Science.gov

Sample records for advanced medical imaging

  1. Desktop supercomputers. Advance medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Frisiello, R S

    1991-02-01

    Medical imaging tools that radiologists as well as a wide range of clinicians and healthcare professionals have come to depend upon are emerging into the next phase of functionality. The strides being made in supercomputing technologies--including reduction of size and price--are pushing medical imaging to a new level of accuracy and functionality.

  2. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  3. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  4. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThis article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). MethodsThe study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. ResultsFindings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. ConclusionsThe authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ. PMID:26229631

  5. Medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Alex

    2005-07-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques—X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion.

  6. Advanced synchronous luminescence imaging for chemical and medical diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2006-09-05

    A diagnostic method and associated system includes the steps of exposing at least one sample location with excitation radiation through a single optical waveguide or a single optical waveguide bundle, wherein the sample emits emission radiation in response to the excitation radiation. The same single optical waveguide or the single optical waveguide bundle receives at least a portion of the emission radiation from the sample, thus providing co-registration of the excitation radiation and the emission radiation. The wavelength of the excitation radiation and emission radiation is synchronously scanned to produce a spectrum upon which an image can be formed. An increased emission signal is generated by the enhanced overlap of the excitation and emission focal volumes provided by co-registration of the excitation and emission signals thus increasing the sensitivity as well as decreasing the exposure time necessary to obtain an image.

  7. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  8. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  9. Advances in the medical imaging of multiple myeloma and related clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xue, Hua-Dan; Li, Shuo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignancy developed in the bone marrow plasma cell system. It usually consists of focal lesions of the bone,soft tissue lesions,and diffuse bone marrow infiltration. Currently,the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple myeloma are highly dependent on various medical imaging techniques.

  10. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, C. Carl

    1982-01-01

    Describes principle imaging techniques, their applications, and their limitations in terms of diagnostic capability and possible adverse biological effects. Techniques include film radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and digital radiography. PET has…

  11. Final Report for The University of Texas at Arlington Optical Medical Imaging Section of Advanced Imaging Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Khosrow Behbehani

    2013-02-26

    The goal of this project was to create state-of-the-art optical medical imaging laboratories for the Biomedical Engineering faculty and student researchers of the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) on the campus of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW). This has been successfully achieved. These laboratories provide an unprecedented opportunity for the bioengineers (from UTA) to bring about new breakthroughs in medical imaging using optics. Specifically, three major laboratories have been successfully established and state-of-the-art scientific instruments have been placed in the labs. As a result of this grant, numerous journal and conference publications have been generated, patents for new inventions have been filed and received, and many additional grants for the continuation of the research has been received.

  12. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1992-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES, AVHRR, and SSM/I sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  13. Artificial intelligence in medicine and cardiac imaging: harnessing big data and advanced computing to provide personalized medical diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Dilsizian, Steven E; Siegel, Eliot L

    2014-01-01

    Although advances in information technology in the past decade have come in quantum leaps in nearly every aspect of our lives, they seem to be coming at a slower pace in the field of medicine. However, the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in hospitals is increasing rapidly, accelerated by the meaningful use initiatives associated with the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services EHR Incentive Programs. The transition to electronic medical records and availability of patient data has been associated with increases in the volume and complexity of patient information, as well as an increase in medical alerts, with resulting "alert fatigue" and increased expectations for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, these increased demands on health care providers create greater risk for diagnostic and therapeutic errors. In the near future, artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning will likely assist physicians with differential diagnosis of disease, treatment options suggestions, and recommendations, and, in the case of medical imaging, with cues in image interpretation. Mining and advanced analysis of "big data" in health care provide the potential not only to perform "in silico" research but also to provide "real time" diagnostic and (potentially) therapeutic recommendations based on empirical data. "On demand" access to high-performance computing and large health care databases will support and sustain our ability to achieve personalized medicine. The IBM Jeopardy! Challenge, which pitted the best all-time human players against the Watson computer, captured the imagination of millions of people across the world and demonstrated the potential to apply AI approaches to a wide variety of subject matter, including medicine. The combination of AI, big data, and massively parallel computing offers the potential to create a revolutionary way of practicing evidence-based, personalized medicine.

  14. Medical Imaging: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Debashis; Chakraborty, Srabonti; Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    The rapid progress of medical science and the invention of various medicines have benefited mankind and the whole civilization. Modern science also has been doing wonders in the surgical field. But, the proper and correct diagnosis of diseases is the primary necessity before the treatment. The more sophisticate the bio-instruments are, better diagnosis will be possible. The medical images plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy of doctor and teaching and researching etc. Medical imaging is often thought of as a way to represent anatomical structures of the body with the help of X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. But often it is more useful for physiologic function rather than anatomy. With the growth of computer and image technology medical imaging has greatly influenced medical field. As the quality of medical imaging affects diagnosis the medical image processing has become a hotspot and the clinical applications wanting to store and retrieve images for future purpose needs some convenient process to store those images in details. This paper is a tutorial review of the medical image processing and repository techniques appeared in the literature.

  15. Medical Image Databases

    PubMed Central

    Tagare, Hemant D.; Jaffe, C. Carl; Duncan, James

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Information contained in medical images differs considerably from that residing in alphanumeric format. The difference can be attributed to four characteristics: (1) the semantics of medical knowledge extractable from images is imprecise; (2) image information contains form and spatial data, which are not expressible in conventional language; (3) a large part of image information is geometric; (4) diagnostic inferences derived from images rest on an incomplete, continuously evolving model of normality. This paper explores the differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on design of a medical image database intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval. One strategy for implementing medical image databases is presented, which employs object-oriented iconic queries, semantics by association with prototypes, and a generic schema. PMID:9147338

  16. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats.

  17. Medical image file formats.

    PubMed

    Larobina, Michele; Murino, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Image file format is often a confusing aspect for someone wishing to process medical images. This article presents a demystifying overview of the major file formats currently used in medical imaging: Analyze, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (Nifti), Minc, and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (Dicom). Concepts common to all file formats, such as pixel depth, photometric interpretation, metadata, and pixel data, are first presented. Then, the characteristics and strengths of the various formats are discussed. The review concludes with some predictive considerations about the future trends in medical image file formats. PMID:24338090

  18. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  19. Medical image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Wang, Jinxiang

    1994-12-01

    In this paper a medical image processing system is described. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. Principles and cases provided here. Many kinds of pictures are used in modern medical diagnoses, for example B-supersonic, X-ray, CT and MRI. Some times the pictures are not good enough for diagnoses. The noises interfere with real situation on these pictures. That means the image processing is needed. A medical image processing system is described in this paper. That system is named NAI200 Medical Image Processing System and has been appraised by Chinese Government. There are four functions in that system. The first part is image processing. More than thirty four programs are involved. The second part is calculating. The areas or volumes of single or multitissues are calculated. Three dimensional reconstruction is the third part. The stereo images of organs or tumors are reconstructed with cross-sections. The last part is image storage. All pictures can be transformed to digital images, then be stored in hard disk or soft disk. In this paper not only all functions of that system are introduced, also the basic principles of these functions are explained in detail. This system has been applied in hospitals. The images of hundreds of cases have been processed. We describe the functions combining real cases. Here we only introduce a few examples.

  20. Montreal Museum exhibit provides clear picture of advances in medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J

    1995-01-01

    An exhibit at the McCord Museum of Canadian History, which runs until November, marks the centennial of the discovery of the x-ray. Among the items on display are a portable field x-ray machine used during World War I and one of the machines commonly found in shoe stores between 1930 and 1950 to x-ray customers' feet. The exhibit also features one of the first scanners used in North America. Dr. Denis Melançon, a radiologist at the Montreal Neurological Institute, was the driving force behind the McCord exhibit. "I wanted to show [not only] the historical and scientific aspects of the discovery, but also its medical and social applications," he says. PMID:7553500

  1. Imaging and Analytics: The changing face of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Thomas

    There have been significant technological advances in imaging capability over the past 40 years. Medical imaging capabilities have developed rapidly, along with technology development in computational processing speed and miniaturization. Moving to all-digital, the number of images that are acquired in a routine clinical examination has increased dramatically from under 50 images in the early days of CT and MRI to more than 500-1000 images today. The staggering number of images that are routinely acquired poses significant challenges for clinicians to interpret the data and to correctly identify the clinical problem. Although the time provided to render a clinical finding has not substantially changed, the amount of data available for interpretation has grown exponentially. In addition, the image quality (spatial resolution) and information content (physiologically-dependent image contrast) has also increased significantly with advances in medical imaging technology. On its current trajectory, medical imaging in the traditional sense is unsustainable. To assist in filtering and extracting the most relevant data elements from medical imaging, image analytics will have a much larger role. Automated image segmentation, generation of parametric image maps, and clinical decision support tools will be needed and developed apace to allow the clinician to manage, extract and utilize only the information that will help improve diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity. As medical imaging devices continue to improve in spatial resolution, functional and anatomical information content, image/data analytics will be more ubiquitous and integral to medical imaging capability.

  2. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  3. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system.

  4. Medical Images Remote Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Maurizio; Frixione, Paolo; Squarcia, Sandro

    Teleconsultation of digital images among different medical centers is now a reality. The problem to be solved is how to interconnect all the clinical diagnostic devices in a hospital in order to allow physicians and health physicists, working in different places, to discuss on interesting clinical cases visualizing the same diagnostic images at the same time. Applying World Wide Web technologies, the proposed system can be easily used by people with no specific computer knowledge providing a verbose help to guide the user through the right steps of execution. Diagnostic images are retrieved from a relational database or from a standard DICOM-PACS through the DICOM-WWW gateway allowing connection of the usual Web browsers to DICOM applications via the HTTP protocol. The system, which is proposed for radiotherapy implementation, where radiographies play a fundamental role, can be easily converted to different field of medical applications where a remote access to secure data are compulsory.

  5. Medical imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  6. Wavelets in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahra, Noor e.; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  7. Wavelets in medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zahra, Noor e; Sevindir, Huliya A.; Aslan, Zafar; Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-17

    The aim of this study is to provide emerging applications of wavelet methods to medical signals and images, such as electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, functional magnetic resonance imaging, computer tomography, X-ray and mammography. Interpretation of these signals and images are quite important. Nowadays wavelet methods have a significant impact on the science of medical imaging and the diagnosis of disease and screening protocols. Based on our initial investigations, future directions include neurosurgical planning and improved assessment of risk for individual patients, improved assessment and strategies for the treatment of chronic pain, improved seizure localization, and improved understanding of the physiology of neurological disorders. We look ahead to these and other emerging applications as the benefits of this technology become incorporated into current and future patient care. In this chapter by applying Fourier transform and wavelet transform, analysis and denoising of one of the important biomedical signals like EEG is carried out. The presence of rhythm, template matching, and correlation is discussed by various method. Energy of EEG signal is used to detect seizure in an epileptic patient. We have also performed denoising of EEG signals by SWT.

  8. Medical Image Analysis Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    To improve the quality of photos sent to Earth by unmanned spacecraft. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed a computerized image enhancement process that brings out detail not visible in the basic photo. JPL is now applying this technology to biomedical research in its Medical lrnage Analysis Facility, which employs computer enhancement techniques to analyze x-ray films of internal organs, such as the heart and lung. A major objective is study of the effects of I stress on persons with heart disease. In animal tests, computerized image processing is being used to study coronary artery lesions and the degree to which they reduce arterial blood flow when stress is applied. The photos illustrate the enhancement process. The upper picture is an x-ray photo in which the artery (dotted line) is barely discernible; in the post-enhancement photo at right, the whole artery and the lesions along its wall are clearly visible. The Medical lrnage Analysis Facility offers a faster means of studying the effects of complex coronary lesions in humans, and the research now being conducted on animals is expected to have important application to diagnosis and treatment of human coronary disease. Other uses of the facility's image processing capability include analysis of muscle biopsy and pap smear specimens, and study of the microscopic structure of fibroprotein in the human lung. Working with JPL on experiments are NASA's Ames Research Center, the University of Southern California School of Medicine, and Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California.

  9. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today's more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  10. A survey of medical diagnostic imaging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, V.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    The fields of medical imaging and medical imaging instrumentation are increasingly important. The state-of-the-art continues to advance at a very rapid pace. In fact, various medical imaging modalities are under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source (such as MECT and Transvenous Angiography.) It is important to understand how these techniques compare with today`s more conventional imaging modalities. The purpose of this report is to provide some basic information about the various medical imaging technologies currently in use and their potential developments as a basis for this comparison. This report is by no means an in-depth study of the physics and instrumentation of the various imaging modalities; instead, it is an attempt to provide an explanation of the physical bases of these techniques and their principal clinical and research capabilities.

  11. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing. PMID:23822402

  12. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing.

  13. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    Historical reviews of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and imaging informatics development from different points of view have been published in the past (Huang in Euro J Radiol 78:163-176, 2011; Lemke in Euro J Radiol 78:177-183, 2011; Inamura and Jong in Euro J Radiol 78:184-189, 2011). This retrospective attempts to look at the topic from a different angle by identifying certain basic medical imaging inventions in the 1960s and 1970s which had conceptually defined basic components of PACS guiding its course of development in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as subsequent imaging informatics research in the 2000s. In medical imaging, the emphasis was on the innovations at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, research and training support from US government agencies and public and private medical imaging manufacturers became available for training of young talents in biomedical physics and for developing the key components required for PACS development. In the 2000s, computer hardware and software as well as communication networks advanced by leaps and bounds, opening the door for medical imaging informatics to flourish. Because many key components required for the PACS operation were developed by the UCLA PACS Team and its collaborative partners in the 1980s, this presentation is centered on that aspect. During this period, substantial collaborative research efforts by many individual teams in the US and in Japan were highlighted. Credits are due particularly to the Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Georgetown University, and the computed radiography (CR) development at the Fuji Electric Corp. in collaboration with Stanford University in the 1970s; the Image Processing Laboratory at UCLA in the 1980s-1990s; as well as the early PACS development at the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, in the late 1970s, and film scanner and digital radiography developed by Konishiroku Photo Ind. Co. Ltd

  14. Medical imaging, PACS, and imaging informatics: retrospective.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    2014-01-01

    Historical reviews of PACS (picture archiving and communication system) and imaging informatics development from different points of view have been published in the past (Huang in Euro J Radiol 78:163-176, 2011; Lemke in Euro J Radiol 78:177-183, 2011; Inamura and Jong in Euro J Radiol 78:184-189, 2011). This retrospective attempts to look at the topic from a different angle by identifying certain basic medical imaging inventions in the 1960s and 1970s which had conceptually defined basic components of PACS guiding its course of development in the 1980s and 1990s, as well as subsequent imaging informatics research in the 2000s. In medical imaging, the emphasis was on the innovations at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s and 1990s, research and training support from US government agencies and public and private medical imaging manufacturers became available for training of young talents in biomedical physics and for developing the key components required for PACS development. In the 2000s, computer hardware and software as well as communication networks advanced by leaps and bounds, opening the door for medical imaging informatics to flourish. Because many key components required for the PACS operation were developed by the UCLA PACS Team and its collaborative partners in the 1980s, this presentation is centered on that aspect. During this period, substantial collaborative research efforts by many individual teams in the US and in Japan were highlighted. Credits are due particularly to the Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Georgetown University, and the computed radiography (CR) development at the Fuji Electric Corp. in collaboration with Stanford University in the 1970s; the Image Processing Laboratory at UCLA in the 1980s-1990s; as well as the early PACS development at the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, in the late 1970s, and film scanner and digital radiography developed by Konishiroku Photo Ind. Co. Ltd

  15. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  16. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  17. Medical image libraries: ICoS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honniball, John; Thomas, Peter

    1999-08-01

    FOr use of digital techniques for the production, manipulation and storage of images has resulted in the creation of digital image libraries. These libraries often store many thousands of images. While provision of storage media for such large amounts of data has been straightforward, provision of effective searching and retrieval tools has not. Medicine relies heavily on images as a diagnostic tool. The most obvious example is the x-ray, but many other image forms are in everyday use. Advances in technology are affecting the ways medical images are generated, stored and retrieved. The paper describes the work of the Image COding and Segmentation to Support Variable Rate Transmission Channels and Variable Resolution Platforms (ICoS) research project currently under way in Bristol, UK. ICoS is a project of the Mobile of England and Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories Europe. Funding is provided by the Engineering and PHysical Sciences Research Council. The aim of the ICoS project is to demonstrate the practical application of computer networking to medical image libraries. Work at the University of the West of England concentrates on user interface and indexing issues. Metadata is used to organize the images, coded using the WWW Consortium standard Resource Description Framework. We are investigating the application of such standards to medical images, one outcome being to implement a metadata-based image library. This paper describes the ICoS project in detail and discuses both metadata system and user interfaces in the context of medical applications.

  18. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  19. Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, especially in disease diagnosis and image-guided surgery. HSI acquires a three-dimensional dataset called hypercube, with two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension. Spatially resolved spectral imaging obtained by HSI provides diagnostic information about the tissue physiology, morphology, and composition. This review paper presents an overview of the literature on medical hyperspectral imaging technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. PMID:24441941

  20. Photoacoustic imaging: opening new frontiers in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Valluru, Keerthi S; Chinni, Bhargava K; Rao, Navalgund A

    2011-01-01

    In today's world, technology is advancing at an exponential rate and medical imaging is no exception. During the last hundred years, the field of medical imaging has seen a tremendous technological growth with the invention of imaging modalities including but not limited to X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography. These tools have led to better diagnosis and improved patient care. However, each of these modalities has its advantages as well as disadvantages and none of them can reveal all the information a physician would like to have. In the last decade, a new diagnostic technology called photoacoustic imaging has evolved which is moving rapidly from the research phase to the clinical trial phase. This article outlines the basics of photoacoustic imaging and describes our hands-on experience in developing a comprehensive photoacoustic imaging system to detect tissue abnormalities.

  1. Advanced laser image recorder.

    PubMed

    Gramenopoulos, N; Hartfield, E D

    1972-12-01

    A laser image recorder is described, which is unique because of its advanced design and the state-of-the-art components employed to achieve high performance and versatility. The critical components are the pyramidal mirror scanner and the beam focusing lens. The scanner has a six-facet, beryllium mirror accurate to 0.33 sec of arc and rotating at 0-50,000 rpm on air bearings. A rapid change in speed is an important feature of this scanner. The focusing lens is diffraction limited with a flat field of 54 degrees , allowing a 90% duty cycle and the use of photographic film transported by a cylindrical drum. The lens converts the constant angular velocity of the reflected beam to a constant scanning velocity of the focused spot with a linearity of 0.05%. Maximum number of picture elements per line is 36,800 over a format of 228.6 mm. PMID:20119408

  2. Tooling Techniques Enhance Medical Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    mission. The manufacturing techniques developed to create the components have yielded innovations advancing medical imaging, transportation security, and even energy efficiency.

  3. A cloud-based medical image repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Anthony J.; Planitz, Birgit M.; El Rifai, Diaa

    2012-02-01

    Many widely used digital medical image collections have been established but these are generally used as raw data sources without related image analysis toolsets. Providing associated functionality to allow specific types of operations to be performed on these images has proved beneficial in some cases (e.g. brain image registration and atlases). However, toolset development to provide generic image analysis functions on medical images has tended to be ad hoc, with Open Source options proliferating (e.g. ITK). Our Automated Medical Image Collection Annotation (AMICA) system is both an image repository, to which the research community can contribute image datasets, and a search/retrieval system that uses automated image annotation. AMICA was designed for the Windows Azure platform to leverage the flexibility and scalability of the cloud. It is intended that AMICA will expand beyond its initial pilot implementation (for brain CT, MR images) to accommodate a wide range of modalities and anatomical regions. This initiative aims to contribute to advances in clinical research by permitting a broader use and reuse of medical image data than is currently attainable. For example, cohort studies for cases with particular physiological or phenotypical profiles will be able to source and include enough cases to provide high statistical power, allowing more individualised risk factors to be assessed and thus allowing screening and staging processes to be optimised. Also, education, training and credentialing of clinicians in image interpretation, will be more effective because it will be possible to select instances of images with specific visual aspects, or correspond to types of cases where reading performance improvement is desirable.

  4. Deformable Medical Image Registration: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Davatzikos, Christos; Paragios, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Deformable image registration is a fundamental task in medical image processing. Among its most important applications, one may cite: i) multi-modality fusion, where information acquired by different imaging devices or protocols is fused to facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning; ii) longitudinal studies, where temporal structural or anatomical changes are investigated; and iii) population modeling and statistical atlases used to study normal anatomical variability. In this paper, we attempt to give an overview of deformable registration methods, putting emphasis on the most recent advances in the domain. Additional emphasis has been given to techniques applied to medical images. In order to study image registration methods in depth, their main components are identified and studied independently. The most recent techniques are presented in a systematic fashion. The contribution of this paper is to provide an extensive account of registration techniques in a systematic manner. PMID:23739795

  5. [Medical image compression: a review].

    PubMed

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings. PMID:23715317

  6. [Medical image compression: a review].

    PubMed

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings.

  7. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  8. Compressive sensing in medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graff, Christian G.; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2015-01-01

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed. PMID:25968400

  9. Evolution of Medical Imaging and Computational Demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deans, Stanley R.

    2000-11-01

    The first medical images produced using x-rays appeared less than a year after the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. For over a century x-ray projection radiography has been and continues to be the most widely used diagnostic imaging modality. For over seventy years mathematics and computational methods were used in a general way for image processing and analysis. The really challenging mathematical and computational problems did not emerge until the 1970s with the beginning of computed tomography (CT) to produce images popularly known as CAT (computer-assisted tomography) scans. This was followed rapidly by positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) emerged in the 1980s and is in many ways the most informative medical imaging methodology. Computer-based mathematical methods are fundamental to the success of these imaging modalities, and are increasingly important in several other novel imaging techniques. The technologies involved in each modality are competely different, have varying diagnostic value, and are described by different fundamental equations. The common underlying theme is that of the reconstruction of important characteristics of medical interest from indirect measurements. Several of these methodologies for visualizing internal body anatomy and function will be discussed and related to the evolution of computational capabilities. This brings out aspects of these biomedical imaging technologies where a deeper understanding is needed, and to frontiers where future advances are likely to come from continued research in physics jointly with the mathematical sciences.

  10. Medical ultrasonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Schuy, S

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultrasonic imaging techniques is by no means finished even today. The morphological display of anatomical cross-sections has already reached a high standard and is characterized by the realization of real-time compound scanners. Automated water-bath scanners, either compound or single pass, are intended to help ultrasound to play a more dominant role in mammography, especially as a screening method, although at present it cannot be used very efficiently for this purpose. Considerable progress can be expected with the increasing use of computer facilities, especially digital signal-processing techniques. They should not only further improve image fidelity and intelligibility, but also the comfort of the handling. A major step forward will be the implementation of objective transducer-independent tissue-differentiation facilities into imaging devices. The development of alternative ultrasonic imaging techniques like the transmission camera should increase the scope of ultrasonic application rather than compete with B-scan imaging.

  11. Stereoscopic medical imaging collaboration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Fumio; Hirano, Takenori; Nakabayasi, Yuusuke; Minoura, Hirohito; Tsuruoka, Shinji

    2007-02-01

    The computerization of the clinical record and the realization of the multimedia have brought improvement of the medical service in medical facilities. It is very important for the patients to obtain comprehensible informed consent. Therefore, the doctor should plainly explain the purpose and the content of the diagnoses and treatments for the patient. We propose and design a Telemedicine Imaging Collaboration System which presents a three dimensional medical image as X-ray CT, MRI with stereoscopic image by using virtual common information space and operating the image from a remote location. This system is composed of two personal computers, two 15 inches stereoscopic parallax barrier type LCD display (LL-151D, Sharp), one 1Gbps router and 1000base LAN cables. The software is composed of a DICOM format data transfer program, an operation program of the images, the communication program between two personal computers and a real time rendering program. Two identical images of 512×768 pixcels are displayed on two stereoscopic LCD display, and both images show an expansion, reduction by mouse operation. This system can offer a comprehensible three-dimensional image of the diseased part. Therefore, the doctor and the patient can easily understand it, depending on their needs.

  12. Using medical imaging for the detection of adverse events ("incidents") during the utilization of left ventricular assist devices in adult patients with advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Friedrich; Krabatsch, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VAD) are used for mechanical support of the terminally failing heart. Failure of these life supporting systems can be fatal. Early and reliable detection of any upcoming problems is mandatory and is crucial for the outcome. Medical imaging methods are described within this review, which are not only essential for diagnosis of typically VAD-related complications but also for the detection or verification of technical issues. Within this review the utilization of medical imaging equipment for the diagnosis of technical malfunctions or damages of implanted system components is discussed. A newly developed specialized acoustic imaging method for pump thrombosis detection will also be described along with the most common VAD-related medical complications and their respective imaging methods and the limitations induced by the use of the VAD-system.

  13. Medical gamma ray imaging

    DOEpatents

    Osborne, Louis S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the distribution of a position-emitting radioisotope into an object, the apparatus consisting of a wire mesh radiation converter, an ionizable gas for propagating ionization events caused by electrodes released by the converter, a drift field, a spatial position detector and signal processing circuitry for correlating near-simultaneous ionization events and determining their time differences, whereby the position sources of back-to-back collinear radiation can be located and a distribution image constructed.

  14. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  15. Multifunctional Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chen; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. A delicate design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high imaging contrast and chemical stability, non-fouling surface, target specificity and/or multimodality. This article presents the design fundamentals on the development of MNP systems, from discussion of material selection for nanoparticle cores and coatings, strategies for chemical synthesis and surface modification and their merits and limitations, to conjugation of special biomolecules for intended functions, and reviews the recent advances in the field. PMID:20593005

  16. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  17. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  18. Advancing biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel. PMID:26598657

  19. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery. PMID:18002643

  20. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery.

  1. Advanced image memory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1994-05-01

    A workstation for radiographic images, known as the Arizona Viewing Console (AVC), was developed at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Radiology. This workstation has been in use as a research tool to aid us in investigating how a radiologist interacts with a workstation, to determine which image processing features are required to aid the radiologist, to develop user interfaces and to support psychophysical and clinical studies. Results from these studies have show a need to increase the current image memory's available storage in order to accommodate high resolution images. The current triple-ported image memory can be allocated to store any number of images up to a combined total of 4 million pixels. Over the past couple of years, higher resolution images have become easier to generate with the advent of laser digitizers and computed radiology systems. As part of our research, a larger 32 million pixel image memory for AVC has been designed to replace the existing image memory.

  2. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  3. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  4. [Medical image automatic adjusting window and segmentation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhuan; Chen, Siping; Tao, Duchun; Chen, Xinhai

    2005-04-01

    Image guided surgical navigation system is the most advanced surgical apparatus, which develops most rapidly and has great application prospects in neurosurgery, orthopaedics, E.N.T. department etc. In current surgical navigation systems, windowing, segmenting and registration of medical images all depend on manual operation, and automation of image processing is urgently needed. This paper proposes the algorithm which realizes very well automatic windowing and segmentation of medical images: first, we analyze a lot of MRI and CT images and propose corresponding windowing algorithm according to their common features of intensity distribution. Experiments show that the effects of windowing of most MRI and CT images are optimized. Second, we propose the seed growing algorithm based on intensity connectivity,which can segment tumor and its boundary exactly by simply clicking the mouse, and control dynamically the results in real time. If computer memory permits, the algorithm can segment 3D images directly. Tests show that this function is able to shorten the time of surgical planning, lower the complexity, and improve the efficiency in navigation surgery. PMID:15884547

  5. Contextual medical-image viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

  6. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  7. Digital diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Kuismin, Raimo; Jormalainen, Raimo; Dastidar, Prasun; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    2001-08-01

    The popularity of digital imaging devices and PACS installations has increased during the last years. Still, images are analyzed and diagnosed using conventional techniques. Our research group begun to study the requirements for digital image diagnostic methods to be applied together with PACS systems. The research was focused on various image analysis procedures (e.g., segmentation, volumetry, 3D visualization, image fusion, anatomic atlas, etc.) that could be useful in medical diagnosis. We have developed Image Analysis software (www.medimag.net) to enable several image-processing applications in medical diagnosis, such as volumetry, multimodal visualization, and 3D visualizations. We have also developed a commercial scalable image archive system (ActaServer, supports DICOM) based on component technology (www.acta.fi), and several telemedicine applications. All the software and systems operate in NT environment and are in clinical use in several hospitals. The analysis software have been applied in clinical work and utilized in numerous patient cases (500 patients). This method has been used in the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up in various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), respiratory system (RS) and human reproductive system (HRS). In many of these diseases e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (CNS), nasal airways diseases (RS) and ovarian tumors (HRS), these methods have been used for the first time in clinical work. According to our results, digital diagnosis improves diagnostic capabilities, and together with PACS installations it will become standard tool during the next decade by enabling more accurate diagnosis and patient follow-up.

  8. Medical Imaging of Hyperpolarized Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. Wilson

    2009-08-04

    Since the introduction of hyperpolarized {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe as gaseous MRI contrast agents more than a decade ago, a rich variety of imaging techniques and medical applications have been developed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inhaled gas depicts ventilated lung airspaces with unprecedented detail, and allows one to track airflow and pulmonary mechanics during respiration. Information about lung structure and function can also be obtained using the physical properties of the gas, including spin relaxation in the presence of oxygen, restricted diffusion inside the alveolar airspaces, and the NMR frequency shift of xenon dissolved in blood and tissue.

  9. The value of diagnostic medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Don; Bradley, Kendall E

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging has clear clinical utility, but it also imposes significant costs on the health care system. This commentary reviews the factors that drive the cost of medical imaging, discusses current interventions, and suggests possible future courses of action.

  10. Archimedes, an archive of medical images.

    PubMed

    Tahmoush, Dave; Samet, Hanan

    2006-01-01

    We present a medical image and medical record database for the storage, research, transmission, and evaluation of medical images. Medical images from any source that supports the DICOM standard can be stored and accessed, as well as associated analysis and annotations. Retrieval is based on patient info, date, doctor's annotations, features in the images, or a spatial combination. This database supports the secure transmission of sensitive data for tele-medicine and follows all HIPPA regulations.

  11. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  12. Rapid medical advances challenge the tooling industry.

    PubMed

    Conley, B

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for greater performance in smaller spaces has increased demands for product and process innovation in tubing and other medical products. In turn, these developments have placed greater demands on the producers of the advanced tooling for these products. Tooling manufacturers must now continuously design equipment with much tighter tolerances for more sophisticated coextrusions and for newer generations of multilumen and multilayer tubing.

  13. Novel Algorithm for Classification of Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Juneja, Monika

    2010-11-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods in medical image databases have been designed to support specific tasks, such as retrieval of medical images. These methods cannot be transferred to other medical applications since different imaging modalities require different types of processing. To enable content-based queries in diverse collections of medical images, the retrieval system must be familiar with the current Image class prior to the query processing. Further, almost all of them deal with the DICOM imaging format. In this paper a novel algorithm based on energy information obtained from wavelet transform for the classification of medical images according to their modalities is described. For this two types of wavelets have been used and have been shown that energy obtained in either case is quite distinct for each of the body part. This technique can be successfully applied to different image formats. The results are shown for JPEG imaging format.

