. When coupled with advanced design methodologies such as TO, wavefront matching (WFM), and analytical achromatic GRIN theory, these tools provide a powerful framework for maximizing SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) reduction in GRIN-enabled optical systems. We provide an overview of our advanced GRIN design tools and examples which minimize the presence of mono- and polychromatic aberrations in the context of reducing SWaP.
Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus
2015-09-01
Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.
Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.
Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus
2015-09-15
Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.
Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science
Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus
2015-01-01
Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627
Advanced Reach Tool (ART): development of the mechanistic model.
Fransman, Wouter; Van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Tischer, Martin; Schneider, Thomas; Schinkel, Jody; Kromhout, Hans; Warren, Nick; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik
2011-11-01
This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe. The ART mechanistic model is based on a conceptual framework that adopts a source receptor approach, which describes the transport of a contaminant from the source to the receptor and defines seven independent principal modifying factors: substance emission potential, activity emission potential, localized controls, segregation, personal enclosure, surface contamination, and dispersion. ART currently differentiates between three different exposure types: vapours, mists, and dust (fumes, fibres, and gases are presently excluded). Various sources were used to assign numerical values to the multipliers to each modifying factor. The evidence used to underpin this assessment procedure was based on chemical and physical laws. In addition, empirical data obtained from literature were used. Where this was not possible, expert elicitation was applied for the assessment procedure. Multipliers for all modifying factors were peer reviewed by leading experts from industry, research institutes, and public authorities across the globe. In addition, several workshops with experts were organized to discuss the proposed exposure multipliers. The mechanistic model is a central part of the ART tool and with advancing knowledge on exposure, determinants will require updates and refinements on a continuous basis, such as the effect of worker behaviour on personal exposure, 'best practice' values that describe the maximum achievable effectiveness of control measures, the intrinsic emission potential of various solid objects (e.g. metal, glass, plastics, etc.), and extending the applicability domain to certain types of exposures (e.g. gas, fume, and fibre exposure).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Wilhelmi, Miguel R.; Lurduy, Orlando
2011-01-01
The semiotic approach to mathematics education introduces the notion of "semiotic system" as a tool to describe mathematical activity. The semiotic system is formed by the set of signs, the production rules of signs and the underlying meaning structures. In this paper, we present the notions of system of practices and configuration of objects and…
An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations
Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.
2010-01-31
Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.
Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care
Lecroq, T.
2015-01-01
Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their
Clinical holistic health: advanced tools for holistic medicine.
Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, May Lyck; Merrick, Joav
2006-02-24
According to holistic medical theory, the patient will heal when old painful moments, the traumatic events of life that are often called "gestalts", are integrated in the present "now". The advanced holistic physician's expanded toolbox has many different tools to induce this healing, some that are more dangerous and potentially traumatic than others. The more intense the therapeutic technique, the more emotional energy will be released and contained in the session, but the higher also is the risk for the therapist to lose control of the session and lose the patient to his or her own dark side. To avoid harming the patient must be the highest priority in holistic existential therapy, making sufficient education and training an issue of highest importance. The concept of "stepping up" the therapy by using more and more "dramatic" methods to get access to repressed emotions and events has led us to a "therapeutic staircase" with ten steps: (1) establishing the relationship; (2) establishing intimacy, trust, and confidentiality; (3) giving support and holding; (4) taking the patient into the process of physical, emotional, and mental healing; (5) social healing of being in the family; (6) spiritual healing--returning to the abstract wholeness of the soul; (7) healing the informational layer of the body; (8) healing the three fundamental dimensions of existence: love, power, and sexuality in a direct way using, among other techniques, "controlled violence" and "acupressure through the vagina"; (9) mind-expanding and consciousness-transformative techniques like psychotropic drugs; and (10) techniques transgressing the patient's borders and, therefore, often traumatizing (for instance, the use of force against the will of the patient). We believe that the systematic use of the staircase will greatly improve the power and efficiency of holistic medicine for the patient and we invite a broad cooperation in scientifically testing the efficiency of the advanced holistic
Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0
2002-06-13
Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the processmore » of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.« less
Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, John C.
2005-01-01
This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.
Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.
2005-01-01
Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.
Tools for the advancement of undergraduate statistics education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaffner, Andrew Alan
To keep pace with advances in applied statistics and to maintain literate consumers of quantitative analyses, statistics educators stress the need for change in the classroom (Cobb, 1992; Garfield, 1993, 1995; Moore, 1991a; Snee, 1993; Steinhorst and Keeler, 1995). These authors stress a more concept oriented undergraduate introductory statistics course which emphasizes true understanding over mechanical skills. Drawing on recent educational research, this dissertation attempts to realize this vision by developing tools and pedagogy to assist statistics instructors. This dissertation describes statistical facets, pieces of statistical understanding that are building blocks of knowledge, and discusses DIANA, a World-Wide Web tool for diagnosing facets. Further, I show how facets may be incorporated into course design through the development of benchmark lessons based on the principles of collaborative learning (diSessa and Minstrell, 1995; Cohen, 1994; Reynolds et al., 1995; Bruer, 1993; von Glasersfeld, 1991) and activity based courses (Jones, 1991; Yackel, Cobb and Wood, 1991). To support benchmark lessons and collaborative learning in large classes I describe Virtual Benchmark Instruction, benchmark lessons which take place on a structured hypertext bulletin board using the technology of the World-Wide Web. Finally, I present randomized experiments which suggest that these educational developments are effective in a university introductory statistics course.
Advanced REACH Tool: a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment.
McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik
2014-06-01
This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110
Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5
Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda
2010-01-19
The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.
Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5
2010-01-19
The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external tomore » Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine
2015-01-01
For decades, educators have advocated using history of mathematics in mathematics classrooms. Empirical research on the efficacy of this practice, however, is scarce. A quasi-experiment was used to investigate the effects of using history as a tool to teach mathematics on grade 11 students' mathematics achievement. Effects in three affective…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peak, David J.
2010-01-01
Improving student achievement in mathematics in secondary schools remains a priority for public education in our country. With continued federal and state mandates to improve overall student achievement in mathematics, as well as to close the achievement gap, many school districts have sought programs, such as Advancement Via Individual…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Githua, Bernard N.; Nyabwa, Rachel Angela
2008-01-01
Students have continued to perform poorly in KCSE examinations in certain mathematics topics taught in secondary schools in Kenya. One such topic is commercial arithmetic. Successful teaching of mathematics depends partly on correct use of teaching methods in classroom settings. This study sought to examine how the use of advance organisers during…
Schissel, D.P.
1996-08-01
This report discusses advancing precollege science and mathematics education in San Diego Count. Described in this report are: curriculum and teacher development; pre-tour material; facility tour; student workbook; evaluation and assessment; and internet access.
Querator: an advanced multi-archive data mining tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierfederici, Francesco
2001-11-01
In recent years, the operation of large telescopes with wide field detectors - such as the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the 2.2 meters telescope at La Silla, Chile - have dramatically increased the amount of astronomical data produced each year. The next survey telescopes, such as the ESO VST, will continue on this trend, producing extremely large datasets. Astronomy, therefore, has become an incredibly data rich field requiring new tools and new strategies to efficiently handle huge archives and fully exploit their scientific content. At the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility we are working on a new project, code named Querator (http://archive.eso.org/querator/). Querator is an advanced multi-archive search engine built to address the needs of astronomers looking for multicolor imaging data across different astronomical data-centers. Querator returns sets of images of a given astronomical object or search region. A set contains exposures in a number of different wave bands. The user constraints the number of desired wave bands by selecting from a set of instruments, filters or by specifying actual physical units. As far as present-day data-centers are concerned, Querator points out the need for: - an uniform and standard description of archival data and - an uniform and standard description of how the data was acquired (i.e. instrument and observation characteristics). Clearly, these pieces of information will constitute an intermediate layer between the data itself and the data mining tools operating on it. This layered structure is a prerequisite to real data-center inter-operability and, hence, to Virtual Observatories. A detailed description of Querator's design, of the required data structures, of the problems encountered so far and of the proposed solutions will be given in the following pages. Throughout this paper we'll favor the term data-center over archive to stress the need to look at raw-pixels' archives
DSA hole defectivity analysis using advanced optical inspection tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harukawa, Ryota; Aoki, Masami; Cross, Andrew; Nagaswami, Venkat; Tomita, Tadatoshi; Nagahara, Seiji; Muramatsu, Makoto; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Rathsack, Benjamen; Kitano, Takahiro; Sweis, Jason; Mokhberi, Ali
2013-04-01
This paper discusses the defect density detection and analysis methodology using advanced optical wafer inspection capability to enable accelerated development of a DSA process/process tools and the required inspection capability to monitor such a process. The defectivity inspection methodologies are optimized for grapho epitaxy directed self-assembly (DSA) contact holes with 25 nm sizes. A defect test reticle with programmed defects on guide patterns is designed for improved optimization of defectivity monitoring. Using this reticle, resist guide holes with a variety of sizes and shapes are patterned using an ArF immersion scanner. The negative tone development (NTD) type thermally stable resist guide is used for DSA of a polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP). Using a variety of defects intentionally made by changing guide pattern sizes, the detection rates of each specific defectivity type has been analyzed. It is found in this work that to maximize sensitivity, a two pass scan with bright field (BF) and dark field (DF) modes provides the best overall defect type coverage and sensitivity. The performance of the two pass scan with BF and DF modes is also revealed by defect analysis for baseline defectivity on a wafer processed with nominal process conditions.
Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.
Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S
2015-01-01
The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data. PMID:26513700
European regulatory tools for advanced therapy medicinal products.
Flory, Egbert; Reinhardt, Jens
2013-12-01
Increasing scientific knowledge and technical innovations in the areas of cell biology, biotechnology and medicine resulted in the development of promising therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) reflect a complex and innovative class of biopharmaceuticals as these products are highly research-driven, characterised by innovative manufacturing processes and heterogeneous with regard to their origin, type and complexity. This class of ATMP integrates gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineering products and are often individualized and patient-specific products. Multiple challenges arise from the nature of ATMPs, which are often developed by micro, small and medium sized enterprises, university and academia, for whom regulatory experiences are limited and regulatory requirements are challenging. Regulatory guidance such as the reflection paper on classification of ATMPs and guidelines highlighting product-specific issues support academic research groups and pharmaceutical companies to foster the development of safe and effective ATMPs. This review provides an overview on the European regulatory aspects of ATMPs and highlights specific regulatory tools such as the ATMP classification procedure, a discussion on the hospital exemption for selected ATMPs as well as borderline issues towards transplants/transfusion products.
Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.
Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S
2015-01-01
The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph
2016-04-01
The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of
Clinical Assessment in Mathematics: Learning the Craft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunting, Robert P.; Doig, Brian A.
1997-01-01
Discusses a professional development program called Clinical Approaches to Mathematics Assessment. Argues for the advanced training of mathematics teachers who understand knowledge construction processes of students; can use clinical tools for evaluating a student's unique mathematical "fingerprint"; and can create or adapt problems, tasks, or…
Cosmelli, Diego; Palacios, Adrián G
2007-01-01
Convergence of clinical, empirical, methodological and theoretical approaches aimed at understanding the relation between brain function and cognition, is by now standard in most if not all academic programs in the area of Cognitive Science. This confederation of disciplines is one of the liveliest domains of inquiry and discussion into some of the most fundamental--and historically resilient--questions human beings have posed themselves. The contributions gathered in this special issue of Biological Research, directly inspired by the ongoing work at the Instituto de Sistemas Complejos de Valparaiso and the December 2006 CONICYT-INSERM-SFI workshop "Networks in Cognitive Systems/Trends and Challenge in Biomedicine: From Cerebral Process to Mathematical Tools Design", Chile, represent an explicit invitation to the reader to dive deeper into this fascinating terrain.
Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies
David E. Shropshire
2009-05-01
The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from
Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe
2010-01-01
Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…
Not Available
1990-12-01
The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.
New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.
2013-12-01
To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalogeria, Elissavet; Kynigos, Chronis; Psycharis, Giorgos
2012-01-01
The present article reports a study concerning the analysis of 19 activity plans (we call them "scenarios") developed by mathematics teacher educators-in-training for the pedagogical use of digital tools. The development of these scenarios took place during their training program and was designed as an activity for increasing reflection, for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruthven, Kenneth; Hennessy, Sara
2002-01-01
Analyzes the pedagogical ideas underpinning teachers' accounts of the successful use of computer-based tools and resources to support the teaching and learning of mathematics. Organizes central themes to form a pedagogical model capable of informing the use of such technologies in classroom teaching and generating theoretical conjectures for…
Student Teachers' Mathematics Attitudes, Authentic Investigations and Use of Metacognitive Tools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Afamasaga-Fuata'i, Karoline; Sooaemalelagi, Lumaava
2014-01-01
Based on findings from a semester-long study, this article examines the development of Samoan prospective teachers' mathematical understandings and mathematics attitudes when investigating authentic contexts and applying working mathematically processes, mental computations and problem-solving strategies to find solutions of problems. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seltman, Muriel; Seltman, P. E. J.
1978-01-01
The authors stress the importance of bringing together the causal logic of history and the formal logic of mathematics in order to humanize mathematics and make it more accessible. An example of such treatment is given in a discussion of the centrality of Euclid and the Euclidean system to mathematics development. (MN)
Using Diagrams as Tools for the Solution of Non-Routine Mathematical Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pantziara, Marilena; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada
2009-01-01
The Mathematics education community has long recognized the importance of diagrams in the solution of mathematical problems. Particularly, it is stated that diagrams facilitate the solution of mathematical problems because they represent problems' structure and information (Novick & Hurley, 2001; Diezmann, 2005). Novick and Hurley were the first…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hadjerrouit, Said
2015-01-01
This research study aims at evaluating the suitability of SimReal+ for effective use in teacher education. SimReal+ was originally developed to teach mathematics in universities, but it is has been recently improved to include school mathematics. The basic idea of SimReal+ is that the visualization of mathematical concepts is a powerful technique…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McDonald, Harry E.
2010-01-01
The United States ranking among the world in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is decreasing. To counteract this problem NASA has made it part of its mission to promote STEM education among the nation s youth. Mockups can serve as a great tool when promoting STEM education in America. The Orion Cockpit Working Group has created a new program called Students Shaping America s Next Space Craft (SSANS) to outfit the Medium Fidelity Orion Mockup. SSANS will challenge the students to come up with unique designs to represent the flight design hardware. There are two main types of project packages created by SSANS, those for high school students and those for university students. The high school projects will challenge wood shop, metal shop and pre-engineering classes. The university projects are created mainly for senior design projects and will require the students to perform finite element analysis. These projects will also challenge the undergraduate students in material selection and safety requirements. The SSANS program will help NASA in its mission to promote STEM education, and will help to shape our nations youth into the next generation of STEM leaders.
Advances and computational tools towards predictable design in biological engineering.
Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna
2014-01-01
The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated.
Mathematical Modeling of Food Supply for Long Term Space Missions Using Advanced Life Support
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruthirds, John E.
2003-01-01
A habitat for long duration missions which utilizes Advanced Life Support (ALS), the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex), is currently being built at JSC. In this system all consumables will be recycled and reused. In support of this effort, a menu is being planned utilizing ALS crops that will meet nutritional and psychological requirements. The need exists in the food system to identify specific physical quantities that define life support systems from an analysis and modeling perspective. Once these quantities are defined, they need to be fed into a mathematical model that takes into consideration other systems in the BIO-Plex. This model, if successful, will be used to understand the impacts of changes in the food system on the other systems and vice versa. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been used to describe systems and subsystems, including the food system options, in terms of the single parameter, mass. There is concern that this approach might not adequately address the important issues of food quality and psychological impact on crew morale of a supply of fiesh food items. In fact, the mass of food can also depend on the quality of the food. This summer faculty fellow project will involve creating an appropriate mathematical model for the food plan developed by the Food Processing System for BIO-Plex. The desired outcome of this work will be a quantitative model that can be applied to the various options of supplying food on long-term space missions.
Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, James B.
2005-01-01
The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.
Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools
Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin
2009-04-01
This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.
Enhancing Mathematical Concepts through Leading Questions and Hand-Held Data Collection Tools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laughbaum, Edward D.
Hand-held data collection technology allows for access to real-world data collection--at any other time and almost any place. Is the use of data and its collection desirable to the mathematical learning process? The answer is a resounding yes! Not only can significant mathematical ideas be taught in the process; colleagues are also helped in the…
Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies
2014-01-01
Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica
2015-01-01
The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject…
Sociological Tools in the Study of Knowledge and Practice in Mathematics Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Diane; Adler, Jill
2014-01-01
In this paper, we put Basil Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse to work together with additional theoretical resources to interrogate knowledge and practice in mathematics teacher education. We illustrate this methodology through analysis of an instance of mathematics teacher education pedagogic practice. While the methodology itself is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Timothy P.; Tolson, Homer, Huang, Tse-Yang
2009-01-01
In this study an entering cohort of freshmen majors in mathematics and science at a land grant, research one institution was examined to first determine if a group of students who persisted in science and mathematics disciplines were different in terms of pre-college characteristics from a group of students who dropped with grade point averages…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zbiek, Rose Mary
1998-01-01
Explores the strategies used by prospective secondary mathematics teachers (N=13) to develop and validate functions as mathematical models of real-world situations. Uses a grounded hypothesis on strategy selection. Concludes that strategy choice was influenced by task characteristics and interactions with other student modelers. Contains 38…
Modelling of automotive fuel droplet heating and evaporation: mathematical tools and approximations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazhin, Sergei S.; Qubeissi, Mansour Al
2016-06-01
New mathematical tools and approximations developed for the analysis of automotive fuel droplet heating and evaporation are summarised. The approach to modelling biodiesel fuel droplets is based on the application of the Discrete Component Model (DCM), while the approach to modelling Diesel fuel droplets is based on the application of the recently developed multi-dimensional quasi-discrete model. In both cases, the models are applied in combination with the Effective Thermal Conductivity/Effective Diffusivity model and the implementation in the numerical code of the analytical solutions to heat transfer and species diffusion equations inside droplets. It is shown that the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component leads to under-prediction of droplet evaporation time by up to 13% which can be acceptable as a crude approximation in some applications. The composition of Diesel fuel was simplified and reduced to only 98 components. The approximation of 98 components of Diesel fuel with 15 quasi-components/components leads to under-prediction of droplet evaporation time by about 3% which is acceptable in most engineering applications. At the same time, the approximation of Diesel fuel by a single component and 20 alkane components leads to a decrease in the evaporation time by about 19%, compared with the case of approximation of Diesel fuel with 98 components. The approximation of Diesel fuel with a single alkane quasi-component (C14.763H31.526) leads to under-prediction of the evaporation time by about 35% which is not acceptable even for qualitative analysis of the process. In the case when n-dodecane is chosen as the single alkane component, the above-mentioned under-prediction increases to about 44%.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Sandra
2009-01-01
This article describes experiences from a professional development project designed to prepare in-service eighth-grade mathematics teachers to develop, explore, and advance technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) in the teaching and learning of Algebra I. This article describes the process of the participating teachers' mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DePountis, Vicki M.; Pogrund, Rona L.; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Lan, William Y.
2015-01-01
Introduction: This research examined the perspectives of teachers of students who are visually impaired regarding the use and effectiveness of high-tech assistive technology purported to assist visually impaired students in advanced mathematics. Methods: The data for this study were collected via a mixed-methods online survey distributed through…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roschelle, Jeremy; Shechtman, Nicole; Tatar, Deborah; Hegedus, Stephen; Hopkins, Bill; Empson, Susan; Knudsen, Jennifer; Gallagher, Lawrence P.
2010-01-01
The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasi-experiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. The studies evaluated the SimCalc approach, which integrates an interactive representational technology, paper curriculum,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scarborough, Jule Dee
2004-01-01
This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aneckstein, Laura; Baird, Andrea; Butler, Margaret; Chambers, David; Johnson, Wanda; Kraus, Rebecca; Mann, Eric; Trost, Tami; Zalokar, Nadja; Zieseniss, Mireille
This report focuses on the Office for Civil Rights' (OCR's) activities relating to Title IX and advanced mathematics, science, and technology education for girls. It examines some of the barriers and inequities that undermine girls' opportunities to choose college majors and enter careers in the advanced mathematics, science, and technology…
Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C
2010-08-01
Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making. PMID:20218764
Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C
2010-08-01
Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making.
Water quality management of aquifer recharge using advanced tools.
Lazarova, Valentina; Emsellem, Yves; Paille, Julie; Glucina, Karl; Gislette, Philippe
2011-01-01
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with recycled water or other alternative resources is one of the most rapidly growing techniques that is viewed as a necessity in water-short areas. In order to better control health and environmental effects of MAR, this paper presents two case studies demonstrating how to improve water quality, enable reliable tracing of injected water and better control and manage MAR operation in the case of indirect and direct aquifer recharge. Two water quality management strategies are illustrated on two full-scale case studies, including the results of the combination of non conventional and advanced technologies for water quality improvement, comprehensive sampling and monitoring programs including emerging pollutants, tracer studies using boron isotopes and integrative aquifer 3D GIS hydraulic and hydrodispersive modelling.
Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices
Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek
2012-12-01
Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry
Mathematical modeling as a tool for investigating cell cycle control networks.
Sible, Jill C; Tyson, John J
2007-02-01
Although not a traditional experimental "method," mathematical modeling can provide a powerful approach for investigating complex cell signaling networks, such as those that regulate the eukaryotic cell division cycle. We describe here one modeling approach based on expressing the rates of biochemical reactions in terms of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We discuss the steps and challenges in assigning numerical values to model parameters and the importance of experimental testing of a mathematical model. We illustrate this approach throughout with the simple and well-characterized example of mitotic cell cycles in frog egg extracts. To facilitate new modeling efforts, we describe several publicly available modeling environments, each with a collection of integrated programs for mathematical modeling. This review is intended to justify the place of mathematical modeling as a standard method for studying molecular regulatory networks and to guide the non-expert to initiate modeling projects in order to gain a systems-level perspective for complex control systems. PMID:17189866
AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT
Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.