  14. Processing, analysis, recognition, and automatic understanding of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2004-07-01

    Paper presents some new ideas introducing automatic understanding of the medical images semantic content. The idea under consideration can be found as next step on the way starting from capturing of the images in digital form as two-dimensional data structures, next going throw images processing as a tool for enhancement of the images visibility and readability, applying images analysis algorithms for extracting selected features of the images (or parts of images e.g. objects), and ending on the algorithms devoted to images classification and recognition. In the paper we try to explain, why all procedures mentioned above can not give us full satisfaction in many important medical problems, when we do need understand image semantic sense, not only describe the image in terms of selected features and/or classes. The general idea of automatic images understanding is presented as well as some remarks about the successful applications of such ideas for increasing potential possibilities and performance of computer vision systems dedicated to advanced medical images analysis. This is achieved by means of applying linguistic description of the picture merit content. After this we try use new AI methods to undertake tasks of the automatic understanding of images semantics in intelligent medical information systems. A successful obtaining of the crucial semantic content of the medical image may contribute considerably to the creation of new intelligent multimedia cognitive medical systems. Thanks to the new idea of cognitive resonance between stream of the data extracted form the image using linguistic methods and expectations taken from the representation of the medical knowledge, it is possible to understand the merit content of the image even if the form of the image is very different from any known pattern.

  15. Advances in multimodality molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Habib; Prasad, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality molecular imaging using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) combined with other modalities is now playing a pivotal role in basic and clinical research. The introduction of combined PET/CT systems in clinical setting has revolutionized the practice of diagnostic imaging. The complementarity between the intrinsically aligned anatomic (CT) and functional or metabolic (PET) information provided in a “one-stop shop” and the possibility to use CT images for attenuation correction of the PET data has been the driving force behind the success of this technology. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a single gantry is technically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of few preclinical PET systems and one human prototype dedicated for simultaneous PET/MR brain imaging. This paper discusses recent advances in PET instrumentation and the advantages and challenges of multimodality imaging systems. Future opportunities and the challenges facing the adoption of multimodality imaging instrumentation will also be addressed. PMID:20098557

  16. NASA Technology Finds Uses in Medical Imaging

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA software has been incorporated into a new medical imaging device that could one day aid in the interpretation of mammograms, ultrasounds, and other medical imagery. The new MED-SEG system, dev...

  17. MIARS: a medical image retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Mueen, A; Zainuddin, R; Baba, M Sapiyan

    2010-10-01

    The next generation of medical information system will integrate multimedia data to assist physicians in clinical decision-making, diagnoses, teaching, and research. This paper describes MIARS (Medical Image Annotation and Retrieval System). MIARS not only provides automatic annotation, but also supports text based as well as image based retrieval strategies, which play important roles in medical training, research, and diagnostics. The system utilizes three trained classifiers, which are trained using training images. The goal of these classifiers is to provide multi-level automatic annotation. Another main purpose of the MIARS system is to study image semantic retrieval strategy by which images can be retrieved according to different levels of annotation.

  18. Synergistic advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2003-04-01

    Significant advances are more fully exploiting ultrasound's potential for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment. Therapeutic systems employ intense focused beams to thermally kill cancer cells in, e.g., prostate; to stop bleeding; and to treat specific diseases (e.g., glaucoma). Diagnostic ultrasound techniques can quantitatively image an increasingly broad spectrum of physical tissue attributes. An exciting aspect of this progress is the emerging synergy between these modalities. Advanced diagnostic techniques may contribute at several stages in therapy. For example, treatment planning for small ocular tumors uses 50-MHz, 3-D ultrasonic images with 0.05-mm resolution. Thermal simulations employ these images to evaluate desired and undesired effects using exposure stategies with specially designed treatment beams. Therapy beam positioning can use diagnostic elastography to sense tissue motion induced by radiation pressure from high-intensity treatment beams. Therapy monitoring can sense lesion formation using elastography motion sensing (to detect the increased stiffness in lesions); harmonic imaging (to sense altered nonlinear properties); and spectrum analysis images (depicting changes in the sizes, concentration, and configuration of sub-resolution structures.) Experience from these applications will greatly expand the knowledge of acoustic phenomena in living tissues and should lead to further advances in medical ultrasound.

  19. Medical imaging V: Image capture, formatting, and display

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Digital image display I-V; Quality assurance I-V; Clinical image presentation I-V; Imaging systems; Image compression; Workstations; and Medical diagnostic imaging support system for military medicine and other federal agencies.

  20. Medical advances during the Civil War.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, F W

    1988-09-01

    The contributions to medical care that developed during the Civil War have not been fully appreciated, probably because the quality of care administered was compared against modern standards rather than the standards of the time. The specific accomplishments that constituted major advances were as follows. 1. Accumulation of adequate records and detailed reports for the first time permitted a complete military medical history. This led to the publication of the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, which was identified in Europe as the first major academic accomplishment by US medicine. 2. Development of a system of managing mass casualties, including aid stations, field hospitals, and general hospitals, set the pattern for management of the wounded in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War. 3. The pavilion-style general hospitals, which were well ventilated and clean, were copied in the design of large civilian hospitals over the next 75 years. 4. The importance of immediate, definitive treatment of wounds and fractures was demonstrated and it was shown that major operative procedures, such as amputation, were optimally carried out in the first 24 hours after wounding. 5. The importance of sanitation and hygiene in preventing infection, disease, and death among the troops in the field was demonstrated. 6. Female nurses were introduced to hospital care and Catholic orders entered the hospital business. 7. The experience and training of thousands of physicians were upgraded and they were introduced to new ideas and standards of care. These included familiarity with prevention and treatment of infectious disease, with anesthetic agents, and with surgical principles that rapidly advanced the overall quality of American medical practice. 8. The Sanitary Commission was formed, a civilian-organized soldier's relief society that set the pattern for the development of the American Red Cross. PMID:3046560

  1. A survey of medical image registration - under review.

    PubMed

    Viergever, Max A; Maintz, J B Antoine; Klein, Stefan; Murphy, Keelin; Staring, Marius; Pluim, Josien P W

    2016-10-01

    A retrospective view on the past two decades of the field of medical image registration is presented, guided by the article "A survey of medical image registration" (Maintz and Viergever, 1998). It shows that the classification of the field introduced in that article is still usable, although some modifications to do justice to advances in the field would be due. The main changes over the last twenty years are the shift from extrinsic to intrinsic registration, the primacy of intensity-based registration, the breakthrough of nonlinear registration, the progress of inter-subject registration, and the availability of generic image registration software packages. Two problems that were called urgent already 20 years ago, are even more urgent nowadays: Validation of registration methods, and translation of results of image registration research to clinical practice. It may be concluded that the field of medical image registration has evolved, but still is in need of further development in various aspects.

  2. Developing a medical image content repository for e-learning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Tien-Cheng; Chang, Jing Ning; Yang, Stephen J H; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei Chyn

    2006-09-01

    The integration of medical informatics and e-learning systems could provide many advanced applications including training, knowledge management, telemedicine, etc. Currently, both the domains of e-learning and medical image have sophisticated specifications and standards. It is a great challenge to bring about integration. In this paper, we describe the development of a Web interface for searching and viewing medical images that are stored in standard medical image servers. With the creation of a Web solution, we have reduced the overheads of integration. We have packaged Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) network services as a component that can be used via a Web server. The Web server constitutes a content repository for searching, editing, and storing Web-based medical image content. This is a simple method by which the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) can be extended. We show that the content repository can easily interact and integrate with a learning system. With the integration, the user can easily generate and assign medical image content for e-learning. A Web solution might be the simplest way for system integration. The demonstration in this paper should be useful as a method of expanding the usage of medical information. The construction of a Web-based repository and integrated with a learning system may be also applicable to other domains.

  3. Developing a medical image content repository for e-learning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Tien-Cheng; Chang, Jing Ning; Yang, Stephen J H; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei Chyn

    2006-09-01

    The integration of medical informatics and e-learning systems could provide many advanced applications including training, knowledge management, telemedicine, etc. Currently, both the domains of e-learning and medical image have sophisticated specifications and standards. It is a great challenge to bring about integration. In this paper, we describe the development of a Web interface for searching and viewing medical images that are stored in standard medical image servers. With the creation of a Web solution, we have reduced the overheads of integration. We have packaged Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) network services as a component that can be used via a Web server. The Web server constitutes a content repository for searching, editing, and storing Web-based medical image content. This is a simple method by which the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) can be extended. We show that the content repository can easily interact and integrate with a learning system. With the integration, the user can easily generate and assign medical image content for e-learning. A Web solution might be the simplest way for system integration. The demonstration in this paper should be useful as a method of expanding the usage of medical information. The construction of a Web-based repository and integrated with a learning system may be also applicable to other domains. PMID:16710797

  4. Medical Imaging Field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Identification of Specialties within the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if specialty areas are emerging in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profession due to advancements made in the medical sciences, imaging technology, and clinical applications used in MRI that would require new developments in education/training programs and national registry examinations. In this…

  5. The algorithm stitching for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenishchev, E.; Marchuk, V.; Voronin, V.; Pismenskova, M.; Tolstova, I.; Svirin, I.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we propose a stitching algorithm of medical images into one. The algorithm is designed to stitching the medical x-ray imaging, biological particles in microscopic images, medical microscopic images and other. Such image can improve the diagnosis accuracy and quality for minimally invasive studies (e.g., laparoscopy, ophthalmology and other). The proposed algorithm is based on the following steps: the searching and selection areas with overlap boundaries; the keypoint and feature detection; the preliminary stitching images and transformation to reduce the visible distortion; the search a single unified borders in overlap area; brightness, contrast and white balance converting; the superimposition into a one image. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the task of image stitching.

  6. Content standards for medical image metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Ornellas, Marcos C.; da Rocha, Rafael P.

    2003-12-01

    Medical images are at the heart of the healthcare diagnostic procedures. They have provided not only a noninvasive mean to view anatomical cross-sections of internal organs but also a mean for physicians to evaluate the patient"s diagnosis and monitor the effects of the treatment. For a Medical Center, the emphasis may shift from the generation of image to post processing and data management since the medical staff may generate even more processed images and other data from the original image after various analyses and post processing. A medical image data repository for health care information system is becoming a critical need. This data repository would contain comprehensive patient records, including information such as clinical data and related diagnostic images, and post-processed images. Due to the large volume and complexity of the data as well as the diversified user access requirements, the implementation of the medical image archive system will be a complex and challenging task. This paper discusses content standards for medical image metadata. In addition it also focuses on the image metadata content evaluation and metadata quality management.

  7. Four challenges in medical image analysis from an industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Weese, Jürgen; Lorenz, Cristian

    2016-10-01

    Today's medical imaging systems produce a huge amount of images containing a wealth of information. However, the information is hidden in the data and image analysis algorithms are needed to extract it, to make it readily available for medical decisions and to enable an efficient work flow. Advances in medical image analysis over the past 20 years mean there are now many algorithms and ideas available that allow to address medical image analysis tasks in commercial solutions with sufficient performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and speed. At the same time new challenges have arisen. Firstly, there is a need for more generic image analysis technologies that can be efficiently adapted for a specific clinical task. Secondly, efficient approaches for ground truth generation are needed to match the increasing demands regarding validation and machine learning. Thirdly, algorithms for analyzing heterogeneous image data are needed. Finally, anatomical and organ models play a crucial role in many applications, and algorithms to construct patient-specific models from medical images with a minimum of user interaction are needed. These challenges are complementary to the on-going need for more accurate, more reliable and faster algorithms, and dedicated algorithmic solutions for specific applications.

  8. Color hard copy requirements for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, Ellen B.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, color mapping has not been utilized for diagnostic medical imaging. Color mapping was not possible prior to the emergence of electronic imaging modalities. Diagnostic imaging is considered in view of its purpose and goals as distinguished from photographic and scientific imaging. The applications for color in digital imaging modalities are discussed, as well as research directions for color utilized as a means of increasing the information density available to an observer. Requirements for color hardcopy are discussed.

  9. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII. PMID:9509399

  10. Medical image analysis with artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Trundle, P; Ren, J

    2010-12-01

    Given that neural networks have been widely reported in the research community of medical imaging, we provide a focused literature survey on recent neural network developments in computer-aided diagnosis, medical image segmentation and edge detection towards visual content analysis, and medical image registration for its pre-processing and post-processing, with the aims of increasing awareness of how neural networks can be applied to these areas and to provide a foundation for further research and practical development. Representative techniques and algorithms are explained in detail to provide inspiring examples illustrating: (i) how a known neural network with fixed structure and training procedure could be applied to resolve a medical imaging problem; (ii) how medical images could be analysed, processed, and characterised by neural networks; and (iii) how neural networks could be expanded further to resolve problems relevant to medical imaging. In the concluding section, a highlight of comparisons among many neural network applications is included to provide a global view on computational intelligence with neural networks in medical imaging.

  11. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing. PMID:26981111

  12. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment.

    PubMed

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing. PMID:26981111

  13. Parallel Digital Watermarking Process on Ultrasound Medical Images in Multicores Environment.

    PubMed

    Khor, Hui Liang; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology in communication network, it facilitated digital medical images transmitted to healthcare professionals via internal network or public network (e.g., Internet), but it also exposes the transmitted digital medical images to the security threats, such as images tampering or inserting false data in the images, which may cause an inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Medical image distortion is not to be tolerated for diagnosis purposes; thus a digital watermarking on medical image is introduced. So far most of the watermarking research has been done on single frame medical image which is impractical in the real environment. In this paper, a digital watermarking on multiframes medical images is proposed. In order to speed up multiframes watermarking processing time, a parallel watermarking processing on medical images processing by utilizing multicores technology is introduced. An experiment result has shown that elapsed time on parallel watermarking processing is much shorter than sequential watermarking processing.

  14. Image registration method for medical image sequences

    DOEpatents

    Gee, Timothy F.; Goddard, James S.

    2013-03-26

    Image registration of low contrast image sequences is provided. In one aspect, a desired region of an image is automatically segmented and only the desired region is registered. Active contours and adaptive thresholding of intensity or edge information may be used to segment the desired regions. A transform function is defined to register the segmented region, and sub-pixel information may be determined using one or more interpolation methods.

  15. The Downsides of a Major Medical Advance

    PubMed Central

    Fraenkel, Liana

    2010-01-01

    When positive, the results of randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the effectiveness of new options are released with great fanfare. This is especially true for difficult to treat conditions for which there are few treatment alternatives. This scenario recently played out at the 2009 American College of Rheumatology National meeting when the long anticipated RAVE (Rituximab versus Cyclophosphamide for Induction of Remission in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis) trial results were announced. Since then the results of the RAVE and RITUXVAS trials have demonstrated that rituximab is as effective at inducing remission in patients with ANCA positive vasculitis as cyclophosphamide. Prior to these trials, cyclophosphamide was the option of choice for this potentially life threatening disease, and physicians have long hoped for a viable alternative given the significant toxicity associated with this medication, particularly infection, infertility, and cancer. While the results of the trial were justifiably received with great enthusiasm, practical clinical experience has revealed some noteworthy downsides to this important medical advance. PMID:20665748

  16. THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Singh, Rahul S.; Bennett, David B.; Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bajwa, Neha; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Lee, Hua; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The application of THz to medical imaging is experiencing a surge in both interest and federal funding. A brief overview of the field is provided along with promising and emerging applications and ongoing research. THz imaging phenomenology is discussed and tradeoffs are identified. A THz medical imaging system, operating at ~525 GHz center frequency with ~125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth is introduced and details regarding principles of operation are provided. Two promising medical applications of THz imaging are presented: skin burns and cornea. For burns, images of second degree, partial thickness burns were obtained in rat models in vivo over an 8 hour period. These images clearly show the formation and progression of edema in and around the burn wound area. For cornea, experimental data measuring the hydration of ex vivo porcine cornea under drying is presented demonstrating utility in ophthalmologic applications. PMID:26085958

  17. Medical Imaging of Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Jones, Patrick; Mazal, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases are a group of protozoan, parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases endemic in 149 countries causing substantial illness globally. Extreme poverty and warm tropical climates are the 2 most potent forces promoting the spread of neglected tropical diseases. These forces are prevalent in Central and South America, as well as the U.S. Gulf Coast. Advanced cases often require specialized medical imaging for diagnosis, disease staging, and follow-up. This article offers a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis (with special attention to medical imaging), and treatment of neglected tropical diseases specific to the Americas.

  18. From radio-astronomy to medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Peters, T M

    1991-12-01

    A common thread in much of the medical imaging that has developed over the past 20 years has been the Fourier transform. It was Richard Bates' interest in radio-interferometry, as well as his fascination with problems of medical imaging that prompted an initial interest in applying Fourier techniques to medical imaging in general and to Computed Tomography in particular. This resulted 20 years ago in one of the earliest technical papers advocating Fourier techniques for reconstructing cross-sections from radiographic projections (Bates and Peters, NZ J Science 14:883-896, 1971). Since those early days, medical imaging has explored into a multi-billion dollar industry. The CT scanner has become the workhorse imaging modality in the radiology department, while its more recent relative, the MR scanner, is rapidly gaining ground as a technique of even greater importance. Richard Bates, with his team of "Medical Imagers" was a very significant force in the development of the field of Medical Imaging as we know it today. This paper attempts to chronicle the genesis of this process from the personal perspective of the author.

  19. Multilanthanide Systems for Medical Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeremiah D.; Allen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecules containing multiple lanthanide ions have unique potential in applications for medical imaging including the areas of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoresence imaging. The study of multilanthanide complexes as contrast agents for MRI and as biologically responsive fluorescent probes has resulted in an improved understanding of the structural characteristics that govern the behavior of these complexes. This review will survey the last five years of progress in multinuclear lanthanide complexes with a specific focus on the structural parameters that impact potential medical imaging applications. The patents cited in this review are from the last five years and describe contrast agents that contain multiple lanthanide ions. PMID:23543789

  20. Web-based medical image archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Edward B.; Warach, Steven; Cheung, Huey; Wang, Shaohua A.; Tangiral, Phanidral; Luby, Marie; Martino, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a Web-based medical image archive system in three-tier, client-server architecture for the storage and retrieval of medical image data, as well as patient information and clinical data. The Web-based medical image archive system was designed to meet the need of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke for a central image repository to address questions of stroke pathophysiology and imaging biomarkers in stroke clinical trials by analyzing images obtained from a large number of clinical trials conducted by government, academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers. In the database management-tier, we designed the image storage hierarchy to accommodate large binary image data files that the database software can access in parallel. In the middle-tier, a commercial Enterprise Java Bean server and secure Web server manages user access to the image database system. User-friendly Web-interfaces and applet tools are provided in the client-tier for easy access to the image archive system over the Internet. Benchmark test results show that our three-tier image archive system yields fast system response time for uploading, downloading, and querying the image database.

  1. Shaping the future through innovations: From medical imaging to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Comaniciu, Dorin; Engel, Klaus; Georgescu, Bogdan; Mansi, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Medical images constitute a source of information essential for disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In addition, due to its patient-specific nature, imaging information represents a critical component required for advancing precision medicine into clinical practice. This manuscript describes recently developed technologies for better handling of image information: photorealistic visualization of medical images with Cinematic Rendering, artificial agents for in-depth image understanding, support for minimally invasive procedures, and patient-specific computational models with enhanced predictive power. Throughout the manuscript we will analyze the capabilities of such technologies and extrapolate on their potential impact to advance the quality of medical care, while reducing its cost. PMID:27349829

  2. Shaping the future through innovations: From medical imaging to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Comaniciu, Dorin; Engel, Klaus; Georgescu, Bogdan; Mansi, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Medical images constitute a source of information essential for disease diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In addition, due to its patient-specific nature, imaging information represents a critical component required for advancing precision medicine into clinical practice. This manuscript describes recently developed technologies for better handling of image information: photorealistic visualization of medical images with Cinematic Rendering, artificial agents for in-depth image understanding, support for minimally invasive procedures, and patient-specific computational models with enhanced predictive power. Throughout the manuscript we will analyze the capabilities of such technologies and extrapolate on their potential impact to advance the quality of medical care, while reducing its cost.

  3. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  4. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  5. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  6. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  7. 21 CFR 892.2030 - Medical image digitizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image digitizer. 892.2030 Section 892.2030...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2030 Medical image digitizer. (a) Identification. A medical image digitizer is a device intended to convert an analog medical image into a...

  8. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663

  9. I2Cnet medical image annotation service.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, C E; Zabulis, X; Orphanoudakis, S C

    1997-01-01

    I2Cnet (Image Indexing by Content network) aims to provide services related to the content-based management of images in healthcare over the World-Wide Web. Each I2Cnet server maintains an autonomous repository of medical images and related information. The annotation service of I2Cnet allows specialists to interact with the contents of the repository, adding comments or illustrations to medical images of interest. I2Cnet annotations may be communicated to other users via e-mail or posted to I2Cnet for inclusion in its local repositories. This paper discusses the annotation service of I2Cnet and argues that such services pave the way towards the evolution of active digital medical image libraries.

  10. Current perspectives in medical image perception

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Medical images constitute a core portion of the information a physician utilizes to render diagnostic and treatment decisions. At a fundamental level, this diagnostic process involves two basic processes: visually inspecting the image (visual perception) and rendering an interpretation (cognition). The likelihood of error in the interpretation of medical images is, unfortunately, not negligible. Errors do occur, and patients’ lives are impacted, underscoring our need to understand how physicians interact with the information in an image during the interpretation process. With improved understanding, we can develop ways to further improve decision making and, thus, to improve patient care. The science of medical image perception is dedicated to understanding and improving the clinical interpretation process. PMID:20601701

  11. Towards THz medical imaging; reflective imaging of animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul S; Taylor, Zachary D; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Brown, Elliott R

    2008-01-01

    A reflective THz imaging system has been developed, and features a photoconductive switch and zero-bias Schottky diode detector. The system was used to image deli meats and can distinguish between muscle and adipose tissue based on water content. This capability is a step towards the development of THz medical imaging systems.

  12. Astronomy helps advance medical diagnosis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Effective treatment of cancer relies on the early detection and removal of cancerous cells. Unfortunately, this is when they are hardest to spot. In the case of breast cancer, now the most prevalent form of cancer in the United Kingdom, cancer cells tend to congregate in the lymph nodes, from where they can rapidly spread throughout the rest of the body. Current medical equipment can give doctors only limited information on tissue health. A surgeon must then perform an exploratory operation to try to identify the diseased tissue. If that is possible, the diseased tissue will be removed. If identification is not possible, the doctor may be forced to take away the whole of the lymphatic system. Such drastic treatment can then cause side effects, such as excessive weight gain, because it throws the patient's hormones out of balance. Now, members of the Science Payloads Technology Division of the Research and Science Support Department, at ESA's science, technology and engineering research centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, have developed a new X-ray camera that could make on-the-spot diagnoses and pinpoint cancerous areas to guide surgeons. Importantly, it would be a small device that could be used continuously during operations. "There is no photography involved in the camera we envisage. It will be completely digital, so the surgeon will study the whole lymphatic system and the potentially cancerous parts on his monitor. He then decides which parts he removes," says Dr. Tone Peacock, Head of the Science Payloads Technology Division. The ESA team were trying to find a way to make images using high-energy X-rays because some celestial objects give out large quantities of X-rays but little visible light. To see these, astronomers need to use X-ray cameras. Traditionally, this has been a bit of a blind spot for astronomers. ESA's current X-ray telescope, XMM-Newton, is in orbit now, observing low energy, so-called 'soft' X-rays. European scientists have always wanted to

  13. Digital Pathology: Data-Intensive Frontier in Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lee A. D.; Carter, Alexis B.; Farris, Alton B.; Wang, Fusheng; Kong, Jun; Gutman, David A.; Widener, Patrick; Pan, Tony C.; Cholleti, Sharath R.; Sharma, Ashish; Kurc, Tahsin M.; Brat, Daniel J.; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Pathology is a medical subspecialty that practices the diagnosis of disease. Microscopic examination of tissue reveals information enabling the pathologist to render accurate diagnoses and to guide therapy. The basic process by which anatomic pathologists render diagnoses has remained relatively unchanged over the last century, yet advances in information technology now offer significant opportunities in image-based diagnostic and research applications. Pathology has lagged behind other healthcare practices such as radiology where digital adoption is widespread. As devices that generate whole slide images become more practical and affordable, practices will increasingly adopt this technology and eventually produce an explosion of data that will quickly eclipse the already vast quantities of radiology imaging data. These advances are accompanied by significant challenges for data management and storage, but they also introduce new opportunities to improve patient care by streamlining and standardizing diagnostic approaches and uncovering disease mechanisms. Computer-based image analysis is already available in commercial diagnostic systems, but further advances in image analysis algorithms are warranted in order to fully realize the benefits of digital pathology in medical discovery and patient care. In coming decades, pathology image analysis will extend beyond the streamlining of diagnostic workflows and minimizing interobserver variability and will begin to provide diagnostic assistance, identify therapeutic targets, and predict patient outcomes and therapeutic responses. PMID:25328166

  14. Automated medical image library creation for education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark; Feied, Craig; Gillam, Michael; Handler, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe a method to create a medical teaching library that is automatically maintained, contains tens of thousands of radiologic images and is built using existing, internal, hospital dictations, radiologic images, and an off-the-shelf commercial search engine product (Google Inc.).

  15. Use Of Medical Images In Today's Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ralph G.

    1982-01-01

    Medicine is a visual discipline. In the Practice of medicine, physicians require many forms of visual information to successfully conduct their tasks of diagnosing the presence or absence of disease; evaluating the progression or remission of disease; developing strategies for individual patient treatment planning; and in educating their peers and students. Thus, today's hospitals must provide an effective management strategy for a variety of medical images. This management strategy includes the functions of the acquisition of patient images, the archiving of patient images, and the storage of patient images. In a hospital, each medical specialty generates a class of visual images from which information is extracted for use by the patient's physician. This paper will address four issues in the use of medical images in today's hospitals. First, an estimate of the sources and utilization of clinical images in a hospital will be presented. Second, estimates will be provided regarding the magnitude of each of these images sources. Third, current management strategies for dealing with these images will be reviewed. Fourth, several potential solutions will be described for improving the management and archiving of these image sources in a hospital environment.

  16. Pake Prize Talk: The Future of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelheit, Lonnie

    2001-03-01

    Discussed will be a brief history and status of the major medical imaging modalities, including X-ray Radiography and Fluoroscopy, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine (including Positron Emission Tomography). Also covered will be potential new modalities such as Optical, Magnetic and Electric Field Imaging. In addition, the presentation will include a projection of future advances of each modality along with a discussion of some of the major challenges and more speculative projections of a few game-changing possibilities.

  17. Multispectral imaging for medical diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.

    1977-01-01

    Photography technique determines amount of morbidity present in tissue. Imaging apparatus incorporates numerical filtering. Overall system operates in near-real time. Information gained from this system enables physician to understand extent of injury and leads to accelerated treatment.

  18. Acoustic Waves in Medical Imaging and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Sarvazyan, Armen P.; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term “ultrasonography,” or its abbreviated version “sonography” meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Since the 1990s numerous acoustic imaging modalities started to emerge based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. It was demonstrated that imaging with these waves can provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We will discuss physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities, and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications will be presented. We will discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications. PMID:23643056

  19. Acoustic waves in medical imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sarvazyan, Armen P; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2013-07-01

    Up until about two decades ago acoustic imaging and ultrasound imaging were synonymous. The term ultrasonography, or its abbreviated version sonography, meant an imaging modality based on the use of ultrasonic compressional bulk waves. Beginning in the 1990s, there started to emerge numerous acoustic imaging modalities based on the use of a different mode of acoustic wave: shear waves. Imaging with these waves was shown to provide very useful and very different information about the biological tissue being examined. We discuss the physical basis for the differences between these two basic modes of acoustic waves used in medical imaging and analyze the advantages associated with shear acoustic imaging. A comprehensive analysis of the range of acoustic wavelengths, velocities and frequencies that have been used in different imaging applications is presented. We discuss the potential for future shear wave imaging applications.

  20. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V.

    2016-05-03

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  1. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-12-31

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  2. Improved Interactive Medical-Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Twombly, Ian A.; Senger, Steven

    2003-01-01

    An improved computational-simulation system for interactive medical imaging has been invented. The system displays high-resolution, three-dimensional-appearing images of anatomical objects based on data acquired by such techniques as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). The system enables users to manipulate the data to obtain a variety of views for example, to display cross sections in specified planes or to rotate images about specified axes. Relative to prior such systems, this system offers enhanced capabilities for synthesizing images of surgical cuts and for collaboration by users at multiple, remote computing sites.

  3. Teaching about the Physics of Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean; McBride, Dyan; Murphy, Sytil; Aryal, Bijaya; Kalita, Spartak; Wirjawan, Johannes v. d.

    2010-07-01

    Even before the discovery of X-rays, attempts at non-invasive medical imaging required an understanding of fundamental principles of physics. Students frequently do not see these connections because they are not taught in beginning physics courses. To help students understand that physics and medical imaging are closely connected, we have developed a series of active learning units. For each unit we begin by studying how students transfer their knowledge from traditional physics classes and everyday experiences to medical applications. Then, we build instructional materials to take advantage of the students' ability to use their existing learning and knowledge resources. Each of the learning units involves a combination of hands-on activities, which present analogies, and interactive computer simulations. Our learning units introduce students to the contemporary imaging techniques of CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and wavefront aberrometry. The project's web site is http://web.phys.ksu.edu/mmmm/.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, G.P.

    1998-09-01

    Because continuous-energy Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations can be nearly exact simulations of physical reality (within data limitations, geometric approximations, transport algorithms, etc.), it follows that one should be able to closely approximate the results of many experiments from first-principles computations. This line of reasoning has led to various MCNP studies that involve simulations of medical imaging modalities and other visualization methods such as radiography, Anger camera, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and SABRINA particle track visualization. It is the intent of this paper to summarize some of these imaging simulations in the hope of stimulating further work, especially as computer power increases. Improved interpretation and prediction of medical images should ultimately lead to enhanced medical treatments. It is also reasonable to assume that such computations could be used to design new or more effective imaging instruments.

  5. Astronomy helps advance medical diagnosis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Effective treatment of cancer relies on the early detection and removal of cancerous cells. Unfortunately, this is when they are hardest to spot. In the case of breast cancer, now the most prevalent form of cancer in the United Kingdom, cancer cells tend to congregate in the lymph nodes, from where they can rapidly spread throughout the rest of the body. Current medical equipment can give doctors only limited information on tissue health. A surgeon must then perform an exploratory operation to try to identify the diseased tissue. If that is possible, the diseased tissue will be removed. If identification is not possible, the doctor may be forced to take away the whole of the lymphatic system. Such drastic treatment can then cause side effects, such as excessive weight gain, because it throws the patient's hormones out of balance. Now, members of the Science Payloads Technology Division of the Research and Science Support Department, at ESA's science, technology and engineering research centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, have developed a new X-ray camera that could make on-the-spot diagnoses and pinpoint cancerous areas to guide surgeons. Importantly, it would be a small device that could be used continuously during operations. "There is no photography involved in the camera we envisage. It will be completely digital, so the surgeon will study the whole lymphatic system and the potentially cancerous parts on his monitor. He then decides which parts he removes," says Dr. Tone Peacock, Head of the Science Payloads Technology Division. The ESA team were trying to find a way to make images using high-energy X-rays because some celestial objects give out large quantities of X-rays but little visible light. To see these, astronomers need to use X-ray cameras. Traditionally, this has been a bit of a blind spot for astronomers. ESA's current X-ray telescope, XMM-Newton, is in orbit now, observing low energy, so-called 'soft' X-rays. European scientists have always wanted to

  6. Integrating medical imaging analyses through a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E. Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-03-01

    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists.

  7. Sharing medical images: a proposal of a reference image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Furuie, Sérgio S.

    2006-03-01

    Due to increasing number of digital images used in medical diagnosis, the image processing and analysis are becoming essential for many tasks in medicine. One of the obstacles within the field of medical image processing is the lack of reference image datasets freely available for groups and/or individual users, in order to evaluate their new methods and applications. In order to improve this situation, this work presents the development of a framework to make available a free, online, multipurpose and multimodality medical image database for software and algorithm evaluation. The project is implemented as a distributed architecture for medical image database including a publishing workflow, authoring tools, and role-based access control. Our effort aims to offer a testbed and a set of resources including software, links to scientific papers, gold standards, reference and post-processed images, enabling the medical image processing community (scientists, physicians, students and industrials) to be more aware of evaluation issues. The proposed approach has been used as an electronic teaching system in Radiology as well.

  8. A lossless encryption method for medical images using edge maps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2009-01-01

    Image encryption is an effective approach for providing security and privacy protection for medical images. This paper introduces a new lossless approach, called EdgeCrypt, to encrypt medical images using the information contained within an edge map. The algorithm can fully protect the selected objects/regions within medical images or the entire medical images. It can also encrypt other types of images such as grayscale images or color images. The algorithm can be used for privacy protection in the real-time medical applications such as wireless medical networking and mobile medical services.

  9. Resource estimation in high performance medical image computing.

    PubMed

    Banalagay, Rueben; Covington, Kelsie Jade; Wilkes, D M; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging analysis processes often involve the concatenation of many steps (e.g., multi-stage scripts) to integrate and realize advancements from image acquisition, image processing, and computational analysis. With the dramatic increase in data size for medical imaging studies (e.g., improved resolution, higher throughput acquisition, shared databases), interesting study designs are becoming intractable or impractical on individual workstations and servers. Modern pipeline environments provide control structures to distribute computational load in high performance computing (HPC) environments. However, high performance computing environments are often shared resources, and scheduling computation across these resources necessitates higher level modeling of resource utilization. Submission of 'jobs' requires an estimate of the CPU runtime and memory usage. The resource requirements for medical image processing algorithms are difficult to predict since the requirements can vary greatly between different machines, different execution instances, and different data inputs. Poor resource estimates can lead to wasted resources in high performance environments due to incomplete executions and extended queue wait times. Hence, resource estimation is becoming a major hurdle for medical image processing algorithms to efficiently leverage high performance computing environments. Herein, we present our implementation of a resource estimation system to overcome these difficulties and ultimately provide users with the ability to more efficiently utilize high performance computing resources.

  10. Resource estimation in high performance medical image computing.

    PubMed

    Banalagay, Rueben; Covington, Kelsie Jade; Wilkes, D M; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-10-01

    Medical imaging analysis processes often involve the concatenation of many steps (e.g., multi-stage scripts) to integrate and realize advancements from image acquisition, image processing, and computational analysis. With the dramatic increase in data size for medical imaging studies (e.g., improved resolution, higher throughput acquisition, shared databases), interesting study designs are becoming intractable or impractical on individual workstations and servers. Modern pipeline environments provide control structures to distribute computational load in high performance computing (HPC) environments. However, high performance computing environments are often shared resources, and scheduling computation across these resources necessitates higher level modeling of resource utilization. Submission of 'jobs' requires an estimate of the CPU runtime and memory usage. The resource requirements for medical image processing algorithms are difficult to predict since the requirements can vary greatly between different machines, different execution instances, and different data inputs. Poor resource estimates can lead to wasted resources in high performance environments due to incomplete executions and extended queue wait times. Hence, resource estimation is becoming a major hurdle for medical image processing algorithms to efficiently leverage high performance computing environments. Herein, we present our implementation of a resource estimation system to overcome these difficulties and ultimately provide users with the ability to more efficiently utilize high performance computing resources. PMID:24906466

  11. Medical imaging in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Heelan, R.T.; Bains, M.S.; Yeh, S.

    1987-10-01

    The routine imaging work-up of suspected lung cancer should include posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs and, in most cases, a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the entire thorax and adrenal glands. In asymptomatic patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung, there is justification for doing routine contrast-enhanced CT examination of the brain. Further imaging workup will be suggested by the patient's history, physical findings, and laboratory findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest in patients with lung cancer is being investigated, but current studies comparing it with CT demonstrate no definite advantage at this time, with the possible exception of the lung apex in which T1 weighted thin-section coronal views are useful.

  12. Photodetectors for Nuclear Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2009-01-01

    There have been a number of recent advances in photodetector technology, notably in photomultiplier tubes with high quantum efficiency (up to ~50%), hybrid photodetectors, and silicon-based Geiger-mode photodetectors. This paper looks at the potential benefits that these technologies can bring to nuclear medicine, notably SPECT and PET. We find that while the potential benefits to SPECT are relatively small, they can bring performance improvements in many areas for PET. PMID:20161403

  13. An open architecture for medical image workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

    2005-04-01

    Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

  14. Human visual pattern recognition of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, Irving

    1990-07-01

    The output of most medical imaging systems is a display for interpretation by human observers. This paper provides a general summary of recent work on shape recognition by humans. Two broad modes of visual image processing executed by different cortical loci can be distinguished: a) a mode for motor interaction which is sensitive to quantitative variation in image parameters and b) a mode for basic-level object recognition which is based on a small set of qualitative contrasts in viewpoint invariant properties of images edges. Many medical image classifications pose inherently difficult problems for the recognition system in that they are based on quantitative and surface patch variations--rather than qualitative--variations. But when recognition can be achieved quickly and accurately it is possible that a small viewpoint invariant contrast has been discovered and is being exploited by the interpreter.

  15. Nanotechnology-supported THz medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Andreas; Talias, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the achievements and progress in the field of medical imaging have dramatically enhanced the early detection and treatment of many pathological conditions. The development of new imaging modalities, especially non-ionising ones, which will improve prognosis, is of crucial importance. A number of novel imaging modalities have been developed but they are still in the initial stages of development and serious drawbacks obstruct them from offering their benefits to the medical field. In the 21 st century, it is believed that nanotechnology will highly influence our everyday life and dramatically change the world of medicine, including medical imaging. Here we discuss how nanotechnology, which is still in its infancy, can improve Terahertz (THz) imaging, an emerging imaging modality, and how it may find its way into real clinical applications. THz imaging is characterised by the use of non-ionising radiation and although it has the potential to be used in many biomedical fields, it remains in the field of basic research. An extensive review of the recent available literature shows how the current state of this emerging imaging modality can be transformed by nanotechnology. Innovative scientific concepts that use nanotechnology-based techniques to overcome some of the limitations of the use of THz imaging are discussed. We review a number of drawbacks, such as a low contrast mechanism, poor source performance and bulky THz systems, which characterise present THz medical imaging and suggest how they can be overcome through nanotechnology. Better resolution and higher detection sensitivity can also be achieved using nanotechnology techniques. PMID:24555052

  16. Generalized nonconvex optimization for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Joshi, Sujit

    2000-06-01

    Design of a generalized technique for medical image segmentation is a challenging task. Currently a number of approaches are being investigated for 2-D and 3-D medical image segmentation for diagnostic and research applications. The methodology used in this work is aimed at obtaining a generalized solution of non-convex optimization problems by including a structural constraint of mass or density and the concept of additivity properties of entropy to a recently developed statistical approach to clustering and classification. The original computationally intensive procedure is made more efficient both in processing time and accuracy by employing a new similarity parameter for generating the initial clusters that are updated by minimizing an energy function relating the image entropy and expected distortion. The application of the computationally intensive yet generalized solution to nonconvex optimization to a limited set of medical images has resulted in excellent segmentation when compared to other clustering based segmentation approaches. The addition of the parametric approach to determine the initial number of clusters allows significant reduction in processing time and better design of automated segmentation procedure. This research work generalizes a deterministic annealing i.e. a specific statistical approach to solve nonconvex optimization problems by developing a more efficient technique applicable to nonconvex optimization problems (getting trapped in local minima). However, the DA approach is extremely computationally intensive for applications such as image segmentation. The new integrated approach developed in this work allows this optimization technique to be used for medical image segmentation.

  17. Remembrance of conversations past: oral advance statements about medical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polls show increasing public interest in advance statements or directives about medical treatment ("living wills") but that few people, apart from Jehovah's Witnesses, carry such documents. Patients' firm, witnessed oral decisions are often sufficient to aid clinical decision making but should still be recorded in medical notes. Without documentation, dilemmas arise when others claim to know patients' views on the basis of past unrecorded conversations and demand withdrawal of treatment when patients are not terminally ill and cannot speak for themselves. Legal and ethical considerations oblige doctors to act in the best interests of an incapacitated patient; these considerations are now formally defined in draft legislation as including consideration of the patient's past wishes. The practicalities of ascertaining the strength and validity of such wishes from conversations reported second hand are complex. The paucity of legal and ethical guidance on reported oral advance statements makes debate imperative and renders the alternative of having designated surrogate decision makers increasingly attractive. Images p1664-a PMID:7795460

  18. Advanced femtosecond lasers enable new developments in non-linear imaging and functional studies in neuroscience, biology and medical applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, Marco; McCoy, Darryl

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy witnessed a mutation from tool for imaging cellular structures in living animals deeper than other high-resolution techniques, into an instrument for monitoring functionality and even stimulating or inhibiting inter-cellular signalling. This paradigm shift has been enabled primarily by the development of genetically encoded probes like Ca indicators (GECI) and Opsins for optogenetics inhibition and stimulation. These developments will hopefully enable the understanding of how local network of hundreds or thousands of neurons operate in response to actual tasks or induced stimuli. Imaging, monitoring signals and activating neurons, all on a millisecond time scale, requires new laser tools providing a combination of wavelengths, higher powers and operating regimes different from the ones traditionally used for classic multiphoton imaging. The other key development in multiphoton techniques relates to potential diagnostic and clinical applications where non-linear imaging could provide all optical marker-free replacement of H and E techniques and even intra-operative guidance for procedures like cancer surgery. These developments will eventually drive the development of specialized laser sources where compact size, ease of use, beam delivery and cost are primary concerns. In this talk we will discuss recent laser product developments targeting the various applications of multiphoton imaging, as fiber lasers and other new type of lasers gradually gain popularity and their own space, side-by-side or as an alternative to conventional titanium sapphire femtosecond lasers.

  19. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  20. Medical imaging applications of amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Mireshghi, A.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.K.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1994-07-01

    Two dimensional hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) pixel arrays are good candidates as flat-panel imagers for applications in medical imaging. Various performance characteristics of these imagers are reviewed and compared with currently used equipments. An important component in the a-Si:H imager is the scintillator screen. A new approach for fabrication of high resolution CsI(Tl) scintillator layers, appropriate for coupling to a-Si:H arrays, are presented. For nuclear medicine applications, a new a-Si:H based gamma camera is introduced and Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate its performance.

  1. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  2. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  3. Scalable Medical Image Understanding by Fusing Cross-Modal Object Recognition with Formal Domain Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Manuel; Sintek, Michael; Buitelaar, Paul; Mukherjee, Saikat; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Freund, Jörg

    Recent advances in medical imaging technology have dramatically increased the amount of clinical image data. In contrast, techniques for efficiently exploiting the rich semantic information in medical images have evolved much slower. Despite the research outcomes in image understanding, current image databases are still indexed by manually assigned subjective keywords instead of the semantics of the images. Indeed, most current content-based image search applications index image features that do not generalize well and use inflexible queries. This slow progress is due to the lack of scalable and generic information representation systems which can abstract over the high dimensional nature of medical images as well as semantically model the results of object recognition techniques. We propose a system combining medical imaging information with ontological formalized semantic knowledge that provides a basis for building universal knowledge repositories and gives clinicians fully cross-lingual and cross-modal access to biomedical information.

  4. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  5. Research on medical image encryption in telemedicine systems.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yin; Wang, Huanzhen; Zhou, Zixia; Jin, Ziyi

    2016-04-29

    Recently, advances in computers and high-speed communication tools have led to enhancements in remote medical consultation research. Laws in some localities require hospitals to encrypt patient information (including images of the patient) before transferring the data over a network. Therefore, developing suitable encryption algorithms is quite important for modern medicine. This paper demonstrates a digital image encryption algorithm based on chaotic mapping, which uses the no-period and no-convergence properties of a chaotic sequence to create image chaos and pixel averaging. Then, the chaotic sequence is used to encrypt the image, thereby improving data security. With this method, the security of data and images can be improved. PMID:27163302

  6. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  7. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  8. Identifying regions of interest in medical images using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wei-Guang; Chang, Ping-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Advances in data acquisition, processing and visualization techniques have had a tremendous impact on medical imaging in recent years. However, the interpretation of medical images is still almost always performed by radiologists. Developments in artificial intelligence and image processing have shown the increasingly great potential of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). Nevertheless, it has remained challenging to develop a general approach to process various commonly used types of medical images (e.g., X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound images). To facilitate diagnosis, we recommend the use of image segmentation to discover regions of interest (ROI) using self-organizing maps (SOM). We devise a two-stage SOM approach that can be used to precisely identify the dominant colors of a medical image and then segment it into several small regions. In addition, by appropriately conducting the recursive merging steps to merge smaller regions into larger ones, radiologists can usually identify one or more ROIs within a medical image.

  9. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  10. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the case of medical ultrasound imaging. We propose to investigate this problem using multidimensional autoregressive (AR) models. Noting that the estimation of the envelope of an ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal is very similar to the estimation of classical Fourier-based power spectrum estimation, we theoretically show that a domain change and a multidimensional AR model can be used to achieve super-resolution in ultrasound imaging provided the order is estimated correctly. Here, this is done by means of a technique that simultaneously estimates the order and the parameters of a multidimensional model using relevant regression matrix factorization. Doing so, the proposed method specifically fits ultrasound imaging and provides an estimated envelope. Moreover, an expression that links the theoretical image resolution to both the image acquisition features (such as the point spread function) and a postprocessing feature (the AR model) order is derived. The overall contribution of this work is threefold. First, it allows for automatic resolution improvement. Through a simple model and without any specific manual algorithmic parameter tuning, as is used in common methods, the proposed technique simply and exclusively uses the ultrasound RF signal as input and provides the improved B-mode as output. Second, it allows for the a priori prediction of the improvement in resolution via the knowledge of the parametric model order before actual processing. Finally, to achieve the

  11. From Roentgen to magnetic resonance imaging: the history of medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Scatliff, James H; Morris, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging has advanced in remarkable ways since the discovery of x-rays 120 years ago. Today's radiologists can image the human body in intricate detail using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound, and various other modalities. Such technology allows for improved screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease, but it also comes with risks. Many imaging modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation, which potentially increases their risk of developing cancer in the future, and imaging may also be associated with possible allergic reactions or risks related to the use of intravenous contrast agents. In addition, the financial costs of imaging are taxing our health care system, and incidental findings can trigger anxiety and further testing. This issue of the NCMJ addresses the pros and cons of medical imaging and discusses in detail the following uses of medical imaging: screening for breast cancer with mammography, screening for osteoporosis and monitoring of bone mineral density with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, screening for congenital hip dysplasia in infants with ultrasound, and evaluation of various heart conditions with cardiac imaging. Together, these articles show the challenges that must be met as we seek to harness the power of today's imaging technologies, as well as the potential benefits that can be achieved when these hurdles are overcome. PMID:24663131

  12. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  13. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  14. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  15. Medical imaging with a microwave tomographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Jofre, L; Hawley, M S; Broquetas, A; de los Reyes, E; Ferrando, M; Elias-Fusté, A R

    1990-03-01

    A microwave tomographic scanner for biomedical applications is presented. The scanner consists of a 64 element circular array with a useful diameter of 20 cm. Electronically scanning the transmitting and receiving antennas allows multiview measurements with no mechanical movement. Imaging parameters are appropriate for medical use: a spatial resolution of 7 mm and a contrast resolution of 1% for a measurement time of 3 s. Measurements on tissue-simulating phantoms and volunteers, together with numerical simulations, are presented to assess the system for absolute imaging of tissue distribution and for differential imaging of physiological, pathological, and induced changes in tissues. PMID:2329003

  16. Advanced Imaging Algorithms for Radiation Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The intent of the proposed work, in collaboration with University of Michigan, is to develop the algorithms that will bring the analysis from qualitative images to quantitative attributes of objects containing SNM. The first step to achieving this is to develop an indepth understanding of the intrinsic errors associated with the deconvolution and MLEM algorithms. A significant new effort will be undertaken to relate the image data to a posited three-dimensional model of geometric primitives that can be adjusted to get the best fit. In this way, parameters of the model such as sizes, shapes, and masses can be extracted for both radioactive and non-radioactive materials. This model-based algorithm will need the integrated response of a hypothesized configuration of material to be calculated many times. As such, both the MLEM and the model-based algorithm require significant increases in calculation speed in order to converge to solutions in practical amounts of time.

  17. Medical image registration using sparse coding of image patches.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aboozar; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Image registration is a basic task in medical image processing applications like group analysis and atlas construction. Similarity measure is a critical ingredient of image registration. Intensity distortion of medical images is not considered in most previous similarity measures. Therefore, in the presence of bias field distortions, they do not generate an acceptable registration. In this paper, we propose a sparse based similarity measure for mono-modal images that considers non-stationary intensity and spatially-varying distortions. The main idea behind this measure is that the aligned image is constructed by an analysis dictionary trained using the image patches. For this purpose, we use "Analysis K-SVD" to train the dictionary and find the sparse coefficients. We utilize image patches to construct the analysis dictionary and then we employ the proposed sparse similarity measure to find a non-rigid transformation using free form deformation (FFD). Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to robustly register 2D and 3D images in both simulated and real cases. The proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures and decreases the transformation error compared to the previous methods. Even in the presence of bias field distortion, the proposed method aligns images without any preprocessing. PMID:27085311

  18. Medical image registration using sparse coding of image patches.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aboozar; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Image registration is a basic task in medical image processing applications like group analysis and atlas construction. Similarity measure is a critical ingredient of image registration. Intensity distortion of medical images is not considered in most previous similarity measures. Therefore, in the presence of bias field distortions, they do not generate an acceptable registration. In this paper, we propose a sparse based similarity measure for mono-modal images that considers non-stationary intensity and spatially-varying distortions. The main idea behind this measure is that the aligned image is constructed by an analysis dictionary trained using the image patches. For this purpose, we use "Analysis K-SVD" to train the dictionary and find the sparse coefficients. We utilize image patches to construct the analysis dictionary and then we employ the proposed sparse similarity measure to find a non-rigid transformation using free form deformation (FFD). Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to robustly register 2D and 3D images in both simulated and real cases. The proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art similarity measures and decreases the transformation error compared to the previous methods. Even in the presence of bias field distortion, the proposed method aligns images without any preprocessing.

  19. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  20. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and...

  1. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  2. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  3. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  4. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  5. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  6. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and...

  7. 21 CFR 892.2040 - Medical image hardcopy device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical image hardcopy device. 892.2040 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2040 Medical image hardcopy device. (a) Identification. A medical image hardcopy device is a device that produces a visible printed record of a...

  8. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device. (a) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and...

  9. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  10. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  11. 21 CFR 892.2020 - Medical image communications device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical image communications device. 892.2020... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2020 Medical image communications device. (a) Identification. A medical image communications device provides electronic transfer of...

  12. Medical physics: some recollections in diagnostic X-ray imaging and therapeutic radiology.

    PubMed

    Gray, J E; Orton, C G

    2000-12-01

    Medical physics has changed dramatically since 1895. There was a period of slow evolutionary change during the first 70 years after Roentgen's discovery of x rays. With the advent of the computer, however, both diagnostic and therapeutic radiology have undergone rapid growth and changes. Technologic advances such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnostic imaging and three-dimensional treatment planning systems, stereotactic radiosurgery, and intensity modulated radiation therapy in radiation oncology have resulted in substantial changes in medical physics. These advances have improved diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy while expanding the need for better educated and experienced medical physics staff.

  13. Transfer representation learning for medical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chuen-Kai Shie; Chung-Hisang Chuang; Chun-Nan Chou; Meng-Hsi Wu; Chang, Edward Y

    2015-08-01

    There are two major challenges to overcome when developing a classifier to perform automatic disease diagnosis. First, the amount of labeled medical data is typically very limited, and a classifier cannot be effectively trained to attain high disease-detection accuracy. Second, medical domain knowledge is required to identify representative features in data for detecting a target disease. Most computer scientists and statisticians do not have such domain knowledge. In this work, we show that employing transfer learning can remedy both problems. We use Otitis Media (OM) to conduct our case study. Instead of using domain knowledge to extract features from labeled OM images, we construct features based on a dataset entirely OM-irrelevant. More specifically, we first learn a codebook in an unsupervised way from 15 million images collected from ImageNet. The codebook gives us what the encoders consider being the fundamental elements of those 15 million images. We then encode OM images using the codebook and obtain a weighting vector for each OM image. Using the resulting weighting vectors as the feature vectors of the OM images, we employ a traditional supervised learning algorithm to train an OM classifier. The achieved detection accuracy is 88.5% (89.63% in sensitivity and 86.9% in specificity), markedly higher than all previous attempts, which relied on domain experts to help extract features.

  14. Estimating fractal dimension of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, Alan I.; Loew, Murray H.

    1996-04-01

    Box counting (BC) is widely used to estimate the fractal dimension (fd) of medical images on the basis of a finite set of pixel data. The fd is then used as a feature to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy conditions. We show that BC is ineffective when used on small data sets and give examples of published studies in which researchers have obtained contradictory and flawed results by using BC to estimate the fd of data-limited medical images. We present a new method for estimating fd of data-limited medical images. In the new method, fractal interpolation functions (FIFs) are used to generate self-affine models of the underlying image; each model, upon discretization, approximates the original data points. The fd of each FIF is analytically evaluated. The mean of the fds of the FIFs is the estimate of the fd of the original data. The standard deviation of the fds of the FIFs is a confidence measure of the estimate. The goodness-of-fit of the discretized models to the original data is a measure of self-affinity of the original data. In a test case, the new method generated a stable estimate of fd of a rib edge in a standard chest x-ray; box counting failed to generate a meaningful estimate of the same image.

  15. Medical advances in child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell A

    2011-09-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.

  16. Magnetite Nanoparticles for Medical MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Zachary R.; Kievit, Forrest M.; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology has given scientists new tools for the development of advanced materials for the detection and diagnosis of disease. Iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in particular have been extensively investigated as novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to a combination of favorable superparamagnetic properties, biodegradability, and surface properties of easy modification for improved in vivo kinetics and multifunctionality. This review discusses the basics of MR imaging, the origin of SPION’s unique magnetic properties, recent developments in MRI acquisition methods for detection of SPIONs, synthesis and post-synthesis processes that improve SPION’s imaging characteristics, and an outlook on the translational potential of SPIONs. PMID:22389583

  17. Imaging of the pancreas: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of anomalies of pancreas and the pancreatic duct system are commonly encountered at radiological evaluation. Diagnosing pancreatic lesions generally requires a multimodality approach. This review highlights the new advances in pancreatic imaging and their applications in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic pathologies. The mainstay techniques include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), radionuclide imaging (RNI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). PMID:21847450

  18. [New medical imaging based on electron tracking Compton camera (ETCC)].

    PubMed

    Tanimori, Toru; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Kabuki, Shigeto; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for medical imaging due to its wide energy dynamic range (200-1,500keV) and wide field of view (FOV, 3 str). This camera has a potential of developing the new reagents. We have carried out several imaging reagent studies as examples; (1) 18F-FDG and 131I-MIBG simultaneous imaging for double clinical tracer imaging, (2) imaging of some minerals (Mn-54, Zn-65, Fe-59) in mouse and plants. In addition, ETCC has a potential of real-time monitoring of the Bragg peak location by imaging prompt gamma rays for the beam therapy. We carried out the water phantom experiment using 140MeV proton beam, and obtained the images of both 511 keV and high energy gamma rays (800-2,000keV). Here better correlation of the latter image to the Bragg peak has been observed. Another potential of ETCC is to reconstruct the 3D image using only one-head camera without rotations of both the target and camera. Good 3D images of the thyroid grant phantom and the mouse with tumor were observed. In order to advance those features to the practical use, we are improving the all components and then construct the multi-head ETCC system.

  19. Advances in optical imaging for pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Alicia; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Imaging approaches are an essential tool for following up over time representative parameters of in vivo models, providing useful information in pharmacological studies. Main advantages of optical imaging approaches compared to other imaging methods are their safety, straight-forward use and cost-effectiveness. A main drawback, however, is having to deal with the presence of high scattering and high absorption in living tissues. Depending on how these issues are addressed, three different modalities can be differentiated: planar imaging (including fluorescence and bioluminescence in vivo imaging), optical tomography, and optoacoustic approaches. In this review we describe the latest advances in optical in vivo imaging with pharmacological applications, with special focus on the development of new optical imaging probes in order to overcome the strong absorption introduced by different tissue components, especially hemoglobin, and the development of multimodal imaging systems in order to overcome the resolution limitations imposed by scattering. PMID:26441646

  20. Medical Imaging Informatics: Towards a Personalized Computational Patient.

    PubMed

    Ayache, N

    2016-05-20

    Medical Imaging Informatics has become a fast evolving discipline at the crossing of Informatics, Computational Sciences, and Medicine that is profoundly changing medical practices, for the patients' benefit.

  1. Transaction recording in medical image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Christian H.; Ploeger, Andreas; Onnasch, Dietrich G. W.; Mehdorn, Hubertus M.

    1999-07-01

    In medical image processing original image data on archive servers may absolutely not be modified directly. On the other hand, images from read-only devices like CD-ROM cannot be changed and saved on the same storage medium. In both cases the modified data have to be stored as a second version and large amounts of storage volume are needed. We avoid these problems by using a program which records only each transaction prescribed to images. Each transaction is stored and used for further utilization and for renewed submission of the modified data. Conventionally, every time an image is viewed or printed, the modified version has to be saved in addition to the recorded data, either automatically or by the user. Compared to these approaches which not only squander storage space but area also time consuming our program has the following and advantages: First, the original image data which may not be modified are protected against manipulation. Second, small amounts of storage volume and network range are needed. Third, approved image operations can be automated by macros derived from transaction recordings. Finally, operations on the original data can always be controlled and traced back. As the handling of images gets easier with this concept, security for original image data is granted.

  2. Automatic scale selection for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ersin; Wyatt, Christopher L.; Ge, Yaorong

    2001-07-01

    The scale of interesting structures in medical images is space variant because of partial volume effects, spatial dependence of resolution in many imaging modalities, and differences in tissue properties. Existing segmentation methods either apply a single scale to the entire image or try fine-to-coarse/coarse-to-fine tracking of structures over multiple scales. While single scale approaches fail to fully recover the perceptually important structures, multi-scale methods have problems in providing reliable means to select proper scales and integrating information over multiple scales. A recent approach proposed by Elder and Zucker addresses the scale selection problem by computing a minimal reliable scale for each image pixel. The basic premise of this approach is that, while the scale of structures within an image vary spatially, the imaging system is fixed. Hence, sensor noise statistics can be calculated. Based on a model of edges to be detected, and operators to be used for detection, one can locally compute a unique minimal reliable scale at which the likelihood of error due to sensor noise is less than or equal to a predetermined threshold. In this paper, we improve the segmentation method based on the minimal reliable scale selection and evaluate its effectiveness with both simulated and actual medical data.

  3. A machine learning approach to quantifying noise in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Aritra; Sevinsky, Christopher J.; Yener, Bülent; Aggour, Kareem S.; Gustafson, Steven M.

    2016-03-01

    As advances in medical imaging technology are resulting in significant growth of biomedical image data, new techniques are needed to automate the process of identifying images of low quality. Automation is needed because it is very time consuming for a domain expert such as a medical practitioner or a biologist to manually separate good images from bad ones. While there are plenty of de-noising algorithms in the literature, their focus is on designing filters which are necessary but not sufficient for determining how useful an image is to a domain expert. Thus a computational tool is needed to assign a score to each image based on its perceived quality. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based score and call it the Quality of Image (QoI) score. The QoI score is computed by combining the confidence values of two popular classification techniques—support vector machines (SVMs) and Naïve Bayes classifiers. We test our technique on clinical image data obtained from cancerous tissue samples. We used 747 tissue samples that are stained by four different markers (abbreviated as CK15, pck26, E_cad and Vimentin) leading to a total of 2,988 images. The results show that images can be classified as good (high QoI), bad (low QoI) or ugly (intermediate QoI) based on their QoI scores. Our automated labeling is in agreement with the domain experts with a bi-modal classification accuracy of 94%, on average. Furthermore, ugly images can be recovered and forwarded for further post-processing.

  4. Advanced noninvasive imaging of spinal vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Eddleman, Christopher S.; Jeong, Hyun; Cashen, Ty A.; Walker, Matthew; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, H. Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal vascular malformations (SVMs) are an uncommon, heterogeneous group of vascular anomalies that can render devastating neurological consequences if they are not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Imaging SVMs has always presented a formidable challenge because their clinical and imaging presentations resemble those of neoplasms, demyelination diseases, and infection. Advancements in noninvasive imaging modalities (MR and CT angiography) have increased during the last decade and have improved the ability to accurately diagnose spinal vascular anomalies. In addition, intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed that aid in the intraoperative assessment before, during, and after resection of these lesions with minimal and/or optimal use of spinal digital subtraction angiography. In this report, the authors review recent advancements in the imaging of SVMs that will likely lead to more timely diagnoses and treatment while reducing procedural risk exposure to the patients who harbor these uncommon spinal lesions. PMID:19119895

  5. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D V G L N

    2008-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy.