2003-02-27
WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment
Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha
2016-05-01
A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:26856870
Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha
2016-05-01
A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.
Analyzing the Teaching of Advanced Mathematics Courses via the Enacted Example Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy Patrick; Newton, Charlene
2014-01-01
Examples are believed to be very important in developing conceptual understanding of mathematical ideas, useful both in mathematics research and instruction (Bills & Watson in "Educational Studies in Mathematics" 69:77-79, 2008; Mason & Watson, 2008; Bills & Tall, 1998; Tall & Vinner, 1981). In this study, we draw on the…
Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy: An advanced characterization tool for magnetic nanosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitin, D.; Grobis, M.; Albrecht, M.
2016-02-01
An advanced scanning magnetoresistive microscopy (SMRM) — a robust magnetic imaging and probing technique — will be presented, which utilizes state-of-the-art recording heads of a hard disk drive as sensors. The spatial resolution of modern tunneling magnetoresistive sensors is nowadays comparable to the more commonly used magnetic force microscopes. Important advantages of SMRM are the ability to detect pure magnetic signals directly proportional to the out-of-plane magnetic stray field, negligible sensor stray fields, and the ability to apply local bipolar magnetic field pulses up to 10 kOe with bandwidths from DC up to 1 GHz. Moreover, the SMRM can be further equipped with a heating stage and external magnetic field units. The performance of this method and corresponding best practices are demonstrated by presenting various examples, including a temperature dependent recording study on hard magnetic L10 FeCuPt thin films, imaging of magnetic vortex states in an in-plane magnetic field, and their controlled manipulation by applying local field pulses.
Scanning magnetoresistive microscopy: An advanced characterization tool for magnetic nanosystems.
Mitin, D; Grobis, M; Albrecht, M
2016-02-01
An advanced scanning magnetoresistive microscopy (SMRM) - a robust magnetic imaging and probing technique - will be presented, which utilizes state-of-the-art recording heads of a hard disk drive as sensors. The spatial resolution of modern tunneling magnetoresistive sensors is nowadays comparable to the more commonly used magnetic force microscopes. Important advantages of SMRM are the ability to detect pure magnetic signals directly proportional to the out-of-plane magnetic stray field, negligible sensor stray fields, and the ability to apply local bipolar magnetic field pulses up to 10 kOe with bandwidths from DC up to 1 GHz. Moreover, the SMRM can be further equipped with a heating stage and external magnetic field units. The performance of this method and corresponding best practices are demonstrated by presenting various examples, including a temperature dependent recording study on hard magnetic L1(0) FeCuPt thin films, imaging of magnetic vortex states in an in-plane magnetic field, and their controlled manipulation by applying local field pulses. PMID:26931856
Advanced Flow Control as a Management Tool in the National Airspace System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wugalter, S.
1974-01-01
Advanced Flow Control is closely related to Air Traffic Control. Air Traffic Control is the business of the Federal Aviation Administration. To formulate an understanding of advanced flow control and its use as a management tool in the National Airspace System, it becomes necessary to speak somewhat of air traffic control, the role of FAA, and their relationship to advanced flow control. Also, this should dispell forever, any notion that advanced flow control is the inspirational master valve scheme to be used on the Alaskan Oil Pipeline.
Advanced tools for astronomical time series and image analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scargle, Jeffrey D.
The algorithms described here, which I have developed for applications in X-ray and γ-ray astronomy, will hopefully be of use in other ways, perhaps aiding in the exploration of modern astronomy's data cornucopia. The goal is to describe principled approaches to some ubiquitous problems, such as detection and characterization of periodic and aperiodic signals, estimation of time delays between multiple time series, and source detection in noisy images with noisy backgrounds. The latter problem is related to detection of clusters in data spaces of various dimensions. A goal of this work is to achieve a unifying view of several related topics: signal detection and characterization, cluster identification, classification, density estimation, and multivariate regression. In addition to being useful for analysis of data from space-based and ground-based missions, these algorithms may be a basis for a future automatic science discovery facility, and in turn provide analysis tools for the Virtual Observatory. This chapter has ties to those by Larry Bretthorst, Tom Loredo, Alanna Connors, Fionn Murtagh, Jim Berger, David van Dyk, Vicent Martinez & Enn Saar.
Advancing alternate tools: why science education needs CRP and CRT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodo Seriki, Vanessa
2016-09-01
Ridgeway and Yerrick's paper, Whose banner are we waving?: exploring STEM partnerships for marginalized urban youth, unearthed the tensions that existed between a local community "expert" and a group of students and their facilitator in an afterschool program. Those of us who work with youth who are traditionally marginalized, understand the importance of teaching in culturally relevant ways, but far too often—as Ridgeway and Yerrick shared—community partners have beliefs, motives, and ideologies that are incompatible to the program's mission and goals. Nevertheless, we often enter partnerships assuming that the other party understands the needs of the students or community; understands how in U.S. society White is normative while all others are deficient; and understands how to engage with students in culturally relevant ways. This forum addresses the underlying assumption, described in the Ridgeway and Yerrick article, that educators—despite their background and experiences—are able to teach in culturally relevant ways. Additionally, I assert based on the finding in the article that just as Ladson-Billings and Tate (Teach Coll Rec 97(1):47-68, 1995) asserted, race in the U.S. society, as a scholarly pursuit, was under theorized. The same is true of science education; race in science education is under theorized and the use of culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory as a pedagogical model and analytical tool, respectively, in science education is minimal. The increased use of both would impact our understanding of who does science, and how to broaden participation among people of color.
Teaching Advanced Data Analysis Tools to High School Astronomy Students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.
2015-01-01
A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Pandey, A. K.; Patnaik, R.
2014-01-01
The present paper envisages the application of mathematical modelling with the autoregressive (AR) model method as a tool to analyze electroencephalogram data in rat subjects of transient focal cerebral ischemia. This modelling method was used to determine the frequencies and characteristic changes in brain waveforms which occur as a result of disorders or fluctuating physiological states. This method of analysis was utilized to ensure actual correlation of the different mathematical paradigms. The EEG data was obtained from different regions of the rat brain and was modelled by AR method in a MATLAB platform. AR modelling was utilized to study the long-term functional outcomes of a stroke and also is preferable for EEG signal analysis because the signals consist of discrete frequency intervals. Modern spectral analysis, namely AR spectrum analysis, was used to correlate the conditional and prevalent changes in brain function in response to a stroke.
Sparks, Donald
2014-09-02
Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Christopher
2010-01-01
This paper describes the author's attempt to design assignments that engage preservice elementary teachers in original mathematical thinking. In particular, the choice of integer operations as the focus of a structured writing assignment that takes students two weeks to complete is explained and justified. Exemplary student work is quoted.…
Mathematical Modeling as a Tool for Investigating Cell Cycle Control Networks
Sible, Jill C.; Tyson, John J.
2007-01-01
Although not a traditional experimental “method,” mathematical modeling can provide a powerful approach for investigating complex cell signaling networks, such as those that regulate the eukaryotic cell division cycle. We describe here one approach to modeling the cell cycle based on expressing the rates of biochemical reactions in terms of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We discuss the steps and challenges in assigning numerical values to model parameters and the importance of experimental testing of a mathematical model. We illustrate this approach throughout with the simple and well-characterized example of mitotic cell cycles in frog egg extracts. To facilitate new modeling efforts, we describe several publicly available modeling environments, each with a collection of integrated programs for mathematical modeling. This review is intended to justify the place of mathematical modeling as a standard method for studying molecular regulatory networks and to guide the non-expert to initiate modeling projects to gain a systems-level perspective for complex control systems such as those governing the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:17189866
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlsen, Martin
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to analyse how a kindergarten teacher orchestrated a mathematical activity involving a fairy tale. Taking a sociocultural perspective on learning and development, naturally occurring talk-in-interaction has been analysed in order to scrutinise the subtleties of the orchestration. The fairy tale "Goldilocks and the…
"Geomat.dk": Historical Instruments of Navigation--Used as Educational Tools in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jakobsen, Ivan Tafteberg; Matthiasen, Jesper
2016-01-01
This paper gives a short description of the scope and content of an educational project. The approach is to use historical navigational devices, such as sextants and cross staffs, to teach mathematics in secondary schools. By making collections of these devices available to teachers and bringing them into the class room a new approach to combine…
Assessment of the Assessment Tool: Analysis of Items in a Non-MCQ Mathematics Exam
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Rashid, Saima
2016-01-01
Assessment is one of the vital steps in the teaching and learning process. The reported action research examines the effectiveness of an assessment process and inspects the validity of exam questions used for the assessment purpose. The instructors of a college-level mathematics course studied questions used in the final exams during the academic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stupel, Moshe; Segal, Ruti; Oxman, Victor
2016-01-01
In this article, we present investigative tasks that concern loci, which integrate the use of dynamic geometry software (DGS) with mathematics for proving the obtained figures. Additional conditions were added to the loci: ellipse, parabola and circle, which result in the emergence of new loci, similar in form to the original loci. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suh, Jennifer
2010-01-01
The following study describes design research in an elementary school near the metropolitan D.C. area with a diverse student population. The goal of the project was to design tasks that leveraged technology and enhance the access to critical thinking in specific mathematical concepts: data analysis and probability. It highlights the opportunities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bature, Iliya Joseph; Atweh, Bill; Treagust, David
2016-01-01
Mathematics classrooms instruction in Nigeria secondary schools has been termed a major problem to both teachers and their students. Most classroom activities are teacher-centred with students as mere listeners and recipients of knowledge rather than being active initiators of their knowledge. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sella, Francesco; Sader, Elie; Lolliot, Simon; Cohen Kadosh, Roi
2016-01-01
Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of basic numerical processing in the acquisition of numerical and mathematical competences. However, it is debated whether high-level numerical skills and mathematics depends specifically on basic numerical representations. In this study mathematicians and nonmathematicians performed a basic…
Students in Rural Schools Have Limited Access to Advanced Mathematics Courses. Issue Brief No. 7
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Suzanne E.
2009-01-01
This Carsey brief reveals that students in rural areas and small towns have less access to higher-level mathematics courses than students in urban settings, which results in serious educational consequences, including lower scores on assessment tests and fewer qualified students entering science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) job…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.
2005-01-01
The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica
2015-03-01
The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject positioning? We elaborate on the elusive and interrelated concepts of identity, positioning and power, seen as dynamic and changeable. As these concepts represent three interconnected parts of research analysis in an on-going larger project data from different sources will be used in this illustration. In this paper, we clarify the theoretical stance, ground the concepts historically and strive to connect them to research analysis. In this way, we show that power relations and subject positioning in social settings are critical aspects and need to be taken seriously into account if we aim at understanding becoming teachers' identities.
Earthquake information products and tools from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)
Wald, Lisa
2006-01-01
This Fact Sheet provides a brief description of postearthquake tools and products provided by the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) through the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The focus is on products specifically aimed at providing situational awareness in the period immediately following significant earthquake events.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colwell, Dhamma
This paper describes a case study in which one woman in a focus group of 11 women recounted her use of numerical and mathematical tools in her personal and work life. According to the researcher, the subject's experiences engendered strong feelings and revealed that aspects of her self-identity were bound up with her use of tools and feelings…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hillman, Thomas
2014-01-01
This article examines mathematical activity with digital technology by tracing it from its development through its use in classrooms. Drawing on material-semiotic approaches from the field of Science and Technology Studies, it examines the visions of mathematical activity that developers had for an advanced graphing calculator. It then follows the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wood, William B.
2002-01-01
A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, "Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools", evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study,…
Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S
2016-04-01
Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future.
Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R
2015-06-01
Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to
Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R
2015-06-01
Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to
Gamble, R.E.; Fanning, A.; Diaz Llanos, M.; Moreno, A.; Carrasco, A.
2002-07-01
Experience in the design of nuclear reactors for power generation shows that the plant structures and buildings involved are one of the major contributors to plant capital investment. Consequently, the design of theses elements must be optimised if cost reductions in future reactors are to be achieved. The benefits of using the 'Best Estimate Approach' are well known in the area of core and systems design. This consists in developing accurate models of a plant's phenomenology and behaviour, minimising the margins. Different safety margins have been applied in the past when performing structural analyses. Three of these margins can be identified: - increasing the value of the load by a factor that depends on the load frequency; - decreasing the resistance of the structure's resistance, and - safety margins introduced through two step analysis. The first two type of margins are established in the applicable codes in order to provide design safety margins. The third one derives from limitations in tools which, in the past, did not allow obtaining an accurate model in which both the dynamic and static loads could be evaluated simultaneously. Nowadays, improvements in hardware and software have eliminated the need for two-step calculations in structural analysis (dynamic plus static), allowing the creation one-through finite element models in which all loads, both dynamic and static, are combined without the determination of the equivalent static loads from the dynamic loads. This paper summarizes how these models and methods have been applied to optimize the Reactor Building structural design of the General Electric (GE) ESBWR Passive Plant. The work has focused on three areas: - the design of the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) Pools as pressure boundary between the Drywell and the Wet-well; - the evaluation of the thickness of the Reactor Building foundation slab, and - the global structural evaluation of the Reactor Building.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian
2000-01-01
This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montiel, Mariana; Bhatti, Uzma
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of some issues that were confronted when delivering an online second Linear Algebra course (assuming a previous Introductory Linear Algebra course) to graduate students enrolled in a Secondary Mathematics Education program. The focus is on performance in one particular aspect of the course: "change of basis" and…
Clickers and Classroom Voting in a Transition to Advanced Mathematics Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lockard, Shannon R.; Metcalf, Rebecca C.
2015-01-01
Clickers and classroom voting are used across a number of disciplines in a variety of institutions. There are several papers that describe the use of clickers in mathematics classrooms such as precalculus, calculus, statistics, and even differential equations. This paper describes a method of incorporating clickers and classroom voting in a…
Learner-Centered Strategies and Advanced Mathematics: A Study of Students' Perspectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ortiz-Robinson, Norma L.; Ellington, Aimee J.
2009-01-01
A number of learner-centered strategies were implemented during a two-semester course in real analysis that is traditionally taught in lecture format. We seek to understand the role that these strategies can have in this proof-intensive theoretical mathematics classroom and the perceived benefits by the students. Although learner-centered…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leddy, Mark H.
2010-01-01
Americans with disabilities are underemployed in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at higher rates than their nondisabled peers. This article provides an overview of the National science Foundation's Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) program, of technology use by students with disabilities (SWD) in STEM, and of…
New risk metrics and mathematical tools for risk analysis: Current and future challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Andritsos, Nikolaos; Psomas, Antonios; Paramythiotis, Spyridon
2015-01-01
The current status of the food safety supply world wide, has led Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to establishing Risk Analysis as the single framework for building food safety control programs. A series of guidelines and reports that detail out the various steps in Risk Analysis, namely Risk Management, Risk Assessment and Risk Communication is available. The Risk Analysis approach enables integration between operational food management systems, such as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, public health and governmental decisions. To do that, a series of new Risk Metrics has been established as follows: i) the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), which indicates the maximum numbers of illnesses in a population per annum, defined by quantitative risk assessments, and used to establish; ii) Food Safety Objective (FSO), which sets the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at the time of consumption that provides or contributes to the ALOP. Given that ALOP is rather a metric of the public health tolerable burden (it addresses the total `failure' that may be handled at a national level), it is difficult to be interpreted into control measures applied at the manufacturing level. Thus, a series of specific objectives and criteria for performance of individual processes and products have been established, all of them assisting in the achievement of FSO and hence, ALOP. In order to achieve FSO, tools quantifying the effect of processes and intrinsic properties of foods on survival and growth of pathogens are essential. In this context, predictive microbiology and risk assessment have offered an important assistance to Food Safety Management. Predictive modelling is the basis of exposure assessment and the development of stochastic and kinetic models, which are also available in the form of Web-based applications, e.g., COMBASE and Microbial Responses Viewer), or introduced into user-friendly softwares
New risk metrics and mathematical tools for risk analysis: Current and future challenges
Skandamis, Panagiotis N. Andritsos, Nikolaos Psomas, Antonios Paramythiotis, Spyridon
2015-01-22
The current status of the food safety supply world wide, has led Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to establishing Risk Analysis as the single framework for building food safety control programs. A series of guidelines and reports that detail out the various steps in Risk Analysis, namely Risk Management, Risk Assessment and Risk Communication is available. The Risk Analysis approach enables integration between operational food management systems, such as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, public health and governmental decisions. To do that, a series of new Risk Metrics has been established as follows: i) the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), which indicates the maximum numbers of illnesses in a population per annum, defined by quantitative risk assessments, and used to establish; ii) Food Safety Objective (FSO), which sets the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at the time of consumption that provides or contributes to the ALOP. Given that ALOP is rather a metric of the public health tolerable burden (it addresses the total ‘failure’ that may be handled at a national level), it is difficult to be interpreted into control measures applied at the manufacturing level. Thus, a series of specific objectives and criteria for performance of individual processes and products have been established, all of them assisting in the achievement of FSO and hence, ALOP. In order to achieve FSO, tools quantifying the effect of processes and intrinsic properties of foods on survival and growth of pathogens are essential. In this context, predictive microbiology and risk assessment have offered an important assistance to Food Safety Management. Predictive modelling is the basis of exposure assessment and the development of stochastic and kinetic models, which are also available in the form of Web-based applications, e.g., COMBASE and Microbial Responses Viewer), or introduced into user
An Introduction to the Advanced Tracking and Resource Tool for Archive Collections (ATRAC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, K.; Ritchey, N. A.; Jones, P.; Brown, H.
2011-12-01
The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has stepped up to meet the demand of today's exponential growth of archive projects and datasets by creating a web-based tool for managing and tracking data archiving, the Advanced Tracking and Resource tool for Archive Collections (ATRAC). ATRAC allows users to enter, share and display information for an archive project. User-friendly forms collect new input or use existing components of information in the system. The tool generates archive documents in various formats from the input and can automatically notify stakeholders of important project milestones. Current information on projects, tasks and events are displayed in configurable timeframes with viewing rights set by the project stakeholders. This presentation will demonstrate ATRAC's latest features and how the capabilities of ATRAC can improve project communication and work flow.
Mathematical modeling as a tool to assess microbial community responses to CO2 injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilcaez, J.
2014-12-01
The issue of subsurface microbial community responses to the injection of CO2 has great importance not only from a risk assessment point of view but also from the perspective of CO2 recycling to CH4. In this sense, the objective of this study is to develop mathematical models to make a quantitative description of the responses of subsurface indigenous microbial communities to the injection of CO2. For this end, TOUGHREACTV1.2 reactive transport simulator with its module ECO2N is used as the modeling framework. The targeted microbial community is composed of fermentative bacteria (Organic matter → Acetate & H2), acetotrophic methanogens (Acetate → Methane & CO2), acetotrophic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) (Acetate → H2S & CO2), hydrogenotrophic methanogens (H2 & CO2 → CH4), and hydrogenotrophic SRB (H2 → H2S). Due to the multiple hydrogeological, geochemical and microbiological factors intervening in both the response of subsurface microbial communities to the injection of CO2 and the chemical and physical fate of CO2 itself, at this stage simulations have been performed in batch mode. That means numerical simulations aimed to track changes in CO2 saturation levels, pH, and concentrations of mineral and aqueous phase species over time at selected initial conditions. Numerical simulation results indicate that the activity of microbes associated with methanogenic processes in geological storage sites of CO2 is governed by the level of CO2 saturation in the pore space as well as by the presence of pH buffering minerals such as calcite. With calcite in the mineral phase attenuating drops in pH below inhibitory levels, for instance it is shown that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic SRB outcompete acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens for acetate and H2, respectively. During the initial stages of the reaction when the pH level is lowest, the higher tolerance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to acidic pH levels is reflected by a preferential formation of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdigão, Rui A. P.
2016-04-01
The fundamental stochastic-dynamic coevolution laws governing complex coevolutionary systems are introduced in a mathematical physics framework formally unifying nonlinear stochastic physics with fundamental deterministic interaction laws among spatiotemporally distributed processes. The methodological developments are then used to shed light onto fundamental interactions underlying complex spatiotemporal behaviour and emergence in multiscale hydroclimate dynamics. For this purpose, a mathematical physics framework is presented predicting evolving distributions of hydrologic quantities under nonlinearly coevolving geophysical processes. The functional formulation is grounded on first principles regulating the dynamics of each system constituent and their interactions, therefore its applicability is general and data-independent, not requiring local calibrations. Moreover, it enables the dynamical estimation of hydroclimatic variations in space and time from knowledge at different spatiotemporal conditions, along with the associated uncertainties. This paves the way for a robust physically based prediction of hydroclimatic changes in unsupervised areas (e.g. ungauged basins). Validation is achieved by producing, with the mathematical physics framework, a comprehensive spatiotemporal legacy consistent with the observed distributions along with their statistic-dynamic relations. The similarity between simulated and observed distributions is further assessed with novel robust nonlinear information-theoretic diagnostics. The present study brings to light emerging signatures of structural change in hydroclimate dynamics arising from nonlinear synergies across multiple spatiotemporal scales, and contributes to a better dynamical understanding and prediction of spatiotemporal regimes, transitions, structural changes and extremes in complex coevolutionary systems. This study further sheds light onto a diversity of emerging properties from harmonic to hyper-chaotic in general
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farjoud, Alireza; Taylor, Russell; Schumann, Eric; Schlangen, Timothy
2014-02-01
This paper is focused on modelling, design, and testing of semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) engine and transmission mounts used in the automotive industry. The purpose is to develop a complete analysis, synthesis, design, and tuning tool that reduces the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory and field tests. A detailed mathematical model of such devices is developed using multi-physics modelling techniques for physical systems with various energy domains. The model includes all major features of an MR mount including fluid dynamics, fluid track, elastic components, decoupler, rate-dip, gas-charged chamber, MR fluid rheology, magnetic circuit, electronic driver, and control algorithm. Conventional passive hydraulic mounts can also be studied using the same mathematical model. The model is validated using standard experimental procedures. It is used for design and parametric study of mounts; effects of various geometric and material parameters on dynamic response of mounts can be studied. Additionally, this model can be used to test various control strategies to obtain best vibration isolation performance by tuning control parameters. Another benefit of this work is that nonlinear interactions between sub-components of the mount can be observed and investigated. This is not possible by using simplified linear models currently available.
Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris
2009-01-01
Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.
Greenberg, Donald P.; Hencey, Brandon M.
2013-08-20
Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orabuchi, Nkechi
2013-01-01
This study reported the results of a 3-month quasi-experimental study that determined the effectiveness of an online visual and interactive technological tool on sixth grade students' mathematics performance, math anxiety and attitudes towards math. There were 155 sixth grade students from a middle school in the North Texas area who participated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hossain, Md. Mokter
2012-01-01
This mixed methods study examined preservice secondary mathematics teachers' perceptions of a blogging activity used as a supportive teaching-learning tool in a college Euclidean Geometry course. The effect of a 12-week blogging activity that was a standard component of a college Euclidean Geometry course offered for preservice secondary…
Miller, David C.; Ng, Brenda; Eslick, John
2014-01-01
Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.
Proposal for constructing an advanced software tool for planetary atmospheric modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keller, Richard M.; Sims, Michael H.; Podolak, Esther; Mckay, Christopher P.; Thompson, David E.
1990-01-01
Scientific model building can be a time intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientist/programmer to understand. We believe that advanced software techniques can facilitate both the model building and model sharing process. We propose to construct a scientific modeling software tool that serves as an aid to the scientist in developing and using models. The proposed tool will include an interactive intelligent graphical interface and a high level, domain specific, modeling language. As a testbed for this research, we propose development of a software prototype in the domain of planetary atmospheric modeling.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.
2005-01-01
The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.
Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.
2007-01-01
The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.
An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology
Rick Schmoyer, RLS
2004-12-03
The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, D. Michael
The lack of preparation, participation, and equal access of students in mathematics and the science education continues to afflict America's high school system (Ratliff, 2001). Additionally, gender and ethnic status have become significant factors as females and minority subgroups such as African Americans and Hispanics continue to be underrepresented in these two subject fields. Recognizing and understanding these trends is extremely important for the future of this country. As fewer minorities and females become involved in advanced mathematics and science curriculum there will be a continued lack of minorities and females in mathematics and science careers. Additionally, this insufficient representation leads to fewer numbers of females and minorities in industry and educational leadership positions in mathematics and science to promote participation and equality in these fields. According to Brainard and Carlin (2003) as trends currently stand, these two groups will be under-represented in the fields of math and science and will continue to be denied economic and social power. Thus, a better understanding of these trends in participation in mathematics and science among these groups of students is warranted. This study is intended to accomplish four objectives. The first objective is to identify the extent to which opportunities are increasing or decreasing for students in high schools taking mathematics and science Advanced Placement exams by examining six years of student testing data from the College Board. A second objective is to identify features of high schools that relate to greater expansion in Advanced Placement test taking for females and minority groups in the areas of both math and science. A third objective is to explore whether, and to what extent, any social or educational features such as economic status, regional school and living locations, and ethnic backgrounds have enhanced or reduced Advanced Placement testing in these schools. Lastly
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruthven, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Reports from 13 Further Mathematics Knowledge Networks supported by the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics [NCETM] are analysed. After summarizing basic characteristics of the networks regarding leadership, composition and pattern of activity, each of the following aspects is examined in greater depth: Developmental aims…
Contemporary molecular tools in microbial ecology and their application to advancing biotechnology.
Rashid, Mamoon; Stingl, Ulrich
2015-12-01
Novel methods in microbial ecology are revolutionizing our understanding of the structure and function of microbes in the environment, but concomitant advances in applications of these tools to biotechnology are mostly lagging behind. After more than a century of efforts to improve microbial culturing techniques, about 70-80% of microbial diversity - recently called the "microbial dark matter" - remains uncultured. In early attempts to identify and sample these so far uncultured taxonomic lineages, methods that amplify and sequence ribosomal RNA genes were extensively used. Recent developments in cell separation techniques, DNA amplification, and high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms have now made the discovery of genes/genomes of uncultured microorganisms from different environments possible through the use of metagenomic techniques and single-cell genomics. When used synergistically, these metagenomic and single-cell techniques create a powerful tool to study microbial diversity. These genomics techniques have already been successfully exploited to identify sources for i) novel enzymes or natural products for biotechnology applications, ii) novel genes from extremophiles, and iii) whole genomes or operons from uncultured microbes. More can be done to utilize these tools more efficiently in biotechnology.
How can mathematical models advance tuberculosis control in high HIV prevalence settings?
Houben, R M G J; Dowdy, D W; Vassall, A; Cohen, T; Nicol, M P; Granich, R M; Shea, J E; Eckhoff, P; Dye, C; Kimerling, M E; White, R G
2014-05-01
Existing approaches to tuberculosis (TB) control have been no more than partially successful in areas with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. In the context of increasingly constrained resources, mathematical modelling can augment understanding and support policy for implementing those strategies that are most likely to bring public health and economic benefits. In this paper, we present an overview of past and recent contributions of TB modelling in this key area, and suggest a way forward through a modelling research agenda that supports a more effective response to the TB-HIV epidemic, based on expert discussions at a meeting convened by the TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium. The research agenda identified high-priority areas for future modelling efforts, including 1) the difficult diagnosis and high mortality of TB-HIV; 2) the high risk of disease progression; 3) TB health systems in high HIV prevalence settings; 4) uncertainty in the natural progression of TB-HIV; and 5) combined interventions for TB-HIV. Efficient and rapid progress towards completion of this modelling agenda will require co-ordination between the modelling community and key stakeholders, including advocates, health policy makers, donors and national or regional finance officials. A continuing dialogue will ensure that new results are effectively communicated and new policy-relevant questions are addressed swiftly. PMID:24903784
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ayers, Don; And Others
This study conducted a statistical analysis to look at the participation and achievement of Black, Hispanic, and female secondary education students in mathematics, science, and advanced technology programs in schools in Virginia, compared to those of White students and male students. In particular, the study applied descriptive and inferential…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherman, Milan
2011-01-01
This study investigates the role of digital cognitive technologies in supporting students' mathematical thinking while engaging with instructional tasks. Specifically, the study sought to better understand how the use of technology is related to the cognitive demand of tasks. Data were collected in four secondary mathematics classrooms via…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wieman, Carl; Gilbert, Sarah
2014-01-01
We have created an inventory to characterize the teaching practices used in science and mathematics courses. This inventory can aid instructors and departments in reflecting on their teaching. It has been tested with several hundred university instructors and courses from mathematics and four science disciplines. Most instructors complete the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoyrup, Jens
2007-01-01
The article describes the social and cultural roles of Mesopotamian mathematics and the interplay of these roles with such patterns of mathematical thought as can be traced through the sources; it covers the period from the first formation of a genuine state, shortly after the mid-fourth millennium b.c.e., until the end of the Old Babylonian…
Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science.
Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel
2016-01-01
One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets. PMID:27532883
Advanced Online Survival Analysis Tool for Predictive Modelling in Clinical Data Science
Montes-Torres, Julio; Subirats, José Luis; Ribelles, Nuria; Urda, Daniel; Franco, Leonardo; Alba, Emilio; Jerez, José Manuel
2016-01-01
One of the prevailing applications of machine learning is the use of predictive modelling in clinical survival analysis. In this work, we present our view of the current situation of computer tools for survival analysis, stressing the need of transferring the latest results in the field of machine learning to biomedical researchers. We propose a web based software for survival analysis called OSA (Online Survival Analysis), which has been developed as an open access and user friendly option to obtain discrete time, predictive survival models at individual level using machine learning techniques, and to perform standard survival analysis. OSA employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based method to produce the predictive survival models. Additionally, the software can easily generate survival and hazard curves with multiple options to personalise the plots, obtain contingency tables from the uploaded data to perform different tests, and fit a Cox regression model from a number of predictor variables. In the Materials and Methods section, we depict the general architecture of the application and introduce the mathematical background of each of the implemented methods. The study concludes with examples of use showing the results obtained with public datasets. PMID:27532883
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Draxler, Alexandra, Ed.
1979-01-01
A set of articles with the theme "Mathematics for Real Life" is presented. These article titles are: (1) Teaching Mathematics as a Tool for Problem Solving; (2) New Math or New Education; (3) Hand Calculators and Math in Primary School; (4) Mass Media in the Mathematical Training of Polish Primary Teachers; (5) The Goals of Mathematics Teaching in…
Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Vieira, Laura Rodrigues; Paiva, Giulia Moreira; Prado, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Wood, Guilherme; Haase, Vitor Geraldi
2015-02-01
Number transcoding (e.g., writing 29 when hearing "twenty-nine") is one of the most basic numerical abilities required in daily life and is paramount for mathematics achievement. The aim of this study is to investigate psychometric properties of an Arabic number-writing task and its capacity to identify children with mathematics difficulties. We assessed 786 children (55% girls) from first to fourth grades, who were classified as children with mathematics difficulties (n = 103) or controls (n = 683). Although error rates were low, the task presented adequate internal consistency (0.91). Analyses revealed effective diagnostic accuracy in first and second school grades (specificity equals to 0.67 and 0.76 respectively, and sensitivity equals to 0.70 and 0.88 respectively). Moreover, items tapping the understanding of place-value syntax were the most sensitive to mathematics achievement. Overall, we propose that number transcoding is a useful tool for the assessment of mathematics abilities in early elementary school.
A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.
1992-01-01
Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.
Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCleskey, Carey M.
2015-01-01
Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.
DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.
Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A
2008-01-01
Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.
MATISSE: Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zinzi, A.; Capria, M. T.; Antonelli, L. A.
In planetary sciences, design, assemble and launch onboard instruments are only preliminary steps toward the final aim of converting data into scientific knowledge, as the real challenge is the data analysis and interpretation. Up to now data have been generally stored in "old style" archives, i.e. common ftp servers where the user can manually search for data browsing directories organized in a time order manner. However, as datasets to be stored and searched become particularly large, this latter task absorbs a great part of the time, subtracting time to the real scientific work. In order to reduce the time spent to search and analyze data MATISSE (Multi-purpose Advanced Tool for Instruments for the Solar System Exploration), a new set of software tools developed together with the scientific teams of the instruments involved, is under development at ASDC (ASI Science Data Center), whose experience in space missions data management is well known (e.g., \\citealt{verrecchia07,pittori09,giommi09,massaro11}) and its features and aims will be presented here.
Kavlock, R J
1997-01-01
During the last several years, significant changes in the risk assessment process for developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants have begun to emerge. The first of these changes is the development and beginning use of statistically based dose-response models [the benchmark dose (BMD) approach] that better utilize data derived from existing testing approaches. Accompanying this change is the greater emphasis placed on understanding and using mechanistic information to yield more accurate, reliable, and less uncertain risk assessments. The next stage in the evolution of risk assessment will be the use of biologically based dose-response (BBDR) models that begin to build into the statistically based models factors related to the underlying kinetic, biochemical, and/or physiologic processes perturbed by a toxicant. Such models are now emerging from several research laboratories. The introduction of quantitative models and the incorporation of biologic information into them has pointed to the need for even more sophisticated modifications for which we offer the term embryologically based dose-response (EBDR) models. Because these models would be based upon the understanding of normal morphogenesis, they represent a quantum leap in our thinking, but their complexity presents daunting challenges both to the developmental biologist and the developmental toxicologist. Implementation of these models will require extensive communication between developmental toxicologists, molecular embryologists, and biomathematicians. The remarkable progress in the understanding of mammalian embryonic development at the molecular level that has occurred over the last decade combined with advances in computing power and computational models should eventually enable these as yet hypothetical models to be brought into use.
Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dietiker, Leslie
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…
A Multifaceted Mathematical Approach for Complex Systems
Alexander, F.; Anitescu, M.; Bell, J.; Brown, D.; Ferris, M.; Luskin, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Moser, B.; Pinar, A.; Tartakovsky, A.; Willcox, K.; Wright, S.; Zavala, V.
2012-03-07
Applied mathematics has an important role to play in developing the tools needed for the analysis, simulation, and optimization of complex problems. These efforts require the development of the mathematical foundations for scientific discovery, engineering design, and risk analysis based on a sound integrated approach for the understanding of complex systems. However, maximizing the impact of applied mathematics on these challenges requires a novel perspective on approaching the mathematical enterprise. Previous reports that have surveyed the DOE's research needs in applied mathematics have played a key role in defining research directions with the community. Although these reports have had significant impact, accurately assessing current research needs requires an evaluation of today's challenges against the backdrop of recent advances in applied mathematics and computing. To address these needs, the DOE Applied Mathematics Program sponsored a Workshop for Mathematics for the Analysis, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Systems on September 13-14, 2011. The workshop had approximately 50 participants from both the national labs and academia. The goal of the workshop was to identify new research areas in applied mathematics that will complement and enhance the existing DOE ASCR Applied Mathematics Program efforts that are needed to address problems associated with complex systems. This report describes recommendations from the workshop and subsequent analysis of the workshop findings by the organizing committee.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
This document contains the final report to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the research project entitled Development, Implementation, and Application of Micromechanical Analysis Tools for Advanced High-Temperature Composites. The research supporting this initiative has been conducted by Dr. Brett A. Bednarcyk, a Senior Scientist at OM in Brookpark, Ohio from the period of August 1998 to March 2005. Most of the work summarized herein involved development, implementation, and application of enhancements and new capabilities for NASA GRC's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) software package. When the project began, this software was at a low TRL (3-4) and at release version 2.0. Due to this project, the TRL of MAC/GMC has been raised to 7 and two new versions (3.0 and 4.0) have been released. The most important accomplishments with respect to MAC/GMC are: (1) A multi-scale framework has been built around the software, enabling coupled design and analysis from the global structure scale down to the micro fiber-matrix scale; (2) The software has been expanded to analyze smart materials; (3) State-of-the-art micromechanics theories have been implemented and validated within the code; (4) The damage, failure, and lifing capabilities of the code have been expanded from a very limited state to a vast degree of functionality and utility; and (5) The user flexibility of the code has been significantly enhanced. MAC/GMC is now the premier code for design and analysis of advanced composite and smart materials. It is a candidate for the 2005 NASA Software of the Year Award. The work completed over the course of the project is summarized below on a year by year basis. All publications resulting from the project are listed at the end of this report.
NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan
2013-01-01
The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces
NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan
2012-01-01
The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces
Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Marvin L.
Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott
2008-01-01
Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.
Moorhouse, Michael J; Sharma, Hari S
2011-08-01
Recent advances in technology and associated methodology have made the current period one of the most exciting in molecular biology and medicine. Underlying these is an appreciation that modern research is driven by increasing large amounts of data being interpreted by interdisciplinary collaborative teams which are often geographically dispersed. The availability of cheap computing power, high speed informatics networks and high quality analysis software has been essential to this as has the application of modern quality assurance methodologies. In this review, we discuss the application of modern 'High-Throughput' molecular biological technologies such as 'Microarrays' and 'Next Generation Sequencing' to scientific and biomedical research as we have observed. Furthermore in this review, we also offer some guidance that enables the reader as to understand certain features of these as well as new strategies and help them to apply these i-Gene tools in their endeavours successfully. Collectively, we term this 'i-Gene Analysis'. We also offer predictions as to the developments that are anticipated in the near and more distant future.
Advances in the genetic dissection of plant cell walls: tools and resources available in Miscanthus
Slavov, Gancho; Allison, Gordon; Bosch, Maurice
2013-01-01
Tropical C4 grasses from the genus Miscanthus are believed to have great potential as biomass crops. However, Miscanthus species are essentially undomesticated, and genetic, molecular and bioinformatics tools are in very early stages of development. Furthermore, similar to other crops targeted as lignocellulosic feedstocks, the efficient utilization of biomass is hampered by our limited knowledge of the structural organization of the plant cell wall and the underlying genetic components that control this organization. The Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) has assembled an extensive collection of germplasm for several species of Miscanthus. In addition, an integrated, multidisciplinary research programme at IBERS aims to inform accelerated breeding for biomass productivity and composition, while also generating fundamental knowledge. Here we review recent advances with respect to the genetic characterization of the cell wall in Miscanthus. First, we present a summary of recent and on-going biochemical studies, including prospects and limitations for the development of powerful phenotyping approaches. Second, we review current knowledge about genetic variation for cell wall characteristics of Miscanthus and illustrate how phenotypic data, combined with high-density arrays of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are being used in genome-wide association studies to generate testable hypotheses and guide biological discovery. Finally, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the molecular biology of cell wall biosynthesis in Miscanthus and closely related grasses, discuss the key conceptual and technological bottlenecks, and outline the short-term prospects for progress in this field. PMID:23847628
Advances in the genetic dissection of plant cell walls: tools and resources available in Miscanthus.
Slavov, Gancho; Allison, Gordon; Bosch, Maurice
2013-01-01
Tropical C4 grasses from the genus Miscanthus are believed to have great potential as biomass crops. However, Miscanthus species are essentially undomesticated, and genetic, molecular and bioinformatics tools are in very early stages of development. Furthermore, similar to other crops targeted as lignocellulosic feedstocks, the efficient utilization of biomass is hampered by our limited knowledge of the structural organization of the plant cell wall and the underlying genetic components that control this organization. The Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) has assembled an extensive collection of germplasm for several species of Miscanthus. In addition, an integrated, multidisciplinary research programme at IBERS aims to inform accelerated breeding for biomass productivity and composition, while also generating fundamental knowledge. Here we review recent advances with respect to the genetic characterization of the cell wall in Miscanthus. First, we present a summary of recent and on-going biochemical studies, including prospects and limitations for the development of powerful phenotyping approaches. Second, we review current knowledge about genetic variation for cell wall characteristics of Miscanthus and illustrate how phenotypic data, combined with high-density arrays of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are being used in genome-wide association studies to generate testable hypotheses and guide biological discovery. Finally, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the molecular biology of cell wall biosynthesis in Miscanthus and closely related grasses, discuss the key conceptual and technological bottlenecks, and outline the short-term prospects for progress in this field.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cann, Cynthia W.; Brumagim, Alan L.
2008-01-01
The authors present the case of one business college's use of project management techniques as tools for accomplishing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International maintenance of accreditation. Using these techniques provides an efficient and effective method of organizing maintenance efforts. In addition, using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Watkins, Marley W.
2010-01-01
Using a longitudinal design, children were given a brief number sense screener (NSB) screener (N = 204) over six time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of first grade. The NSB is based on research showing the importance of number competence (number, number relations, and number operations) for success in mathematics.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, Nancy
2015-03-01
The use of mathematical tools has long proved to be useful in gaining understanding of complex systems in physics [1]. Recently, many researchers have realized that there is an analogy between emerging phenomena in complex social systems and complex physical or biological systems [4,5,12]. This realization has particularly benefited the modeling and understanding of crime, a ubiquitous phenomena that is far from being understood. In fact, when one is interested in the bulk behavior of patterns that emerge from small and seemingly unrelated interactions as well as decisions that occur at the individual level, the mathematical tools that have been developed in statistical physics, game theory, network theory, dynamical systems, and partial differential equations can be useful in shedding light into the dynamics of these patterns [2-4,6,12].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shores, Melanie L.; Shannon, David M.; Smith, Tommy G.
2010-01-01
A total of 761 students (58.1% female) from selected fifth- and sixth-grade mathematics classrooms in Alabama were examined to investigate the relationships between individual learner variables (gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status [SES]) and mathematics performance. Specifically, this portion of the study examined individual learner variables…
Ribay, Kathryn; Kim, Marlene T.; Wang, Wenyi; Pinolini, Daniel; Zhu, Hao
2016-01-01
Estrogen receptors (ERα) are a critical target for drug design as well as a potential source of toxicity when activated unintentionally. Thus, evaluating potential ERα binding agents is critical in both drug discovery and chemical toxicity areas. Using computational tools, e.g., Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, can predict potential ERα binding agents before chemical synthesis. The purpose of this project was to develop enhanced predictive models of ERα binding agents by utilizing advanced cheminformatics tools that can integrate publicly available bioassay data. The initial ERα binding agent data set, consisting of 446 binders and 8307 non-binders, was obtained from the Tox21 Challenge project organized by the NIH Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC). After removing the duplicates and inorganic compounds, this data set was used to create a training set (259 binders and 259 non-binders). This training set was used to develop QSAR models using chemical descriptors. The resulting models were then used to predict the binding activity of 264 external compounds, which were available to us after the models were developed. The cross-validation results of training set [Correct Classification Rate (CCR) = 0.72] were much higher than the external predictivity of the unknown compounds (CCR = 0.59). To improve the conventional QSAR models, all compounds in the training set were used to search PubChem and generate a profile of their biological responses across thousands of bioassays. The most important bioassays were prioritized to generate a similarity index that was used to calculate the biosimilarity score between each two compounds. The nearest neighbors for each compound within the set were then identified and its ERα binding potential was predicted by its nearest neighbors in the training set. The hybrid model performance (CCR = 0.94 for cross validation; CCR = 0.68 for external prediction) showed significant improvement over the original QSAR
Ribay, Kathryn; Kim, Marlene T.; Wang, Wenyi; Pinolini, Daniel; Zhu, Hao
2016-01-01
Estrogen receptors (ERα) are a critical target for drug design as well as a potential source of toxicity when activated unintentionally. Thus, evaluating potential ERα binding agents is critical in both drug discovery and chemical toxicity areas. Using computational tools, e.g., Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models, can predict potential ERα binding agents before chemical synthesis. The purpose of this project was to develop enhanced predictive models of ERα binding agents by utilizing advanced cheminformatics tools that can integrate publicly available bioassay data. The initial ERα binding agent data set, consisting of 446 binders and 8307 non-binders, was obtained from the Tox21 Challenge project organized by the NIH Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC). After removing the duplicates and inorganic compounds, this data set was used to create a training set (259 binders and 259 non-binders). This training set was used to develop QSAR models using chemical descriptors. The resulting models were then used to predict the binding activity of 264 external compounds, which were available to us after the models were developed. The cross-validation results of training set [Correct Classification Rate (CCR) = 0.72] were much higher than the external predictivity of the unknown compounds (CCR = 0.59). To improve the conventional QSAR models, all compounds in the training set were used to search PubChem and generate a profile of their biological responses across thousands of bioassays. The most important bioassays were prioritized to generate a similarity index that was used to calculate the biosimilarity score between each two compounds. The nearest neighbors for each compound within the set were then identified and its ERα binding potential was predicted by its nearest neighbors in the training set. The hybrid model performance (CCR = 0.94 for cross validation; CCR = 0.68 for external prediction) showed significant improvement over the original QSAR
Pal, P; Kumar, R; Srivastava, N; Chowdhury, J
2014-02-01
A Visual Basic simulation software (WATTPPA) has been developed to analyse the performance of an advanced wastewater treatment plant. This user-friendly and menu-driven software is based on the dynamic mathematical model for an industrial wastewater treatment scheme that integrates chemical, biological and membrane-based unit operations. The software-predicted results corroborate very well with the experimental findings as indicated in the overall correlation coefficient of the order of 0.99. The software permits pre-analysis and manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. It allows quick performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.