  6. Chemical Approaches for Advanced Optical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhixing

    Advances in optical microscopy have been constantly expanding our knowledge of biological systems. The achievements therein are a result of close collaborations between physicists/engineers who build the imaging instruments and chemists/biochemists who design the corresponding probe molecules. In this work I present a number of chemical approaches for the development of advanced optical imaging methods. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the recent advances of novel imaging approaches taking advantage of chemical tag technologies. Chapter 2 describes the second-generation covalent trimethoprim-tag as a viable tool for live cell protein-specific labeling and imaging. In Chapter 3 we present a fluorescence lifetime imaging approach to map protein-specific micro-environment in live cells using TMP-Cy3 as a chemical probe. In Chapter 4, we present a method harnessing photo-activatable fluorophores to extend the fundamental depth limit in multi-photon microscopy. Chapter 5 describes the development of isotopically edited alkyne palette for multi-color live cell vibrational imaging of cellular small molecules. These studies exemplify the impact of modern chemical approaches in the development of advanced optical microscopies.

  7. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23286072

  8. MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN MEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    PubMed Central

    ANGENENT, SIGURD; PICHON, ERIC; TANNENBAUM, ALLEN

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe some central mathematical problems in medical imaging. The subject has been undergoing rapid changes driven by better hardware and software. Much of the software is based on novel methods utilizing geometric partial differential equations in conjunction with standard signal/image processing techniques as well as computer graphics facilitating man/machine interactions. As part of this enterprise, researchers have been trying to base biomedical engineering principles on rigorous mathematical foundations for the development of software methods to be integrated into complete therapy delivery systems. These systems support the more effective delivery of many image-guided procedures such as radiation therapy, biopsy, and minimally invasive surgery. We will show how mathematics may impact some of the main problems in this area, including image enhancement, registration, and segmentation. PMID:23645963

  9. Advanced Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Domier, C. W.; Ito, N.; Kogi, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mase, A.; Park, H.; Sakata, E.; Tsai, W.; Xia, Z. G.; Zhang, P.

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources.

  10. Advances in endoscopic imaging in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Pastorelli, Luca; Ishaq, Sauid; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Modern strategies for the treatment of ulcerative colitis require more accurate tools for gastrointestinal imaging to better assess mucosal disease activity and long-term prognostic clinical outcomes. Recent advances in gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy are radically changing the role of endoscopy in every-day clinical practice and research trials. Advanced endoscopic imaging techniques including high-definition endoscopes, optical magnification endoscopy, and various chromoendoscopy techniques have remarkably improved endoscopic assessment of ulcerative colitis. More recently, optical biopsy techniques with either endocytoscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy have shown great potential in predicting several histological changes in real time during ongoing endoscopy. Here, we review current applications of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques in ulcerative colitis and present the most promising upcoming headways in this field. PMID:26365308

  11. Machine learning for medical images analysis.

    PubMed

    Criminisi, A

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the application of machine learning for the analysis of medical images. Specifically: (i) We show how a special type of learning models can be thought of as automatically optimized, hierarchically-structured, rule-based algorithms, and (ii) We discuss how the issue of collecting large labelled datasets applies to both conventional algorithms as well as machine learning techniques. The size of the training database is a function of model complexity rather than a characteristic of machine learning methods.

  12. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  13. Medical abortion options may advance in 1998.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The US debut of mifepristone (RU-486) was delayed in 1997 by legal and manufacturer problems. However, the Population Council is searching worldwide for companies to produce mifepristone for the US market. In the meantime, women in a number of US cities can obtain mifepristone through clinical trials coordinated by the New York City-based Abortion Rights Mobilization. The trials are evaluating the effectiveness of a 200 mg dosage of the drug and will continue until there is a commercial product. New developments in medical abortion will be announced in 1998. Currently, 29 Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) affiliates are recruiting women for its study of methotrexate and misoprostol. By midsummer 1998, the organization expects to have data from what is the largest multicenter trial to date of a methotrexate and misoprostol medical abortion regimen. PMID:12348221

  14. Advances in electromagnetic brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2010-02-01

    Non-invasive and dynamic imaging of brain activity in the sub-millisecond time-scale is enabled by measurements on or near the scalp surface using an array of sensors that measure magnetic fields (magnetoencephalography (MEG)) or electric potentials (electroencephalography (EEG)). Algorithmic reconstruction of brain activity from MEG and EEG data is referred to as electromagnetic brain imaging (EBI). Reconstructing the actual brain response to external events and distinguishing unrelated brain activity has been a challenge for many existing algorithms in this field. Furthermore, even under conditions where there is very little interference, accurately determining the spatial locations and timing of brain sources from MEG and EEG data is challenging problem because it involves solving for unknown brain activity across thousands of voxels from just a few sensors (~300). In recent years, my research group has developed a suite of novel and powerful algorithms for EBI that we have shown to be considerably superior to existing benchmark algorithms. Specifically, these algorithms can solve for many brain sources, including sources located far from the sensors, in the presence of large interference from unrelated brain sources. Our algorithms efficiently model interference contributions to sensors, accurately estimate sparse brain source activity using fast and robust probabilistic inference techniques. Here, we review some of these algorithms and illustrate their performance in simulations and real MEG/EEG data.

  15. PACS and multimodality in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Asseler, Y; Koole, M; Van Laere, K; Vandenberghe, S; Bouwens, L; Van de Walle, R; Van de Wiele, C; Lemahieu, I; Dierckx, R A

    2000-01-01

    A PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is a system that is able to store, exchange, display and manipulate images and associated diagnoses from any modality within a hospital in a timely and cost-effective way. Several developments, such as the DICOM standard, fast and convenient networking, and new storage solutions for large amounts of data, make the setup of such a PACS system possible. As the information acquired with various imaging modalities is then available and often complementary, it is desirable for the clinician to have a point-by-point spatial co-registration of images from different modalities in order to enable a synergistic use of the multimodality imaging of a patient for increased diagnostic accuracy. Various types of algorithms are available for the matching of medical images from the same or from different modalities. Co-registration algorithms based on voxel properties consist of a similarity or dissimilarity measure and an iterative or non-iterative method minimizing the dissimilarity or maximizing the similarity between the two images by a transformation of one image relative to the other. PMID:10942990

  16. A New Concept for Medical Imaging Centered on Cellular Phone Technology

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Boris

    2008-01-01

    According to World Health Organization reports, some three quarters of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In addition, in developing countries over 50% of medical equipment that is available is not being used because it is too sophisticated or in disrepair or because the health personnel are not trained to use it. The goal of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility of a new concept in medical imaging that is centered on cellular phone technology and which may provide a solution to medical imaging in underserved areas. The new system replaces the conventional stand-alone medical imaging device with a new medical imaging system made of two independent components connected through cellular phone technology. The independent units are: a) a data acquisition device (DAD) at a remote patient site that is simple, with limited controls and no image display capability and b) an advanced image reconstruction and hardware control multiserver unit at a central site. The cellular phone technology transmits unprocessed raw data from the patient site DAD and receives and displays the processed image from the central site. (This is different from conventional telemedicine where the image reconstruction and control is at the patient site and telecommunication is used to transmit processed images from the patient site). The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate that the cellular phone technology can function in the proposed mode. The feasibility of the concept is demonstrated using a new frequency division multiplexing electrical impedance tomography system, which we have developed for dynamic medical imaging, as the medical imaging modality. The system is used to image through a cellular phone a simulation of breast cancer tumors in a medical imaging diagnostic mode and to image minimally invasive tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation in a medical imaging interventional mode. PMID:18446199

  17. Integrating Medical Imaging Analyses through a High-throughput Bundled Resource Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Covington, Kelsie; Welch, E Brian; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Landman, Bennett A

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation of advanced, PACS-centric image analysis and interpretation pipelines provides well-developed storage, retrieval, and archival capabilities along with state-of-the-art data providence, visualization, and clinical collaboration technologies. However, pursuit of integrated medical imaging analysis through a PACS environment can be limiting in terms of the overhead required to validate, evaluate and integrate emerging research technologies. Herein, we address this challenge through presentation of a high-throughput bundled resource imaging system (HUBRIS) as an extension to the Philips Research Imaging Development Environment (PRIDE). HUBRIS enables PACS-connected medical imaging equipment to invoke tools provided by the Java Imaging Science Toolkit (JIST) so that a medical imaging platform (e.g., a magnetic resonance imaging scanner) can pass images and parameters to a server, which communicates with a grid computing facility to invoke the selected algorithms. Generated images are passed back to the server and subsequently to the imaging platform from which the images can be sent to a PACS. JIST makes use of an open application program interface layer so that research technologies can be implemented in any language capable of communicating through a system shell environment (e.g., Matlab, Java, C/C++, Perl, LISP, etc.). As demonstrated in this proof-of-concept approach, HUBRIS enables evaluation and analysis of emerging technologies within well-developed PACS systems with minimal adaptation of research software, which simplifies evaluation of new technologies in clinical research and provides a more convenient use of PACS technology by imaging scientists. PMID:21841899

  18. Personnel screening with advanced multistatic imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Sherif S.

    2013-05-01

    Personnel screening is demanded nowadays for securing air traffic as well as critical infrastructures. The millimeter-waves are able to penetrate clothes and detect concealed objects, making them an attractive choice for security screening. Imaging methods based on multistatic architecture can ensure high quality imagery in terms of resolution and dynamic range. Following the advances in semiconductor technology, fully electronic solutions delivering real-time imaging are becoming feasible. Furthermore, the continuously increasing capabilities of digital signal processing units allow for the utilization of digital-beamforming techniques for image reconstruction, thus offering new opportunities for imaging systems to use sophisticated operation modes. Based on these modern technologies, an advanced realization addressing personnel screening in E-band with planar multistatic sparse array design is demonstrated.

  19. Advances in Molecular Imaging with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Ryan; Dayton, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging has long demonstrated utility in the study and measurement of anatomic features and noninvasive observation of blood flow. Within the last decade, advances in molecular biology and contrast agents have allowed researchers to use ultrasound to detect changes in the expression of molecular markers on the vascular endothelium and other intravascular targets. This new technology, referred to as ultrasonic molecular imaging, is still in its infancy. However, in preclinical studies, ultrasonic molecular imaging has shown promise in assessing angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombus. In this review, we discuss recent advances in microbubble-type contrast agent development, ultrasound technology, and signal processing strategies that have the potential to substantially improve the capabilities and utility of ultrasonic molecular imaging. PMID:20487678

  20. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  1. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  2. Quantification of heterogeneity observed in medical images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been much recent interest in the quantification of visually evident heterogeneity within functional grayscale medical images, such as those obtained via magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography. In the case of images of cancerous tumors, variations in grayscale intensity imply variations in crucial tumor biology. Despite these considerable clinical implications, there is as yet no standardized method for measuring the heterogeneity observed via these imaging modalities. Methods In this work, we motivate and derive a statistical measure of image heterogeneity. This statistic measures the distance-dependent average deviation from the smoothest intensity gradation feasible. We show how this statistic may be used to automatically rank images of in vivo human tumors in order of increasing heterogeneity. We test this method against the current practice of ranking images via expert visual inspection. Results We find that this statistic provides a means of heterogeneity quantification beyond that given by other statistics traditionally used for the same purpose. We demonstrate the effect of tumor shape upon our ranking method and find the method applicable to a wide variety of clinically relevant tumor images. We find that the automated heterogeneity rankings agree very closely with those performed visually by experts. Conclusions These results indicate that our automated method may be used reliably to rank, in order of increasing heterogeneity, tumor images whether or not object shape is considered to contribute to that heterogeneity. Automated heterogeneity ranking yields objective results which are more consistent than visual rankings. Reducing variability in image interpretation will enable more researchers to better study potential clinical implications of observed tumor heterogeneity. PMID:23453000

  3. Advancing Resident Assessment in Graduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Swing, Susan R.; Clyman, Stephen G.; Holmboe, Eric S.; Williams, Reed G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Outcome Project requires high-quality assessment approaches to provide reliable and valid judgments of the attainment of competencies deemed important for physician practice. Intervention The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) convened the Advisory Committee on Educational Outcome Assessment in 2007–2008 to identify high-quality assessment methods. The assessments selected by this body would form a core set that could be used by all programs in a specialty to assess resident performance and enable initial steps toward establishing national specialty databases of program performance. The committee identified a small set of methods for provisional use and further evaluation. It also developed frameworks and processes to support the ongoing evaluation of methods and the longer-term enhancement of assessment in graduate medical education. Outcome The committee constructed a set of standards, a methodology for applying the standards, and grading rules for their review of assessment method quality. It developed a simple report card for displaying grades on each standard and an overall grade for each method reviewed. It also described an assessment system of factors that influence assessment quality. The committee proposed a coordinated, national-level infrastructure to support enhancements to assessment, including method development and assessor training. It recommended the establishment of a new assessment review group to continue its work of evaluating assessment methods. The committee delivered a report summarizing its activities and 5 related recommendations for implementation to the ACGME Board in September 2008. PMID:21975993

  4. Multilayer descriptors for medical image classification.

    PubMed

    Lumini, Alessandra; Nanni, Loris; Brahnam, Sheryl

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for improving the performance of 2D descriptors by building an n-layer image using different preprocessing approaches from which multilayer descriptors are extracted and used as feature vectors for training a Support Vector Machine. The different preprocessing approaches are used to build different n-layer images (n=3, n=5, etc.). We test both color and gray-level images, two well-known texture descriptors (Local Phase Quantization and Local Binary Pattern), and three of their variants suited for n-layer images (Volume Local Phase Quantization, Local Phase Quantization Three-Orthogonal-Planes, and Volume Local Binary Patterns). Our results show that multilayers and texture descriptors can be combined to outperform the standard single-layer approaches. Experiments on 10 datasets demonstrate the generalizability of the proposed descriptors. Most of these datasets are medical, but in each case the images are very different. Two datasets are completely unrelated to medicine and are included to demonstrate the discriminative power of the proposed descriptors across very different image recognition tasks. A MATLAB version of the complete system developed in this paper will be made available at https://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357.

  5. Twofold processing for denoising ultrasound medical images.

    PubMed

    Kishore, P V V; Kumar, K V V; Kumar, D Anil; Prasad, M V D; Goutham, E N D; Rahul, R; Krishna, C B S Vamsi; Sandeep, Y

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound medical (US) imaging non-invasively pictures inside of a human body for disease diagnostics. Speckle noise attacks ultrasound images degrading their visual quality. A twofold processing algorithm is proposed in this work to reduce this multiplicative speckle noise. First fold used block based thresholding, both hard (BHT) and soft (BST), on pixels in wavelet domain with 8, 16, 32 and 64 non-overlapping block sizes. This first fold process is a better denoising method for reducing speckle and also inducing object of interest blurring. The second fold process initiates to restore object boundaries and texture with adaptive wavelet fusion. The degraded object restoration in block thresholded US image is carried through wavelet coefficient fusion of object in original US mage and block thresholded US image. Fusion rules and wavelet decomposition levels are made adaptive for each block using gradient histograms with normalized differential mean (NDF) to introduce highest level of contrast between the denoised pixels and the object pixels in the resultant image. Thus the proposed twofold methods are named as adaptive NDF block fusion with hard and soft thresholding (ANBF-HT and ANBF-ST). The results indicate visual quality improvement to an interesting level with the proposed twofold processing, where the first fold removes noise and second fold restores object properties. Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), normalized cross correlation coefficient (NCC), edge strength (ES), image quality Index (IQI) and structural similarity index (SSIM), measure the quantitative quality of the twofold processing technique. Validation of the proposed method is done by comparing with anisotropic diffusion (AD), total variational filtering (TVF) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for enhancement of US images. The US images are provided by AMMA hospital radiology labs at Vijayawada, India. PMID:26697285

  6. Medical Imaging In An Object Oriented Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, Daniel; Vannier, Michael W.

    1988-06-01

    A workstation has been developed to evaluate computed tomographic (CT) image data in 2 and 3 dimensions. The workstation consists of an independent image display station (Independent Viewing and Analysis Station or WAS, International Imaging Systems, Inc., Milpitas, Calif.) and a VAX host computer. The WAS has 1024 X 1024 X 24 bits of image memory plus 4 bits of graphics overlay. An independent VLSI graphics processor and 1024 X 1024 X 4 bit graphics memory, independent of the image memory, are included in the self-contained WAS unit. A local microprocessor host (Motorola 68000 microprocessor) controls the IVAS from directives obtained through a direct memory access channel to the VAX host. This facilitated the creation of an object oriented software enviroment for the IVAS under control of a VAX host program written in the C language. The workstation created has an interactive user interface consisting of a mouse and pull-down menus. The workstation enables loading multiple images, typically 256 x 256 or 512 x 512, into the 1024 X 1024 frame buffer. Once loaded, the images can be manipulated by applying gray scale transforms, editing them and performing 3-D reconstructions from serial sections. Algorithms for three dimensional (3-D) reconstructions were implemented in the VAX/VMS host computer environment and are available on the workstation through special menu functions for handling these reconstructions. The functions interactively combine depth and gradient shading of surfaces to suit specific applications in craniofacial surgical planning or orthopedics. This workstation is user friendly and is very easy to handle. A workstation of this type may become a popular tool for physicians and surgeons in evalution of medical images.

  7. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    It is a well known fact that managed care and new treatment technologies are revolutionizing the health care provider world. Community Health Information Network and Computer-based Patient Record projects are underway throughout the United States. More and more hospitals are installing digital, `filmless' radiology (and other imagery) systems. They generate a staggering amount of information around the clock. For example, a typical 500-bed hospital might accumulate more than 5 terabytes of image data in a period of 30 years for conventional x-ray images and digital images such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computer Tomography images. With several hospitals contributing to the archive, the storage required will be in the hundreds of terabytes. Systems for reliable, secure, and inexpensive storage and retrieval of digital medical information do not exist today. In this paper, we present a Medical Image Archive and Distribution Service (MIADS) concept. MIADS is a system shared by individual and community hospitals, laboratories, and doctors' offices that need to store and retrieve medical images. Due to the large volume and complexity of the data, as well as the diversified user access requirement, implementation of the MIADS will be a complex procedure. One of the key challenges to implementing a MIADS is to select a cost-effective, scalable system architecture to meet the ingest/retrieval performance requirements. We have performed an in-depth system engineering study, and developed a sophisticated simulation model to address this key challenge. This paper describes the overall system architecture based on our system engineering study and simulation results. In particular, we will emphasize system scalability and upgradability issues. Furthermore, we will discuss our simulation results in detail. The simulations study the ingest/retrieval performance requirements based on different system configurations and architectures for variables such as workload, tape

  8. Advanced endoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Helmut; Nägel, Andreas; Buda, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Advanced endoscopic imaging is revolutionizing our way on how to diagnose and treat colorectal lesions. Within recent years a variety of modern endoscopic imaging techniques was introduced to improve adenoma detection rates. Those include high-definition imaging, dye-less chromoendoscopy techniques and novel, highly flexible endoscopes, some of them equipped with balloons or multiple lenses in order to improve adenoma detection rates. In this review we will focus on the newest developments in the field of colonoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection rates. Described techniques include high-definition imaging, optical chromoendoscopy techniques, virtual chromoendoscopy techniques, the Third Eye Retroscope and other retroviewing devices, the G-EYE endoscope and the Full Spectrum Endoscopy-system. PMID:25789092

  9. Mining knowledge in medical image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Petra

    2000-04-01

    Availability of digital data within picture archiving and communication systems raises a possibility of health care and research enhancement associated with manipulation, processing and handling of data by computers. That is the basis for computer-assisted radiology development. Further development of computer-assisted radiology is associated with the use of new intelligent capabilities such as multimedia support and data mining in order to discover the relevant knowledge for diagnosis. In this paper, we present our work on data mining in medical picture archiving systems. We use decision tree induction in order to learn the knowledge for computer- assisted image analysis. We are applying our method to interpretation of x-ray images for lung cancer diagnosis. We are describing our methodology on how to perform data mining on picture archiving systems and our tool for data mining. Results are given. The method has shown very good results so that we are going on to apply it to other medical image diagnosis tasks such as lymph node diagnosis in MRI and investigation of breast MRI.

  10. [Tattoos and medical imaging: issues and myths].

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Tattooing is characterized by the introduction in the dermis of exogenous pigments to obtain a permanent design. Whether it is a traditional tattoo applied on the skin or a cosmetic one (permanent make-up), its prevalence has boomed for the past 20 years. The increased prevalence of tattooed patients along with medical progresses, in the field of therapeutics or diagnostic means have lead to the discovery of "new" complications and unexpected issues. Medical imaging world has also been affected by the tattoo craze. It has been approximately 20 years when the first issues related to tattooing and permanent make-up aroused. However, cautions and questions as well as anecdotal severe case reports have sometimes led to an over-exaggerated response by some physicians such as the systematic avoidance of RMN imaging for tattooed individuals. This review is intended to summarize the risks but also the "myths" associated with tattoo in the daily practice of the radiologist for RMN, CT scan, mammography, Pet-scan and ultrasound imaging.

  11. PET: a revolution in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Abass; Lakhani, Paras; Mavi, Ayse; Kung, Justin W; Zhuang, Hongming

    2004-11-01

    FDG-PET has had remarkable influence on the assessment of physiologic and pathologic states. The authors predict that FDG-PET imaging could soon become the most common procedure used by nuclear medicine laboratories and could remain so for an extended period of time. The power of molecular imaging lies in the vast potential for using biochemical and pharmacologic probes to extend applications arising from an understanding of cell biology to a large number of well-characterized pathologic states. Molecular imaging based upon tracer kinetics with positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals could become the main source of information for the management of cancer patients. In that case, nuclear medicine procedures might become the most common imaging studies performed in the practice of medicine. This speculation is not farfetched when one realizes the enormous change that a single biologically important compound, FDG, has brought to the medical arena. The major challenge today is to attract the highly qualified individuals and to secure the resources needed to harness the opportunities in the specialty of molecular imaging. PMID:15488553

  12. Multimodality and nanoparticles in medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Davis, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of medical imaging techniques are used heavily in the provision of spatially resolved information on disease and physiological status and accordingly play a critical role in clinical diagnostics and subsequent treatment. Though, for most imaging modes, contrast is potentially enhanced through the use of contrast agents or improved hardware or imaging protocols, no single methodology provides, in isolation, a detailed mapping of anatomy, disease markers or physiological status. In recent years, the concept of complementing the strengths of one imaging modality with those of another has come to the fore and been further bolstered by the development of fused instruments such as PET/CT and PET/MRI stations. Coupled with the continual development in imaging hardware has been a surge in reports of contrast agents bearing multiple functionality, potentially providing not only a powerful and highly sensitised means of co-localising physiological/disease status and anatomy, but also the tracking and delineation of multiple markers and indeed subsequent or simultaneous highly localized therapy (“theragnostics”). PMID:21409202

  13. Scalar-vector quantization of medical images.

    PubMed

    Mohsenian, N; Shahri, H; Nasrabadi, N M

    1996-01-01

    A new coding scheme based on the scalar-vector quantizer (SVQ) is developed for compression of medical images. The SVQ is a fixed rate encoder and its rate-distortion performance is close to that of optimal entropy-constrained scalar quantizers (ECSQs) for memoryless sources. The use of a fixed-rate quantizer is expected to eliminate some of the complexity of using variable-length scalar quantizers. When transmission of images over noisy channels is considered, our coding scheme does not suffer from error propagation that is typical of coding schemes using variable-length codes. For a set of magnetic resonance (MR) images, coding results obtained from SVQ and ECSQ at low bit rates are indistinguishable. Furthermore, our encoded images are perceptually indistinguishable from the original when displayed on a monitor. This makes our SVQ-based coder an attractive compression scheme for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). PACS are currently under study for use in an all-digital radiology environment in hospitals, where reliable transmission, storage, and high fidelity reconstruction of images are desired. PMID:18285124

  14. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  15. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field.

  16. Advances and challenges in deformable image registration: From image fusion to complex motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field. PMID:27364430

  17. Cerenkov luminescence imaging of medical isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Alessandro; Holland, Jason P.; Lewis, Jason S.; Grimm, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel multimodality imaging agents and techniques represents the current frontier of research in the field of medical imaging science. However, the combination of nuclear tomography with optical techniques has yet to be established. Here, we report the use of the inherent optical emissions from the decay of radiopharmaceuticals for Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) of tumors in vivo and correlate the results with those obtained from concordant immuno-PET studies. Methods In vitro phantom studies were used to validate the visible light emission observed from a range of radionuclides including the positron emitters 18F, 64Cu, 89Zr, and 124I; β-emitter 131I; and α-particle emitter 225Ac for potential use in CLI. The novel radiolabeled monoclonal antibody 89Zr-desferrioxamine B-[DFO-J591 for immuno-PET of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression was used to coregister and correlate the CLI signal observed with the immuno-PET images and biodistribution studies. Results Phantom studies confirmed that Cerenkov radiation can be observed from a range of positron-,β-, and α-emitting radionuclides using standard optical imaging devices. The change in light emission intensity versus time was concordant with radionuclide decay and was also found to correlate linearly with both the activity concentration and the measured PET signal (percentage injected dose per gram). In vivo studies conducted in male severe combined immune deficient mice bearing PSMA-positive, subcutaneous LNCaP tumors demonstrated that tumor-specific uptake of 89Zr-DFO-J591 could be visualized by both immuno-PET and CLI. Optical and immuno-PET signal intensities were found to increase over time from 24 to 96 h, and biodistribution studies were found to correlate well with both imaging modalities. Conclusion These studies represent the first, to our knowledge, quantitative assessment of CLI for measuring radiotracer uptake in vivo. Many radionuclides common to both nuclear

  18. Osiris: a medical image-manipulation system.

    PubMed

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C

    1994-01-01

    We designed a general-purpose computer program, Osiris, for the display, manipulation, and analysis of digital medical images. The program offers an intuitive, window-based interface with direct access to generic tools. Characterized by user-friendliness, portability, and extensibility, Osiris is compatible with both Unix-based and Macintosh-based platforms. It is readily modified and can be used to develop new tools. It is able to monitor the entries made during a work session and thus provide data on its use. Osiris and its source code are being distributed, free of charge, to universities and research groups around the world.

  19. Advances in retinal ganglion cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Balendra, S I; Normando, E M; Bloom, P A; Cordeiro, M F

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and will affect 79.6 million people worldwide by 2020. It is caused by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), predominantly via apoptosis, within the retinal nerve fibre layer and the corresponding loss of axons of the optic nerve head. One of its most devastating features is its late diagnosis and the resulting irreversible visual loss that is often predictable. Current diagnostic tools require significant RGC or functional visual field loss before the threshold for detection of glaucoma may be reached. To propel the efficacy of therapeutics in glaucoma, an earlier diagnostic tool is required. Recent advances in retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and adaptive optics, have propelled both glaucoma research and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. However, an ideal imaging technique to diagnose and monitor glaucoma would image RGCs non-invasively with high specificity and sensitivity in vivo. It may confirm the presence of healthy RGCs, such as in transgenic models or retrograde labelling, or detect subtle changes in the number of unhealthy or apoptotic RGCs, such as detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC). Although many of these advances have not yet been introduced to the clinical arena, their successes in animal studies are enthralling. This review will illustrate the challenges of imaging RGCs, the main retinal imaging modalities, the in vivo techniques to augment these as specific RGC-imaging tools and their potential for translation to the glaucoma clinic. PMID:26293138

  20. Advanced laser systems for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Gross, Daniel; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development of laser systems for advanced photoacoustic imaging (PAI). We discuss the characteristics of these laser systems and their particular benefits for soft tissue imaging and next-generation breast cancer diagnostics. We provide an overview of laser performance and compare this with other laser systems that have been used for early-stage development of PAI. These advanced systems feature higher pulse energy output at clinically relevant repetition rates, as well as a novel wavelength-cycling output pulse format. Wavelength cycling provides pulse sequences for which the output repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths that provide differential imaging. This capability improves co-registration of captured differential images. We present imaging results of phantoms obtained with a commercial ultrasound detector system and a wavelength-cycling laser source providing ~500 mJ/pulse at 755 and 797 nm, operating at 25 Hz. The results include photoacoustic images and corresponding pulse-echo data from a tissue mimicking phantom containing inclusions, simulating tumors in the breast. We discuss the application of these systems to the contrast-enhanced detection of various tissue types and tumors.

  1. A collaborative enterprise for multi-stakeholder participation in the advancement of quantitative imaging.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Andrew J; Bresolin, Linda; Dunnick, N Reed; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2011-03-01

    Medical imaging has seen substantial and rapid technical advances during the past decade, including advances in image acquisition devices, processing and analysis software, and agents to enhance specificity. Traditionally, medical imaging has defined anatomy, but increasingly newer, more advanced, imaging technologies provide biochemical and physiologic information based on both static and dynamic modalities. These advanced technologies are important not only for detecting disease but for characterizing and assessing change of disease with time or therapy. Because of the rapidity of these advances, research to determine the utility of quantitative imaging in either clinical research or clinical practice has not had time to mature. Methods to appropriately develop, assess, regulate, and reimburse must be established for these advanced technologies. Efficient and methodical processes that meet the needs of stakeholders in the biomedical research community, therapeutics developers, and health care delivery enterprises will ultimately benefit individual patients. To help address this, the authors formed a collaborative program-the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance. This program draws from the very successful precedent set by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise effort but is adapted to the needs of imaging science. Strategic guidance supporting the development, qualification, and deployment of quantitative imaging biomarkers will lead to improved standardization of imaging tests, proof of imaging test performance, and greater use of imaging to predict the biologic behavior of tissue and monitor therapy response. These, in turn, confer value to corporate stakeholders, providing incentives to bring new and innovative products to market. PMID:21339352

  2. A collaborative enterprise for multi-stakeholder participation in the advancement of quantitative imaging.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Andrew J; Bresolin, Linda; Dunnick, N Reed; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2011-03-01

    Medical imaging has seen substantial and rapid technical advances during the past decade, including advances in image acquisition devices, processing and analysis software, and agents to enhance specificity. Traditionally, medical imaging has defined anatomy, but increasingly newer, more advanced, imaging technologies provide biochemical and physiologic information based on both static and dynamic modalities. These advanced technologies are important not only for detecting disease but for characterizing and assessing change of disease with time or therapy. Because of the rapidity of these advances, research to determine the utility of quantitative imaging in either clinical research or clinical practice has not had time to mature. Methods to appropriately develop, assess, regulate, and reimburse must be established for these advanced technologies. Efficient and methodical processes that meet the needs of stakeholders in the biomedical research community, therapeutics developers, and health care delivery enterprises will ultimately benefit individual patients. To help address this, the authors formed a collaborative program-the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance. This program draws from the very successful precedent set by the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise effort but is adapted to the needs of imaging science. Strategic guidance supporting the development, qualification, and deployment of quantitative imaging biomarkers will lead to improved standardization of imaging tests, proof of imaging test performance, and greater use of imaging to predict the biologic behavior of tissue and monitor therapy response. These, in turn, confer value to corporate stakeholders, providing incentives to bring new and innovative products to market.

  3. MMSPix - A multimedia service (MMS) medical images weblog.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Muin, Michael; Ducut, Erick; Ackerman, Michael; Paalan-Vasquez, Franciene

    2007-01-01

    Smartphones with cameras have added a new dimension to augmenting medical image collections for education and teleconsultation. It allows healthcare personnel to instantly capture and send images through the multimedia messaging service (MMS) protocol. We developed a searchable archive, a mobile images Weblog of camera phone images for medical education. Registered users can view and comment on uploaded images. The archive is compartmentalized to allow sharing images with all viewers and by clinical specialty groups.