Pal, P; Kumar, R; Srivastava, N; Chowdhury, J
2014-02-01
A Visual Basic simulation software (WATTPPA) has been developed to analyse the performance of an advanced wastewater treatment plant. This user-friendly and menu-driven software is based on the dynamic mathematical model for an industrial wastewater treatment scheme that integrates chemical, biological and membrane-based unit operations. The software-predicted results corroborate very well with the experimental findings as indicated in the overall correlation coefficient of the order of 0.99. The software permits pre-analysis and manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. It allows quick performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:23982824
Natsakis, Tassos; Burg, Josefien; Dereymaeker, Greta; Jonkers, Ilse; Vander Sloten, Jos
2016-05-01
In vitro gait simulations have been available to researchers for more than two decades and have become an invaluable tool for understanding fundamental foot-ankle biomechanics. This has been realised through several incremental technological and methodological developments, such as the actuation of muscle tendons, the increase in controlled degrees of freedom and the use of advanced control schemes. Furthermore, in vitro experimentation enabled performing highly repeatable and controllable simulations of gait during simultaneous measurement of several biomechanical signals (e.g. bone kinematics, intra-articular pressure distribution, bone strain). Such signals cannot always be captured in detail using in vivo techniques, and the importance of in vitro experimentation is therefore highlighted. The information provided by in vitro gait simulations enabled researchers to answer numerous clinical questions related to pathology, injury and surgery. In this article, first an overview of the developments in design and methodology of the various foot-ankle simulators is presented. Furthermore, an overview of the conducted studies is outlined and an example of a study aiming at understanding the differences in kinematics of the hindfoot, ankle and subtalar joints after total ankle arthroplasty is presented. Finally, the limitations and future perspectives of in vitro experimentation and in particular of foot-ankle gait simulators are discussed. It is expected that the biofidelic nature of the controllers will be improved in order to make them more subject-specific and to link foot motion to the simulated behaviour of the entire missing body, providing additional information for understanding the complex anatomical structure of the foot. PMID:27160562
Gilbert, Sarah
2014-01-01
We have created an inventory to characterize the teaching practices used in science and mathematics courses. This inventory can aid instructors and departments in reflecting on their teaching. It has been tested with several hundred university instructors and courses from mathematics and four science disciplines. Most instructors complete the inventory in 10 min or less, and the results allow meaningful comparisons of the teaching used for the different courses and instructors within a department and across different departments. We also show how the inventory results can be used to gauge the extent of use of research-based teaching practices, and we illustrate this with the inventory results for five departments. These results show the high degree of discrimination provided by the inventory, as well as its effectiveness in tracking the increase in the use of research-based teaching practices. PMID:25185237
Wieman, Carl; Gilbert, Sarah
2014-01-01
We have created an inventory to characterize the teaching practices used in science and mathematics courses. This inventory can aid instructors and departments in reflecting on their teaching. It has been tested with several hundred university instructors and courses from mathematics and four science disciplines. Most instructors complete the inventory in 10 min or less, and the results allow meaningful comparisons of the teaching used for the different courses and instructors within a department and across different departments. We also show how the inventory results can be used to gauge the extent of use of research-based teaching practices, and we illustrate this with the inventory results for five departments. These results show the high degree of discrimination provided by the inventory, as well as its effectiveness in tracking the increase in the use of research-based teaching practices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.
2016-01-01
This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…
Ried, Michael; Marx, Alexander; Götz, Andrea; Hamer, Okka; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan
2016-06-01
In this review article, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and innovative treatments of thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) are described with special respect to advanced tumour stages. Complete surgical resection (R0) remains the standard therapeutic approach for almost all a priori resectable mediastinal tumours as defined by preoperative standard computed tomography (CT). If lymphoma or germ-cell tumours are differential diagnostic considerations, biopsy may be indicated. Resection status is the most important prognostic factor in thymoma and TC, followed by tumour stage. Advanced (Masaoka-Koga stage III and IVa) tumours require interdisciplinary therapy decisions based on distinctive findings of preoperative CT scan and ancillary investigations [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] to select cases for primary surgery or neoadjuvant strategies with optional secondary resection. In neoadjuvant settings, octreotide scans and histological evaluation of pretherapeutic needle biopsies may help to choose between somatostatin agonist/prednisolone regimens and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Finally, a multimodality treatment regime is recommended for advanced and unresectable thymic tumours. In conclusion, advanced stage thymoma and TC should preferably be treated in experienced centres in order to provide all modern diagnostic tools (imaging, histology) and innovative therapy techniques. Systemic and local (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy) medical treatments together with extended surgical resections have increased the therapeutic options in patients with advanced or recurrent thymoma and TC.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galligan, Linda
2016-01-01
A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…
Wood, William B
2002-01-01
A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Panel for Biology were that AP courses in particular suffer from inadequate quality control as well as excessive pressure to fulfill their advanced placement function, which encourages teachers to attempt coverage of all areas of biology and emphasize memorization of facts rather than in-depth understanding. In this essay, the Panel's principal findings are discussed, with an emphasis on its recommendation that colleges and universities should be strongly discouraged from using performance on either the AP examination or the IB examination as the sole basis for automatic placement out of required introductory courses for biology majors and distribution requirements for nonmajors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Philip G.
1953-01-01
The Cooperative Committee on the Teaching of Science and Mathematics of the American Association for the Advancement of Science that participated in planning for and publishing this bulletin is composed of representatives of seventeen national scientific and mathematical societies including representatives from the associated teaching…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madiedo, J. M.
2012-09-01
Documentaries related to Astronomy and Planetary Sciences are a common and very attractive way to promote the interest of the public in these areas. These educational tools can get benefit from new advanced computer animation software and 3D technologies, as these allow making these documentaries even more attractive. However, special care must be taken in order to guarantee that the information contained in them is serious and objective. In this sense, an additional value is given when the footage is produced by the own researchers. With this aim, a new documentary produced and directed by Prof. Madiedo has been developed. The documentary, which has been entirely developed by means of advanced computer animation tools, is dedicated to several aspects of Meteor Science and Meteoritics. The main features of this outreach and education initiative are exposed here.
Update on ORNL TRANSFORM Tool: Simulating Multi-Module Advanced Reactor with End-to-End I&C
Hale, Richard Edward; Fugate, David L.; Cetiner, Sacit M.; Qualls, A. L.
2015-05-01
The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the fourth year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled reactor) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The focus of this report is the development of a steam generator and drum system model that includes the complex dynamics of typical steam drum systems, the development of instrumentation and controls for the steam generator with drum system model, and the development of multi-reactor module models that reflect the full power reactor innovative small module design concept. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor models; ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface technical area; and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the TRANSFORM tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the Advanced Reactors Technology program; (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using available geometry, design, and thermal-hydraulic data; (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models; and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.
Development of Advanced Life Prediction Tools for Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to develop a systematic approach to improving the fracture control process, including analytical tools, standards, guidelines, and awareness. Analytical tools specifically for elastic-plastic fracture analysis is a regime that is currently empirical for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) and is handled by simulated service testing of pre-cracked panels.
Advances in Chimera Grid Tools for Multi-Body Dynamics Simulations and Script Creation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, William M.
2004-01-01
This viewgraph presentation contains information about (1) Framework for multi-body dynamics - Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP), (2) Simulation procedure using Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) and OVERFLOW-2 (3) Further recent developments in Chimera Grid Tools OVERGRID, Grid modules, Script library and (4) Future work.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crossley, Scott A.
2013-01-01
This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…
Glimm, J.
2009-10-14
Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.
A Mathematics Software Database Update.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.
1987-01-01
Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)
Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes Towards Learning Mathematics with Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ipek, A. Sabri; Berigel, Muhammed; Albayrak, Mustafa
2007-01-01
Role of technology which is an important tool for new approaches in learning mathematics is rapidly increasing at focus point of learning mathematics with new designs. One of the biggest factors at learning and instructing technology based mathematic education is attitudes of mathematics teachers towards technology. At this study, attitudes of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Okonta, Olomeruom
2010-01-01
Recent research studies in open and distance learning have focused on the differences between traditional learning versus online learning, the benefits of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools in an e-learning environment, and the relationship between online discussion posts and students' achievement. In fact, there is an extant…
The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...
CRISPR/Cas9: an advanced tool for editing plant genomes.
Samanta, Milan Kumar; Dey, Avishek; Gayen, Srimonta
2016-10-01
To meet current challenges in agriculture, genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is a powerful tool for basic and applied plant biology research. Here, we describe the principle and application of available genome editing tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat associated CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among these SSNs, CRISPR/Cas9 is the most recently characterized and rapidly developing genome editing technology, and has been successfully utilized in a wide variety of organisms. This review specifically illustrates the power of CRISPR/Cas9 as a tool for plant genome engineering, and describes the strengths and weaknesses of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology compared to two well-established genome editing tools, ZFNs and TALENs. PMID:27012546
Advancing lighting and daylighting simulation: The transition from analysis to design aid tools
Hitchcock, R.J.
1995-05-01
This paper explores three significant software development requirements for making the transition from stand-alone lighting simulation/analysis tools to simulation-based design aid tools. These requirements include specialized lighting simulation engines, facilitated methods for creating detailed simulatable building descriptions, an automated techniques for providing lighting design guidance. Initial computer implementations meant to address each of these requirements are discussed to further elaborate these requirements and to illustrate work-in-progress.
Development of Advanced Computational Aeroelasticity Tools at NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, R. E.
2008-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center has continued to develop its long standing computational tools to address new challenges in aircraft and launch vehicle design. This paper discusses the application and development of those computational aeroelastic tools. Four topic areas will be discussed: 1) Modeling structural and flow field nonlinearities; 2) Integrated and modular approaches to nonlinear multidisciplinary analysis; 3) Simulating flight dynamics of flexible vehicles; and 4) Applications that support both aeronautics and space exploration.
Advanced repair solution of clear defects on HTPSM by using nanomachining tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Munsik; Jung, Hoyong; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu
2015-10-01
As the mask specifications become tighter for low k1 lithography, more aggressive repair accuracy is required below sub 20nm tech. node. To meet tight defect specifications, many maskshops select effective repair tools according to defect types. Normally, pattern defects are repaired by the e-beam repair tool and soft defects such as particles are repaired by the nanomachining tool. It is difficult for an e-beam repair tool to remove particle defects because it uses chemical reaction between gas and electron, and a nanomachining tool, which uses physical reaction between a nano-tip and defects, cannot be applied for repairing clear defects. Generally, film deposition process is widely used for repairing clear defects. However, the deposited film has weak cleaning durability, so it is easily removed by accumulated cleaning process. Although the deposited film is strongly attached on MoSiN(or Qz) film, the adhesive strength between deposited Cr film and MoSiN(or Qz) film becomes weaker and weaker by the accumulated energy when masks are exposed in a scanner tool due to the different coefficient of thermal expansion of each materials. Therefore, whenever a re-pellicle process is needed to a mask, all deposited repair points have to be confirmed whether those deposition film are damaged or not. And if a deposition point is damaged, repair process is needed again. This process causes longer and more complex process. In this paper, the basic theory and the principle are introduced to recover clear defects by using nanomachining tool, and the evaluated results are reviewed at dense line (L/S) patterns and contact hole (C/H) patterns. Also, the results using a nanomachining were compared with those using an e-beam repair tool, including the cleaning durability evaluated by the accumulated cleaning process. Besides, we discuss the phase shift issue and the solution about the image placement error caused by phase error.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Firmender, Janine M.; Carroll, Susan R.
2013-01-01
The goal of Project M2 was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for K-2 students. The units were developed using recommendations from gifted, mathematics, and early childhood education. This article reports on achievement results for students in Grade 1 at 12 diverse sites in four states using the Iowa Tests of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rumsey, Chepina Witkowski
2012-01-01
The goals for this study were to investigate how fourth-grade students developed an understanding of the arithmetic properties when instruction promoted mathematical argumentation and to identify the characteristics of students' arguments. Using the emergent perspective as an overarching theoretical perspective helped distinguish between two…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desoer, C. A.; Polak, E.; Zadeh, L. A.
1974-01-01
A series of research projects is briefly summarized which includes investigations in the following areas: (1) mathematical programming problems for large system and infinite-dimensional spaces, (2) bounded-input bounded-output stability, (3) non-parametric approximations, and (4) differential games. A list of reports and papers which were published over the ten year period of research is included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jonah, Tali D.; Caleb, Mbwas .L.; Stephen, Abe A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics teaching is an interaction between the teacher and the learners that leads to acquisition of desirable mathematical knowledge, ideas and skills necessary for applicability in our everyday life. This paper therefore looks at the concept of self-reliance, the concept of mathematics teaching, problems and prospects of mathematics teaching…
Proceedings, Conference on the Computing Environment for Mathematical Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Recent advances in software and hardware technology which make it economical to create computing environments appropriate for specialized applications are addressed. Topics included software tools, FORTRAN standards activity, and features of languages, operating systems, and hardware that are important for the development, testing, and maintenance of mathematical software.
Mathematics in Chemistry: Indeterminate Forms and Their Meaning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Segurado, Manuel A. P.; Silva, Margarida F. B.; Castro, Rita
2011-01-01
The mathematical language and its tools are complementary to the formalism in chemistry, in particular at an advanced level. It is thus crucial, for its understanding, that students acquire a solid knowledge in Calculus and that they know how to apply it. The frequent occurrence of indeterminate forms in multiple areas, particularly in Physical…
A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Hare, Anne E.; Bremner, Lynne; Nash, Marysia; Happe, Francesca; Pettigrew, Luisa M.
2009-01-01
One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing Happe's strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger…
Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.
2013-01-01
In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…
The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kumar, David D.; And Others
Systems incorporating two advanced technologies, hypermedia systems and intelligent tutors, are examined with respect to their potential impact on science education. The conceptual framework underlying these systems is discussed first. Applications of systems are then presented with examples of each in operation within the context of science…
Just-in-Time Teaching: A Tool for Enhancing Student Engagement in Advanced Foreign Language Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abreu, Laurel; Knouse, Stephanie
2014-01-01
Scholars have indicated a need for further research on effective pedagogical strategies designed for advanced foreign language courses in the postsecondary setting, especially in light of decreased enrollments at this level and the elimination of foreign language programs altogether in some institutions (Paesani & Allen, 2012). This article…
Bielczyk, Natalia Z.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Tiesinga, Paul H. E.
2015-01-01
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious condition with a lifetime prevalence exceeding 16% worldwide. MDD is a heterogeneous disorder that involves multiple behavioral symptoms on the one hand and multiple neuronal circuits on the other hand. In this review, we integrate the literature on cognitive and physiological biomarkers of MDD with the insights derived from mathematical models of brain networks, especially models that can be used for fMRI datasets. We refer to the recent NIH research domain criteria initiative, in which a concept of “constructs” as functional units of mental disorders is introduced. Constructs are biomarkers present at multiple levels of brain functioning – cognition, genetics, brain anatomy, and neurophysiology. In this review, we propose a new approach which we called circuit to construct mapping (CCM), which aims to characterize causal relations between the underlying network dynamics (as the cause) and the constructs referring to the clinical symptoms of MDD (as the effect). CCM involves extracting diagnostic categories from behavioral data, linking circuits that are causal to these categories with use of clinical neuroimaging data, and modeling the dynamics of the emerging circuits with attractor dynamics in order to provide new, neuroimaging-related biomarkers for MDD. The CCM approach optimizes the clinical diagnosis and patient stratification. It also addresses the recent demand for linking circuits to behavior, and provides a new insight into clinical treatment by investigating the dynamics of neuronal circuits underneath cognitive dimensions of MDD. CCM can serve as a new regime toward personalized medicine, assisting the diagnosis and treatment of MDD. PMID:25767450
Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup
2015-11-15
The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources.
Advanced Algorithms and Automation Tools for Discrete Ordinates Methods in Parallel Environments
Alireza Haghighat
2003-05-07
This final report discusses major accomplishments of a 3-year project under the DOE's NEER Program. The project has developed innovative and automated algorithms, codes, and tools for solving the discrete ordinates particle transport method efficiently in parallel environments. Using a number of benchmark and real-life problems, the performance and accuracy of the new algorithms have been measured and analyzed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Blonder, Ron
2010-01-01
In this paper we describe the learning process of a group of experienced chemistry teachers in a specially designed workshop on molecular symmetry and continuous symmetry. The workshop was based on interactive visualization tools that allow molecules and their symmetry elements to be rotated in three dimensions. The topic of continuous symmetry is…
Horvat, Predrag; Koller, Martin; Braunegg, Gerhart
2015-09-01
A review of the use of elementary flux modes (EFMs) and their applications in metabolic engineering covered with yield space analysis (YSA) is presented. EFMs are an invaluable tool in mathematical modeling of biochemical processes. They are described from their inception in 1994, followed by various improvements of their computation in later years. YSA constitutes another precious tool for metabolic network modeling, and is presented in details along with EFMs in this article. The application of these techniques is discussed for several case studies of metabolic network modeling provided in respective original articles. The article is concluded by some case studies in which the application of EFMs and YSA turned out to be most useful, such as the analysis of intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) formation and consumption in Cupriavidus necator, including the constraint-based description of the steady-state flux cone of the strain's metabolic network, the profound analysis of a continuous five-stage bioreactor cascade for PHA production by C. necator using EFMs and, finally, the study of metabolic fluxes in the metabolic network of C. necator cultivated on glycerol.
Advances in omics and bioinformatics tools for systems analyses of plant functions.
Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo
2011-12-01
Omics and bioinformatics are essential to understanding the molecular systems that underlie various plant functions. Recent game-changing sequencing technologies have revitalized sequencing approaches in genomics and have produced opportunities for various emerging analytical applications. Driven by technological advances, several new omics layers such as the interactome, epigenome and hormonome have emerged. Furthermore, in several plant species, the development of omics resources has progressed to address particular biological properties of individual species. Integration of knowledge from omics-based research is an emerging issue as researchers seek to identify significance, gain biological insights and promote translational research. From these perspectives, we provide this review of the emerging aspects of plant systems research based on omics and bioinformatics analyses together with their associated resources and technological advances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.
2014-12-01
The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been supporting specific science field campaigns, such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign, by creating near real-time (NRT) data visualization portals. These portals are intended to assist in mission planning, enhance the understanding of current physical processes, and improve model data by comparing it to satellite and aircraft observations. The TCIS NRT portals allow the user to view plots on a Google Earth interface. To compliment these visualizations, the team has been working on developing data analysis tools to let the user actively interrogate areas of Level 2 swath and two-dimensional plots they see on their screen. As expected, these observation and model data are quite voluminous and bottlenecks in the system architecture can occur when the databases try to run geospatial searches for data files that need to be read by the tools. To improve the responsiveness of the data analysis tools, the TCIS team has been conducting studies on how to best store Level 2 swath footprints and run sub-second geospatial searches to discover data. The first objective was to improve the sampling accuracy of the footprints being stored in the TCIS database by comparing the Java-based NASA PO.DAAC Level 2 Swath Generator with a TCIS Python swath generator. The second objective was to compare the performance of four database implementations - MySQL, MySQL+Solr, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL - to see which database management system would yield the best geospatial query and storage performance. The final objective was to integrate our chosen technologies with our Joint Probability Density Function (Joint PDF), Wave Number Analysis, and
Mathematical Modeling in the Undergraduate Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toews, Carl
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling occupies an unusual space in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum: typically an "advanced" course, it nonetheless has little to do with formal proof, the usual hallmark of advanced mathematics. Mathematics departments are thus forced to decide what role they want the modeling course to play, both as a component of the…
Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, Phase II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, Joe H., III
2008-01-01
Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Light Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input.
ADVANCEMENT OF NUCLEIC ACID-BASED TOOLS FOR MONITORING IN SITU REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION
Vangelas, K; ELIZABETH EDWARDS, E; FRANK LOFFLER, F; Brian02 Looney, B
2006-11-17
Regulatory protocols generally recognize that destructive processes are the most effective mechanisms that support natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents. In many cases, these destructive processes will be biological processes and, for chlorinated compounds, will often be reductive processes that occur under anaerobic conditions. The existing EPA guidance (EPA, 1998) provides a list of parameters that provide indirect evidence of reductive dechlorination processes. In an effort to gather direct evidence of these processes, scientists have identified key microorganisms and are currently developing tools to measure the abundance and activity of these organisms in subsurface systems. Drs. Edwards and Luffler are two recognized leaders in this field. The research described herein continues their development efforts to provide a suite of tools to enable direct measures of biological processes related to the reductive dechlorination of TCE and PCE. This study investigated the strengths and weaknesses of the 16S rRNA gene-based approach to characterizing the natural attenuation capabilities in samples. The results suggested that an approach based solely on 16S rRNA may not provide sufficient information to document the natural attenuation capabilities in a system because it does not distinguish between strains of organisms that have different biodegradation capabilities. The results of the investigations provided evidence that tools focusing on relevant enzymes for functionally desired characteristics may be useful adjuncts to the 16SrRNA methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pingand, Philippe B.; Lerner, Dan A.
1993-05-01
UPY-F is a software dedicated to solving various queries issued by end-users of spectrofluorimeters when they come across a problem in the course of an experiment. The main goal is to provide a diagnostic for the nonpertinent use of a spectrofluorimeter. Many artifacts may induce the operator into trouble and except for experts, the simple manipulation of the controls of a fluorimeter results in effects not always fully appreciated. The solution retained is an association between a powerful hypermedia tool and an expert system. A straight expert system offers a number of well-known advantages. But it is not well accepted by the user due to the many moves between the spectrofluorimeter and the diagnostic tool. In our hypermedia tool, knowledge can be displayed by the means of visual concepts through which one can browse, and navigate. The user still perceives his problem as a whole, which may not be the case with a straight expert system. We demonstrate typical situations in which an event will trigger a chain reasoning leading to the debugging of the problem. The system is not only meant to help a beginner but can conform itself to guide a well trained experimenter. We think that its functionalities and user-friendly interface are very attractive and open new vistas in the way future users may be trained, whether they work in research labs or industrial settings, as it could namely cut down on the time spent for their training.
NERI PROJECT 99-119. TASK 1. ADVANCED CONTROL TOOLS AND METHODS. FINAL REPORT
March-Leuba, J.A.
2002-09-09
designer and become a database of prescribed transients and component failures. The candidate control systems are tested, and their parameters optimized, for each of these stresses. Examples of high-level requirements are: response time less than xx seconds, or overshoot less than xx% ... etc. In mathematical terms, these types of requirements are defined as ''constraints,'' and there are standard mathematical methods to minimize an objective function subject to constraints. Since, in principle, any control design that satisfies all the above constraints is acceptable, the designer must also select an objective function that describes the ''goodness'' of the control design. Examples of objective functions are: minimize the number or amount of control motions, minimize an energy balance... etc.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Remarkable biotechnological advancements have been made in the aquaculture industry in the past five years. Advancements, in areas such as fish vaccines, improved genetic stock, biosecurity tools and alternative protein sources in fish diets, are necessary to meet the rapid growth of the aquacultur...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massat, Jean-Pierre; Laurent, Christophe; Bianchi, Jean-Philippe; Balmès, Etienne
2014-05-01
This paper presents recent developments undertaken by SNCF Innovation & Research Department on numerical modelling of pantograph catenary interaction. It aims at describing an efficient co-simulation process between finite element (FE) and multibody (MB) modelling methods. FE catenary models are coupled with a full flexible MB representation with pneumatic actuation of pantograph. These advanced functionalities allow new kind of numerical analyses such as dynamic improvements based on innovative pneumatic suspensions or assessment of crash risks crossing areas that demonstrate the powerful capabilities of this computing approach.
Advanced techniques in IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossman, Jon L.
2006-04-01
Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.
NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.
2013-01-01
The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.
GenSAA: A tool for advancing satellite monitoring with graphical expert systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, Peter M.; Luczak, Edward C.
1993-01-01
During numerous contacts with a satellite each day, spacecraft analysts must closely monitor real time data for combinations of telemetry parameter values, trends, and other indications that may signify a problem or failure. As satellites become more complex and the number of data items increases, this task is becoming increasingly difficult for humans to perform at acceptable performance levels. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, fault-isolation expert systems have been developed to support data monitoring and fault detection tasks in satellite control centers. Based on the lessons learned during these initial efforts in expert system automation, a new domain-specific expert system development tool named the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) is being developed to facilitate the rapid development and reuse of real-time expert systems to serve as fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although initially domain-specific in nature, this powerful tool will support the development of highly graphical expert systems for data monitoring purposes throughout the space and commercial industry.
Recent advances in developing molecular tools for targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells.
Lim, Kwang-il
2015-01-01
Various biological molecules naturally existing in diversified species including fungi, bacteria, and bacteriophage have functionalities for DNA binding and processing. The biological molecules have been recently actively engineered for use in customized genome editing of mammalian cells as the molecule-encoding DNA sequence information and the underlying mechanisms how the molecules work are unveiled. Excitingly, multiple novel methods based on the newly constructed artificial molecular tools have enabled modifications of specific endogenous genetic elements in the genome context at efficiencies that are much higher than that of the conventional homologous recombination based methods. This minireview introduces the most recently spotlighted molecular genome engineering tools with their key features and ongoing modifications for better performance. Such ongoing efforts have mainly focused on the removal of the inherent DNA sequence recognition rigidity from the original molecular platforms, the addition of newly tailored targeting functions into the engineered molecules, and the enhancement of their targeting specificity. Effective targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells will enable not only sophisticated genetic studies in the context of the genome, but also widely-applicable universal therapeutics based on the pinpointing and correction of the disease-causing genetic elements within the genome in the near future.
Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin
2016-10-01
The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis. PMID:27155864
Development of tools for safety analysis of control software in advanced reactors
Guarro, S.; Yau, M.; Motamed, M.
1996-04-01
Software based control systems have gained a pervasive presence in a wide variety of applications, including nuclear power plant control and protection systems which are within the oversight and licensing responsibility of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. While the cost effectiveness and flexibility of software based plant process control is widely recognized, it is very difficult to achieve and prove high levels of demonstrated dependability and safety assurance for the functions performed by process control software, due to the very flexibility and potential complexity of the software itself. The development of tools to model, analyze and test software design and implementations in the context of the system that the software is designed to control can greatly assist the task of providing higher levels of assurance than those obtainable by software testing alone. This report presents and discusses the development of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) and its application in the dependability and assurance analysis of software-based control systems. The features of the methodology and full-scale examples of application to both generic process and nuclear power plant control systems are presented and discussed in detail. The features of a workstation software tool developed to assist users in the application of DFM are also described.
Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin
2016-10-01
The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis.
Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M
2016-01-01
Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.
Recent advances in developing molecular tools for targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells.
Lim, Kwang-il
2015-01-01
Various biological molecules naturally existing in diversified species including fungi, bacteria, and bacteriophage have functionalities for DNA binding and processing. The biological molecules have been recently actively engineered for use in customized genome editing of mammalian cells as the molecule-encoding DNA sequence information and the underlying mechanisms how the molecules work are unveiled. Excitingly, multiple novel methods based on the newly constructed artificial molecular tools have enabled modifications of specific endogenous genetic elements in the genome context at efficiencies that are much higher than that of the conventional homologous recombination based methods. This minireview introduces the most recently spotlighted molecular genome engineering tools with their key features and ongoing modifications for better performance. Such ongoing efforts have mainly focused on the removal of the inherent DNA sequence recognition rigidity from the original molecular platforms, the addition of newly tailored targeting functions into the engineered molecules, and the enhancement of their targeting specificity. Effective targeted genome engineering of mammalian cells will enable not only sophisticated genetic studies in the context of the genome, but also widely-applicable universal therapeutics based on the pinpointing and correction of the disease-causing genetic elements within the genome in the near future. PMID:25104401
QCanvas: An Advanced Tool for Data Clustering and Visualization of Genomics Data.
Kim, Nayoung; Park, Herin; He, Ningning; Lee, Hyeon Young; Yoon, Sukjoon
2012-12-01
We developed a user-friendly, interactive program to simultaneously cluster and visualize omics data, such as DNA and protein array profiles. This program provides diverse algorithms for the hierarchical clustering of two-dimensional data. The clustering results can be interactively visualized and optimized on a heatmap. The present tool does not require any prior knowledge of scripting languages to carry out the data clustering and visualization. Furthermore, the heatmaps allow the selective display of data points satisfying user-defined criteria. For example, a clustered heatmap of experimental values can be differentially visualized based on statistical values, such as p-values. Including diverse menu-based display options, QCanvas provides a convenient graphical user interface for pattern analysis and visualization with high-quality graphics.
Advances in ion trap mass spectrometry: Photodissociation as a tool for structural elucidation
Stephenson, J.L. Jr.; Booth, M.M.; Eyler, J.R.; Yost, R.A.
1995-12-01
Photo-induced dissociation (PID) is the next most frequently used method (after collisional activation) for activation of Polyatomic ions in tandem mass spectrometry. The range of internal energies present after the photon absorption process are much narrower than those obtained with collisional energy transfer. Therefore, the usefulness of PID for the study of ion structures is greatly enhanced. The long storage times and instrumental configuration of the ion trap mass spectrometer are ideally suited for photodissociation experiments. This presentation will focus on both the fundamental and analytical applications of CO{sub 2} lasers in conjunction with ion trap mass spectrometry. The first portion of this talk will examine the fundamental issues of wavelength dependence, chemical kinetics, photoabsorption cross section, and collisional effects on photodissociation efficiency. The second half of this presentation will look at novel instrumentation for electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry, with the concurrent development of photodissociation as a tool for structural elucidation of organic compounds and antibiotics.
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya
2015-01-01
Active recombinant proteins are used for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. Protein refolding is an important process for obtaining active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, the conventional refolding method of dialysis or dilution is time-consuming and recovered active protein yields are often low, and a cumbersome trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. To circumvent these difficulties, we used controllable diffusion through laminar flow in microchannels to regulate the denaturant concentration. This method largely aims at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This Commentary introduces the principles of the protein refolding method using microfluidic chips and the advantage of our results as a tool for rapid and efficient recovery of active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.
Advanced Prediction of Tool Wear by Taking the Load History into Consideration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ersoy, K.; Nuernberg, G.; Herrmann, G.; Hoffmann, H.
2007-04-01
A disadvantage of the conventional methods of simulating the wear occurring in deep drawing processes is that the wear coefficient, and thus wear too, is considered to be constant along loading duration, which, in case of deep drawing, corresponds to sliding distance and number of punch strokes. However, in reality, it is a known fact that wear development is not constant over time. In former studies, the authors presented a method, which makes it possible to consider the number of punch strokes in the simulation of wear. Another enhancement of this method is introduced in this paper. It is proposed to consider wear as a function of wear work instead of the number of punch strokes. Using this approach, the wear coefficients are implemented as a function of wear work and fully take into account the load history of the respective node. This enhancement makes it possible to apply the variable wear coefficients to completely different geometries, where one punch stroke involves different sliding distance or pressure values than the experiments with which the wear coefficients were determined. In this study, deep drawing experiments with a cylindrical cup geometry were carried out, in which the characteristic wear coefficient values as well as their gradients along the life cycle were determined. In this case, the die was produced via rapid tooling techniques. The prediction of tool wear is carried out with REDSY, a wear simulation software which was developed at the Institute of Metal Forming and Casting, TU-Muenchen. The wear predictions made by this software are based on the results of a conventional deep drawing simulation. For the wear modelling a modified Archard model was used.
Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George
2014-01-01
Purpose To investigate epithelial thickness-distribution characteristics in a large group of keratoconic patients and their correlation to normal eyes employing anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Materials and methods The study group (n=160 eyes) consisted of clinically diagnosed keratoconus eyes; the control group (n=160) consisted of nonkeratoconic eyes. Three separate, three-dimensional epithelial thickness maps were obtained employing AS-OCT, enabling investigation of the pupil center, average, mid-peripheral, superior, inferior, maximum, minimum, and topographic epithelial thickness variability. Intraindividual repeatability of measurements was assessed. We introduced correlation of the epithelial data via newly defined indices. The epithelial thickness indices were then correlated with two Scheimpflug imaging-derived AS-irregularity indices: the index of height decentration, and the index of surface variance highly sensitive to early and advancing keratoconus diagnosis as validation. Results Intraindividual repeatability of epithelial thickness measurement in the keratoconic group was on average 1.67 μm. For the control group, repeatability was on average 1.13 μm. In the keratoconic group, pupil-center epithelial thickness was 51.75±7.02 μm, while maximum and minimum epithelial thickness were 63.54±8.85 μm and 40.73±8.51 μm. In the control group, epithelial thickness at the center was 52.54±3.23 μm, with maximum 55.33±3.27 μm and minimum 48.50±3.98 μm epithelial thickness. Topographic variability was 6.07±3.55 μm in the keratoconic group, while for the control group it was 1.59±0.79 μm. In keratoconus, topographic epithelial thickness change from normal, correlated tightly with the topometric asymmetry indices of IHD and ISV derived from Scheimpflug imaging. Conclusion Simple, OCT-derived epithelial mapping, appears to have critical potential in early and advancing keratoconus diagnosis, confirmed with its correlation
Rider, Lisa G.; Dankó, Katalin; Miller, Frederick W.
2016-01-01
Purpose of review Clinical registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in many studies of diseases, especially rare diseases. Given their rarity and diversity, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, or myositis syndromes, have benefited from individual researchers’ collections of cohorts of patients. Major efforts are being made to establish large registries and biorepositories that will allow many additional studies to be performed that were not possible before. Here we describe the registries developed by investigators and patient support groups that are currently available for collaborative research purposes. Recent findings We have identified 46 myositis research registries, including many with biorepositories, which have been developed for a wide variety of purposes and have resulted in great advances in understanding the range of phenotypes, clinical presentations, risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms, outcome assessment, therapeutic responses, and prognoses. These are now available for collaborative use to undertake additional studies. Two myositis patient registries have been developed for research, and myositis patient support groups maintain demographic registries with large numbers of patients available to be contacted for potential research participation. Summary Investigator-initiated myositis research registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in understanding many aspects of these rare and diverse autoimmune diseases. These registries and biorepositories, in addition to those developed by myositis patient support groups, deserve continued support to maintain the momentum in this field as they offer major opportunities to improve understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases in cost-effective ways. PMID:25225838
Propulsion Simulations Using Advanced Turbulence Models with the Unstructured Grid CFD Tool, TetrUSS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.; Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohangna J.
2004-01-01
A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of TetrUSS for exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study (1) an axisymmetric supersonic jet, (2) a transonic axisymmetric boattail with solid sting operated at different Reynolds number and Mach number, and (3) an isolated non-axisymmetric nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing experimental data provided a means for measuring the ability of TetrUSS for simulating complex nozzle flows. The main objective of this paper is to validate the implementation of advanced two-equation turbulence models in the unstructured-grid CFD code USM3D for propulsion flow cases. USM3D is the flow solver of the TetrUSS system. Three different turbulence models, namely, Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), basic k epsilon, and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) are used in the present study. The results are generally in agreement with other implementations of these models in structured-grid CFD codes. Results indicate that USM3D provides accurate simulations for complex aerodynamic configurations with propulsion integration.
Agarwal, Shweta; Ray, Bhumika; Mehrotra, Ranjana
2015-11-01
We report surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) studies on free calf thymus DNA and its complexes with anti-tumor chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives; semustine and nimustine. Since, first incident of SERS in 1974, it has rapidly established into an analytical tool, which can be used for the trace detection and characterization of analytes. Here, we depict yet another application of SERS in the field of drug-DNA interaction and thereby, its promising role in rational designing of new chemotherapeutic agents. Vibrational spectral analysis has been performed in an attempt to delineate the anti-cancer action mechanism of above mentioned nitrosourea derivatives. Strong SERS bands associated with the complexation of DNA with semustine and nimustine have been observed, which reveal binding of nitrosourea derivatives with heterocyclic nitrogenous base pair of DNA duplex. Formation of dG-dC interstrand cross-link in DNA double helices is also suggested by the SERS spectral outcomes of CENUs-DNA adduct. Results, demonstrated here, reflect recent progress in the newly developing field of drug-DNA interaction analysis via SERS.
Frize, M.; Wang, L.; Ennett, C. M.; Nickerson, B. G.; Solven, F. G.; Stevenson, M.
1998-01-01
An earlier version (2.0) of the case-based reasoning (CBR) tool, called IDEAS for ICU's, allowed users to compare the ten closest matching cases to the newest patient admission, using a large database of intensive care patient records, and physician-selected matching-weights [1,2]. The new version incorporates matching-weights, which have been determined quantitatively. A faster CBR matching engine has also been incorporated into the new CBR. In a second approach, a back-propagation, feed-forward artificial neural network estimated two classes of the outcome "duration of artificial ventilation" for a subset of the database used for the CBR work. Weight-elimination was successfully applied to reduce the number of input variables and speed-up the estimation of outcomes. New experiments examined the impact of using a different number of input variables on the performance of the ANN, measured by correct classification rates (CCR) and the Average Squared Error (ASE). PMID:9929280
STED-FLCS: An Advanced Tool to Reveal Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Molecular Membrane Dynamics.
Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Ta, Haisen; Honigmann, Alf; Mueller, Veronika; Clausen, Mathias P; Waithe, Dominic; Galiani, Silvia; Sezgin, Erdinc; Diaspro, Alberto; Hell, Stefan W; Eggeling, Christian
2015-09-01
Heterogeneous diffusion dynamics of molecules play an important role in many cellular signaling events, such as of lipids in plasma membrane bioactivity. However, these dynamics can often only be visualized by single-molecule and super-resolution optical microscopy techniques. Using fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS, an extension of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS) on a super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope, we here extend previous observations of nanoscale lipid dynamics in the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells. STED-FLCS allows an improved determination of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in molecular diffusion and interaction dynamics via a novel gated detection scheme, as demonstrated by a comparison between STED-FLCS and previous conventional STED-FCS recordings on fluorescent phosphoglycerolipid and sphingolipid analogues in the plasma membrane of live mammalian cells. The STED-FLCS data indicate that biophysical and biochemical parameters such as the affinity for molecular complexes strongly change over space and time within a few seconds. Drug treatment for cholesterol depletion or actin cytoskeleton depolymerization not only results in the already previously observed decreased affinity for molecular interactions but also in a slight reduction of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity. STED-FLCS specifically demonstrates a significant improvement over previous gated STED-FCS experiments and with its improved spatial and temporal resolution is a novel tool for investigating how heterogeneities of the cellular plasma membrane may regulate biofunctionality. PMID:26235350
Lee, Stephen R
2010-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory will review its Computational Physics and Applied Mathematics (CPAM) capabilities in 2010. The goals of capability reviews are to assess the quality of science, technology, and engineering (STE) performed by the capability, evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory and within the scientific community, examine the relevance of this capability to the Laboratory's programs, and provide advice on the current and future directions of this capability. This is the first such review for CPAM, which has a long and unique history at the laboratory, starting from the inception of the Laboratory in 1943. The CPAM capability covers an extremely broad technical area at Los Alamos, encompassing a wide array of disciplines, research topics, and organizations. A vast array of technical disciplines and activities are included in this capability, from general numerical modeling, to coupled mUlti-physics simulations, to detailed domain science activities in mathematics, methods, and algorithms. The CPAM capability involves over 12 different technical divisions and a majority of our programmatic and scientific activities. To make this large scope tractable, the CPAM capability is broken into the following six technical 'themes.' These themes represent technical slices through the CP AM capability and collect critical core competencies of the Laboratory, each of which contributes to the capability (and each of which is divided into multiple additional elements in the detailed descriptions of the themes in subsequent sections): (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics - This theme speaks to the vast array of scientific capabilities for the simulation of fluids under shocks, low-speed flow, and turbulent conditions - which are key, historical, and fundamental strengths of the laboratory; (2) Partial Differential Equations - The technical scope of this theme is the applied mathematics and numerical solution of partial differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brock, J. T.; Utz, R.; McLaughlin, B.
2013-12-01
The STReam Experimental Observatory Network is a large-scale experimental effort that will investigate the effects of eutrophication and loss of large consumers in stream ecosystems. STREON represents the first experimental effort undertaken and supported by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).Two treatments will be applied at 10 NEON sites and maintained for 10 years in the STREON program: the addition of nitrate and phosphate to enrich concentrations by five times ambient levels and electrical fields that exclude top consumers (i.e., fish or invertebrates) of the food web from the surface of buried sediment baskets. Following a 3-5 week period, the sediment baskets will be extracted and incubated in closed, recirculating metabolic chambers to measure rates of respiration, photosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. All STREON-generated data will be open access and available on the NEON web portal. The recirculation chamber represents a critical infrastructural component of STREON. Although researchers have applied such chambers for metabolic and nutrient uptake measurements in the past, the scope of STREON demands a novel design that addresses multiple processes often neglected by earlier models. The STREON recirculation chamber must be capable of: 1) incorporating hyporheic exchange into the flow field to ensure measurements of respiration include the activity of subsurface biota, 2) operating consistently with heterogeneous sediments from sand to cobble, 3) minimizing heat exchange from the motor and external environment, 4) delivering a reproducible uniform flow field over the surface of the sediment basket, and 5) efficient assembly/disassembly with minimal use of tools. The chamber also required a means of accommodating an optical dissolved oxygen probe and a means to inject/extract water. A prototype STREON chamber has been designed and thoroughly tested. The flow field within the chamber has been mapped using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV
Volandes, Angelo E.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Mitchell, Susan L.; El-Jawahri, Areej; Davis, Aretha Delight; Barry, Michael J.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Gillick, Muriel R.; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Chang, Yuchiao; López, Lenny; Kemeny, Margaret; Bulone, Linda; Mann, Eileen; Misra, Sumi; Peachey, Matt; Abbo, Elmer D.; Eichler, April F.; Epstein, Andrew S.; Noy, Ariela; Levin, Tomer T.; Temel, Jennifer S.