  4. Foundations of Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B.; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now—within a few minutes—acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths. PMID:15897944

  5. Foundations of advanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bammer, Roland; Skare, Stefan; Newbould, Rexford; Liu, Chunlei; Thijs, Vincent; Ropele, Stefan; Clayton, David B; Krueger, Gunnar; Moseley, Michael E; Glover, Gary H

    2005-04-01

    During the past decade, major breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quality were made by means of quantum leaps in scanner hardware and pulse sequences. Some advanced MRI techniques have truly revolutionized the detection of disease states and MRI can now-within a few minutes-acquire important quantitative information noninvasively from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. This article provides an overview of the most common advanced MRI methods including diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, functional MRI, and the strengths and weaknesses of MRI at high magnetic field strengths.

  6. Medical Imaging of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is associated with documented risk factors, yet no comprehensive screening program is in place in the United States for early detection of the disease. Oral cancer often is diagnosed in more advanced stages, resulting in a poor prognosis. Dental practitioners and radiographers play an important role in the management of the disease and in helping to improve the quality of life for people who have oral cancer. This article discusses types of oral and oropharyngeal cancer, their diagnosis, treatment options, and the role of dental imaging in patients with these cancers. PMID:26538220

  7. The compression and storage method of the same kind of medical images: DPCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuying; Wei, Jingyuan; Zhai, Linpei; Liu, Hong

    2006-09-01

    Medical imaging has started to take advantage of digital technology, opening the way for advanced medical imaging and teleradiology. Medical images, however, require large amounts of memory. At over 1 million bytes per image, a typical hospital needs a staggering amount of memory storage (over one trillion bytes per year), and transmitting an image over a network (even the promised superhighway) could take minutes--too slow for interactive teleradiology. This calls for image compression to reduce significantly the amount of data needed to represent an image. Several compression techniques with different compression ratio have been developed. However, the lossless techniques, which allow for perfect reconstruction of the original images, yield modest compression ratio, while the techniques that yield higher compression ratio are lossy, that is, the original image is reconstructed only approximately. Medical imaging poses the great challenge of having compression algorithms that are lossless (for diagnostic and legal reasons) and yet have high compression ratio for reduced storage and transmission time. To meet this challenge, we are developing and studying some compression schemes, which are either strictly lossless or diagnostically lossless, taking advantage of the peculiarities of medical images and of the medical practice. In order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) by exploitation of correlations within the source signal, a method of combining differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) is presented.

  8. [Psychiatric advance directives--medical models into psychiatric medicine].

    PubMed

    Mautner, Sigal; Lachman, Max; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Since the year 2005, in the field of general medicine, the legislature in Israel determined ways to implement medically advanced directives according to the power of the law. Different states in the world had implemented parallel legislation for patients who suffer from mental illness. Psychiatric Advance Directives is a legitimate document which is valid in Australia, New Zealand, Scotland, England and in 25 countries in the U.S.A. Psychiatric advance directives (PAD's) allow competent persons, through advance instructions, to state their preferences for future mental health treatment in the event of an incapacitating psychiatric crisis. Self Determination Theory, Self Care and Autonomy are dominant supportive approaches in the creation of Psychiatric Advance Directives. Research conducted on psychiatric advance directives shows positive potential benefits for mental health clients, therapists and psychiatrists. More research in that area must be conducted. Psychiatric advance directives are currently developed and implemented with the cooperation of the Tauber Foundation and the Beer Sheva Mental Health Center. This is the first step in learning of effective ways to use this intervention in Israel and change perceptions toward a positive connection between medical efficiency and client preferences.

  9. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  10. Brain Imaging Using T-Rays Instrumentation Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño-Palacios, C. G.; Celis-López, M. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, A.; Zapata-Nava, O. J.; Díaz, A. Orduña; Torres-Jácome, A.; de-la-Hidalga-Wade, J.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    We present the advances on a brain imaging setup using submillimeter detectors and terahertz laser source. Terahertz radiation, known as T-rays, falls in the far infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum close to the microwaves and fraction of millimeter wavelengths. These T-rays are ideal candidates for medical imaging because the wavelength is long enough to be dispersed by molecular structures and sufficient small to produce images with a reasonable resolution, in a non-ionizing way. The millimeter detectors used in this proposal are being developed in parallel to the detectors used in the large Millimeter Telescope (LMT/GTM). Using the non-ionizing water absorption to terahertz radiation by different tissues we study the absorption difference between healthy and tumors in spite of the large absorption by water present in the body.

  11. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical image storage device. 892.2010 Section 892.2010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.2010 Medical image storage device....

  12. Quantitative Computed Tomography and Image Analysis for Advanced Muscle Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kyle Joseph; Gíslason, Magnus K.; Arnadottir, Iris D.; Marcante, Andrea; Piccione, Francesco; Gargiulo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging is of particular interest in the field of translational myology, as extant literature describes the utilization of a wide variety of techniques to non-invasively recapitulate and quantity various internal and external tissue morphologies. In the clinical context, medical imaging remains a vital tool for diagnostics and investigative assessment. This review outlines the results from several investigations on the use of computed tomography (CT) and image analysis techniques to assess muscle conditions and degenerative process due to aging or pathological conditions. Herein, we detail the acquisition of spiral CT images and the use of advanced image analysis tools to characterize muscles in 2D and 3D. Results from these studies recapitulate changes in tissue composition within muscles, as visualized by the association of tissue types to specified Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for fat, loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, and normal muscle, including fascia and tendon. We show how results from these analyses can be presented as both average HU values and compositions with respect to total muscle volumes, demonstrating the reliability of these tools to monitor, assess and characterize muscle degeneration. PMID:27478562

  13. Virtual organization of hospital medical imaging: a user satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; Paré, Guy; Bini, Kobena Kra; Moreault, Marie-Pierre; Laverdure, Guy

    2010-12-01

    A virtual medical imaging department is an innovative and demanding organizational model, to the extent that the underlying goal is to achieve a continuous and advanced organizational integration of human and physical resources, clinical data, and clienteles. To better understand the kind of benefits offered, we conducted a survey of three groups of users--radiologists, radiological technologists, and medical specialists--working in a five-site virtual organization. We received 127 valid questionnaires, for an overall response rate of 66%. The assessments vary according to the use made of the system. The scores for system quality and the quality of the data produced were markedly higher for intra-hospital use (respectively 7.9 and 8.7 out of 10) than for inter-hospital use (5.4 and 7.0). Despite the negative assessments they made of inter-hospital use, users maintained a positive attitude toward some type of virtual organization of medical imaging. Indeed, the score for Overall satisfaction with the system was very high, 8.9 out of 10. Moreover, the scores for Intended future use of the system were very high for both intra-hospital use (8.9) and inter-hospital use (8.7). We also found significant differences in perceptions among user groups.

  14. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in perfusion. Chronic hypoxia may cause either tumor progression or regressive effects depending on the tumor model. However, there is a general trend toward the development of a more aggressive phenotype after cycling hypoxia. With advanced hypoxia imaging techniques, spatiotemporal characteristics of tumor hypoxia and the changes to the tumor microenvironment can be analyzed. Critical Issues: In this review, we focus on the biological and clinical consequences of chronic and cycling hypoxia on radiation treatment. We also discuss the advanced non-invasive imaging techniques that have been developed to detect and monitor tumor hypoxia in preclinical and clinical studies. Future Directions: A better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor hypoxia with non-invasive imaging will provide a basis for improved radiation therapeutic practices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 313–337. PMID:24329000

  15. Three-Dimensional Printing and Medical Imaging: A Review of the Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Marro, Alessandro; Bandukwala, Taha; Mak, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent innovations on the process and application of 3-dimensional (3D) printed objects from medical imaging data. Data for 3D printed medical models can be obtained from computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound using the Data Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) software. The data images are processed using segmentation and mesh generation tools and converted to a standard tessellation language (STL) file for printing. 3D printing technologies include stereolithography, selective laser sintering, inkjet, and fused-deposition modeling . 3D printed models have been used for preoperative planning of complex surgeries, the creation of custom prosthesis, and in the education and training of physicians. The application of medical imaging and 3D printers has been successful in providing solutions to many complex medical problems. As technology advances, its applications continue to grow in the future.

  16. Crystal diffraction lens for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, R. K.; Roa, D. E.

    2000-02-25

    A crystal diffraction lens for focusing energetic gamma rays has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for use in medical imaging of radioactivity in the human body. A common method for locating possible cancerous growths in the body is to inject radioactivity into the blood stream of the patient and then look for any concentration of radioactivity that could be associated with the fast growing cancer cells. Often there are borderline indications of possible cancers that could be due to statistical functions in the measured counting rates. In order to determine if these indications are false or real, one must resort to surgical means and take tissue samples in the suspect area. They are developing a system of crystal diffraction lenses that will be incorporated into a 3-D imaging system with better sensitivity (factors of 10 to 100) and better spatial resolution (a few mm in both vertical and horizontal directions) than most systems presently in use. The use of this new imaging system will allow one to eliminate 90% of the false indications and both locate and determine the size of the cancer with mm precision. The lens consists of 900 single crystals of copper, 4 mm x 4 mm on a side and 2--4 mm thick, mounted in 13 concentric rings.

  17. Image quality characteristics of handheld display devices for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) at 1 mm(-1), while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7 × 10(-6) mm(2). Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  18. Image Quality Characteristics of Handheld Display Devices for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Liu, Peter; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablet computers have become widespread with thousands of available software applications. Recently, handhelds are being proposed as part of medical imaging solutions, especially in emergency medicine, where immediate consultation is required. However, handheld devices differ significantly from medical workstation displays in terms of display characteristics. Moreover, the characteristics vary significantly among device types. We investigate the image quality characteristics of various handheld devices with respect to luminance response, spatial resolution, spatial noise, and reflectance. We show that the luminance characteristics of the handheld displays are different from those of workstation displays complying with grayscale standard target response suggesting that luminance calibration might be needed. Our results also demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of handhelds can surpass those of medical workstation displays particularly for recent generation devices. While a 5 mega-pixel monochrome workstation display has horizontal and vertical modulation transfer factors of 0.52 and 0.47 at the Nyquist frequency, the handheld displays released after 2011 can have values higher than 0.63 at the respective Nyquist frequencies. The noise power spectra for workstation displays are higher than 1.2×10−5 mm2 at 1 mm−1, while handheld displays have values lower than 3.7×10−6 mm2. Reflectance measurements on some of the handheld displays are consistent with measurements for workstation displays with, in some cases, low specular and diffuse reflectance coefficients. The variability of the characterization results among devices due to the different technological features indicates that image quality varies greatly among handheld display devices. PMID:24236113

  19. Image stabilization for SWIR advanced optoelectronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru; Granciu, Dana

    2015-02-01

    At long ranges and under low visibility conditions, Advanced Optoelectronic Device provides the signal-to-noise ratio and image quality in the Short-wave Infra-red - SWIR (wavelengths between 1,1 ÷2,5 μm), significantly better than in the near wave infrared - NWIR and visible spectral bands [1,2]. The quality of image is nearly independent of the polarization in the incoming light, but it is influenced by the relative movement between the optical system and the observer (the operators' handshake), and the movement towards the support system (land and air vehicles). All these make it difficult to detect objectives observation in real time. This paper presents some systems enhance which the ability of observation and sighting through the optical systems without the use of the stands, tripods or other means. We have to eliminate the effect of "tremors of the hands" and the vibration in order to allow the use of optical devices by operators on the moving vehicles on land, on aircraft, or on boats, and to provide additional comfort for the user to track the moving object through the optical system, without losing the control in the process of detection and tracking. The practical applications of stabilization image process, in SWIR, are the most advanced part of the optical observation systems available worldwide [3,4,5]. This application has a didactic nature, because it ensures understanding by the students about image stabilization and their participation in research.

  20. Cathode-ray tube displays for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Keller, P A

    1990-02-01

    This paper will discuss the principles of cathode-ray tube displays in medical imaging and the parameters essential to the selection of displays for specific requirements. A discussion of cathode-ray tube fundamentals and medical requirements is included.

  1. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis. PMID:27526188

  2. Medical Image Analysis by Cognitive Information Systems - a Review.

    PubMed

    Ogiela, Lidia; Takizawa, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    This publication presents a review of medical image analysis systems. The paradigms of cognitive information systems will be presented by examples of medical image analysis systems. The semantic processes present as it is applied to different types of medical images. Cognitive information systems were defined on the basis of methods for the semantic analysis and interpretation of information - medical images - applied to cognitive meaning of medical images contained in analyzed data sets. Semantic analysis was proposed to analyzed the meaning of data. Meaning is included in information, for example in medical images. Medical image analysis will be presented and discussed as they are applied to various types of medical images, presented selected human organs, with different pathologies. Those images were analyzed using different classes of cognitive information systems. Cognitive information systems dedicated to medical image analysis was also defined for the decision supporting tasks. This process is very important for example in diagnostic and therapy processes, in the selection of semantic aspects/features, from analyzed data sets. Those features allow to create a new way of analysis.

  3. Covariant Image Representation with Applications to Classification Problems in Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dohyung; Ho, Jeffrey; Vemuri, Baba C.

    2016-01-01

    Images are often considered as functions defined on the image domains, and as functions, their (intensity) values are usually considered to be invariant under the image domain transforms. This functional viewpoint is both influential and prevalent, and it provides the justification for comparing images using functional Lp-norms. However, with the advent of more advanced sensing technologies and data processing methods, the definition and the variety of images has been broadened considerably, and the long-cherished functional paradigm for images is becoming inadequate and insufficient. In this paper, we introduce the formal notion of covariant images and study two types of covariant images that are important in medical image analysis, symmetric positive-definite tensor fields and Gaussian mixture fields, images whose sample values covary i.e., jointly vary with image domain transforms rather than being invariant to them. We propose a novel similarity measure between a pair of covariant images considered as embedded shapes (manifolds) in the ambient space, a Cartesian product of the image and its sample-value domains. The similarity measure is based on matching the two embedded low-dimensional shapes, and both the extrinsic geometry of the ambient space and the intrinsic geometry of the shapes are incorporated in computing the similarity measure. Using this similarity as an affinity measure in a supervised learning framework, we demonstrate its effectiveness on two challenging classification problems: classification of brain MR images based on patients’ age and (Alzheimer’s) disease status and seizure detection from high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance scans of rat brains. PMID:27182122

  4. Survey on Neural Networks Used for Medical Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenghao; He, Lifeng; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present a review of neural networks used in medical image processing. We classify neural networks by its processing goals and the nature of medical images. Main contributions, advantages, and drawbacks of the methods are mentioned in the paper. Problematic issues of neural network application for medical image processing and an outlook for the future research are also discussed. By this survey, we try to answer the following two important questions: (1) What are the major applications of neural networks in medical image processing now and in the nearby future? (2) What are the major strengths and weakness of applying neural networks for solving medical image processing tasks? We believe that this would be very helpful researchers who are involved in medical image processing with neural network techniques. PMID:26740861

  5. CMAS: a rich media annotation system for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-Jong; Chao, Hui

    2006-03-01

    We have developed the CMAS system (Collaborative Medical Annotation System) so that medical professionals will be able to easily annotate digital medical records that contain medical imaging or procedure videos. The CMAS system enables a non-technical person to annotate a medical image or video with their recorded presence. The CMAS system displays medical images via a projector onto a screen; when a doctor (or patient) physically walks in front of this screen with the medical image and gives his/her opinion while gesturing at the image, the CMAS system intuitively captures this interaction by creating a video annotation with HP's Active Shadows technology. The CMAS system automatically transforms physical interactions, ranging from a laser pointer spot to a doctor's physical presence, into video annotation that then can be overlaid on top of the medical image or seamlessly inserted into the procedure video. Annotated in such a manner, the medical record retains the historical development of the diagnostic medical opinion, explained through presence of doctors and their respective annotations. The CMAS system structures the annotation of digital medical records such that image/video annotations from multiple sources, at different times, and from different locations can be maintained within a historical context and be consistently referenced among multiple annotations.

  6. Reverse hierarchy theory and medical image perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, T.; Manning, D. J.

    2009-02-01

    We are unsure about what information is extracted from an image to allow a decision about pathology to be made. Our knowledge of the interplay between top down processing or bottom up, local or global perception, perceptual or cognitive processes is uncertain. However recent research has emphasised the importance of the global or holistic look in medical image perception in which recognition of abnormalities precedes search. Reverse Hierarchy Theory [1] is a useful general theory that helps to explain this. It also enables us to understand what information is extracted from an image and how this relates to expertise. Essentially the theory states that perceptual learning begins at high levels areas and progresses down to lower level areas when better signal to noise is needed. So perceptual learning, defined as an improvement in sensory abilities after training, stems from a gradual top down guided increase in usability of first high then lower level task relevant information. Evaluation of the scan paths of groups of observers with different levels of expertise when undertaking a lung nodule perception task seems to be consistent with the theory. Experts' perception is generally immediate and holistic suggesting high level representations whereas those with an intermediate level of expertise tend to be more variable in their scan paths. Interestingly naÃve observers have eye tracking metrics that are more similar to experts suggesting they take a common sense approach using perceptual skills we all have as they lack experience in being able to access the low level information from the chest radiograph.

  7. Recent advances in computer image generation simulation.

    PubMed

    Geltmacher, H E

    1988-11-01

    An explosion in flight simulator technology over the past 10 years is revolutionizing U.S. Air Force (USAF) operational training. The single, most important development has been in computer image generation. However, other significant advances are being made in simulator handling qualities, real-time computation systems, and electro-optical displays. These developments hold great promise for achieving high fidelity combat mission simulation. This article reviews the progress to date and predicts its impact, along with that of new computer science advances such as very high speed integrated circuits (VHSIC), on future USAF aircrew simulator training. Some exciting possibilities are multiship, full-mission simulators at replacement training units, miniaturized unit level mission rehearsal training simulators, onboard embedded training capability, and national scale simulator networking.

  8. Medical image databases: a content-based retrieval approach.

    PubMed

    Tagare, H D; Jaffe, C C; Duncan, J

    1997-01-01

    Information contained in medical images differs considerably from that residing in alphanumeric format. The difference can be attributed to four characteristics: (1) the semantics of medical knowledge extractable from images is imprecise; (2) image information contains form and spatial data, which are not expressible in conventional language; (3) a large part of image information is geometric; (4) diagnostic inferences derived from images rest on an incomplete, continuously evolving model of normality. This paper explores the differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on design of a medical image database intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval. One strategy for implementing medical image databases is presented, which employs object-oriented iconic queries, semantics by association with prototypes, and a generic schema.

  9. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy. PMID:18458764

  10. Medical image fusion by wavelet transform modulus maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihong, Qu; Dali, Zhang; Pingfan, Yan

    2001-08-01

    Medical image fusion has been used to derive useful information from multimodality medical image data. In this research, we propose a novel method for multimodality medical image fusion. Using wavelet transform, we achieved a fusion scheme. Afusion rule is proposed and used for calculating the wavelet transformation modulus maxima of input images at different bandwidths and levels. To evaluate the fusion result, a metric based on mutual information (MI) is presented for measuring fusion effect. The performances of other two methods of image fusion based on wavelet transform are briefly described for comparison. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fusion scheme.

  11. Advances in computed tomography imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Gupta, Rajiv

    2014-07-11

    Computed tomography (CT) is an essential tool in diagnostic imaging for evaluating many clinical conditions. In recent years, there have been several notable advances in CT technology that already have had or are expected to have a significant clinical impact, including extreme multidetector CT, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dual-energy CT, cone-beam CT, portable CT, and phase-contrast CT. These techniques and their clinical applications are reviewed and illustrated in this article. In addition, emerging technologies that address deficiencies in these modalities are discussed.

  12. Medical Images Fusion with Patch Based Structure Tensor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fen; Sun, Jiangfeng; Hou, Shouming

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays medical imaging has played an important role in clinical use, which provide important clues for medical diagnosis. In medical image fusion, the extraction of some fine details and description is critical. To solve this problem, a modified structure tensor by considering similarity between two patches is proposed. The patch based filter can suppress noise and add the robustness of the eigen-values of the structure tensor by allowing the use of more information of far away pixels. After defining the new structure tensor, we apply it into medical image fusion with a multi-resolution wavelet theory. The features are extracted and described by the eigen-values of two multi-modality source data. To test the performance of the proposed scheme, the CT and MR images are used as input source images for medical image fusion. The experimental results show that the proposed method can produce better results compared to some related approaches. PMID:26628927

  13. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema

    Tijana Rajh

    2016-07-12

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology – an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  14. [Recent advances in medical and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Akira; Koganei, Kazutaka; Tatsumi, Kenji; Futatsuki, Ryo; Kuroki, Hirosuke; Yamada, Kyoko; Arai, Katsuhiko; Fukushima, Tsuneo

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in both medical and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis have been remarkable. Changes in medical treatment are mainly good results of therapy with the anti-TNF-α antibody, tacrolimus, and those in surgical treatment are an expansion of the surgical indications to include patients with intractable disease, such as treatment refractoriness and chronic corticosteroid dependence, by a better postoperative clinical course after pouch surgery, improred selection of surgical procedures and the timing of surgery in elderly patients. To offer the optimal treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis, new medical therapies should be analyzed from the standpoint of the efficacy and limitations of effect. Long postoperative clinical course of surgical patients including colitic cancer, prevention of postoperative complications should be also analyzed.

  15. Advanced imaging of the scapholunate ligamentous complex.

    PubMed

    Shahabpour, Maryam; Staelens, Barbara; Van Overstraeten, Luc; De Maeseneer, Michel; Boulet, Cedric; De Mey, Johan; Scheerlinck, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    The scapholunate joint is one of the most involved in wrist injuries. Its stability depends on primary and secondary stabilisers forming together the scapholunate complex. This ligamentous complex is often evaluated by wrist arthroscopy. To avoid surgery as diagnostic procedure, optimization of MR imaging parameters as use of three-dimensional (3D) sequences with very thin slices and high spatial resolution, is needed to detect lesions of the intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments of the scapholunate complex. The paper reviews the literature on imaging of radial-sided carpal ligaments with advanced computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) to evaluate the scapholunate complex. Anatomy and pathology of the ligamentous complex are described and illustrated with CTA, MRA and corresponding arthroscopy. Sprains, mid-substance tears, avulsions and fibrous infiltrations of carpal ligaments could be identified on CTA and MRA images using 3D fat-saturated PD and 3D DESS (dual echo with steady-state precession) sequences with 0.5-mm-thick slices. Imaging signs of scapholunate complex pathology include: discontinuity, nonvisualization, changes in signal intensity, contrast extravasation (MRA), contour irregularity and waviness and periligamentous infiltration by edema, granulation tissue or fibrosis. Based on this preliminary experience, we believe that 3 T MRA using 3D sequences with 0.5-mm-thick slices and multiplanar reconstructions is capable to evaluate the scapholunate complex and could help to reduce the number of diagnostic arthroscopies.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  18. Guideline report. Medical ultrasound imaging: progress and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burns, M

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of medical ultrasound has expanded rapidly during the past several years. In 1988, sales of ultrasound equipment will approach $600 million, which is higher than any other individual imaging modality, including the most capital intensive, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and cath lab angiography. This growth would have been difficult to predict previously, since ultrasound appeared to be a relatively mature imaging modality not too long ago. There are several reasons for this growth. Technological developments have been quite rapid; ultrasound has become easier to use, image quality has improved dramatically, and diagnostic accuracy has been enhanced. There has been a proliferation of new equipment at all ends of the price spectrum, allowing the user a wide choice in instrument performance, multi-function capabilities, and automated features to increase patient throughput. The DRG environment and the prospect for more pre-admission tests have also been a stimulus. Hospital buying activity has expanded, and many more ultrasound exams are now being conducted on an outpatient basis. Sales to freestanding imaging centers and individual physicians have similarly increased. The hospital user is willing to pay a large premium for advanced technical performance and is prepared to retire or replace older technology in less than three years. This replacement cycle is much shorter than the four to five year period which existed prior to 1985. By comparison, some of the more traditional imaging areas, such as radiology, have replacement rates of eight to ten years. The reason for early replacement is obvious. Ultrasound exams in hospitals generate revenues at a rate that justifies the purchase of the most advanced equipment. It also improves the referral rate and positions the hospital as a high quality provider. Even with low utilization rates, an ultrasound instrument can normally pay for itself in less than one year of regular

  19. One-class kernel subspace ensemble for medical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yungang; Zhang, Bailing; Coenen, Frans; Xiao, Jimin; Lu, Wenjin

    2014-12-01

    Classification of medical images is an important issue in computer-assisted diagnosis. In this paper, a classification scheme based on a one-class kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) model ensemble has been proposed for the classification of medical images. The ensemble consists of one-class KPCA models trained using different image features from each image class, and a proposed product combining rule was used for combining the KPCA models to produce classification confidence scores for assigning an image to each class. The effectiveness of the proposed classification scheme was verified using a breast cancer biopsy image dataset and a 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal image set. The combination of different image features exploits the complementary strengths of these different feature extractors. The proposed classification scheme obtained promising results on the two medical image sets. The proposed method was also evaluated on the UCI breast cancer dataset (diagnostic), and a competitive result was obtained.

  20. Neurolight -astonishing advances in brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rojczyk-Gołębiewska, Ewa; Pałasz, Artur; Worthington, John J; Markowski, Grzegorz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, significant advances in basic neuroanatomical studies have taken place. Moreover, such classical, clinically-oriented human brain imaging methods such as MRI, PET and DTI have been applied to small laboratory animals allowing improvement in current experimental neuroscience. Contemporary structural neurobiology also uses various technologies based on fluorescent proteins. One of these is optogenetics, which integrates physics, genetics and bioengineering to enable temporal precise control of electrical activity of specific neurons. Another important challenge in the field is the accurate imaging of complicated neural networks. To address this problem, three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and retrograde labeling with modified viruses has been developed. However, a revolutionary step was the invention of the "Brainbow" system, utilizing gene constructs including the sequences of fluorescent proteins and the usage of Cre recombinase to create dozens of colour combinations, enabling visualization of neurons and their connections in extremely high resolution. Furthermore, the newly- introduced CLARITY method should make it possible to visualize three-dimensionally the structure of translucent brain tissue using the hydrogel polymeric network. This original technique is a big advance in neuroscience creating novel viewpoints completely different than standard glass slide immunostaining. PMID:24730999

  1. Neurolight -astonishing advances in brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Rojczyk-Gołębiewska, Ewa; Pałasz, Artur; Worthington, John J; Markowski, Grzegorz; Wiaderkiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, significant advances in basic neuroanatomical studies have taken place. Moreover, such classical, clinically-oriented human brain imaging methods such as MRI, PET and DTI have been applied to small laboratory animals allowing improvement in current experimental neuroscience. Contemporary structural neurobiology also uses various technologies based on fluorescent proteins. One of these is optogenetics, which integrates physics, genetics and bioengineering to enable temporal precise control of electrical activity of specific neurons. Another important challenge in the field is the accurate imaging of complicated neural networks. To address this problem, three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and retrograde labeling with modified viruses has been developed. However, a revolutionary step was the invention of the "Brainbow" system, utilizing gene constructs including the sequences of fluorescent proteins and the usage of Cre recombinase to create dozens of colour combinations, enabling visualization of neurons and their connections in extremely high resolution. Furthermore, the newly- introduced CLARITY method should make it possible to visualize three-dimensionally the structure of translucent brain tissue using the hydrogel polymeric network. This original technique is a big advance in neuroscience creating novel viewpoints completely different than standard glass slide immunostaining.

  2. A framework for integration of heterogeneous medical imaging networks.

    PubMed

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, Luís S; Costa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is increasing its importance in matters of medical diagnosis and in treatment support. Much is due to computers that have revolutionized medical imaging not only in acquisition process but also in the way it is visualized, stored, exchanged and managed. Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is an example of how medical imaging takes advantage of computers. To solve problems of interoperability of PACS and medical imaging equipment, the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard was defined and widely implemented in current solutions. More recently, the need to exchange medical data between distinct institutions resulted in Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative that contains a content profile especially conceived for medical imaging exchange: Cross Enterprise Document Sharing for imaging (XDS-i). Moreover, due to application requirements, many solutions developed private networks to support their services. For instance, some applications support enhanced query and retrieve over DICOM objects metadata. This paper proposes anintegration framework to medical imaging networks that provides protocols interoperability and data federation services. It is an extensible plugin system that supports standard approaches (DICOM and XDS-I), but is also capable of supporting private protocols. The framework is being used in the Dicoogle Open Source PACS.

  3. A Framework for Integration of Heterogeneous Medical Imaging Networks

    PubMed Central

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, Luís S; Costa, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is increasing its importance in matters of medical diagnosis and in treatment support. Much is due to computers that have revolutionized medical imaging not only in acquisition process but also in the way it is visualized, stored, exchanged and managed. Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is an example of how medical imaging takes advantage of computers. To solve problems of interoperability of PACS and medical imaging equipment, the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard was defined and widely implemented in current solutions. More recently, the need to exchange medical data between distinct institutions resulted in Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative that contains a content profile especially conceived for medical imaging exchange: Cross Enterprise Document Sharing for imaging (XDS-i). Moreover, due to application requirements, many solutions developed private networks to support their services. For instance, some applications support enhanced query and retrieve over DICOM objects metadata. This paper proposes anintegration framework to medical imaging networks that provides protocols interoperability and data federation services. It is an extensible plugin system that supports standard approaches (DICOM and XDS-I), but is also capable of supporting private protocols. The framework is being used in the Dicoogle Open Source PACS. PMID:25279021

  4. A virtual laboratory for medical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Glatard, Tristan; de Boer, Piter T

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and usage of a virtual laboratory for medical image analysis. It is fully based on the Dutch grid, which is part of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) production infrastructure and driven by the gLite middleware. The adopted service-oriented architecture enables decoupling the user-friendly clients running on the user's workstation from the complexity of the grid applications and infrastructure. Data are stored on grid resources and can be browsed/viewed interactively by the user with the Virtual Resource Browser (VBrowser). Data analysis pipelines are described as Scufl workflows and enacted on the grid infrastructure transparently using the MOTEUR workflow management system. VBrowser plug-ins allow for easy experiment monitoring and error detection. Because of the strict compliance to the grid authentication model, all operations are performed on behalf of the user, ensuring basic security and facilitating collaboration across organizations. The system has been operational and in daily use for eight months (December 2008), with six users, leading to the submission of 9000 jobs/month in average and the production of several terabytes of data.

  5. Data Hiding Scheme on Medical Image using Graph Coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Widi; Adiwijaya; Novia Wisety, Untari

    2015-06-01

    The utilization of digital medical images is now widely spread[4]. The medical images is supposed to get protection since it has probability to pass through unsecure network. Several watermarking techniques have been developed so that the digital medical images can be guaranteed in terms of its originality. In watermarking, the medical images becomes a protected object. Nevertheless, the medical images can actually be a medium of hiding secret data such as patient medical record. The data hiding is done by inserting data into image - usually called steganography in images. Because the medical images can influence the diagnose change, steganography will only be applied to non-interest region. Vector Quantization (VQ) is one of lossydata compression technique which is sufficiently prominent and frequently used. Generally, the VQ based steganography scheme still has limitation in terms of the data capacity which can be inserted. This research is aimed to make a Vector Quantization-based steganography scheme and graph coloring. The test result shows that the scheme can insert 28768 byte data which equals to 10077 characters for images area of 3696 pixels.

  6. Medical physics personnel for medical imaging: requirements, conditions of involvement and staffing levels-French recommendations.

    PubMed

    Isambert, Aurélie; Le Du, Dominique; Valéro, Marc; Guilhem, Marie-Thérèse; Rousse, Carole; Dieudonné, Arnaud; Blanchard, Vincent; Pierrat, Noëlle; Salvat, Cécile

    2015-04-01

    The French regulations concerning the involvement of medical physicists in medical imaging procedures are relatively vague. In May 2013, the ASN and the SFPM issued recommendations regarding Medical Physics Personnel for Medical Imaging: Requirements, Conditions of Involvement and Staffing Levels. In these recommendations, the various areas of activity of medical physicists in radiology and nuclear medicine have been identified and described, and the time required to perform each task has been evaluated. Criteria for defining medical physics staffing levels are thus proposed. These criteria are defined according to the technical platform, the procedures and techniques practised on it, the number of patients treated and the number of persons in the medical and paramedical teams requiring periodic training. The result of this work is an aid available to each medical establishment to determine their own needs in terms of medical physics.

  7. XEMIS: A liquid xenon detector for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego Manzano, L.; Bassetto, S.; Beaupere, N.; Briend, P.; Carlier, T.; Cherel, M.; Cussonneau, J.-P.; Donnard, J.; Gorski, M.; Hamanishi, R.; Kraeber Bodéré, F.; Le Ray, P.; Lemaire, O.; Masbou, J.; Mihara, S.; Morteau, E.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Stutzmann, J.-S.; Tauchi, T.; Thers, D.

    2015-07-01

    A new medical imaging technique based on the precise 3D location of a radioactive source by the simultaneous detection of 3γ rays has been proposed by Subatech laboratory. To take advantage of this novel technique a detection device based on a liquid xenon Compton telescope and a specific (β+, γ) emitter radionuclide, 44Sc, are required. A first prototype of a liquid xenon time projection chamber called XEMIS1 has been successfully developed showing very promising results for the energy and spatial resolutions for the ionization signal in liquid xenon, thanks to an advanced cryogenics system, which has contributed to a high liquid xenon purity with a very good stability and an ultra-low noise front-end electronics (below 100 electrons) operating at liquid xenon temperature. The very positive results obtained with XEMIS1 have led to the development of a second prototype for small animal imaging, XEMIS2, which is now under development. To study the feasibility of the 3γ imaging technique and optimize the characteristics of the device, a complete Monte Carlo simulation has been also carried out. A preliminary study shows very positive results for the sensitivity, energy and spatial resolutions of XEMIS2.

  8. Medical image processing on the GPU - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Forsberg, Daniel; LaConte, Stephen M

    2013-12-01

    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are used today in a wide range of applications, mainly because they can dramatically accelerate parallel computing, are affordable and energy efficient. In the field of medical imaging, GPUs are in some cases crucial for enabling practical use of computationally demanding algorithms. This review presents the past and present work on GPU accelerated medical image processing, and is meant to serve as an overview and introduction to existing GPU implementations. The review covers GPU acceleration of basic image processing operations (filtering, interpolation, histogram estimation and distance transforms), the most commonly used algorithms in medical imaging (image registration, image segmentation and image denoising) and algorithms that are specific to individual modalities (CT, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, DTI, ultrasound, optical imaging and microscopy). The review ends by highlighting some future possibilities and challenges.

  9. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  10. Multiview Locally Linear Embedding for Effective Medical Image Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hualei; Tao, Dacheng; Ma, Dianfu

    2013-01-01

    Content-based medical image retrieval continues to gain attention for its potential to assist radiological image interpretation and decision making. Many approaches have been proposed to improve the performance of medical image retrieval system, among which visual features such as SIFT, LBP, and intensity histogram play a critical role. Typically, these features are concatenated into a long vector to represent medical images, and thus traditional dimension reduction techniques such as locally linear embedding (LLE), principal component analysis (PCA), or laplacian eigenmaps (LE) can be employed to reduce the “curse of dimensionality”. Though these approaches show promising performance for medical image retrieval, the feature-concatenating method ignores the fact that different features have distinct physical meanings. In this paper, we propose a new method called multiview locally linear embedding (MLLE) for medical image retrieval. Following the patch alignment framework, MLLE preserves the geometric structure of the local patch in each feature space according to the LLE criterion. To explore complementary properties among a range of features, MLLE assigns different weights to local patches from different feature spaces. Finally, MLLE employs global coordinate alignment and alternating optimization techniques to learn a smooth low-dimensional embedding from different features. To justify the effectiveness of MLLE for medical image retrieval, we compare it with conventional spectral embedding methods. We conduct experiments on a subset of the IRMA medical image data set. Evaluation results show that MLLE outperforms state-of-the-art dimension reduction methods. PMID:24349277

  11. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  12. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  13. Hyperspectral image projector for advanced sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. W.; Rice, J. P.; Neira, J. E.; Bousquet, R.; Johnson, B. C.

    2006-08-01

    In this work, we describe radiometric platforms able to produce realistic spectral distributions and spatial scenes for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems. Using these platforms, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of complex source distributions. The same platforms can also serve as a basis for algorithm testing and instrument comparison. The platforms consist of spectrally tunable light sources (STS's) coupled with spatially programmable projection systems. The resultant hyperspectral image projectors (HIP) can generate complex spectral distributions with high spectral fidelity; that is, scenes with realistic spectral content. Using the same fundamental technology, platforms can be developed for the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions. These radiometric platforms will facilitate advanced sensor characterization testing, enabling a pre-flight validation of the pre-flight calibration.

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-06-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs.

  15. Ethics of the allocation of highly advanced medical technologies.

    PubMed

    Sass, H M

    1998-03-01

    The disproportionate distribution of financial, educational, social, and medical resources between some rich countries of the northern hemisphere and less fortunate societies creates a moral challenge of global dimension. The development of new forms of highly advanced medical technologies, including neoorgans and xenografts, as well as the promotion of health literacy and predictive and preventive medical services might reduce some problems in allocational justice. Most governments and the World Health Organization (WHO) reject financial and other rewards for living organ donors thus indirectly contributing to the development of black markets. A societal gratuity model supporting and safeguarding a highly regulated market between providers and recipients of organs might provide for better protection of those who provide organs not solely based on altruistic reasons. The moral assessment of global issues in allocation and justice in the distribution of medical technologies must be increased and will have to be based on the principles of self determination and responsibility, solidarity and subsidiarity, and respect for individual values and cultural traditions. PMID:9527289

  16. Nonrigid Medical Image Registration Based on Mesh Deformation Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, TianShuang; Guo, DongMei

    2013-01-01

    Regularizing the deformation field is an important aspect in nonrigid medical image registration. By covering the template image with a triangular mesh, this paper proposes a new regularization constraint in terms of connections between mesh vertices. The connection relationship is preserved by the spring analogy method. The method is evaluated by registering cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image data obtained from different individuals. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good deformation ability and topology-preserving ability, providing a new way to the nonrigid medical image registration. PMID:23424604

  17. Client-side Medical Image Colorization in a Collaborative Environment.

    PubMed

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application related to collaborative medicine using a browser based medical visualization system with focus on the medical image colorization process and the underlying open source web development technologies involved. Browser based systems allow physicians to share medical data with their remotely located counterparts or medical students, assisting them during patient diagnosis, treatment monitoring, surgery planning or for educational purposes. This approach brings forth the advantage of ubiquity. The system can be accessed from a any device, in order to process the images, assuring the independence towards having a specific proprietary operating system. The current work starts with processing of DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) files and ends with the rendering of the resulting bitmap images on a HTML5 (fifth revision of the HyperText Markup Language) canvas element. The application improves the image visualization emphasizing different tissue densities.

  18. Application of the CCD camera in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wei-Kom; Smith, Chuck; Bunting, Ralph; Knoll, Paul; Wobig, Randy; Thacker, Rod

    1999-04-01

    Medical fluoroscopy is a set of radiological procedures used in medical imaging for functional and dynamic studies of digestive system. Major components in the imaging chain include image intensifier that converts x-ray information into an intensity pattern on its output screen and a CCTV camera that converts the output screen intensity pattern into video information to be displayed on a TV monitor. To properly respond to such a wide dynamic range on a real-time basis, such as fluoroscopy procedure, are very challenging. Also, similar to all other medical imaging studies, detail resolution is of great importance. Without proper contrast, spatial resolution is compromised. The many inherent advantages of CCD make it a suitable choice for dynamic studies. Recently, CCD camera are introduced as the camera of choice for medical fluoroscopy imaging system. The objective of our project was to investigate a newly installed CCD fluoroscopy system in areas of contrast resolution, details, and radiation dose.

  19. Client-side Medical Image Colorization in a Collaborative Environment.

    PubMed

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an application related to collaborative medicine using a browser based medical visualization system with focus on the medical image colorization process and the underlying open source web development technologies involved. Browser based systems allow physicians to share medical data with their remotely located counterparts or medical students, assisting them during patient diagnosis, treatment monitoring, surgery planning or for educational purposes. This approach brings forth the advantage of ubiquity. The system can be accessed from a any device, in order to process the images, assuring the independence towards having a specific proprietary operating system. The current work starts with processing of DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) files and ends with the rendering of the resulting bitmap images on a HTML5 (fifth revision of the HyperText Markup Language) canvas element. The application improves the image visualization emphasizing different tissue densities. PMID:25991287

  20. Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Kevin M; Palmer, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic advances in optical physics, probe design, molecular biology, labeling techniques and computational analysis have propelled fluorescence imaging into new realms of spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. This review aims to discuss advances in fluorescent probes and live-cell labeling strategies, two areas that remain pivotal for future advances in imaging technology. Fluorescent protein– and bio-orthogonal–based methods for protein and RNA imaging are discussed as well as emerging bioengineering techniques that enable their expression at specific genomic loci (for example, CRISPR and TALENs). Important attributes that contribute to the success of each technique are emphasized, providing a guideline for future advances in dynamic live-cell imaging. PMID:24937069

  1. An information gathering system for medical image inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jin; Bajcsy, Peter

    2005-04-01

    We present an information gathering system for medical image inspection that consists of software tools for capturing computer-centric and human-centric information. Computer-centric information includes (1) static annotations, such as (a) image drawings enclosing any selected area, a set of areas with similar colors, a set of salient points, and (b) textual descriptions associated with either image drawings or links between pairs of image drawings, and (2) dynamic (or temporal) information, such as mouse movements, zoom level changes, image panning and frame selections from an image stack. Human-centric information is represented by video and audio signals that are acquired by computer-mounted cameras and microphones. The short-term goal of the presented system is to facilitate learning of medical novices from medical experts, while the long-term goal is to data mine all information about image inspection for assisting in making diagnoses. In this work, we built basic software functionality for gathering computer-centric and human-centric information of the aforementioned variables. Next, we developed the information playback capabilities of all gathered information for educational purposes. Finally, we prototyped text-based and image template-based search engines to retrieve information from recorded annotations, for example, (a) find all annotations containing the word "blood vessels", or (b) search for similar areas to a selected image area. The information gathering system for medical image inspection reported here has been tested with images from the Histology Atlas database.

  2. [A medical image semantic modeling based on hierarchical Bayesian networks].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunyi; Ma, Lihong; Yin, Junxun; Chen, Jianyu

    2009-04-01

    A semantic modeling approach for medical image semantic retrieval based on hierarchical Bayesian networks was proposed, in allusion to characters of medical images. It used GMM (Gaussian mixture models) to map low-level image features into object semantics with probabilities, then it captured high-level semantics through fusing these object semantics using a Bayesian network, so that it built a multi-layer medical image semantic model, aiming to enable automatic image annotation and semantic retrieval by using various keywords at different semantic levels. As for the validity of this method, we have built a multi-level semantic model from a small set of astrocytoma MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) samples, in order to extract semantics of astrocytoma in malignant degree. Experiment results show that this is a superior approach.

  3. Modified natural nanoparticles as contrast agents for medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cormode, David P.; Jarzyna, Peter A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of novel and effective contrast agents is one of the drivers of the ongoing improvement in medical imaging. Many of the new agents reported are nanoparticle-based. There are a variety of natural nanoparticles known, e.g. lipoproteins, viruses or ferritin. Natural nanoparticles have advantages as delivery platforms such as biodegradability. In addition, our understanding of natural nanoparticles is quite advanced, allowing their adaptation as contrast agents. They can be labeled with small molecules or ions such as Gd3+ to act as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, 18F to act as positron emission tomography contrast agents or fluorophores to act as contrast agents for fluorescence techniques. Additionally, inorganic nanoparticles such as iron oxide, gold nanoparticles or quantum dots can be incorporated to add further contrast functionality. Furthermore, these natural nanoparticle contrast agents can be rerouted from their natural targets via the attachment of targeting molecules. In this review, we discuss the various modified natural nanoparticles that have been exploited as contrast agents. PMID:19900496

  4. Medical image fusion based on non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daoming; Zhang, Xianda

    2009-10-01

    Medical image fusion is a process of obtaining a new composite image from two or more source images which are from different modalities. In this paper, we proposed a novel medical image fusion scheme based on the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm, the only resulted basis image is just the fused image. Since the CT and MRI images have a lot of pixels which are zeros, the NMF algorithm can not be employed directly. To overcome this difficulty, we first add a positive bias to the original data matrix and remove the bias from the resulted fusion image after the NMF procedure. The experiment results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing wavelet-based methods and Laplacian pyramid-based methods.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in Malawi: contributions to clinical care, medical education and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S; Birbeck, G L; Hammond, C A; Gonani, A; Phiri, K S; Seydel, K B; Taylors, T E

    2011-06-01

    Advanced medical imaging technologies are generally unavailable in low income, tropical settings despite the reality that neurologic disorders are disproportionately common in such environments. Through a series of donations as well as extramural research funding support, an MRI facility opened in Blantyre, Malawi in July 2008. Resulting opportunities for studying common tropical disorders, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in vivo are promising. The subsequent improvements in local patient care were expected and exceptional and include major revisions in basic care protocols that may eventually impact care protocols at facilities in the region that do not have recourse to MRI. In addition, advanced neuroimaging technology has energized the medical education system, possibly slowing the brain drain. Advanced technologies, though potentially associated with significant fiscal opportunity costs, may bring unexpected and extensive benefits to the healthcare and medical education systems involved.

  6. [3D interactive clipping technology in medical image processing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoping; Yang, Kaitai; Li, Bin; Li, Yuanjun; Liang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the methods of 3D visualization and the 3D interactive clipping of CT/MRI image sequence in arbitrary orientation based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). A new method for 3D CT/MRI reconstructed image clipping is presented, which can clip 3D object and 3D space of medical image sequence to observe the inner structure using 3D widget for manipulating an infinite plane. Experiment results show that the proposed method can implement 3D interactive clipping of medical image effectively and get satisfied results with good quality in short time.

  7. 21 CFR 892.2010 - Medical image storage device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A medical image storage device is a device that provides electronic storage and retrieval..., and digital memory. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  8. Tele-medical imaging conference system based on the Web.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heung-Kook; Park, Se-Myung; Kang, Jae-Hyo; Kim, Sang-Kyoon; Choi, Hang-Mook

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, a medical imaging conference system is presented, which is carried out in the Web environment using the distributed object technique, CORBA. Independent of platforms and different developing languages, the CORBA-based medical imaging conference system is very powerful for system development, extension and maintenance. With this Web client/server, one could easily execute a medical imaging conference using Applets on the Web. The Java language, which is object-oriented and independent of platforms, has the advantage of free usage wherever the Web browser is. By using the proposed system, we envisage being able to open a tele-conference using medical images, e.g. CT, MRI, X-ray etc., easily and effectively among remote hospitals.

  9. An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, A J; Berry, E; Zinovev, N N; Walker, G C; Smith, M A; Chamberlain, J M

    2002-04-01

    Methods have recently been developed that make use of electromagnetic radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies, the region of the spectrum between millimetre wavelengths and the infrared, for imaging purposes. Radiation at these wavelengths is non-ionizing and subject to far less Rayleigh scatter than visible or infrared wavelengths, making it suitable for medical applications. This paper introduces THz pulsed imaging and discusses its potential for in vivo medical applications in comparison with existing modalities.

  10. Advanced Imaging Catheter: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Krulevitch, P; Colston, B; DaSilva, L; Hilken, D; Kluiwstra, J U; Lee, A P; London, R; Miles, R; Schumann, D; Seward, K; Wang, A

    2001-07-20

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is an approach whereby procedures conventionally performed with large and potentially traumatic incisions are replaced by several tiny incisions through which specialized instruments are inserted. Early MIS, often called laparoscopic surgery, used video cameras and laparoscopes to visualize and control the medical devices, which were typically cutting or stapling tools. More recently, catheter-based procedures have become a fast growing sector of all surgeries. In these procedures, small incisions are made into one of the main arteries (e.g. femoral artery in the thigh), and a long thin hollow tube is inserted and positioned near the target area. The key advantage of this technique is that recovery time can be reduced from months to a matter of days. In the United States, over 700,000 catheter procedures are performed annually representing a market of over $350 million. Further growth in this area will require significant improvements in the current catheter technology. In order to effectively navigate a catheter through the tortuous vessels of the body, two capabilities must exist: imaging and positioning. In most cases, catheter procedures rely on radiography for visualization and manual manipulation for positioning of the device. Radiography provides two-dimensional, global images of the vasculature and cannot be used continuously due to radiation exposure to both the patient and physician. Intravascular ultrasound devices are available for continuous local imaging at the catheter tip, but these devices cannot be used simultaneously with therapeutic devices. Catheters are highly compliant devices, and manipulating the catheter is similar to pushing on a string. Often, a guide wire is used to help position the catheter, but this procedure has its own set of problems. Three characteristics are used to describe catheter maneuverability: (1) pushability -- the amount of linear displacement of the distal end (inside body) relative to

  11. Managing radiation use in medical imaging: a multifaceted challenge.

    PubMed

    Hricak, Hedvig; Brenner, David J; Adelstein, S James; Frush, Donald P; Hall, Eric J; Howell, Roger W; McCollough, Cynthia H; Mettler, Fred A; Pearce, Mark S; Suleiman, Orhan H; Thrall, James H; Wagner, Louis K

    2011-03-01

    This special report aims to inform the medical community about the many challenges involved in managing radiation exposure in a way that maximizes the benefit-risk ratio. The report discusses the state of current knowledge and key questions in regard to sources of medical imaging radiation exposure, radiation risk estimation, dose reduction strategies, and regulatory options.

  12. Integration of radiographic images with an electronic medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Overhage, J. M.; Aisen, A.; Barnes, M.; Tucker, M.; McDonald, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiographic images are important and expensive diagnostic tests. However, the provider caring for the patient often does not review the images directly due to time constraints. Institutions can use picture archiving and communications systems to make images more available to the provider, but this may not be the best solution. We integrated radiographic image review into the Regenstrief Medical Record System in order to address this problem. To achieve adequate performance, we store JPEG compressed images directly in the RMRS. Currently, physicians review about 5% of all radiographic studies using the RMRS image review function. PMID:11825241

  13. Ontology modularization to improve semantic medical image annotation.

    PubMed

    Wennerberg, Pinar; Schulz, Klaus; Buitelaar, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Searching for medical images and patient reports is a significant challenge in a clinical setting. The contents of such documents are often not described in sufficient detail thus making it difficult to utilize the inherent wealth of information contained within them. Semantic image annotation addresses this problem by describing the contents of images and reports using medical ontologies. Medical images and patient reports are then linked to each other through common annotations. Subsequently, search algorithms can more effectively find related sets of documents on the basis of these semantic descriptions. A prerequisite to realizing such a semantic search engine is that the data contained within should have been previously annotated with concepts from medical ontologies. One major challenge in this regard is the size and complexity of medical ontologies as annotation sources. Manual annotation is particularly time consuming labor intensive in a clinical environment. In this article we propose an approach to reducing the size of clinical ontologies for more efficient manual image and text annotation. More precisely, our goal is to identify smaller fragments of a large anatomy ontology that are relevant for annotating medical images from patients suffering from lymphoma. Our work is in the area of ontology modularization, which is a recent and active field of research. We describe our approach, methods and data set in detail and we discuss our results.

  14. [Automatic segmentation of three dimension medical image series].

    PubMed

    Ding, Siyi; Yang, Jie; Yao, Lixiu; Xu, Qing

    2006-08-01

    We propose an improved version of regional competition algorithm in this paper, and apply it to the automatic segmentation of medical image series, particularly in the segmentation and recognition of brain tumor. The traditional regional competition is enhanced by combining the attractive aspects of fuzzy segmentation, and thus it provides an efficient approach to segment the fuzzy and heterogeneous medical images. In order to perform regional competition on medical image series, we utilize the segmentation result of a slice to initiate the next segmented slice, while the first slice is initialized using regional growing algorithm. Moreover, we develop an algorithm to recognize the tumors automatically, taking into account its characters. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs well on the segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image series with high speed and precision. PMID:17002088

  15. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing.

  16. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing. PMID:26414378

  17. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    PubMed

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  18. Intelligent retrieval of medical images from the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yau-Kuo; Chiang, Ted T.

    1996-05-01

    The object of this study is using Internet resources to provide a cost-effective, user-friendly method to access the medical image archive system and to provide an easy method for the user to identify the images required. This paper describes the prototype system architecture, the implementation, and results. In the study, we prototype the Intelligent Medical Image Retrieval (IMIR) system as a Hypertext Transport Prototype server and provide Hypertext Markup Language forms for user, as an Internet client, using browser to enter image retrieval criteria for review. We are developing the intelligent retrieval engine, with the capability to map the free text search criteria to the standard terminology used for medical image identification. We evaluate retrieved records based on the number of the free text entries matched and their relevance level to the standard terminology. We are in the integration and testing phase. We have collected only a few different types of images for testing and have trained a few phrases to map the free text to the standard medical terminology. Nevertheless, we are able to demonstrate the IMIR's ability to search, retrieve, and review medical images from the archives using general Internet browser. The prototype also uncovered potential problems in performance, security, and accuracy. Additional studies and enhancements will make the system clinically operational.

  19. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  20. Medical Image Authentication Using DPT Watermarking: A Preliminary Attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. L. Dennis; Goh, Antionette W.-T.; Chua, Hong Siang

    Secure authentication of digital medical image content provides great value to the e-Health community and medical insurance industries. Fragile Watermarking has been proposed to provide the mechanism to authenticate digital medical image securely. Transform Domain based Watermarking are typically slower than spatial domain watermarking owing to the overhead in calculation of coefficients. In this paper, we propose a new Discrete Pascal Transform based watermarking technique. Preliminary experiment result shows authentication capability. Possible improvements on the proposed scheme are also presented before conclusions.

  1. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  2. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface.

  3. User Oriented Platform for Data Analytics in Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Miguel; Godinho, Tiago Marques; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The production of medical imaging studies and associated data has been growing in the last decades. Their primary use is to support medical diagnosis and treatment processes. However, the secondary use of the tremendous amount of stored data is generally more limited. Nowadays, medical imaging repositories have turned into rich databanks holding not only the images themselves, but also a wide range of metadata related to the medical practice. Exploring these repositories through data analysis and business intelligence techniques has the potential of increasing the efficiency and quality of the medical practice. Nevertheless, the continuous production of tremendous amounts of data makes their analysis difficult by conventional approaches. This article proposes a novel automated methodology to derive knowledge from medical imaging repositories that does not disrupt the regular medical practice. Our method is able to apply statistical analysis and business intelligence techniques directly on top of live institutional repositories. It is a Web-based solution that provides extensive dashboard capabilities, including complete charting and reporting options, combined with data mining components. Moreover, it enables the operator to set a wide multitude of query parameters and operators through the use of an intuitive graphical interface. PMID:27577479

  4. Advances in Medications and Tailoring Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, Chamindi; Johnson, Bankole A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic heritable brain disorder with a variable clinical presentation. This variability, or heterogeneity, in clinical presentation suggests complex interactions between environmental and biological factors, resulting in several underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the development and progression of AUD. Classifying AUD into subgroups of common clinical or pathological characteristics would ease the complexity of teasing apart underlying molecular mechanisms. Genetic association analyses have revealed several polymorphisms—small differences in DNA—that increase a person’s vulnerability to develop AUD and other alcohol-related intermediate characteristics, such as severity of drinking, age of AUD onset, or measures of craving. They also have identified polymorphisms associated with reduced drinking. Researchers have begun utilizing these genetic polymorphisms to identify alcoholics who might respond best to various treatments, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of currently tested medications for treating AUD. This review compares the efficacy of medications tested for treatment of AUD with and without incorporating genetics. It then discusses advances in pre-clinical genetic and genomic studies that potentially could be adapted to clinical trials to improve treatment efficacy. Although a pharmacogenetic approach is promising, it is relatively new and will need to overcome many challenges, including inadequate scientific knowledge and social and logistic constraints, to be utilized in clinical practice. PMID:26259086

  5. Principal Components Analysis In Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. B.; Huddleston, A. L.

    1986-06-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is basically a data reduction technique. PCA has been used in several problems in diagnostic radiology: processing radioisotope brain scans (Ref.1), automatic alignment of radionuclide images (Ref. 2), processing MRI images (Ref. 3,4), analyzing first-pass cardiac studies (Ref. 5) correcting for attenuation in bone mineral measurements (Ref. 6) and in dual energy x-ray imaging (Ref. 6,7). This paper will progress as follows; a brief introduction to the mathematics of PCA will be followed by two brief examples of how PCA has been used in the literature. Finally my own experience with PCA in dual-energy x-ray imaging will be given.

  6. Registering multiple medical images using the shared chain mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Yi

    2007-07-01

    A new approach to the simultaneous registration of multiple medical images is proposed using shared chain mutual information (SCMI) as the matching measure. The presented method applies SCMI to measure the shared information between the multiple images. Registration is achieved by adjusting the relative position of the floating image until the SCMI between all the images is maximized. Using this measure, we registered three and four simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images using downhill simplex optimization to search for the optimal transformation parameters. Accuracy and validity of the proposed method for multiple-image registration are testified by comparing the results with that of two-image registration. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is validated by registering the real ultrasonic image sequence.

  7. Stroke: advances in medical therapy and acute stroke intervention.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.

  8. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical features, diagnosis and medical treatment: advances

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) comprise with gastrointestinal carcinoids, the main groups of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Although these two groups of GI-NETs share many features including histological aspects; over-/ectopic expression of somatostatin receptors; the ability to ectopically secrete hormones/peptides/amines which can result in distinct functional syndromes; similar approaches used for tumor localization and some aspects of treatment, it is now generally agreed they should be considered separate. They differ in their pathogenesis, hormonal syndromes produced, many aspects of biological behavior and most important, in their response to certain anti-tumor treatment (chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapies). In this chapter the clinical features of the different types of pNETs will be considered as well as aspects of their diagnosis and medical treatment of the hormone-excess state. Emphasis will be on controversial areas or recent advances. The other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, because they are covered in other chapters in this volume. PMID:23582916

  9. Do we need a national incident reporting system for medical imaging?

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N; Krishnaraj, Arun

    2012-05-01

    The essential role of an incident reporting system as a tool to improve safety and reliability has been described in high-risk industries such as aviation and nuclear power, with anesthesia being the first medical specialty to successfully integrate incident reporting into a comprehensive quality improvement strategy. Establishing an incident reporting system for medical imaging that effectively captures system errors and drives improvement in the delivery of imaging services is a key component of developing and evaluating national quality improvement initiatives in radiology. Such a national incident reporting system would be most effective if implemented as one piece of a comprehensive quality improvement strategy designed to enhance knowledge about safety, identify and learn from errors, raise standards and expectations for improvement, and create safer systems through implementation of safe practices. The potential benefits of a national incident reporting system for medical imaging include reduced morbidity and mortality, improved patient and referring physician satisfaction, reduced health care expenses and medical liability costs, and improved radiologist satisfaction. The purposes of this article are to highlight the positive impact of external reporting systems, discuss how similar advancements in quality and safety can be achieved with an incident reporting system for medical imaging in the United States, and describe current efforts within the imaging community toward achieving this goal. PMID:22554630

  10. Fast and simple spectral FLIM for biochemical and medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Popleteeva, Marina; Haas, Kalina T; Stoppa, David; Pancheri, Lucio; Gasparini, Leonardo; Kaminski, Clemens F; Cassidy, Liam D; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Esposito, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (λFLIM) has powerful potential for biochemical and medical imaging applications. However, long acquisition times, low spectral resolution and complexity of λFLIM often narrow its use to specialized laboratories. Therefore, we demonstrate here a simple spectral FLIM based on a solid-state detector array providing in-pixel histrogramming and delivering faster acquisition, larger dynamic range, and higher spectral elements than state-of-the-art λFLIM. We successfully apply this novel microscopy system to biochemical and medical imaging demonstrating that solid-state detectors are a key strategic technology to enable complex assays in biomedical laboratories and the clinic.

  11. Advanced illumination control algorithm for medical endoscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2015-05-01

    CMOS image sensor manufacturer, AWAIBA, is providing the world's smallest digital camera modules to the world market for minimally invasive surgery and one time use endoscopic equipment. Based on the world's smallest digital camera head and the evaluation board provided to it, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate an advanced fast response dynamic control algorithm of the illumination LED source coupled to the camera head, over the LED drivers embedded on the evaluation board. Cost efficient and small size endoscopic camera modules nowadays embed minimal size image sensors capable of not only adjusting gain and exposure time but also LED illumination with adjustable illumination power. The LED illumination power has to be dynamically adjusted while navigating the endoscope over changing illumination conditions of several orders of magnitude within fractions of the second to guarantee a smooth viewing experience. The algorithm is centered on the pixel analysis of selected ROIs enabling it to dynamically adjust the illumination intensity based on the measured pixel saturation level. The control core was developed in VHDL and tested in a laboratory environment over changing light conditions. The obtained results show that it is capable of achieving correction speeds under 1 s while maintaining a static error below 3% relative to the total number of pixels on the image. The result of this work will allow the integration of millimeter sized high brightness LED sources on minimal form factor cameras enabling its use in endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  12. Medical imaging as a contributor to today's healthcare crisis.

    PubMed

    McVey, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    At the end of 2007, Medicare reported the increase in medical imaging costs overtook increases in pharmaceutical costs for the first time. Imaging costs accounted for a 20% increase, while pharmaceuticals accounted for just 10%. There are two common areas where imaging costs impact overall healthcare spending: unnecessary exams and operational management. This article does not suggest alternatives to today's imaging management practices. It provides economic information, which may be valuable to imaging managers who want to gauge the costs of operating their own departments to what is going on in the industry. PMID:18572722

  13. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  14. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described.