2013-01-01
Purpose Decision making regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is challenging. This study examined the effect of a video decision support tool on CPR preferences among patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of 150 patients with advanced cancer from four oncology centers. Participants in the control arm (n = 80) listened to a verbal narrative describing CPR and the likelihood of successful resuscitation. Participants in the intervention arm (n = 70) listened to the identical narrative and viewed a 3-minute video depicting a patient on a ventilator and CPR being performed on a simulated patient. The primary outcome was participants' preference for or against CPR measured immediately after exposure to either modality. Secondary outcomes were participants' knowledge of CPR (score range of 0 to 4, with higher score indicating more knowledge) and comfort with video. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (standard deviation, 11 years); 49% were women, 44% were African American or Latino, and 47% had lung or colon cancer. After the verbal narrative, in the control arm, 38 participants (48%) wanted CPR, 41 (51%) wanted no CPR, and one (1%) was uncertain. In contrast, in the intervention arm, 14 participants (20%) wanted CPR, 55 (79%) wanted no CPR, and 1 (1%) was uncertain (unadjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2; P < .001). Mean knowledge scores were higher in the intervention arm than in the control arm (3.3 ± 1.0 v 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively; P < .001), and 65 participants (93%) in the intervention arm were comfortable watching the video. Conclusion Participants with advanced cancer who viewed a video of CPR were less likely to opt for CPR than those who listened to a verbal narrative. PMID:23233708
Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Balge, Marci Z.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Juerg
2010-01-15
In the developing world, large-scale projects in the extractive industry and natural resources sectors are often controversial and associated with long-term adverse health consequences to local communities. In many industrialised countries, health impact assessment (HIA) has been institutionalized for the mitigation of anticipated negative health effects while enhancing the benefits of projects, programmes and policies. However, in developing country settings, relatively few HIAs have been performed. Hence, more HIAs with a focus on low- and middle-income countries are needed to advance and refine tools and methods for impact assessment and subsequent mitigation measures. We present a promising HIA approach, developed within the frame of a large gold-mining project in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The articulation of environmental health areas, the spatial delineation of potentially affected communities and the use of a diversity of sources to obtain quality baseline health data are utilized for risk profiling. We demonstrate how these tools and data are fed into a risk analysis matrix, which facilitates ranking of potential health impacts for subsequent prioritization of mitigation strategies. The outcomes encapsulate a multitude of environmental and health determinants in a systematic manner, and will assist decision-makers in the development of mitigation measures that minimize potential adverse health effects and enhance positive ones.
Annual Perspectives in Mathematics Education 2016: Mathematical Modeling and Modeling Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirsch, Christian R., Ed.; McDuffie, Amy Roth, Ed.
2016-01-01
Mathematical modeling plays an increasingly important role both in real-life applications--in engineering, business, the social sciences, climate study, advanced design, and more--and within mathematics education itself. This 2016 volume of "Annual Perspectives in Mathematics Education" ("APME") focuses on this key topic from a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayorova, Vera; Mayorov, Kirill
2009-11-01
Current educational system is facing a contradiction between the fundamentality of engineering education and the necessity of applied learning extension, which requires new methods of training to combine both academic and practical knowledge in balance. As a result there are a number of innovations being developed and implemented into the process of education aimed at optimizing the quality of the entire educational system. Among a wide range of innovative educational technologies there is an especially important subset of educational technologies which involve learning through hands-on scientific and technical projects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of educational technologies based on small satellites development as well as the usage of Earth remote sensing data acquired from these satellites. The increase in public attention to the education through Earth remote sensing is based on the concern that although there is a great progress in the development of new methods of Earth imagery and remote sensing data acquisition there is still a big question remaining open on practical applications of this kind of data. It is important to develop the new way of thinking for the new generation of people so they understand that they are the masters of their own planet and they are responsible for its state. They should desire and should be able to use a powerful set of tools based on modern and perspective Earth remote sensing. For example NASA sponsors "Classroom of the Future" project. The Universities Space Research Association in United States provides a mechanism through which US universities can cooperate effectively with one another, with the government, and with other organizations to further space science and technology, and to promote education in these areas. It also aims at understanding the Earth as a system and promoting the role of humankind in the destiny of their own planet. The Association has founded a Journal of Earth System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
Driven by History: Mathematics Education Reform
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Permuth, Steve; Dalzell, Nicole
2013-01-01
The advancement of modern societies is fueled by mathematics, and mathematics education provides the foundation upon which future scientists and engineers will build. Society dictates how mathematics will be taught through the development and implementation of mathematics standards. When examining the progression of these standards, it is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin
2011-01-01
In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…
Integrated network analysis and effective tools in plant systems biology
Fukushima, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nishida, Kozo
2014-01-01
One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1) network visualization tools, (2) pathway analyses, (3) genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4) the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms. PMID:25408696
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
Roles of Computer Technology in the Mathematics Education of the Gifted.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grandgenett, Neal
1991-01-01
This article reviews technological advances in educational computer use and discusses applications for computers as tools, tutors, and tutees in mathematics education of gifted students. Computer-assisted instruction, artificial intelligence, multimedia, numeric processing, computer-aided design, LOGO, robotics, and hypercard software packages are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.
2016-05-01
The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99. 73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.
2016-01-01
The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24-hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24-hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.
Liu, H; Liang, X; Kalbasi, A; Lin, A; Ahn, P; Both, S
2014-06-01
Purpose: Advanced radiotherapy (RT) techniques such as proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) and photon-based volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) have dosimetric advantages in the treatment of head and neck malignancies. However, anatomic or alignment changes during treatment may limit robustness of PBS and VMAT plans. We assess the feasibility of automated deformable registration tools for robustness evaluation in adaptive PBS and VMAT RT of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Methods: We treated 10 patients with bilateral OPC with advanced RT techniques and obtained verification CT scans with physician-reviewed target and OAR contours. We generated 3 advanced RT plans for each patient: proton PBS plan using 2 posterior oblique fields (2F), proton PBS plan using an additional third low-anterior field (3F), and a photon VMAT plan using 2 arcs (Arc). For each of the planning techniques, we forward calculated initial (Ini) plans on the verification scans to create verification (V) plans. We extracted DVH indicators based on physician-generated contours for 2 target and 14 OAR structures to investigate the feasibility of two automated tools (contour propagation (CP) and dose deformation (DD)) as surrogates for routine clinical plan robustness evaluation. For each verification scan, we compared DVH indicators of V, CP and DD plans in a head-to-head fashion using Student's t-test. Results: We performed 39 verification scans; each patient underwent 3 to 6 verification scan. We found no differences in doses to target or OAR structures between V and CP, V and DD, and CP and DD plans across all patients (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Automated robustness evaluation tools, CP and DD, accurately predicted dose distributions of verification (V) plans using physician-generated contours. These tools may be further developed as a potential robustness screening tool in the workflow for adaptive treatment of OPC using advanced RT techniques, reducing the need for physician-generated contours.
Rivas, A; Ayesa, E; Galarza, A; Salterain, A
2001-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical formulation for the optimum design of a new activated sludge WWTP. The WWTP optimum design problem has been formulated as a Mathematical Programming problem, which is solved through a nonlinear optimisation method. The plant model has been based on the ASM1. The minimum volume of the biological reactors and the minimum total cost (including construction and exploitation costs) have been considered as optimisation criteria. Some practical results are also included, using as a case study the design of the second stage of the Galindo-Bilbao WWTP.
Rahnema, Farzad; Garimeela, Srinivas; Ougouag, Abderrafi; Zhang, Dingkang
2013-11-29
This project will develop a 3D, advanced coarse mesh transport method (COMET-Hex) for steady- state and transient analyses in advanced very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). The project will lead to a coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulic (T/H) core simulation tool with fuel depletion capability. The computational tool will be developed in hexagonal geometry, based solely on transport theory without (spatial) homogenization in complicated 3D geometries. In addition to the hexagonal geometry extension, collaborators will concurrently develop three additional capabilities to increase the code’s versatility as an advanced and robust core simulator for VHTRs. First, the project team will develop and implement a depletion method within the core simulator. Second, the team will develop an elementary (proof-of-concept) 1D time-dependent transport method for efficient transient analyses. The third capability will be a thermal hydraulic method coupled to the neutronics transport module for VHTRs. Current advancements in reactor core design are pushing VHTRs toward greater core and fuel heterogeneity to pursue higher burn-ups, efficiently transmute used fuel, maximize energy production, and improve plant economics and safety. As a result, an accurate and efficient neutron transport, with capabilities to treat heterogeneous burnable poison effects, is highly desirable for predicting VHTR neutronics performance. This research project’s primary objective is to advance the state of the art for reactor analysis.
TIMSS Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garden, Robert A.; Lie, Svein; Robitaille, David F.; Angell, Carl; Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka
2006-01-01
Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks was a collaborative venture involving mathematics and physics experts from around the world. The document contains two frameworks for implementing TIMSS Advanced 2008--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics. It also contains…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Thomas A.
1983-01-01
Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)
Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.
2003-09-01
This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kadhi, Tau
2004-01-01
This paper addresses instrumentation design and an ongoing study of an online formative assessment instrument and its effects in pre-college (developmental/remedial) mathematics courses. The use of facet theory and instructional technologies are harmonized to construct and scale an online instrument designed to document student procedures while…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaffe, Louise
2014-01-01
The adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards and Smarter Balanced assessments in mathematics are intended to provide all students in California with the knowledge and skills required to transition from high school to college-level coursework. This implementation will take time. Concurrent with these efforts, policymakers and…
Mathematical E-Learning Using Interactive Mathematics on the Web.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bringslid, Odd
2002-01-01
Explains the use of the Web as an advanced calculator using numeric, graphic, and symbolic mathematics interactively with the development of XML-standard MathML. Suggests that the problem of decreasing achievement in mathematics courses can be solved using interactive and personalized documents on the Web and improve the understanding of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilpatrick, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
What Is Measured in Mathematics Tests? Construct Validity of Curriculum-Based Mathematics Measures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thurber, Robin Schul; Shinn, Mark R.; Smolkowski, Keith
2002-01-01
Mathematics curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) is one tool that has been developed for formative evaluation in mathematics. This study examines what constructs M-CBM actually measures in the context of a range of other mathematics measures. Results indicated that a two-factor model of mathematics where Computation and Applications were distinct…
Research on Mathematics Teachers as Partners in Task Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Keith; Pepin, Birgit
2016-01-01
Mathematical tasks and tools, including tasks in the form of digital tools, are key resources in mathematics teaching and in mathematics teacher education. Even so, the "design" of mathematical tasks is perceived in different ways: sometimes seen as something distinct from the teaching and learning process, and sometimes as integral to…
Making Mathematics Accessible to More Students with SIMMS Integrated Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knighton, Cliff
2002-01-01
A Montana teacher in a very small high school describes how SIMMS Integrated Mathematics has helped students to develop better problem-solving skills and better oral and written communication skills, has contributed to increased student enrollment in a fourth year of high school mathematics, and has taught students to use technology tools in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleiler, Sarah K.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Krajcevski, Milé
2014-01-01
Mathematics teachers play a unique role as experts who provide opportunities for students to engage in the practices of the mathematics community. Proof is a tool essential to the practice of mathematics, and therefore, if teachers are to provide adequate opportunities for students to engage with this tool, they must be able to validate student…
Mathematical Models for Elastic Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villaggio, Piero
1997-10-01
During the seventeenth century, several useful theories of elastic structures emerged, with applications to civil and mechanical engineering problems. Recent and improved mathematical tools have extended applications into new areas such as mathematical physics, geomechanics, and biomechanics. This book offers a critically filtered collection of the most significant theories dealing with elastic slender bodies. It includes mathematical models involving elastic structures that are used to solve practical problems with particular emphasis on nonlinear problems.
Audiovisual Materials in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raab, Joseph A.
This pamphlet lists five thousand current, readily available audiovisual materials in mathematics. These are grouped under eighteen subject areas: Advanced Calculus, Algebra, Arithmetic, Business, Calculus, Charts, Computers, Geometry, Limits, Logarithms, Logic, Number Theory, Probability, Soild Geometry, Slide Rule, Statistics, Topology, and…
New Technologies in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sarmiento, Jorge
An understanding of past technological advancements can help educators understand the influence of new technologies in education. Inventions such as the abacus, logarithms, the slide rule, the calculating machine, computers, and electronic calculators have all found their place in mathematics education. While new technologies can be very useful,…
Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usiskin, Zalman
2015-01-01
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
Mathematical challenges in glacier modeling (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
jouvet, G.
2013-12-01
Many of Earth's glaciers are currently shrinking and it is expected that this trend will continue as global warming progresses. To virtually reproduce the evolution of glaciers and finally to predict their future, one needs to couple models of different disciplines and scales. Indeed, the slow motion of ice is described by fluid mechanics equations while the daily snow precipitations and melting are described by hydrological and climatic models. Less visible, applied mathematics are essential to run such a coupling at two different levels: by solving numerically the underlying equations and by seeking parameters using optimisation methods. This talk aims to make visible the role of mathematics in this area. I will first present a short educational film I have made for the "Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013", which is an introduction to the topic. To go further, solving the mechanical model of ice poses several mathematical challenges due to the complexity of the equations and geometries of glaciers. Then, I will describe some strategies to deal with such difficulties and design robust simulation tools. Finally, I will present some simulations of the largest glacier of the European Alps, the Aletsch glacier. As a less unexpected application, I will show how these results allowed us to make a major advance in a police investigation started in 1926.
Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shahin, Mazen
2010-01-01
In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…
The Mathematics of Global Change
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kreith, Kurt
2011-01-01
This paper is a descriptive and preliminary report on recent efforts to address two questions: 1) Can school mathematics be used to enhance our students' ability to understand their changing world? and 2) What role might computer technology play in this regard? After recounting some of the mathematical tools that led to a better understanding of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2015-01-01
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to…
Symmetry in Mathematics Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dreyfus, Tommy; Eisenberg, Theodore
1989-01-01
Discusses the creed in symmetry and the omnipresence of symmetrical relationships in mathematics and nature, discusses mathematicians' attraction toward looking for symmetrical relationships as an unstated problem-solving heuristic, and shows how symmetry can be used as a didactical tool. (Author/MKR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behling, Robert; Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Völkel, Jörg
2016-04-01
The remote sensing analyses in the BMBF-SPACES collaborative project Geoarchives - Signals of Climate and Landscape Change preserved in Southern African Geoarchives - focuses on the use of recent and upcoming Earth Observation Tools for the study of climate and land use changes and its impact on the ecosystem. It aims at demonstrating the potential of recently available advanced optical remote sensing imagery with its extended spectral coverage and temporal resolution for the identification and mapping of sediment features associated with paleo-environmental archives as well as their recent dynamic. In this study we focus on the analyses of two ecosystems of major interest, the Kalahari salt pans as well as the lagoons at Namibia's west coast, that present high dynamic caused by combined hydrological and surface processes linked to climatic events. Multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent surface dynamic of the salt pans and also provide opportunities to get a detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal development of the coastal lagoons. Furthermore spaceborne hyperspectral analysis can give insight to the current surface mineralogy of the salt pans on a physical basis and provide the intra pan distribution of evaporites. The soils and sediments of the Kalahari salt pans such as the Omongwa pan are a potentially significant storage of global carbon and also function as an important terrestrial climate archive. Thus far the surface distribution of evaporites have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale, but the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. For the salt pan analyses a change detection is applied using the Iterative-reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) method to identify and investigate surface changes based on a Landsat time-series covering the period 1984-2015. Furthermore the current spatial distribution of
Mathematics Knowledge for Understanding and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Putnam, Ralph T.
1987-01-01
Two important aspects of transfer in mathematics learning are the application of mathematical knowledge (MK) to problem solving and the acquisition of more advanced concepts. General assumptions and themes of current cognitive research on mathematics learning in schoolchildren are discussed, focusing on issues facilitating the transfer of MK. (TJH)
Singh, Ravendra; Sahay, Abhishek; Karry, Krizia M; Muzzio, Fernando; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit
2014-10-01
It is desirable for a pharmaceutical final dosage form to be manufactured through a quality by design (QbD)-based approach rather than a quality by testing (QbT) approach. An automatic feedback control system coupled with PAT tools that is part of the QbD paradigm shift, has the potential to ensure that the pre-defined end product quality attributes are met in a time and cost efficient manner. In this work, an advanced hybrid MPC-PID control architecture coupled with real time inline/online monitoring tools and principal components analysis (PCA) based additional supervisory control layer has been proposed for a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process. The advantages of both MPC and PID have been utilized in a hybrid scheme. The control hardware and software integration and implementation of the control system has been demonstrated using feeders and blending unit operation of a continuous tablet manufacturing pilot plant and an NIR based PAT tool. The advanced hybrid MPC-PID control scheme leads to enhanced control loop performance of the critical quality attributes in comparison to a regulatory (e.g. PID) control scheme indicating its potential to improve pharmaceutical product quality. PMID:24974987
A Taxonomy of Software for Mathematics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kurz, Terri L.; Middleton, James A.; Yanik, H. Bahadir
2005-01-01
The potential to use mathematics software to enhance student thinking and development is discussed and a taxonomy of software categories is outlined in this paper. Briefly, there are five categories of tool-based mathematics software that can be used fruitfully in a mathematics curriculum: (a) review and practice, (b) general, (c) specific, (d)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.
2000-01-01
The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huckstep, Peter
2002-01-01
Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flannery, Carol A.
This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prochazka, Helen
2004-01-01
One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…
Using Advanced Monitoring Tools to Evaluate PM PM2.5 2.5 in San Joaquin Valley
One of the primary data deficiencies that prevent the advance of policy relevant research on particulate matter, ozone, and associated precursors is the lack of measurement data and knowledge on the true vertical profile and synoptic-scale spatial distributions of the pollutants....
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.
This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…
Information of urban morphological features at high resolution is needed to properly model and characterize the meteorological and air quality fields in urban areas. We describe a new project called National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool, (NUDAPT) that addresses this nee...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, J. J.; Elkington, S. R.; Schmitt, P.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Baker, D. N.
2012-12-01
Simulation models of the heliospheric and geospace environments can provide key insights into the geoeffective potential of solar disturbances such as Coronal Mass Ejections and High Speed Solar Wind Streams. Analysis and prediction tools for post processing and visualizing simulation results greatly enhance the utility of these models in aiding space weather forecasters to predict the terrestrial consequences of these events. The Center For Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) Knowledge Transfer (KT) group is making significant progress on an integrated post-processing and analysis and prediction tool based on the ParaView open source visualization application for space weather prediction. These tools will provide space weather forecasters with the ability to use 3D situational awareness of the solar wind, CME, and eventually the geospace environments. Current work focuses on bringing new 3D analysis and prediction tools for the Enlil heliospheric model to space weather forecasters. In this effort we present a ParaView-based model interface that will provide forecasters with an interactive system for analyzing complete 3D datasets from modern space weather models.
Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2015-01-01
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved.
Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2015-01-01
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871
Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2015-01-01
There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dalton, Ben; Ingels, Steven J.; Downing, Jane; Bozick, Robert
2007-01-01
While increased academic requirements for high school graduation have long been advocated, current research shows a mixed record in mathematics and science achievement among American middle and high school students relative to some of their international peers. In response to these concerns and other calls for reform, states have increased the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fry, Dale Eugene
College students' performance in their first two calculus-level mathematics courses was studied by comparing students skipping, on any basis, one or more courses in the regular calculus sequence and students reaching these same courses through the regular sequence. Those skipping via CEEB AP and those skipping for any other reason were also…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burt, Stacey M.
The problem addressed in this project is the lack of mathematically gifted females choosing to pursue advanced science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in secondary education due to deficiencies in self-efficacy. The purpose of this project was to study the effects of a child-guided robotics program as it relates to the self-efficacy of mathematically gifted 6th grade female students and their future course choices in the advanced STEM content areas. This mixed-model study utilized a STEM attitude survey, artifacts, interviews, field notes, and standardized tests as measurement tools. Significance was found between genders in the treatment group for the standardized science scores, indicating closure in the achievement gap. Research suggests that STEM enrichment is beneficial for mathematically gifted females.
A mathematical applications into the cells
Tiwari, Manjul
2012-01-01
Biology has become the new “physics” of mathematics, one of the areas of greatest mathematical applications. In turn, mathematics has provided powerful tools and metaphors to approach the astonishing complexity of biological systems. This has allowed the development of sound theoretical frameworks. Here, in this review article, some of the most significant contributions of mathematics to biology, ranging from population genetics, to developmental biology, and to networks of species interactions are summarized. PMID:22690046
Soloperto, Alessandro; Palazzolo, Gemma; Tsushima, Hanako; Chieregatti, Evelina; Vassalli, Massimo; Difato, Francesco
2016-01-01
Current optical approaches are progressing far beyond the scope of monitoring the structure and function of living matter, and they are becoming widely recognized as extremely precise, minimally-invasive, contact-free handling tools. Laser manipulation of living tissues, single cells, or even single-molecules is becoming a well-established methodology, thus founding the onset of new experimental paradigms and research fields. Indeed, a tightly focused pulsed laser source permits complex tasks such as developing engineered bioscaffolds, applying calibrated forces, transfecting, stimulating, or even ablating single cells with subcellular precision, and operating intracellular surgical protocols at the level of single organelles. In the present review, we report the state of the art of laser manipulation in neuroscience, to inspire future applications of light-assisted tools in nano-neurosurgery. PMID:27013962
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCammon, Richard B.
1979-01-01
The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardner, Martin
1978-01-01
Describes the life and work of Charles Peirce, U.S. mathematician and philosopher. His accomplishments include contributions to logic, the foundations of mathematics and scientific method, and decision theory and probability theory. (MA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordal Petersen, Martin; Nuijts, Roeland; Lange Bjørn, Lars
2014-05-01
This article presents an advanced optical model for simulation of alien wavelengths in multi-domain and multi-vendor dense wavelength-division multiplexing networks. The model aids optical network planners with a better understanding of the non-linear effects present in dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems and better utilization of alien wavelengths in future applications. The limiting physical effects for alien wavelengths are investigated in relation to power levels, channel spacing, and other factors. The simulation results are verified through experimental setup in live multi-domain dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems between two national research networks: SURFnet in Holland and NORDUnet in Denmark.
Gaber, David; Schlimm, Dirk
2015-01-01
Mathematics is a powerful tool for describing and developing our knowledge of the physical world. It informs our understanding of subjects as diverse as music, games, science, economics, communications protocols, and visual arts. Mathematical thinking has its roots in the adaptive behavior of living creatures: animals must employ judgments about quantities and magnitudes in the assessment of both threats (how many foes) and opportunities (how much food) in order to make effective decisions, and use geometric information in the environment for recognizing landmarks and navigating environments. Correspondingly, cognitive systems that are dedicated to the processing of distinctly mathematical information have developed. In particular, there is evidence that certain core systems for understanding different aspects of arithmetic as well as geometry are employed by humans and many other animals. They become active early in life and, particularly in the case of humans, develop through maturation. Although these core systems individually appear to be quite limited in application, in combination they allow for the recognition of mathematical properties and the formation of appropriate inferences based upon those properties. In this overview, the core systems, their roles, their limitations, and their interaction with external representations are discussed, as well as possibilities for how they can be employed together to allow us to reason about more complex mathematical domains. PMID:26263425
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacklin, Stephen; Schumann, Johann; Gupta, Pramod; Richard, Michael; Guenther, Kurt; Soares, Fola
2005-01-01
Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable automatic flight control and vehicle recovery, autonomous flight, and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments. In order for adaptive control systems to be used in safety-critical aerospace applications, they must be proven to be highly safe and reliable. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification and validation must be developed to ensure that control system software failures will not occur. Of central importance in this regard is the need to establish reliable methods that guarantee convergent learning, rapid convergence (learning) rate, and algorithm stability. This paper presents the major problems of adaptive control systems that use learning to improve performance. The paper then presents the major procedures and tools presently developed or currently being developed to enable the verification, validation, and ultimate certification of these adaptive control systems. These technologies include the application of automated program analysis methods, techniques to improve the learning process, analytical methods to verify stability, methods to automatically synthesize code, simulation and test methods, and tools to provide on-line software assurance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen
2016-01-01
Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Kris; Emerson, Allen
2008-01-01
The first part of this two-part paper [see EJ787497] described the development of a new freshman business mathematics (FBM) course at our college. In this paper, we discuss our assessment tool, the business memo, as a venue for students to apply mathematical skills, via mathematical modelling, to realistic business problems. These memos have…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warnick, Bryan R.; Stemhagen, Kurt
2007-01-01
Mathematics educators often fail to see that their subject has social and ethical dimensions. If anything, mathematics is seen as a neutral tool that has a social dimension only because it can be used to solve social problems. This study critically examines this idea by arguing that, although school mathematics is indeed a technology, technology…
Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views on the Role of Technology in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Habre, Samer; Grundmeier, Todd A.
2007-01-01
It is important for future teachers of mathematics to distinguish between technology as course content to be taught and technology as a teaching tool. This exploratory study examines prospective teachers' views of the role of technology in mathematics education before, during, and after their experience in a mathematics class that focused on…
Mathematical wit and mathematical cognition.
Aberdein, Andrew
2013-04-01
The published works of scientists often conceal the cognitive processes that led to their results. Scholars of mathematical practice must therefore seek out less obvious sources. This article analyzes a widely circulated mathematical joke, comprising a list of spurious proof types. An account is proposed in terms of argumentation schemes: stereotypical patterns of reasoning, which may be accompanied by critical questions itemizing possible lines of defeat. It is argued that humor is associated with risky forms of inference, which are essential to creative mathematics. The components of the joke are explicated by argumentation schemes devised for application to topic-neutral reasoning. These in turn are classified under seven headings: retroduction, citation, intuition, meta-argument, closure, generalization, and definition. Finally, the wider significance of this account for the cognitive science of mathematics is discussed. PMID:23512504
TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.
2014-01-01
The "TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks" provides the foundation for the two international assessments to take place as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) Advanced 2015--Advanced Mathematics and Physics. Chapter 1 (Liv…
Appourchaux, Kevin; Dokmak, Safi; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Treton, Xavier; Lapalus, Martine; Gattolliat, Charles-Henry; Porchet, Emmanuelle; Martinot-Peignoux, Michelle; Boyer, Nathalie; Vidaud, Michel; Bedossa, Pierre; Marcellin, Patrick; Bièche, Ivan; Estrabaud, Emilie; Asselah, Tarik
2016-01-01
Staging fibrosis is crucial for the prognosis and to determine the rapid need of treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC). The expression of 13 fibrosis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-20a, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-29a, miR-29c, miR-92a, miR-122, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-224) was analyzed in 194 serums and 177 liver biopsies of patients with either CHB or CHC to develop models to diagnose advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (Metavir F3-F4). In CHB patients, the model (serum miR-122, serum miR-222, platelet count and alkaline phosphatase) was more accurate than APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between mild and moderate fibrosis (F1-F2) and F3-F4 (AUC of CHB model: 0.85 vs APRI: 0.70 and FIB-4: 0.81). In CHC patients, the model (hepatic miR-122, hepatic miR-224, platelet count, albumin and alanine aminotransferase) was more accurate than both APRI and FIB-4 to discriminate in between patients with F3-F4 and F1-F2 (AUC of the CHC model = 0.93 vs APRI: 0.86 and FIB-4: 0.79). Most of the miRNAs tested were differentially expressed in patients with CHB and CHC. In particular, serum miR-122 was 28-fold higher in patients with CHB than in those with CHC. Both CHB and CHC models may help for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis (F3-F4). PMID:27731343
Naqvi, S
2014-06-15
Purpose: Most medical physics programs emphasize proficiency in routine clinical calculations and QA. The formulaic aspect of these calculations and prescriptive nature of measurement protocols obviate the need to frequently apply basic physical principles, which, therefore, gradually decay away from memory. E.g. few students appreciate the role of electron transport in photon dose, making it difficult to understand key concepts such as dose buildup, electronic disequilibrium effects and Bragg-Gray theory. These conceptual deficiencies manifest when the physicist encounters a new system, requiring knowledge beyond routine activities. Methods: Two interactive computer simulation tools are developed to facilitate deeper learning of physical principles. One is a Monte Carlo code written with a strong educational aspect. The code can “label” regions and interactions to highlight specific aspects of the physics, e.g., certain regions can be designated as “starters” or “crossers,” and any interaction type can be turned on and off. Full 3D tracks with specific portions highlighted further enhance the visualization of radiation transport problems. The second code calculates and displays trajectories of a collection electrons under arbitrary space/time dependent Lorentz force using relativistic kinematics. Results: Using the Monte Carlo code, the student can interactively study photon and electron transport through visualization of dose components, particle tracks, and interaction types. The code can, for instance, be used to study kerma-dose relationship, explore electronic disequilibrium near interfaces, or visualize kernels by using interaction forcing. The electromagnetic simulator enables the student to explore accelerating mechanisms and particle optics in devices such as cyclotrons and linacs. Conclusion: The proposed tools are designed to enhance understanding of abstract concepts by highlighting various aspects of the physics. The simulations serve as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dae Jong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Kim, Chul Hong; Lee, Hak Kwon; Kim, Sung Su; Bae, Koon Ho; Spielberg, Hedvi; Lee, Yun Ho; Levi, Shimon; Bustan, Yariv; Rozentsvige, Moshe
2010-03-01
As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) have a dramatic effect on printed final lines and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, layer stack thickness, composition variations, and exposure variations. Process variations, in advanced VLSI production designs, specifically in memory devices, attributed to CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations. These variations significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or OCD metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time to set and cover only selected points of wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials and Hynix Semiconductor Inc. on the implementation of a complementary method to the CDSEM and OCD tools, to monitor defect density and post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM) is based on measuring variations in the scattered light from periodic structures. The application is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV bright field (BF) wafer inspection tool under optimized illumination and collection conditions. The UVisionTM has already passed a successful feasibility study on DRAM products with 66nm and 54nm design rules. The tool has shown high sensitivity to variations across an FEM wafer in both exposure and focus axes. In this article we show how PVM can help detection of Field to Field variations on DRAM wafers with 44nm design rule during normal production run. The complex die layout and the shrink in cell dimensions require high sensitivity to local variations within Dies or Fields. During normal scan of production wafers local Process variations are translated into GL (Grey Level) values
Schlimm, Dirk
2013-04-01
This article looks at recent work in cognitive science on mathematical cognition from the perspective of history and philosophy of mathematical practice. The discussion is focused on the work of Lakoff and Núñez, because this is the first comprehensive account of mathematical cognition that also addresses advanced mathematics and its history. Building on a distinction between mathematics as it is presented in textbooks and as it presents itself to the researcher, it is argued that the focus of cognitive analyses of historical developments of mathematics has been primarily on the former, even if they claim to be about the latter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pagar, Dana
2013-01-01
Manipulatives have the potential to be powerful tools in helping children improve their number sense, develop advanced mathematical strategies, and build an understanding of the base ten number system. Physical manipulatives used in classrooms, however, are often not designed to promote efficient strategy use, such as counting on, and typically do…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational speciality areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.
This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…
Mathematical modeling in soil science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarquis, Ana M.; Gasco, Gabriel; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Méndez, Ana; Andina, Diego; Sánchez, M. Elena; Moratiel, Rubén; Antón, Jose Manuel
2015-04-01
Teaching in context can be defined as teaching a mathematical idea or process by using a problem, situation, or data to enhance the teaching and learning process. The same problem or situation may be used many times, at different mathematical levels to teach different objectives. A common misconception exists that assigning/teaching applications is teaching in context. While both use problems, the difference is in timing, in purpose, and in student outcome. In this work, one problem situation is explored thoroughly at different levels of understanding and other ideas are suggested for classroom explorations. Some teachers, aware of the difficulties some students have with mathematical concepts, try to teach quantitative sciences without using mathematical tools. Such attempts are not usually successful. The answer is not in discarding the mathematics, but in finding ways to teach mathematically-based concepts to students who need them but who find them difficult. The computer is an ideal tool for this purpose. To this end, teachers of the Soil Science and Mathematics Departments of the UPM designed a common practice to teach to the students the role of soil on the carbon sequestration. The objective of this work is to explain the followed steps to the design of the practice. Acknowledgement Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) for the Projects in Education Innovation IE12_13-02009 and IE12_13-02012 is gratefully acknowledge.
In Focus...Mathematics, History, Ethnomathematics and Education: A Comprehensive Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Ambrosio, Ubiratan
1999-01-01
Discusses the nature of mathematics, the goals of education, and the political dimension of mathematics. Considers ethnomathematics, the history of mathematics, and advances in ethnomathematics. Proposes a new conception of curriculum. (ASK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berryman, Sue E.
This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…
Assoufid, Lahsen; Shi, Xianbo; Marathe, Shashidhara; Benda, Erika; Wojcik, Michael J; Lang, Keenan; Xu, Ruqing; Liu, Wenjun; Macrander, Albert T; Tischler, Jon Z
2016-05-01
We developed a portable X-ray grating interferometer setup as a standard tool for testing optics at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 1-BM. The interferometer can be operated in phase-stepping, Moiré, or single-grating harmonic imaging mode with 1-D or 2-D gratings. All of the interferometer motions are motorized; hence, it is much easier and quicker to switch between the different modes of operation. A novel aspect of this new instrument is its designed portability. While the setup is designed to be primarily used as a standard tool for testing optics at 1-BM, it could be potentially deployed at other APS beamlines for beam coherence and wavefront characterization or imaging. The design of the interferometer system is described in detail and coherence measurements obtained at the APS 34-ID-E beamline are presented. The coherence was probed in two directions using a 2-D checkerboard, a linear, and a circular grating at X-ray energies of 8 keV, 11 keV, and 18 keV.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hadlock, Charles R
2013-01-01
The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Catterton, Gene; And Others
This material was developed to be used with the non college-bound student in the senior high school. It provides the student with everyday problems and experiences in which practical mathematical applications are made. The package includes worksheets pertaining to letterhead invoices, sales slips, payroll sheets, inventory sheets, carpentry and…
Mathematical models of hysteresis
1998-08-01
The ongoing research has largely been focused on the development of mathematical models of hysteretic nonlinearities with nonlocal memories. The distinct feature of these nonlinearities is that their current states depend on past histories of input variations. It turns out that memories of hysteretic nonlinearities are quite selective. Indeed, experiments show that only some past input extrema (not the entire input variations) leave their marks upon future states of hysteretic nonlinearities. Thus special mathematical tools are needed in order to describe nonlocal selective memories of hysteretic nonlinearities. The origin of such tools can be traced back to the landmark paper of Preisach. Their research has been primarily concerned with Preisach-type models of hysteresis. All these models have a common generic feature; they are constructed as superpositions of simplest hysteretic nonlinearities-rectangular loops. During the past four years, the study has been by and large centered around the following topics: (1) further development of Scalar and vector Preisach-type models of hysteresis; (2) experimental testing of Preisach-type models of hysteresis; (3) development of new models for viscosity (aftereffect) in hysteretic systems; (4) development of mathematical models for superconducting hysteresis in the case of gradual resistive transitions; (5) software implementation of Preisach-type models of hysteresis; and (6) development of new ideas which have emerged in the course of the research work. The author briefly describes the main scientific results obtained in the areas outlined above.
Escher, Beate I; Lawrence, Michael; Macova, Miroslava; Mueller, Jochen F; Poussade, Yvan; Robillot, Cedric; Roux, Annalie; Gernjak, Wolfgang
2011-06-15
Advanced water treatment of secondary treated effluent requires stringent quality control to achieve a water quality suitable for augmenting drinking water supplies. The removal of micropollutants such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCP) is paramount. As the concentrations of individual contaminants are typically low, frequent analytical screening is both laborious and costly. We propose and validate an approach for continuous monitoring by applying passive sampling with Empore disks in vessels that were designed to slow down the water flow, and thus uptake kinetics, and ensure that the uptake is only marginally dependent on the chemicals' physicochemical properties over a relatively narrow molecular size range. This design not only assured integrative sampling over 27 days for a broad range of chemicals but also permitted the use of a suite of bioanalytical tools as sum parameters, representative of mixtures of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Bioassays proved to be more sensitive than chemical analysis to assess the removal of organic micropollutants by reverse osmosis, followed by UV/H₂O₂ treatment, as many individual compounds fell below the quantification limit of chemical analysis, yet still contributed to the observed mixture toxicity. Nonetheless in several cases, the responses in the bioassays were also below their quantification limits and therefore only three bioassays were evaluated here, representing nonspecific toxicity and two specific end points for estrogenicity and photosynthesis inhibition. Chemical analytical techniques were able to quantify 32 pesticides, 62 PCPPs, and 12 EDCs in reverse osmosis concentrate. However, these chemicals could explain only 1% of the nonspecific toxicity in the Microtox assay in the reverse osmosis concentrate and 0.0025% in the treated water. Likewise only 1% of the estrogenic effect in the E-SCREEN could be
Escher, Beate I; Lawrence, Michael; Macova, Miroslava; Mueller, Jochen F; Poussade, Yvan; Robillot, Cedric; Roux, Annalie; Gernjak, Wolfgang
2011-06-15
Advanced water treatment of secondary treated effluent requires stringent quality control to achieve a water quality suitable for augmenting drinking water supplies. The removal of micropollutants such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCP) is paramount. As the concentrations of individual contaminants are typically low, frequent analytical screening is both laborious and costly. We propose and validate an approach for continuous monitoring by applying passive sampling with Empore disks in vessels that were designed to slow down the water flow, and thus uptake kinetics, and ensure that the uptake is only marginally dependent on the chemicals' physicochemical properties over a relatively narrow molecular size range. This design not only assured integrative sampling over 27 days for a broad range of chemicals but also permitted the use of a suite of bioanalytical tools as sum parameters, representative of mixtures of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Bioassays proved to be more sensitive than chemical analysis to assess the removal of organic micropollutants by reverse osmosis, followed by UV/H₂O₂ treatment, as many individual compounds fell below the quantification limit of chemical analysis, yet still contributed to the observed mixture toxicity. Nonetheless in several cases, the responses in the bioassays were also below their quantification limits and therefore only three bioassays were evaluated here, representing nonspecific toxicity and two specific end points for estrogenicity and photosynthesis inhibition. Chemical analytical techniques were able to quantify 32 pesticides, 62 PCPPs, and 12 EDCs in reverse osmosis concentrate. However, these chemicals could explain only 1% of the nonspecific toxicity in the Microtox assay in the reverse osmosis concentrate and 0.0025% in the treated water. Likewise only 1% of the estrogenic effect in the E-SCREEN could be
Hyman, J.; Beyer, W.; Louck, J.; Metropolis, N.
1996-07-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Group theoretical methods are a powerful tool both in their applications to mathematics and to physics. The broad goal of this project was to use such methods to develop the implications of group (symmetry) structures underlying models of physical systems, as well as to broaden the understanding of simple models of chaotic systems. The main thrust was to develop further the complex mathematics that enters into many-particle quantum systems with special emphasis on the new directions in applied mathematics that have emerged and continue to surface in these studies. In this area, significant advances in understanding the role of SU(2) 3nj-coefficients in SU(3) theory have been made and in using combinatoric techniques in the study of generalized Schur functions, discovered during this project. In the context of chaos, the study of maps of the interval and the associated theory of words has led to significant discoveries in Galois group theory, to the classification of fixed points, and to the solution of a problem in the classification of DNA sequences.
A study of the Teachers` Academy for Mathematics and Science
Brett, B.; Scheirer, M.A.; Raizen, S.
1994-09-15
The Teachers` Academy for Mathematics and Science in Chicago (TAMS) is a freestanding institution founded in 1989 by scientists and a variety of other stakeholders, to advance the systemic reform of mathematics and science education in Chicago`s public schools. It focuses on the ``re-tooling`` of its elementary level teachers. The TAMS program, which has been funded in part by the DOE, contributes to strategic goals two through five of the Office of University and Science Education (OUSE). This evaluation of TAMS by the National Center for Improving Science Education is primarily a qualitative study that summarizes the history and current status of the organization and its programs. Data was obtained through extensive interviews, observations, and document review, using a framework of templates to guide data collection and analyses. The findings are organized around a series of lessons learned from the first three years of TAMS and conclusions about its current status.
J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin
1999-07-31
This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.
Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gary City Public School System, IN.
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…
Mathematical Modeling of Electronic Devices and Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, B. P.; Singh, Meena; Roy, Sanjay Kumar
2010-11-01
The necessity of modeling lies in the nature of technology and its advancement. The modeling minimizes time and cost of the process involved. The mathematical model provides an insight into the behavior of the physical system that reduces the problem to its essential characteristics. The floating admittance matrix (FAM) approach is an elegant method of mathematical modeling of electronic devices and circuits.
Technology in K-12 Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozel, Serkan; Yetkiner, Zeynep Ebrar; Capraro, Robert M.
2008-01-01
Technology integration in mathematics classrooms is important to the field of education, not only because today's society is becoming more and more advanced and reliant upon technology but also because schools are beginning to embrace technology as an essential part of their curricula. The Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (National…
Mathematical Rigor in the Common Core
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin
2013-01-01
A whirlwind of activity surrounds the topic of teaching and learning mathematics. The driving forces are a combination of changes in assessment and advances in technology that are being spurred on by the introduction of content in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice. Although the issues are certainly complex, the same forces…
The Myth of Objectivity in Mathematics Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romagnano, Lew
2001-01-01
Investigates meaningful assessment to give teachers information on students' understanding of mathematical ideas and how their understanding changes over time. Presents examples collected from a teacher-made quiz, the Advanced Placement calculus test, and the SAT-I Mathematics test. Illustrates both the inherent subjectivity of these methods and…
Using the Wonder of Inequalities between Averages for Mathematics Problems Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaanan, Rachel Mogilevsky; Gordon, Moshe Stupel
2016-01-01
The study presents an introductory idea of using mathematical averages as a tool for enriching mathematical problem solving. Throughout students' activities, a research was conducted on their ability to solve mathematical problems, and how to cope with a variety of mathematical tasks, in a variety of ways, using the skills, tools and experiences…
Science and Mathematics in Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woolack, Edward
2009-01-01
A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.
Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain
2012-01-01
The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Threet, Grady E.; Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.
2012-01-01
The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) Launch Vehicle Team at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is recognized throughout NASA for launch vehicle conceptual definition and pre-phase A concept design evaluation. The Launch Vehicle Team has been instrumental in defining the vehicle trade space for many of NASA s high level launch system studies from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) through the Augustine Report, Constellation, and now Space Launch System (SLS). The Launch Vehicle Team s approach to rapid turn-around and comparative analysis of multiple launch vehicle architectures has played a large role in narrowing the design options for future vehicle development. Recently the Launch Vehicle Team has been developing versions of their vetted tools used on large launch vehicles and repackaged the process and capability to apply to smaller more responsive launch vehicles. Along this development path the LV Team has evaluated trajectory tools and assumptions against sounding rocket trajectories and air launch systems, begun altering subsystem mass estimating relationships to handle smaller vehicle components, and as an additional development driver, have begun an in-house small launch vehicle study. With the recent interest in small responsive launch systems and the known capability and response time of the ACO LV Team, ACO s launch vehicle assessment capability can be utilized to rapidly evaluate the vast and opportune trade space that small launch vehicles currently encompass. This would provide a great benefit to the customer in order to reduce that large trade space to a select few alternatives that should best fit the customer s payload needs.