  15. Communication and storage of digital medical images in database.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, N; Camapum, J; Amemiya, E

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an application for communication and storage of clinical images based upon the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) protocol. The proposed solution is composed of three different databases servers, PostgreSQL, Firebird and Oracle, and a DICOM client software, that uses the protocol TCP/IP. It provides the communication services, transmission, storage and administration of medical images. PMID:17281491

  16. Fast volume rendering for medical image.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hu; Xin-He, Xu

    2005-01-01

    In orders to improve the rendering speed of ray casting and make this technique a practical routine in medical applications, two new and improved techniques are described in this paper. First, an integrated method using "proximity clouds" technique is applied to speed up ray casting. The second technique for speeding up the 3D rendering is done through a parallel implementation based on "single computer multi CPU" model Four groups of CT data sets have been used to validate the improvement of the rendering speed. The result shown that the interactive rendering speed is up to 6-10 fps, which is almost real-time making our algorithm practical in medical visualization routine.

  17. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices.

  18. Unsupervised detection of abnormalities in medical images using salient features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.

  19. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy. PMID:24689058

  20. Beyond whole-body imaging: advanced imaging techniques of PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, James; Raptis, Constantine A; McConathy, Jonathan E; Laforest, Richard; Siegel, Barry A; Woodard, Pamela K; Fowler, Kathryn

    2015-02-01

    PET/MRI is a hybrid imaging modality that is gaining clinical interest with the first Food and Drug Administration-approved simultaneous imaging system recently added to the clinical armamentarium. Several advanced PET/MRI applications, such as high-resolution anatomic imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, motion correction, and cardiac imaging, show great potential for clinical use. The purpose of this article is to highlight several advanced PET/MRI applications through case examples and review of the current literature.

  1. Advanced ESPI-based medical instruments for otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, M.; Cacace, Anthony T.; Gardner, Glendon M.; Miller, Mitchell B.; Parnes, Steven M.

    1993-05-01

    Optical fibers have long been used for visual inspection inside the human body for medical diagnoses and treatment. By making use of sophisticated optical interferometric and ultra- small imaging techniques, combined with automated image processing, it is possible to extract significantly increased information for more accurate medical diagnoses. With support from NIH under the SBIR program, we have been developing a range of such instruments. One of these supported by the NIDCD is capable of providing detailed spatial information on the vibratory response of the tympanic membrane (TM). This instrument involves the examination of the TM by means of high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). This provides a real time view of the vibration patterns of the TM for clinical diagnosis. This Interferometric Otoscope consists of mode conserving fiber optics, miniature diode lasers and high speed solid state detector arrays. We present the current status of the research including holography and ESPI of TM models and excised temporal bone preparations. A second instrument, also developed with support from NIDCD, is for application to the larynx. This system is also ESPI based but will incorporate features for direct vocal cord (VC) examination. By careful examination of the vibratory response of the VC during phonation, the characteristics of the mucosal wave may be examined. Adynamic regions of the cords can signal the start of lesions or cysts. Results of surgery can be evaluated in a quantitative manner. The design of a clinical prototype and preliminary electro-optic experiments on excised larynges and VC models will be presented.

  2. Advancing molecular imaging: a chairman's perspective on how radiology can meet the challenge.

    PubMed

    Hricak, Hedvig

    2011-02-01

    To date, most molecular imaging techniques applied clinically have offered relatively general information about the metabolism and physiology of diseased cells and tissues. However, due to recent scientific and technological advances, much more specifically targeted molecular imaging probes (e.g., reporter gene probes, whole cell-tracking probes, and probes for localizing specific biomolecules) are now being used in preclinical research and, in some cases, translated to the clinical setting. As a result, the imaging community is poised to help lead a revolution in personalized, molecularly targeted medicine. This article considers the importance of molecular imaging for advancing research and clinical care both within individual institutions and across the medical field. It outlines specific steps that leaders in academic radiology can take to hasten progress in molecular imaging and explains why they must have the courage to reach across traditional interdisciplinary boundaries and advocate for major investments in equipment, education, and personnel. PMID:20809095

  3. Oncological image analysis: medical and molecular image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael

    2007-03-01

    This paper summarises the work we have been doing on joint projects with GE Healthcare on colorectal and liver cancer, and with Siemens Molecular Imaging on dynamic PET. First, we recall the salient facts about cancer and oncological image analysis. Then we introduce some of the work that we have done on analysing clinical MRI images of colorectal and liver cancer, specifically the detection of lymph nodes and segmentation of the circumferential resection margin. In the second part of the paper, we shift attention to the complementary aspect of molecular image analysis, illustrating our approach with some recent work on: tumour acidosis, tumour hypoxia, and multiply drug resistant tumours.

  4. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.

    2016-06-01

    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if

  5. Achieving quality in cardiovascular imaging: proceedings from the American College of Cardiology-Duke University Medical Center Think Tank on Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela; Iskandrian, Ami E; Krumholz, Harlan M; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Jollis, James; Peterson, Eric; Chen, Jersey; Masoudi, Frederick; Mohler, Emile; McNamara, Robert L; Patel, Manesh R; Spertus, John

    2006-11-21

    Cardiovascular imaging has enjoyed both rapid technological advances and sustained growth, yet less attention has been focused on quality than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met, and this report provides an overview of the discussions. A consensus definition of quality in imaging and a convergence of opinion on quality measures across imaging modalities was achieved and are intended to be the start of a process culminating in the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality measures for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.

  6. Watermarking techniques used in medical images: a survey.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Naghsh, Alireza; Abu-Bakar, S A R

    2014-12-01

    The ever-growing numbers of medical digital images and the need to share them among specialists and hospitals for better and more accurate diagnosis require that patients' privacy be protected. As a result of this, there is a need for medical image watermarking (MIW). However, MIW needs to be performed with special care for two reasons. Firstly, the watermarking procedure cannot compromise the quality of the image. Secondly, confidential patient information embedded within the image should be flawlessly retrievable without risk of error after image decompressing. Despite extensive research undertaken in this area, there is still no method available to fulfill all the requirements of MIW. This paper aims to provide a useful survey on watermarking and offer a clear perspective for interested researchers by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different existing methods.

  7. Computation of morphological texture features for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Manish J.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Dougherty, Edward R.; Batman, Sinan; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Popov, Antony T.

    1998-06-01

    Texture is an important attribute which is widely used in various image analysis applications. Among texture features, morphological texture features are least utilized in medical image analysis. From a computational standpoint, extracting morphological texture features from an image is a challenging task. The computational problem is made even greater in medical imaging applications where large images such as mammograms are to be analyzed. This paper discusses an efficient method to compute morphological texture features for any geometry of a structuring element corresponding to a texture type. A benchmarking of the code on three machines (Sun SPARC 20, Pentium II based Dell 400 workstation, and SGI Power Challenge 10000XL) as well as a parallel processing implementation was performed to obtain an optimum processing configuration. A sample processed mammogram is shown to illustrate the code outcome.

  8. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  9. The oncology medical image database (OMI-DB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halling-Brown, Mark D.; Looney, P. T.; Patel, M. N.; Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Young, K. C.

    2014-03-01

    Many projects to evaluate or conduct research in medical imaging require the large-scale collection of images (both unprocessed and processed) and associated data. This demand has led us to design and implement a flexible oncology image repository, which prospectively collects images and data from multiple sites throughout the UK. This Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) has been created to support research involving medical imaging and contains unprocessed and processed medical images, associated annotations and data, and where applicable expert-determined ground truths describing features of interest. The process of collection, annotation and storage is almost fully automated and is extremely adaptable, allowing for quick and easy expansion to disparate imaging sites and situations. Initially the database was developed as part of a large research project in digital mammography (OPTIMAM). Hence the initial focus has been digital mammography; as a result, much of the work described will focus on this field. However, the OMI -DB has been designed to support multiple modalities and is extensible and expandable to store any associated data with full anonymisation. Currently, the majority of associated data is made up of radiological, clinical and pathological annotations extracted from the UK's National Breast Screening System (NBSS). In addition to the data, software and systems have been created to allow expert radiologists to annotate the images with interesting clinical features and provide descriptors of these features. The data from OMI-DB has been used in several observer studies and more are planned. To date we have collected 34,104 2D mammography images from 2,623 individuals.

  10. Texture-based medical image compression.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Vinayak K; Sapkal, Ashok M; Tapaswi, Ankita

    2013-02-01

    Image processing is one of the most researched areas these days due to the flooding of the internet with an overload of images. The noble medicine industry is not left untouched. It has also suffered with an excess of patient record storage and maintenance. With the advent of automation of the industries in the world, the medicine industry has sought to change and provide a more portable feel to it, leading to the fields of telemedicine and such. Our algorithm comes in handy in such scenarios where large amount of data needs to be transmitted over the network for perusal by another consultant. We aim for a visual quality approach in our algorithm rather than pixel-wise fidelity. We utilize parameters of edges and textures as the basic parameters in our compression algorithm.

  11. Blackboard architecture for medical image interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Darryl N.; Taylor, Christopher J.

    1991-06-01

    There is a growing interest in using sophisticated knowledge-based systems for biomedical image interpretation. We present a principled attempt to use artificial intelligence methodologies in interpreting lateral skull x-ray images. Such radiographs are routinely used in cephalometric analysis to provide quantitative measurements useful to clinical orthodontists. Manual and interactive methods of analysis are known to be error prone and previous attempts to automate this analysis typically fail to capture the expertise and adaptability required to cope with the variability in biological structure and image quality. An integrated model-based system has been developed which makes use of a blackboard architecture and multiple knowledge sources. A model definition interface allows quantitative models, of feature appearance and location, to be built from examples as well as more qualitative modelling constructs. Visual task definition and blackboard control modules allow task-specific knowledge sources to act on information available to the blackboard in a hypothesise and test reasoning cycle. Further knowledge-based modules include object selection, location hypothesis, intelligent segmentation, and constraint propagation systems. Alternative solutions to given tasks are permitted.

  12. The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    1. Medical image perception Ehsan Samei and Elizabeth Krupinski; Part I. Historical Reflections and Theoretical Foundations: 2. A short history of image perception in medical radiology Harold Kundel and Calvin Nodine; 3. Spatial vision research without noise Arthur Burgess; 4. Signal detection theory, a brief history Arthur Burgess; 5. Signal detection in radiology Arthur Burgess; 6. Lessons from dinners with the giants of modern image science Robert Wagner; Part II. Science of Image Perception: 7. Perceptual factors in reading medical images Elizabeth Krupinski; 8. Cognitive factors in reading medical images David Manning; 9. Satisfaction of search in traditional radiographic imaging Kevin Berbaum, Edmund Franken, Robert Caldwell and Kevin Schartz; 10. The role of expertise in radiologic image interpretation Calvin Nodine and Claudia Mello-Thoms; 11. A primer of image quality and its perceptual relevance Robert Saunders and Ehsan Samei; 12. Beyond the limitations of human vision Maria Petrou; Part III. Perception Metrology: 13. Logistical issues in designing perception experiments Ehsan Samei and Xiang Li; 14. ROC analysis: basic concepts and practical applications Georgia Tourassi; 15. Multi-reader ROC Steve Hillis; 16. Recent developments in FROC methodology Dev Chakraborty; 17. Observer models as a surrogate to perception experiments Craig Abbey and Miguel Eckstein; 18. Implementation of observer models Matthew Kupinski; Part IV. Decision Support and Computer Aided Detection: 19. CAD: an image perception perspective Maryellen Giger and Weijie Chen; 20. Common designs of CAD studies Yulei Jiang; 21. Perceptual effect of CAD in reading chest images Matthew Freedman and Teresa Osicka; 22. Perceptual issues in mammography and CAD Michael Ulissey; 23. How perceptual factors affect the use and accuracy of CAD for interpretation of CT images Ronald Summers; 24. CAD: risks and benefits for radiologists' decisions Eugenio Alberdi, Andrey Povyakalo, Lorenzo Strigini and

  13. The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    1. Medical image perception Ehsan Samei and Elizabeth Krupinski; Part I. Historical Reflections and Theoretical Foundations: 2. A short history of image perception in medical radiology Harold Kundel and Calvin Nodine; 3. Spatial vision research without noise Arthur Burgess; 4. Signal detection theory, a brief history Arthur Burgess; 5. Signal detection in radiology Arthur Burgess; 6. Lessons from dinners with the giants of modern image science Robert Wagner; Part II. Science of Image Perception: 7. Perceptual factors in reading medical images Elizabeth Krupinski; 8. Cognitive factors in reading medical images David Manning; 9. Satisfaction of search in traditional radiographic imaging Kevin Berbaum, Edmund Franken, Robert Caldwell and Kevin Schartz; 10. The role of expertise in radiologic image interpretation Calvin Nodine and Claudia Mello-Thoms; 11. A primer of image quality and its perceptual relevance Robert Saunders and Ehsan Samei; 12. Beyond the limitations of human vision Maria Petrou; Part III. Perception Metrology: 13. Logistical issues in designing perception experiments Ehsan Samei and Xiang Li; 14. ROC analysis: basic concepts and practical applications Georgia Tourassi; 15. Multi-reader ROC Steve Hillis; 16. Recent developments in FROC methodology Dev Chakraborty; 17. Observer models as a surrogate to perception experiments Craig Abbey and Miguel Eckstein; 18. Implementation of observer models Matthew Kupinski; Part IV. Decision Support and Computer Aided Detection: 19. CAD: an image perception perspective Maryellen Giger and Weijie Chen; 20. Common designs of CAD studies Yulei Jiang; 21. Perceptual effect of CAD in reading chest images Matthew Freedman and Teresa Osicka; 22. Perceptual issues in mammography and CAD Michael Ulissey; 23. How perceptual factors affect the use and accuracy of CAD for interpretation of CT images Ronald Summers; 24. CAD: risks and benefits for radiologists' decisions Eugenio Alberdi, Andrey Povyakalo, Lorenzo Strigini and

  14. Oral antioxidants for radioprotection during medical imaging examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velauthapillai, Nivethan

    The oncogenic effect of ionizing radiation (IR) is clearly established and occurs in response to DNA damage. Many diagnostic imaging exams make use of IR and the oncogenic risk of IR-based imaging has been calculated. We hypothesized that the DNA damage sustained from IR exposure during medical imaging exams could be reduced by pre-medicating patients with antioxidants. First, we tested and validated a method for measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Afterwards, we conducted a pilot clinical study in which we administered oral antioxidants to patients undergoing bone scans, prior to radiotracer injection. We showed that oral antioxidant pre-medication reduced the number of DSBs in PBMCs induced by radiotracer injection. Our study shows proof-of-principle for this simple and inexpensive approach to radioprotection in the clinical setting.

  15. Flexible medical image management using service-oriented architecture.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Oded; Melament, Alex; Barak-Corren, Yuval; Kostirev, Igor; Shmueli, Noam; Peres, Yardena

    2012-01-01

    Management of medical images increasingly involves the need for integration with a variety of information systems. To address this need, we developed Content Management Offering (CMO), a platform for medical image management supporting interoperability through compliance with standards. CMO is based on the principles of service-oriented architecture, implemented with emphasis on three areas: clarity of business process definition, consolidation of service configuration management, and system scalability. Owing to the flexibility of this platform, a small team is able to accommodate requirements of customers varying in scale and in business needs. We describe two deployments of CMO, highlighting the platform's value to customers. CMO represents a flexible approach to medical image management, which can be applied to a variety of information technology challenges in healthcare and life sciences organizations. PMID:22874344

  16. Medical Image distribution and visualization in a hospital using CORBA.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ramon Alfredo; do Santos, Marcelo; Bertozzo, Nivaldo; de Sa Rebelo, Marina; Furuie, Sergio S; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2008-01-01

    In this work it is presented the solution adopted by the Heart Institute (InCor) of Sao Paulo for medical image distribution and visualization inside the hospital's intranet as part of the PACS system. A CORBA-based image server was developed to distribute DICOM images across the hospital together with the images' report. The solution adopted allows the decoupling of the server implementation and the client. This gives the advantage of reusing the same solution in different implementation sites. Currently, the PACS system is being used on two different hospitals each one with three different environments: development, prototype and production.

  17. Seeing it through: translational validation of new medical imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Melissa B.; Marshall, Milton V.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Lanza, Greg; Kotyk, John; Culver, Joseph; Wang, Lihong V.; Uddin, Jashim; Crews, Brenda C.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Liao, Joseph C.; Contag, Chris; Crawford, James M.; Wang, Ken; Reisdorph, Bill; Appelman, Henry; Turgeon, D. Kim; Meyer, Charles; Wang, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging is an invaluable tool for diagnosis, surgical guidance, and assessment of treatment efficacy. The Network for Translational Research (NTR) for Optical Imaging consists of four research groups working to “bridge the gap” between lab discovery and clinical use of fluorescence- and photoacoustic-based imaging devices used with imaging biomarkers. While the groups are using different modalities, all the groups face similar challenges when attempting to validate these systems for FDA approval and, ultimately, clinical use. Validation steps taken, as well as future needs, are described here. The group hopes to provide translational validation guidance for itself, as well as other researchers. PMID:22574264

  18. Contour detect in the medical image by shearlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Rios, Ramiro; Simonov, Konstantin; Romanenko, Alexey

    2015-07-01

    Contour detect in the urology medical image. The investigation algorithm FFST revealed that the contours of objects can be obtained as the sum of the coefficients shearlet transform a fixed value for the last scale and the of all possible values of the shift parameter. The results of this task using a modified algorithm FFST for data processing urology image is show. In the results of the corresponding calculations for some images and a comparison with filters Sobel and Prewitt. Shows the relevant calculations for some images and a comparison with Sobel and Prewitt filters respectively.

  19. A Survey of DICOM Viewer Software to Integrate Clinical Research and Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Haak, Daniel; Page, Charles-E; Deserno, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) protocol is the leading standard for image data management in healthcare. Imaging biomarkers and image-based surrogate endpoints in clinical trials and medical registries require DICOM viewer software with advanced functionality for visualization and interfaces for integration. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation of 28 DICOM viewers is performed. The evaluation criteria are obtained from application scenarios in clinical research rather than patient care. They include (i) platform, (ii) interface, (iii) support, (iv) two-dimensional (2D), and (v) three-dimensional (3D) viewing. On the average, 4.48 and 1.43 of overall 8 2D and 5 3D image viewing criteria are satisfied, respectively. Suitable DICOM interfaces for central viewing in hospitals are provided by GingkoCADx, MIPAV, and OsiriX Lite. The viewers ImageJ, MicroView, MIPAV, and OsiriX Lite offer all included 3D-rendering features for advanced viewing. Interfaces needed for decentral viewing in web-based systems are offered by Oviyam, Weasis, and Xero. Focusing on open source components, MIPAV is the best candidate for 3D imaging as well as DICOM communication. Weasis is superior for workflow optimization in clinical trials. Our evaluation shows that advanced visualization and suitable interfaces can also be found in the open source field and not only in commercial products.

  20. Medical Imaging Image Quality Assessment with Monte Carlo Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, C. M.; Karpetas, G. E.; Fountos, G. P.; Kalyvas, N. I.; Martini, Niki; Koukou, Vaia; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.

  1. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research

    PubMed Central

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D.; Kline, Timothy L.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Langer, Steve G.; Ryan, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26284301

  2. MIRMAID: A Content Management System for Medical Image Analysis Research.

    PubMed

    Korfiatis, Panagiotis D; Kline, Timothy L; Blezek, Daniel J; Langer, Steve G; Ryan, William J; Erickson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    Today, a typical clinical study can involve thousands of participants, with imaging data acquired over several time points across multiple institutions. The additional associated information (metadata) accompanying these data can cause data management to be a study-hindering bottleneck. Consistent data management is crucial for large-scale modern clinical imaging research studies. If the study is to be used for regulatory submissions, such systems must be able to meet regulatory compliance requirements for systems that manage clinical image trials, including protecting patient privacy. Our aim was to develop a system to address these needs by leveraging the capabilities of an open-source content management system (CMS) that has a highly configurable workflow; has a single interface that can store, manage, and retrieve imaging-based studies; and can handle the requirement for data auditing and project management. We developed a Web-accessible CMS for medical images called Medical Imaging Research Management and Associated Information Database (MIRMAID). From its inception, MIRMAID was developed to be highly flexible and to meet the needs of diverse studies. It fulfills the need for a complete system for medical imaging research management. PMID:26284301

  3. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  4. WebMedSA: a web-based framework for segmenting and annotating medical images using biomedical ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Francisco; Pérez, Wilson; Tello, Andrés.; Saquicela, Victor; Espinoza, Mauricio; Solano-Quinde, Lizandro; Vidal, Maria-Esther; La Cruz, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Advances in medical imaging have fostered medical diagnosis based on digital images. Consequently, the number of studies by medical images diagnosis increases, thus, collaborative work and tele-radiology systems are required to effectively scale up to this diagnosis trend. We tackle the problem of the collaborative access of medical images, and present WebMedSA, a framework to manage large datasets of medical images. WebMedSA relies on a PACS and supports the ontological annotation, as well as segmentation and visualization of the images based on their semantic description. Ontological annotations can be performed directly on the volumetric image or at different image planes (e.g., axial, coronal, or sagittal); furthermore, annotations can be complemented after applying a segmentation technique. WebMedSA is based on three main steps: (1) RDF-ization process for extracting, anonymizing, and serializing metadata comprised in DICOM medical images into RDF/XML; (2) Integration of different biomedical ontologies (using L-MOM library), making this approach ontology independent; and (3) segmentation and visualization of annotated data which is further used to generate new annotations according to expert knowledge, and validation. Initial user evaluations suggest that WebMedSA facilitates the exchange of knowledge between radiologists, and provides the basis for collaborative work among them.

  5. Secure public cloud platform for medical images sharing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Prigent, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing promises medical imaging services offering large storage and computing capabilities for limited costs. In this data outsourcing framework, one of the greatest issues to deal with is data security. To do so, we propose to secure a public cloud platform devoted to medical image sharing by defining and deploying a security policy so as to control various security mechanisms. This policy stands on a risk assessment we conducted so as to identify security objectives with a special interest for digital content protection. These objectives are addressed by means of different security mechanisms like access and usage control policy, partial-encryption and watermarking. PMID:25991144

  6. Optimal embedding for shape indexing in medical image databases.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D

    2005-01-01

    Fast retrieval using organ shapes is crucial in medical image databases since shape is a clinically prominent feature. In this paper, we propose that 2-D shapes in medical image databases can be indexed by embedding them into a vector space and using efficient vector space indexing. An optimal shape space embedding is proposed for this purpose. Experimental results of indexing vertebral shapes in the NHANES II database are presented. The results show that vector space indexing following embedding gives superior performance than metric indexing.

  7. Can Imaging Put the “Advanced” Back in Advanced Wound Care?

    PubMed Central

    DaCosta, Ralph S.; Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Banerjee, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    An effective, scientifically validated, diagnostic tool helps clinicians make better, timely, and more objective medical decisions in the care of their patients. Today, the need for such tools is especially urgent in the field of wound care where patient-centric care is the goal, under ever tightening clinical budget constraints. In an era of countless “innovative” treatment options, that is, advanced dressings, negative pressure devices, and various debridement instruments available to the wound care clinical team, one area that has arguably languished in the past decade has been innovation in wound diagnostics. Whereas medical imaging is a mainstay in the diagnostic toolkit across many other medical fields (oncology, neurology, gastroenterology, orthopedics, etc.), the field of wound care has yet to realize the full potential that advances in imaging technologies have to offer the clinician. In this issue, the first of a series in wound imaging and diagnostics, four articles have been assembled, highlighting some of the recent advances in wound imaging technologies.

  8. Can Imaging Put the “Advanced” Back in Advanced Wound Care?

    PubMed Central

    DaCosta, Ralph S.; Ottolino-Perry, Kathryn; Banerjee, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    An effective, scientifically validated, diagnostic tool helps clinicians make better, timely, and more objective medical decisions in the care of their patients. Today, the need for such tools is especially urgent in the field of wound care where patient-centric care is the goal, under ever tightening clinical budget constraints. In an era of countless “innovative” treatment options, that is, advanced dressings, negative pressure devices, and various debridement instruments available to the wound care clinical team, one area that has arguably languished in the past decade has been innovation in wound diagnostics. Whereas medical imaging is a mainstay in the diagnostic toolkit across many other medical fields (oncology, neurology, gastroenterology, orthopedics, etc.), the field of wound care has yet to realize the full potential that advances in imaging technologies have to offer the clinician. In this issue, the first of a series in wound imaging and diagnostics, four articles have been assembled, highlighting some of the recent advances in wound imaging technologies. PMID:27602251

  9. Technical challenges for the construction of a medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Francis J.; Ammer, Kurt; Wiecek, Boguslaw; Plassmann, Peter; Jones, Carl D.; Jung, Anna; Murawski, Piotr

    2005-10-01

    Infrared thermal imaging was first made available to medicine in the early 1960's. Despite a large number of research publications on the clinical application of the technique, the images have been largely qualitative. This is in part due to the imaging technology itself, and the problem of data exchange between different medical users, with different hardware. An Anglo Polish collaborative study was set up in 2001 to identify and resolve the sources of error and problems in medical thermal imaging. Standardisation of the patient preparation, imaging hardware, image capture and analysis has been studied and developed by the group. A network of specialist centres in Europe is planned to work to establish the first digital reference atlas of quantifiable images of the normal healthy human body. Further processing techniques can then be used to classify abnormalities found in disease states. The follow up of drug treatment has been successfully monitored in clinical trials with quantitative thermal imaging. The collection of normal reference images is in progress. This paper specifies the areas found to be the source of unwanted variables, and the protocols to overcome them.

  10. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  11. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  12. Recent Development of Dual-Dictionary Learning Approach in Medical Image Analysis and Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bigong; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an implementation of compressive sensing (CS), dual-dictionary learning (DDL) method provides an ideal access to restore signals of two related dictionaries and sparse representation. It has been proven that this method performs well in medical image reconstruction with highly undersampled data, especially for multimodality imaging like CT-MRI hybrid reconstruction. Because of its outstanding strength, short signal acquisition time, and low radiation dose, DDL has allured a broad interest in both academic and industrial fields. Here in this review article, we summarize DDL's development history, conclude the latest advance, and also discuss its role in the future directions and potential applications in medical imaging. Meanwhile, this paper points out that DDL is still in the initial stage, and it is necessary to make further studies to improve this method, especially in dictionary training.

  13. Recent Development of Dual-Dictionary Learning Approach in Medical Image Analysis and Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bigong; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    As an implementation of compressive sensing (CS), dual-dictionary learning (DDL) method provides an ideal access to restore signals of two related dictionaries and sparse representation. It has been proven that this method performs well in medical image reconstruction with highly undersampled data, especially for multimodality imaging like CT-MRI hybrid reconstruction. Because of its outstanding strength, short signal acquisition time, and low radiation dose, DDL has allured a broad interest in both academic and industrial fields. Here in this review article, we summarize DDL's development history, conclude the latest advance, and also discuss its role in the future directions and potential applications in medical imaging. Meanwhile, this paper points out that DDL is still in the initial stage, and it is necessary to make further studies to improve this method, especially in dictionary training. PMID:26089956

  14. A Total Information Management System For All Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouimette, Donald; Nudelman, Sol; Ramsby, Gale; Spackman, Thomas

    1985-09-01

    A PACS has been designed for the University of Connecticut Health Center to serve all departments acquiring images for diagnosis, surgery and therapy. It incorporates a multiple community communications architecture to provide complete information management for medical images, medical data and departmental administrative matter. The system is modular and expandable. It permits an initial installation for radiology and subsequent expansion to include other departments at the Health Center, beginning with internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology and dentistry. The design permits sufficient expansion to offer the potential for accepting the additional burden of a hospital information system. Primary parameters that led to this system design were based on the anticipation that departments in time could achieve generating 60 to 90% of their images suited to insertion in a PACS, that a high network throughput for large block image transfers would be essen-tial and that total system reliability was fundamental to success.

  15. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  16. Unsupervised medical image classification by combining case-based classifiers.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Thien Anh; Silander, Tomi; Su, Bolan; Gong, Tianxia; Pang, Boon Chuan; Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Lee, Cheng Kiang; Tan, Chew Lim; Leong, Tze-Yun

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an automated pathology classification system for medical volumetric brain image slices. Existing work often relies on handcrafted features extracted from automatic image segmentation. This is not only a challenging and time-consuming process, but it may also limit the adaptability and robustness of the system. We propose a novel approach to combine sparse Gabor-feature based classifiers in an ensemble classification framework. The unsupervised nature of this non-parametric technique can significantly reduce the time and effort for system calibration. In particular, classification of medical images in this framework does not rely on segmentation, nor semantic-based or annotation-based feature selection. Our experiments show very promising results in classifying computer tomography image slices into pathological classes for traumatic brain injury patients.

  17. Detectors for medical radioisotope imaging: demands and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.

    2004-10-01

    Radioisotope imaging is used to obtain information on biochemical processes in living organisms, being a tool of increasing importance for medical diagnosis. The improvement and expansion of these techniques depend on the progress attained in several areas, such as radionuclide production, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation detectors and image reconstruction algorithms. This review paper will be concerned only with the detector technology. We will review in general terms the present status of medical radioisotope imaging instrumentation with the emphasis put on the developments of high-resolution gamma cameras and PET detector systems for scinti-mammography and animal imaging. The present trend to combine two or more modalities in a single machine in order to obtain complementary information will also be considered.

  18. Novel medical imaging technologies for disease diagnosis and treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olego, Diego

    2009-03-01

    New clinical approaches for disease diagnosis, treatment and monitoring will rely on the ability of simultaneously obtaining anatomical, functional and biological information. Medical imaging technologies in combination with targeted contrast agents play a key role in delivering with ever increasing temporal and spatial resolution structural and functional information about conditions and pathologies in cardiology, oncology and neurology fields among others. This presentation will review the clinical motivations and physics challenges in on-going developments of new medical imaging techniques and the associated contrast agents. Examples to be discussed are: *The enrichment of computer tomography with spectral sensitivity for the diagnosis of vulnerable sclerotic plaque. *Time of flight positron emission tomography for improved resolution in metabolic characterization of pathologies. *Magnetic particle imaging -a novel imaging modality based on in-vivo measurement of the local concentration of iron oxide nano-particles - for blood perfusion measurement with better sensitivity, spatial resolution and 3D real time acquisition. *Focused ultrasound for therapy delivery.

  19. Algorithms for Image Analysis and Combination of Pattern Classifiers with Application to Medical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Harris

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics and the application of modern signal processing in the assistance of the diagnostic process in medical imaging is one of the more recent and active research areas today. This thesis addresses a variety of issues related to the general problem of medical image analysis, specifically in mammography, and presents a series of algorithms and design approaches for all the intermediate levels of a modern system for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The diagnostic problem is analyzed with a systematic approach, first defining the imaging characteristics and features that are relevant to probable pathology in mammo-grams. Next, these features are quantified and fused into new, integrated radio-logical systems that exhibit embedded digital signal processing, in order to improve the final result and minimize the radiological dose for the patient. In a higher level, special algorithms are designed for detecting and encoding these clinically interest-ing imaging features, in order to be used as input to advanced pattern classifiers and machine learning models. Finally, these approaches are extended in multi-classifier models under the scope of Game Theory and optimum collective deci-sion, in order to produce efficient solutions for combining classifiers with minimum computational costs for advanced diagnostic systems. The material covered in this thesis is related to a total of 18 published papers, 6 in scientific journals and 12 in international conferences.