Using Maxima in the Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael
2011-01-01
Coming from the Macsyma system and adapted to the Common Lisp standard, Maxima can be regarded as a tool for a frequent use in the mathematics classroom. The main aim of this work is to show some possibilities of Maxima and its graphical interface through our experience as Mathematics teachers in Business degrees, although it can be easily spread…
Electromagnetic Concepts in Mathematical Representation of Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Albe, Virginie; Venturini, Patrice; Lascours, Jean
2001-01-01
Addresses the use of mathematics when studying the physics of electromagnetism. Focuses on common electromagnetic concepts and their associated mathematical representation and arithmetical tools. Concludes that most students do not understand the significant aspects of physical situations and have difficulty using relationships and models specific…
Publishing Mathematics on the World Wide Web.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Majewski, Mirek
1999-01-01
Shows how mathematical concepts can be displayed on World Wide Web pages. Discusses HTML; embedding mathematical formulae into text as pictures; the use of word-processing tools; MathML, a version of HTML for math; IBM Techexplorer, a browser plug-in; and Java applets. (Author/LRW)
Opening Mathematics Texts: Resisting the Seduction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, David
2012-01-01
This analysis of the writing in a grade 7 mathematics textbook distinguishes between closed texts and open texts, which acknowledge multiple possibilities. I use tools that have recently been applied in mathematics contexts, focussing on grammatical features that include personal pronouns, modality, and types of imperatives, as well as on…
Mining Mathematics through the Internet!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynes, Kristine
1997-01-01
Describes the use of the Internet to investigate mathematical problems, create and share information, discover patterns and relationships, and find out more about the world. This unit investigates pet ownership and introduces children to telecommunications, the use of the computer as a tool, and scientific research methods. Other units address…
Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant
2016-01-01
Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…
Edwards, A W F
2011-03-01
Ernst Mayr called the first part of the evolutionary synthesis the 'Fisherian synthesis' on account of the dominant role played by R.A. Fisher in forging a mathematical theory of natural selection together with J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright in the decade 1922-1932. It is here argued that Fisher's contribution relied on a close reading of Darwin's work to a much greater extent than did the contributions of Haldane and Wright, that it was synthetic in contrast to their analytic approach and that it was greatly influenced by his friendship with the Darwin family, particularly with Charles's son Leonard. PMID:21423339
Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model
Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V.
2016-01-01
Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods. PMID:27387139
Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.
Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V
2016-01-01
Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods. PMID:27387139
Mathematics Majors' Beliefs about Proof Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo
2014-01-01
We argue that mathematics majors learn little from the proofs they read in their advanced mathematics courses because these students and their teachers have different perceptions about students' responsibilities when reading a mathematical proof. We used observations from a qualitative study where 28 undergraduates were observed evaluating…
Mathematics in Literature and Cinema: An Interdisciplinary Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chabrán, H. Rafael; Kozek, Mark
2016-01-01
We describe our team-taught, interdisciplinary course "Numb3rs in Lett3rs & Fi1ms: Mathematics in Literature and Cinema," which explores mathematics in the context of modern literature and cinema. Our goal with this course is to advance collaborations between mathematics and the written/theatre-based creative arts.
High School Mathematics Preparation and Sex Differences in Quantitative Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Wolf, Virginia A.
1981-01-01
On six mathematical subtests studied, males scored higher plus took significantly more algebra, geometry, advanced mathematics, and physics coursework. Females earned higher overall mathematics grades. After statistically controlling for the amount of coursework taken, sex differences disappeared on two quantitative tests and on spatial ability.…
Specialized Mathematics Courses, Secondary Level: Learning Objectives, Scope and Sequence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehigh County Community Coll., Schnecksville, PA.
In this document, detailed objectives for the following courses are listed: Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Trigonometry, Analytic Geometry, Advanced Mathematics, Personal Business Mathematics, and Business Mathematics. Each objective is keyed to an expected level of achievement: awareness, knowledge, application, mastery, reinforcement, and…
Trying out Acceleration for Mathematically Talented Fifth Graders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maggio, M. Raine; Sayler, Micheal
2013-01-01
Parents and schools often notice the need for addressing advanced mathematical performance in elementary students. Many gifted programs do not offer differentiated or accelerated mathematics as part of their elementary school options. In this report, the efforts of one school system to identify and serve the needs of highly mathematically able…
Mathematics in chemistry: indeterminate forms and their meaning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segurado, Manuel A. P.; Silva, Margarida F. B.; Castro, Rita
2011-07-01
The mathematical language and its tools are complementary to the formalism in chemistry, in particular at an advanced level. It is thus crucial, for its understanding, that students acquire a solid knowledge in Calculus and that they know how to apply it. The frequent occurrence of indeterminate forms in multiple areas, particularly in Physical Chemistry, justifies the need to properly understand the limiting process in such cases. This article emphasizes the importance of the L'Hôpital's rule as a practical tool, although often neglected, to obtain the more common indeterminate limits, through the use of some specific examples as the radioactive decay, spectrophotometric error, Planck's radiation law, second-order kinetics, or consecutive reactions.
A Guide to Teaching Mathematics in the Primary Grades.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baroody, Arthur J.
This book was written as a tool to help teachers of prekindergarten to grade 3 make use of recent developments in the cognitive psychology of mathematical learning. Chapters included are: (1) "The Nature of Children's Mathematical Thinking"; (2) "Designing Effective Mathematics Instruction"; (3) "Oral Counting"; (4) "Numbering"; (5) "Numerical…
Reflections on a Technology-Rich Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodges, Thomas E.; Conner, Elizabeth
2011-01-01
Integrating technology into the mathematics classroom means more than just new teaching tools--it is an opportunity to redefine what it means to teach and learn mathematics. Yet deciding when a particular form of technology may be appropriate for a specific mathematics topic can be difficult. Such decisions center on what is commonly being…
Conducting an External Review of a Mathematics Program and Department
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riley, Kyle
2003-01-01
The Mathematical Association of America Guidelines for Programs and Departments in Undergraduate Mathematical Sciences recommends the use of a periodic external review as an assessment tool to evaluate the mathematics program and the department. However, there is surprisingly little information on how to conduct an external review for a…
Lexicography and Mathematics Learning: A Case Study of "Variable."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frawley, William
1992-01-01
Lexicography is shown to offer some useful new tools to researchers in mathematics education. The paper examines the relationship between the sublanguage of mathematics and the acquisition of mathematical knowledge, and also the use of definitions in research and curriculum design. An Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary is advocated for improving…
Constructing Meanings of Mathematical Registers Using Metaphorical Reasoning and Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lai, Mun Yee
2013-01-01
Current debates about successful mathematics pedagogy suggest that mathematical learning and problem solving can be enhanced by using metaphors as they provide students with a tool for thinking. But assisting pre-service teachers to understand the importance of careful and accurate explanations for mathematical concepts remains an issue. This…
Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
2010-01-01
The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…
Addressing Continuing Mathematical Deficiencies with Advanced Mathematical Diagnostic Testing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carr, Michael; Murphy, Eoin; Bowe, Brian; Ni Fhloinn, Eabhnat
2013-01-01
Dublin Institute of Technology offers students a number of different routes into engineering, allowing many non-standard entrants the opportunity to study the discipline provided they fulfil certain criteria. The final aim of many of these students is to achieve an Honours Degree in Engineering, which takes a minimum of 4 years. Apart from the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.
2015-12-01
Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from
Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.
2014-01-01
Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…
Singh, Randolph R; Lester, Yaal; Linden, Karl G; Love, Nancy G; Atilla-Gokcumen, G Ekin; Aga, Diana S
2015-03-01
The efficiency of wastewater treatment systems in removing pharmaceuticals is often assessed on the basis of the decrease in the concentration of the parent compound. However, what is perceived as "removal" during treatment may not necessarily mean mineralization of the pharmaceutical compound but simply conversion into different transformation products (TPs). Using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QToF-MS), we demonstrated conversion of iopromide in wastewater to at least 14 TPs after an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using UV (fluence = 1500 mJ/cm(2)) and H2O2 (10 mg/L). Due to the complexity of the wastewater matrix, the initial experiments were performed using a high concentration (10 mg/L) of iopromide in order to facilitate the identification of TPs. Despite the high concentration of iopromide used, cursory inspection of UV and mass spectra only revealed four TPs in the chromatograms of the post-AOP samples. However, the use of METLIN database and statistics-based profiling tools commonly used in metabolomics proved effective in discriminating between background signals and TPs derived from iopromide. High-resolution mass data allowed one to predict molecular formulas of putative TPs with errors below 5 ppm relative to the observed m/z. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data and isotope pattern comparisons provided necessary information that allowed one to elucidate the structure of iopromide TPs. The presence of the proposed iopromide TPs was determined in unspiked wastewater from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, but no iopromide and TPs were detected. Using analogous structural modifications and oxidation that results from the AOP treatment of iopromide, the potential TPs of iopamidol (a structurally similar compound to iopromide) were predicted. The same mass fragmentation pattern observed in iopromide TPs was applied to the predicted iopamidol TPs. LC-QToF-MS revealed the presence of two iopamidol
Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)
The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...
Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah
2015-05-01
Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.
A Review of Mathematical Models for Leukemia and Lymphoma
Clapp, Geoffrey; Levy, Doron
2014-01-01
Recently, there has been significant activity in the mathematical community, aimed at developing quantitative tools for studying leukemia and lymphoma. Mathematical models have been applied to evaluate existing therapies and to suggest novel therapies. This article reviews the recent contributions of mathematical modeling to leukemia and lymphoma research. These developments suggest that mathematical modeling has great potential in this field. Collaboration between mathematicians, clinicians, and experimentalists can significantly improve leukemia and lymphoma therapy. PMID:26744598
The Technological Mediation of Mathematics and Its Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard
2009-01-01
This paper examines the extent to which mathematical knowledge, and its related pedagogy, is inextricably linked to the tools--physical, virtual, cultural--in which it is expressed. Our goal is to focus on a few exemplars of computational tools, and to describe with some illustrative examples, how mathematical meanings are shaped by their use. We…
Mathematics for Life: Sustainable Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renert, Moshe
2011-01-01
Ecological sustainability has not been a major focus of mathematics education research, even though it has attracted considerable attention in other areas of educational research in the past decade. The connections between mathematics education and ecological sustainability are not readily apparent. This paper explores how mathematics educators…
Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arseven, Ayla
2015-01-01
The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…
Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes toward Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rounds, James B., Jr.; Hendel, Darwin D.
1980-01-01
Results indicate that the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Math Anxiety Scale measure similar components of mathematics-anxiety domain. Mathematics-anxiety scales and Fennema-Sherman scales of Confidence and Effectance Motivation measure similar affective domains and are approximately equal predictors of arithmetic performance. (Author)
Statistical Tools for the Interpretation of Enzootic West Nile virus Transmission Dynamics.
Caillouët, Kevin A; Robertson, Suzanne
2016-01-01
Interpretation of enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance indicators requires little advanced mathematical skill, but greatly enhances the ability of public health officials to prescribe effective WNV management tactics. Stepwise procedures for the calculation of mosquito infection rates (IR) and vector index (VI) are presented alongside statistical tools that require additional computation. A brief review of advantages and important considerations for each statistic's use is provided. PMID:27188561
Using Appropriate Tools Strategically for Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherman, Milan; Cayton, Charity
2015-01-01
Students' ability to use appropriate tools strategically is an important skill of mathematically proficient students (SMP 5, CCSSI 2010, p. 7). A parallel practice for teachers is using appropriate tools strategically for mathematics instruction. An important element of this practice is that the use of technology depends on the goals of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnold, Kathy
2012-01-01
This article outlines the author's efforts to build her knowledge of students' understandings of mathematics whilst catering for different abilities within a Year 1 classroom, using the freely available "Assessment for Common Misunderstandings tools." "The Assessment for Common Misunderstandings" materials have been "designed to assist teachers…
PREFACE: Physics and Mathematics of Nonlinear Phenomena 2013 (PMNP2013)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopelchenko, B. G.; Landolfi, G.; Martina, L.; Vitolo, R.
2014-03-01
Modern theory of nonlinear integrable equations is nowdays an important and effective tool of study for numerous nonlinear phenomena in various branches of physics from hydrodynamics and optics to quantum filed theory and gravity. It includes the study of nonlinear partial differential and discrete equations, regular and singular behaviour of their solutions, Hamitonian and bi- Hamitonian structures, their symmetries, associated deformations of algebraic and geometrical structures with applications to various models in physics and mathematics. The PMNP 2013 conference focused on recent advances and developments in Continuous and discrete, classical and quantum integrable systems Hamiltonian, critical and geometric structures of nonlinear integrable equations Integrable systems in quantum field theory and matrix models Models of nonlinear phenomena in physics Applications of nonlinear integrable systems in physics The Scientific Committee of the conference was formed by Francesco Calogero (University of Rome `La Sapienza', Italy) Boris A Dubrovin (SISSA, Italy) Yuji Kodama (Ohio State University, USA) Franco Magri (University of Milan `Bicocca', Italy) Vladimir E Zakharov (University of Arizona, USA, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) The Organizing Committee: Boris G Konopelchenko, Giulio Landolfi, Luigi Martina, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi' and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Raffaele Vitolo, Department of Mathematics and Physics `E De Giorgi'. A list of sponsors, speakers, talks, participants and the conference photograph are given in the PDF. Conference photograph
Teaching Undergraduate Mathematics in Interactive Groups: How Does It Fit with Students' Learning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sheryn, Louise; Ell, Fiona
2014-01-01
Debates about how undergraduate mathematics should be taught are informed by different views of what it is to learn and to do mathematics. In this qualitative study 10 students enrolled in an advanced undergraduate course in mathematics shared their views about how they best learn mathematics. After participating in a semester-long course in…
Use of CAS in Secondary School: A Factor Influencing the Transition to University-Level Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Varsavsky, Cristina
2012-01-01
Australian secondary school systems offer three levels of senior (year 12) mathematics studies, none of them compulsory: elementary, intermediate and advanced. The intermediate and advanced studies prepare students for further mathematics studies at university level. In the state of Victoria, there are two versions of intermediate mathematics: one…
The NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Charles W.
1998-05-01
Not updated since its 1964 publication, the Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables), ed. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series v. 55 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1964) presents the state of applied mathematics 40 years ago, in a form suited for computation in an age of numerical tables and mechanical calculators. Yet it remains a workhorse reference of AMO physics and of other scientific fields, having been cited in archival literature over 26,000 times since 1974 (at a still-increasing rate). To incorporate subsequent advances in basic mathematical knowledge, in computational power and technique, and in dissemination of information, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has begun a project to provide a modern source of evaluated mathematical reference data: the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions. The Digital Library is designed to serve the needs of users of applied mathematics via the World Wide Web. We shall demonstrate the operation of a prototype, and hope to elicit expressed needs of the AMO community.
Students as Mathematics Consultants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Jennifer L.
2013-01-01
If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…
Transforming Primary Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Askew, Mike
2011-01-01
What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…
Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noss, Richard
2002-01-01
Investigates young people's expression of mathematical ideas with a computer, the nature of mathematical practices, and the problem of mathematical meaning from cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. Describes a mathematical activity system designed for learning and the role of digital technologies in helping to understand and reshape the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cain, David
2007-01-01
This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…
Mathematics Lessons without ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Kath; Hibbs, John
2006-01-01
In the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference, 2006, the authors presented a list of important aspects of mathematics lessons, recommended for students to have a positive attitude to mathematics and for teachers to acquire effective teaching. The following are discussed in detail: (1) Mathematics lessons without good…
Exposing Calculus Students to Advanced Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Barry J.; Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk
2014-01-01
To ensure the competitiveness of the USA in the global economy, and its role as a leader in science and engineering, it is important to cultivate the next generation of home grown mathematicians. However, while universities across the USA offer calculus classes to thousands of undergraduate students each year, very few of them go on to major in…
Advances in numerical and applied mathematics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
South, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor)
1986-01-01
This collection of papers covers some recent developments in numerical analysis and computational fluid dynamics. Some of these studies are of a fundamental nature. They address basic issues such as intermediate boundary conditions for approximate factorization schemes, existence and uniqueness of steady states for time dependent problems, and pitfalls of implicit time stepping. The other studies deal with modern numerical methods such as total variation diminishing schemes, higher order variants of vortex and particle methods, spectral multidomain techniques, and front tracking techniques. There is also a paper on adaptive grids. The fluid dynamics papers treat the classical problems of imcompressible flows in helically coiled pipes, vortex breakdown, and transonic flows.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Lin
2014-01-01
Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tabach, Michal; Nachlieli, Talli
2015-01-01
For mathematicians, definitions are the ultimate tool for reaching agreement about the nature and properties of mathematical objects. As research in school mathematics has revealed, however, mathematics learners are often reluctant, perhaps even unable, to help themselves with definitions while categorizing mathematical objects. In the research…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elija Bleher, Bärbel; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scholz, Beate
2015-04-01
The Helmholtz Research School MICMoR (Mechanisms and Interactions of Climate Change in Mountain Regions) offers a structured graduate programme for doctoral students in the field of climate change research. It is hosted by the Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (KIT/IMK-IFU) in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in collaboration with 7 Bavarian partner universities and research institutions. Hence, MICMoR brings together a considerably large network with currently 20 doctoral students and 55 scientists. MICMoR offers scientific and professional skills training, provides a state-of-the-art supervision concept, and fosters international exchange and interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to develop and advance its programme, MICMoR has committed itself to a self-imposed mid-term review in its third year, to monitor to which extent its original objectives have been reached, and to explore and identify where MICMoR has room for improvement. The evaluation especially focused on recruitment, supervision, training, networking and cooperation. Carried out by an external expert (Beate Scholz from scholz ctc), the evaluation was based on a mixed methods approach, i.e. combining a quantitative survey involving all doctoral candidates as well as their supervisors and focus groups with different MICMoR stakeholders. The evaluation has brought forward some highly interesting results, pinpointing challenges and opportunities of setting up a structured doctoral programme. Overall, the evaluation proved to be a useful tool for evidence-based programme and policy planning, and demonstrated a high level of satisfaction of supervisors and fellows. Supervision, with facets ranging from disciplinary feedback to career advice, is demanding and requires strong commitment and adequate human resources development by all parties involved. Thus, MICMoR plans to offer mentor coaching and calls on supervisors and mentors to form a community of learners with their doctoral students. To
The link between middle school mathematics course placement and achievement.
Domina, Thurston
2014-01-01
The proportion of eighth graders in United States public schools enrolled in algebra or a more advanced mathematics course doubled between 1990 and 2011. This article uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study's Kindergarten Cohort data to consider the selection process into advanced middle school mathematics courses and estimate the effects of advanced courses on students' mathematics achievement (n = 6,425; mean age at eighth grade = 13.7). Eighth-grade algebra and geometry course placements are academically selective, but considerable between-school variation exists in students' odds of taking these advanced courses. While analyses indicate that advanced middle school mathematics courses boost student achievement, these effects are most pronounced in content areas closely related to class content and may be contingent on student academic readiness. PMID:24816044
The link between middle school mathematics course placement and achievement.
Domina, Thurston
2014-01-01
The proportion of eighth graders in United States public schools enrolled in algebra or a more advanced mathematics course doubled between 1990 and 2011. This article uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study's Kindergarten Cohort data to consider the selection process into advanced middle school mathematics courses and estimate the effects of advanced courses on students' mathematics achievement (n = 6,425; mean age at eighth grade = 13.7). Eighth-grade algebra and geometry course placements are academically selective, but considerable between-school variation exists in students' odds of taking these advanced courses. While analyses indicate that advanced middle school mathematics courses boost student achievement, these effects are most pronounced in content areas closely related to class content and may be contingent on student academic readiness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Slima, Khalil; Penazzi, Luc; Mabru, Catherine; Ronde-Oustau, François; Rezaï-Aria, Farhad
2011-05-01
This contribution presents an approach combining the stamping numerical processing simulations and structure analysis in order to improve the design for optimizing the tool fatigue life. The method consists in simulating the stamping process via AutoForm® (or any FEM Code) by considering the tool as a perfect rigid body. The estimated contact pressure is then used as boundary condition for FEM structure loading analysis. The result of this analysis is used for life prediction of the tool using S-N fatigue curve. If the prescribed tool life requirements are not satisfied, then the critical region of the tool is redesigned and the whole simulation procedures are reactivated. This optimization method is applied for a cast iron EN-GJS-600-3 as candidate stamping tool materiel. The room temperature fatigue S-N curves of this alloy are established in laboratory under uniaxial push/pull cyclic experiments on cylindrical specimens under a load ratio of R (σmin/σmax) = -2.
Mathematical Modelling: A New Approach to Teaching Applied Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burghes, D. N.; Borrie, M. S.
1979-01-01
Describes the advantages of mathematical modeling approach in teaching applied mathematics and gives many suggestions for suitable material which illustrates the links between real problems and mathematics. (GA)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konhauser, Joseph D. E.; And Others
This book provides a collection of 191 mathematical problems aimed at the advanced high school student level and above. Problems cover general mathematical areas including plane geometry, three-dimensional geometry, number theory, algebra, combinatorics and graph theory, and a number of miscellaneous questions that combine mathematical…
TIMMS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.
2014-01-01
It is critical for countries to ensure that capable secondary school students receive further preparation in advanced mathematics and science, so that they are ready to enter challenging university-level studies that prepare them for careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This group of students will become the…
Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.
This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…