  20. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  1. A medical imaging and visualization toolkit in Java.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su; Baimouratov, Rafail; Xiao, Pengdong; Ananthasubramaniam, Anand; Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2006-03-01

    Medical imaging research and clinical applications usually require combination and integration of various techniques ranging from image processing and analysis to realistic visualization to user-friendly interaction. Researchers with different backgrounds coming from diverse areas have been using numerous types of hardware, software, and environments to obtain their results. We also observe that students often build their tools from scratch resulting in redundant work. A generic and flexible medical imaging and visualization toolkit would be helpful in medical research and educational institutes to reduce redundant development work and hence increase research efficiency. This paper presents our experience in developing a Medical Imaging and Visualization Toolkit (BIL-kit) that is a set of comprehensive libraries as well as a number of interactive tools. The BIL-kit covers a wide range of fundamental functions from image conversion and transformation, image segmentation, and analysis to geometric model generation and manipulation, all the way up to 3D visualization and interactive simulation. The toolkit design and implementation emphasize the reusability and flexibility. BIL-kit is implemented in the Java language so that it works in hybrid and dynamic research and educational environments. This also allows the toolkit to extend its usage for the development of Web-based applications. Several BIL-kit-based tools and applications are presented including image converter, image processor, general anatomy model simulator, vascular modeling environment, and volume viewer. BIL-kit is a suitable platform for researchers and students to develop visualization and simulation prototypes, and it can also be used for the development of clinical applications.

  2. Safe storage and multi-modal search for medical images.

    PubMed

    Kommeri, Jukka; Niinimäki, Marko; Müller, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Modern hospitals produce enormous amounts of data in all departments, from images, to lab results, medication use, and release letters. Since several years these data are most often produced in digital form, making them accessible for researchers to optimize the outcome of care process and analyze all available data across patients. The Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) are no exception with its daily radiology department's output of over 140'000 images in 2010, with a majority of them being tomographic slices. In this paper we introduce tools for uploading and accessing DICOM images and associated metadata in a secure Grid storage. These data are made available for authorized persons using a Grid security framework, as security is a main problem in secondary use of image data, where images are to be stored outside of the clinical image archive. Our tool combines the security and metadata access of a Grid middleware with the visual search that uses GIFT. PMID:21893790

  3. Watermarking of ultrasound medical images in teleradiology using compressed watermark.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohamad; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    The open accessibility of Internet-based medical images in teleradialogy face security threats due to the nonsecured communication media. This paper discusses the spatial domain watermarking of ultrasound medical images for content authentication, tamper detection, and lossless recovery. For this purpose, the image is divided into two main parts, the region of interest (ROI) and region of noninterest (RONI). The defined ROI and its hash value are combined as watermark, lossless compressed, and embedded into the RONI part of images at pixel's least significant bits (LSBs). The watermark lossless compression and embedding at pixel's LSBs preserve image diagnostic and perceptual qualities. Different lossless compression techniques including Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) were tested for watermark compression. The performances of these techniques were compared based on more bit reduction and compression ratio. LZW was found better than others and used in tamper detection and recovery watermarking of medical images (TDARWMI) scheme development to be used for ROI authentication, tamper detection, localization, and lossless recovery. TDARWMI performance was compared and found to be better than other watermarking schemes.

  4. Digital Topology and Geometry in Medical Imaging: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Saha, Punam K; Strand, Robin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2015-09-01

    Digital topology and geometry refers to the use of topologic and geometric properties and features for images defined in digital grids. Such methods have been widely used in many medical imaging applications, including image segmentation, visualization, manipulation, interpolation, registration, surface-tracking, object representation, correction, quantitative morphometry etc. Digital topology and geometry play important roles in medical imaging research by enriching the scope of target outcomes and by adding strong theoretical foundations with enhanced stability, fidelity, and efficiency. This paper presents a comprehensive yet compact survey on results, principles, and insights of methods related to digital topology and geometry with strong emphasis on understanding their roles in various medical imaging applications. Specifically, this paper reviews methods related to distance analysis and path propagation, connectivity, surface-tracking, image segmentation, boundary and centerline detection, topology preservation and local topological properties, skeletonization, and object representation, correction, and quantitative morphometry. A common thread among the topics reviewed in this paper is that their theory and algorithms use the principle of digital path connectivity, path propagation, and neighborhood analysis.

  5. Watermarking of ultrasound medical images in teleradiology using compressed watermark.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohamad; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    The open accessibility of Internet-based medical images in teleradialogy face security threats due to the nonsecured communication media. This paper discusses the spatial domain watermarking of ultrasound medical images for content authentication, tamper detection, and lossless recovery. For this purpose, the image is divided into two main parts, the region of interest (ROI) and region of noninterest (RONI). The defined ROI and its hash value are combined as watermark, lossless compressed, and embedded into the RONI part of images at pixel's least significant bits (LSBs). The watermark lossless compression and embedding at pixel's LSBs preserve image diagnostic and perceptual qualities. Different lossless compression techniques including Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) were tested for watermark compression. The performances of these techniques were compared based on more bit reduction and compression ratio. LZW was found better than others and used in tamper detection and recovery watermarking of medical images (TDARWMI) scheme development to be used for ROI authentication, tamper detection, localization, and lossless recovery. TDARWMI performance was compared and found to be better than other watermarking schemes. PMID:26839914

  6. Shape similarity analysis of regions of interest in medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Charisi, Amalia; Latecki, Longin Jan; Gee, James; Megalooikonomou, Vasilis

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a new representation technique of 2D contour shapes and a sequence similarity measure to characterize 2D regions of interest in medical images. First, we define a distance function on contour points in order to map the shape of a given contour to a sequence of real numbers. Thus, the computation of shape similarity is reduced to the matching of the obtained sequences. Since both a query and a target sequence may be noisy, i.e., contain some outlier elements, it is desirable to exclude the outliers in order to obtain a robust matching performance. For the computation of shape similarity, we propose the use of an algorithm which performs elastic matching of two sequences. The contribution of our approach is that, unlike previous works that require images to be warped according to a template image for measuring their similarity, it obviates this need, therefore it can estimate image similarity for any type of medical image in a fast and efficient manner. To demonstrate our method's applicability, we analyzed a brain image dataset consisting of corpus callosum shapes, and we investigated the structural differences between children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and controls. Our findings indicate that our method is quite effective and it can be easily applied on medical diagnosis in all cases of which shape difference is an important clue.

  7. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  8. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Jiang, Junhai; Guo, Shicheng; Xiong, Momiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis. PMID:26196383

  9. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Nan; Jiang, Junhai; Guo, Shicheng; Xiong, Momiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis. PMID:26196383

  10. Evaluation of XRI-UNO CdTe detector for nuclear medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambi, L. K.; Lees, J. E.; Bugby, S. L.; Tipper, S.; Alqahtani, M. S.; Perkins, A. C.

    2015-06-01

    Over the last two decades advances in semiconductor detector technology have reached the point where they are sufficiently sensitive to become an alternative to scintillators for high energy gamma ray detection for application in fields such as medical imaging. This paper assessed the Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) XRI-UNO semiconductor detector produced by X-RAY Imatek for photon energies of interest in nuclear imaging. The XRI-UNO detector was found to have an intrinsic spatial resolution of <0.5mm and a high incident count rate capability up to at least 1680cps. The system spatial resolution, uniformity and sensitivity characteristics are also reported.

  11. Advances in Small Animal Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    The rapid growth in genetics and molecular biology combined with the development of techniques for genetically engineering small animals has led to an increased interest in in vivo laboratory animal imaging during the past few years. For this purpose, new instrumentation, data acquisition strategies, and image processing and reconstruction techniques are being developed, researched and evaluated. The aim of this article is to give a short overview of the state of the art technologies for high resolution and high sensitivity molecular imaging techniques, primarily positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The basic needs of small animal imaging will be described. The evolution in instrumentation in the past two decades, as well as the commercially available systems will be overviewed. Finally, the new trends in detector technology and preliminary results from challenging applications will be presented. For more details a number of references are provided.

  12. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  13. Clinical Application and Research Advances of CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Computed tomography (CT)-based myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP)has been widely recognized as a one-station solution for the imaging of myocardial ischemia-related diseases. This article reviews the clinical scanning protocols,analytical methods,and research advances of CTP in recent years and briefly discusses its limitations and future development. PMID:27469926

  14. Medical Imaging for Understanding Sleep Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    Sleep is essential for the health of the nervous system. Lack of sleep has a profound negative effect on cognitive ability and task performance. During sustained military operations, soldiers often suffer from decreased quality and quantity of sleep, increasing their susceptibility to neurological problems and limiting their ability to perform the challenging mental tasks that their missions require. In the civilian sector, inadequate sleep and overt sleep pathology are becoming more common, with many detrimental impacts. There is a strong need for new, in vivo studies of human brains during sleep, particularly the initial descent from wakefulness. Our research team is investigating sleep using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and electroencephalography (EEG). High resolution MRI combined with PET enables localization of biochemical processes (e.g., metabolism) to anatomical structures. MRI methods can also be used to examine functional connectivity among brain regions. Neural networks are dynamically reordered during different sleep stages, reflecting the disconnect with the waking world and the essential yet unconscious brain activity that occurs during sleep.[4pt] In collaboration with Linda Larson-Prior, Washington University; Alpay Ozcan, Virginia Tech; Seong Mun, Virginia Tech; and Zang-Hee Cho, Gachon University.

  15. Advanced automated char image analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Wu; Edward Lester; Michael Cloke

    2006-05-15

    Char morphology is an important characteristic when attempting to understand coal behavior and coal burnout. In this study, an augmented algorithm has been proposed to identify char types using image analysis. On the basis of a series of image processing steps, a char image is singled out from the whole image, which then allows the important major features of the char particle to be measured, including size, porosity, and wall thickness. The techniques for automated char image analysis have been tested against char images taken from ICCP Char Atlas as well as actual char particles derived from pyrolyzed char samples. Thirty different chars were prepared in a drop tube furnace operating at 1300{sup o}C, 1% oxygen, and 100 ms from 15 different world coals sieved into two size fractions (53-75 and 106-125 {mu}m). The results from this automated technique are comparable with those from manual analysis, and the additional detail from the automated sytem has potential use in applications such as combustion modeling systems. Obtaining highly detailed char information with automated methods has traditionally been hampered by the difficulty of automatic recognition of individual char particles. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Medical image noise reduction using the Sylvester-Lyapunov equation.

    PubMed

    Sanches, João M; Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S

    2008-09-01

    Multiplicative noise is often present in medical and biological imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and fluorescence microscopy. Noise reduction in medical images is a difficult task in which linear filtering algorithms usually fail. Bayesian algorithms have been used with success but they are time consuming and computationally demanding. In addition, the increasing importance of the 3-D and 4-D medical image analysis in medical diagnosis procedures increases the amount of data that must be efficiently processed. This paper presents a Bayesian denoising algorithm which copes with additive white Gaussian and multiplicative noise described by Poisson and Rayleigh distributions. The algorithm is based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion, and edge preserving priors which avoid the distortion of relevant anatomical details. The main contribution of the paper is the unification of a set of Bayesian denoising algorithms for additive and multiplicative noise using a well-known mathematical framework, the Sylvester-Lyapunov equation, developed in the context of the Control theory.

  17. Center for Advanced Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop 2004

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, J H; Carrano, C; Poyneer, L; Palmer, D; Baker, K; Chen, D; London, R; Weinert, G; Brase, J; Paglieroni, D; Lopez, A; Grant, C W; Wright, W; Burke, M; Miller, W O; DeTeresa, S; White, D; Toeppen, J; Haugen, P; Kamath, C; Nguyen, T; Manay, S; Newsam, S; Cantu-Paz, E; Pao, H; Chang, J; Chambers, D; Leach, R; Paulson, C; Romero, C E; Spiridon, A; Vigars, M; Welsh, P; Zumstein, J; Romero, K; Oppenheim, A; Harris, D B; Dowla, F; Brown, C G; Clark, G A; Ong, M M; Clance, T J; Kegelmeyer, l M; Benzuijen, M; Bliss, E; Burkhart, S; Conder, A; Daveler, S; Ferguson, W; Glenn, S; Liebman, J; Norton, M; Prasad, R; Salmon, T; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hafiz, O; Cheung, S; Fodor, I; Aufderheide, M B; Bary, A; Martz, Jr., H E; Burke, M W; Benson, S; Fisher, K A; Quarry, M J

    2004-11-15

    Welcome to the Eleventh Annual C.A.S.I.S. Workshop, a yearly event at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, presented by the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences, or CASIS, and sponsored by the LLNL Engineering Directorate. Every November for the last 10 years we have convened a diverse set of engineering and scientific talent to share their work in signal processing, imaging, communications, controls, along with associated fields of mathematics, statistics, and computing sciences. This year is no exception, with sessions in Adaptive Optics, Applied Imaging, Scientific Data Mining, Electromagnetic Image and Signal Processing, Applied Signal Processing, National Ignition Facility (NIF) Imaging, and Nondestructive Characterization.

  18. SemVisM: semantic visualizer for medical image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landaeta, Luis; La Cruz, Alexandra; Baranya, Alexander; Vidal, María.-Esther

    2015-01-01

    SemVisM is a toolbox that combines medical informatics and computer graphics tools for reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts/terms in the images. This paper presents a novel strategy for visualizing medical data annotated semantically, combining rendering techniques, and segmentation algorithms. SemVisM comprises two main components: i) AMORE (A Modest vOlume REgister) to handle input data (RAW, DAT or DICOM) and to initially annotate the images using terms defined on medical ontologies (e.g., MesH, FMA or RadLex), and ii) VOLPROB (VOlume PRObability Builder) for generating the annotated volumetric data containing the classified voxels that belong to a particular tissue. SemVisM is built on top of the semantic visualizer ANISE.1

  19. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  20. Medical Image Compression Using a New Subband Coding Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossentini, Faouzi; Smith, Mark J. T.; Scales, Allen; Tucker, Doug

    1995-01-01

    A recently introduced iterative complexity- and entropy-constrained subband quantization design algorithm is generalized and applied to medical image compression. In particular, the corresponding subband coder is used to encode Computed Tomography (CT) axial slice head images, where statistical dependencies between neighboring image subbands are exploited. Inter-slice conditioning is also employed for further improvements in compression performance. The subband coder features many advantages such as relatively low complexity and operation over a very wide range of bit rates. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the new subband coder is relatively good, both objectively and subjectively.

  1. Ultrasound introscopic image quantitative characteristics for medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselets, Mikhail K.; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Gridko, Alexander N.; Tcheban, Anatoliy K.

    1993-09-01

    The results on computer aided extraction of quantitative characteristics (QC) of ultrasound introscopic images for medical diagnosis are presented. Thyroid gland (TG) images of Chernobil Accident sufferers are considered. It is shown that TG diseases can be associated with some values of selected QCs of random echo distribution in the image. The possibility of these QCs usage for TG diseases recognition in accordance with calculated values is analyzed. The role of speckle noise elimination in the solution of the problem on TG diagnosis is considered too.

  2. Web tools for effective retrieval, visualization, and evaluation of cardiology medical images and records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseroli, Marco; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2000-12-01

    To provide easy retrieval, integration and evaluation of multimodal cardiology images and data in a web browser environment, distributed application technologies and java programming were used to implement a client-server architecture based on software agents. The server side manages secure connections and queries to heterogeneous remote databases and file systems containing patient personal and clinical data. The client side is a Java applet running in a web browser and providing a friendly medical user interface to perform queries on patient and medical test dat and integrate and visualize properly the various query results. A set of tools based on Java Advanced Imaging API enables to process and analyze the retrieved cardiology images, and quantify their features in different regions of interest. The platform-independence Java technology makes the developed prototype easy to be managed in a centralized form and provided in each site where an intranet or internet connection can be located. Giving the healthcare providers effective tools for querying, visualizing and evaluating comprehensively cardiology medical images and records in all locations where they can need them- i.e. emergency, operating theaters, ward, or even outpatient clinics- the developed prototype represents an important aid in providing more efficient diagnoses and medical treatments.

  3. Open source tools for standardized privacy protection of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Chung-Yueh; Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Kao, Tsair; Hein, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In addition to the primary care context, medical images are often useful for research projects and community healthcare networks, so-called "secondary use". Patient privacy becomes an issue in such scenarios since the disclosure of personal health information (PHI) has to be prevented in a sharing environment. In general, most PHIs should be completely removed from the images according to the respective privacy regulations, but some basic and alleviated data is usually required for accurate image interpretation. Our objective is to utilize and enhance these specifications in order to provide reliable software implementations for de- and re-identification of medical images suitable for online and offline delivery. DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images are de-identified by replacing PHI-specific information with values still being reasonable for imaging diagnosis and patient indexing. In this paper, this approach is evaluated based on a prototype implementation built on top of the open source framework DCMTK (DICOM Toolkit) utilizing standardized de- and re-identification mechanisms. A set of tools has been developed for DICOM de-identification that meets privacy requirements of an offline and online sharing environment and fully relies on standard-based methods.

  4. Multimodal Medical Image Fusion by Adaptive Manifold Filter.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Liu, Shuaiqi; Zhuang, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. The modified local contrast information is proposed to fuse multimodal medical images. Firstly, the adaptive manifold filter is introduced into filtering source images as the low-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Secondly, the modified spatial frequency of the source images is adopted as the high-frequency part in the modified local contrast. Finally, the pixel with larger modified local contrast is selected into the fused image. The presented scheme outperforms the guided filter method in spatial domain, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform-based method, nonsubsampled contourlet transform-based method, and four classic fusion methods in terms of visual quality. Furthermore, the mutual information values by the presented method are averagely 55%, 41%, and 62% higher than the three methods and those values of edge based similarity measure by the presented method are averagely 13%, 33%, and 14% higher than the three methods for the six pairs of source images. PMID:26664494

  5. Imaging morphogenesis: technological advances and biological insights.

    PubMed

    Keller, Philipp J

    2013-06-01

    Morphogenesis, the development of the shape of an organism, is a dynamic process on a multitude of scales, from fast subcellular rearrangements and cell movements to slow structural changes at the whole-organism level. Live-imaging approaches based on light microscopy reveal the intricate dynamics of this process and are thus indispensable for investigating the underlying mechanisms. This Review discusses emerging imaging techniques that can record morphogenesis at temporal scales from seconds to days and at spatial scales from hundreds of nanometers to several millimeters. To unlock their full potential, these methods need to be matched with new computational approaches and physical models that help convert highly complex image data sets into biological insights.

  6. Advanced enhancement techniques for digitized images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, V. T.; Merenyi, R. C.; Carlotto, M. J.; Heller, W. G.

    Computer image enhancement of digitized X-ray and conventional photographs has been employed to reveal anomalies in aerospace hardware. Signal processing of these images included use of specially-developed filters to sharpen detail without sacrificing radiographic information, application of local contrast stretch and histogram equalization algorithms to display structure in low-contrast areas and employment of other unique digital processing methods. Edge detection, normally complicated by poor spatial resolution, limited contrast and recording media noise, was performed as a post-processing operation via a difference-of-Gaussians method and a least squares fitting procedures. In this manner, multi-image signal processing allowed for the precise measurement (to within 0.02 inches, rms) of the Inertial Upper Stage nozzle nosecap motion during a static test firing as well as identifying potential problems in the Solid Rocket Booster parachute deployment.

  7. Advances in noninvasive imaging of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Menge, Tyler D; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and its incidence has risen sharply in recent decades. Early detection of disease is critical for improving patient outcomes. Any pigmented lesion that is clinically concerning must be removed by biopsy for morphologic investigation on histology. However, biopsies are invasive and can cause significant morbidity, and their accuracy in detecting melanoma may be limited by sampling error. The advent of noninvasive imaging devices has allowed for assessment of intact skin, thereby minimizing the need for biopsy; and these technologies are increasingly being used in the diagnosis and management of melanoma. Reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, ultrasonography, and multispectral imaging are noninvasive imaging techniques that have emerged as diagnostic aids to physical exam and/or conventional dermoscopy. This review summarizes the current knowledge about these techniques and discusses their practical applications and limitations. PMID:26963113

  8. Advanced imaging of osseous maxillary clefts.

    PubMed

    Boyne, P J; Christiansen, E L; Thompson, J R

    1993-01-01

    A computed tomographic (CT) technique to establish precise two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) images of the osseous defects of cleft palates is presented and illustrated by two case studies. Prospective soft tissue algorithms and bone detail imaging was made possible by a retrospective program, a specific software program and vertical reformatting technique leading to 3-D image reconstruction. The two cases illustrate the flexibility of the CT program in accurately providing morphometric and bone density data on the location and size of the osseous defects involved in the cleft. Not every cleft palate patient is a candidate for the procedures outlined; however, the diagnosis of and treatment planning for patients presenting with bilateral or extensive osseous clefting can be more accurate.

  9. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the `Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1—monochromatic and white—to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  10. A review of medical image watermarking requirements for teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Teleradiology allows medical images to be transmitted over electronic networks for clinical interpretation and for improved healthcare access, delivery, and standards. Although such remote transmission of the images is raising various new and complex legal and ethical issues, including image retention and fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc., considerations of the security measures used in teleradiology remain unchanged. Addressing this problem naturally warrants investigations on the security measures for their relative functional limitations and for the scope of considering them further. In this paper, starting with various security and privacy standards, the security requirements of medical images as well as expected threats in teleradiology are reviewed. This will make it possible to determine the limitations of the conventional measures used against the expected threats. Furthermore, we thoroughly study the utilization of digital watermarking for teleradiology. Following the key attributes and roles of various watermarking parameters, justification for watermarking over conventional security measures is made in terms of their various objectives, properties, and requirements. We also outline the main objectives of medical image watermarking for teleradiology and provide recommendations on suitable watermarking techniques and their characterization. Finally, concluding remarks and directions for future research are presented.

  11. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-23

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the 'Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1 - monochromatic and white - to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  12. Differentiation applied to lossless compression of medical images.

    PubMed

    Nijim, Y W; Stearns, S D; Mikhael, W B

    1996-01-01

    Lossless compression of medical images using a proposed differentiation technique is explored. This scheme is based on computing weighted differences between neighboring pixel values. The performance of the proposed approach, for the lossless compression of magnetic resonance (MR) images and ultrasonic images, is evaluated and compared with the lossless linear predictor and the lossless Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard. The residue sequence of these techniques is coded using arithmetic coding. The proposed scheme yields compression measures, in terms of bits per pixel, that are comparable with or lower than those obtained using the linear predictor and the lossless JPEG standard, respectively, with 8-b medical images. The advantages of the differentiation technique presented here over the linear predictor are: 1) the coefficients of the differentiator are known by the encoder and the decoder, which eliminates the need to compute or encode these coefficients, and 21 the computational complexity is greatly reduced. These advantages are particularly attractive in real time processing for compressing and decompressing medical images. PMID:18215936

  13. Gadgetron: an open source framework for medical image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Schacht; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2013-06-01

    This work presents a new open source framework for medical image reconstruction called the "Gadgetron." The framework implements a flexible system for creating streaming data processing pipelines where data pass through a series of modules or "Gadgets" from raw data to reconstructed images. The data processing pipeline is configured dynamically at run-time based on an extensible markup language configuration description. The framework promotes reuse and sharing of reconstruction modules and new Gadgets can be added to the Gadgetron framework through a plugin-like architecture without recompiling the basic framework infrastructure. Gadgets are typically implemented in C/C++, but the framework includes wrapper Gadgets that allow the user to implement new modules in the Python scripting language for rapid prototyping. In addition to the streaming framework infrastructure, the Gadgetron comes with a set of dedicated toolboxes in shared libraries for medical image reconstruction. This includes generic toolboxes for data-parallel (e.g., GPU-based) execution of compute-intensive components. The basic framework architecture is independent of medical imaging modality, but this article focuses on its application to Cartesian and non-Cartesian parallel magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Advanced optical imaging techniques for neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy.

  15. Advanced Optical Imaging Techniques for Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yicong; Christensen, Ryan; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, developmental neuroscience has been transformed by the widespread application of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Even greater progress is imminent, as recent innovations in microscopy now enable imaging with increased depth, speed, and spatial resolution; reduced phototoxicity; and in some cases without external fluorescent probes. We discuss these new techniques and emphasize their dramatic impact on neurobiology, including the ability to image neurons at depths exceeding 1 mm, to observe neurodevelopment noninvasively throughout embryogenesis, and to visualize neuronal processes or structures that were previously too small or too difficult to target with conventional microscopy. PMID:23831260

  16. A Routing Mechanism for Cloud Outsourcing of Medical Imaging Repositories.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Tiago Marques; Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Bastião Silva, Luís A; Costa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Web-based technologies have been increasingly used in picture archive and communication systems (PACS), in services related to storage, distribution, and visualization of medical images. Nowadays, many healthcare institutions are outsourcing their repositories to the cloud. However, managing communications between multiple geo-distributed locations is still challenging due to the complexity of dealing with huge volumes of data and bandwidth requirements. Moreover, standard methodologies still do not take full advantage of outsourced archives, namely because their integration with other in-house solutions is troublesome. In order to improve the performance of distributed medical imaging networks, a smart routing mechanism was developed. This includes an innovative cache system based on splitting and dynamic management of digital imaging and communications in medicine objects. The proposed solution was successfully deployed in a regional PACS archive. The results obtained proved that it is better than conventional approaches, as it reduces remote access latency and also the required cache storage space.

  17. Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.

  18. Advances in Pediatric Small Bowel Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tom K

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances for visualizing the small bowel have significantly grown over the past few decades. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy has come to the forefront of these innovations, and has been found to be safe and effective in children with small bowel ailments. The expanding body of research into balloon-assisted enteroscopy will continue to refine the current knowledge base of this technique, along with a growing assessment of the long-term benefits of such interventions. PMID:26616902

  19. On the Opportunities and Challenges in Microwave Medical Sensing and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rohit; Zhou, Huiyuan; Balasingham, Ilangko; Narayanan, Ram M

    2015-07-01

    Widely used medical imaging systems in clinics currently rely on X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. The aforementioned technologies provide clinical data with a variety of resolution, implementation cost, and use complexity, where some of them rely on ionizing radiation. Microwave sensing and imaging (MSI) is an alternative method based on nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) signals operating over the frequency range covering hundreds of megahertz to tens of gigahertz. The advantages of using EM signals are low health risk, low cost implementation, low operational cost, ease of use, and user friendliness. Advancements made in microelectronics, material science, and embedded systems make it possible for miniaturization and integration into portable, handheld, mobile devices with networking capability. MSI has been used for tumor detection, blood clot/stroke detection, heart imaging, bone imaging, cancer detection, and localization of in-body RF sources. The fundamental notion of MSI is that it exploits the tissue-dependent dielectric contrast to reconstruct signals and images using radar-based or tomographic imaging techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the active MSI for various medical applications, for which the motivation, challenges, possible solutions, and future directions are discussed.

  20. On the Opportunities and Challenges in Microwave Medical Sensing and Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Rohit; Zhou, Huiyuan; Balasingham, Ilangko; Narayanan, Ram M

    2015-07-01

    Widely used medical imaging systems in clinics currently rely on X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. The aforementioned technologies provide clinical data with a variety of resolution, implementation cost, and use complexity, where some of them rely on ionizing radiation. Microwave sensing and imaging (MSI) is an alternative method based on nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) signals operating over the frequency range covering hundreds of megahertz to tens of gigahertz. The advantages of using EM signals are low health risk, low cost implementation, low operational cost, ease of use, and user friendliness. Advancements made in microelectronics, material science, and embedded systems make it possible for miniaturization and integration into portable, handheld, mobile devices with networking capability. MSI has been used for tumor detection, blood clot/stroke detection, heart imaging, bone imaging, cancer detection, and localization of in-body RF sources. The fundamental notion of MSI is that it exploits the tissue-dependent dielectric contrast to reconstruct signals and images using radar-based or tomographic imaging techniques. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the active MSI for various medical applications, for which the motivation, challenges, possible solutions, and future directions are discussed. PMID:25993698

  1. Recent advances in breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Newman, J

    1999-01-01

    Mammography is the best technique currently available for early detection of breast cancer, but it has limitations. Several new techniques are under investigation that may provide valuable complementary images. This article discusses some of the most promising adjuncts to film-screen mammography, including digital mammography, ultrasound of the breast, breast MR, scintimammography and sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy.

  2. Advances in Lymphatic Imaging and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Majeti, Bharat K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Laird, Forrest M.

    2011-09-10

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death after heart disease in the US. While metastasized cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon are incurable, before their distant spread, these diseases will have invaded the lymphatic system as a first step in their progression. Hence, proper evaluation of the disease state of the lymphatics which drain a tumor site is crucial to staging and the formation of a treatment plan. Current lymphatic imaging modalities with visible dyes and radionucleotide tracers offer limited sensitivity and poor resolution; however, newer tools using nanocarriers, quantum dots, and magnetic resonance imaging promise to vastly improve the staging of lymphatic spread without needless biopsies. Concurrent with the improvement of lymphatic imaging agents, has been the development of drug carriers that can localize chemotherapy to the lymphatic system, thus improving the treatment of localized disease while minimizing the exposure of healthy organs to cytotoxic drugs. This review will focus on polymeric systems that have been developed for imaging and drug delivery to the lymph system, how these new devices improve upon current technologies, and where further improvement is needed.

  3. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  4. INVITED REVIEW--IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-01-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms. PMID:26777133

  5. INVITED REVIEW--IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-01-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms.

  6. Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Donald D.; Ciesla, Craig M.; Corchia, Alessandra; Egusa, S.; Pepper, Michael; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Bezant, C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Clothier, R.; Khammo, N.

    1999-09-01

    An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of possible medical applications of TPI and demonstrated that TPI images show good contrast between different animal tissue types. Moreover, the diagnostic power of TPI has been elicidated by the spectra available at each pixel in the image, which are markedly different for the different tissue types. This suggests that the spectral information inherent in TPI might be used to identify the type of soft and hard tissue at each pixel in an image and provide other diagnostic information not afforded by conventional imagin techniques. Preliminary TPI studies of pork skin show that 3D tomographic imaging of the skin surface and thickness is possible, and data from experiments on models of the human dermis are presented which demonstrate that different constituents of skin have different refractive indices. Lastly, we present the first THz image of human tissue, namely an extracted tooth. The time of flight of THz pulses through the tooth allows the thickness of the enamel to be determined, and is used to create an image showing the enamel and dentine regions. Absorption of THz pulses in the tooth allows the pulp cavity region to be identified. Initial evidence strongly suggests that TPI my be used to provide valuable diagnostic information pertaining to the enamel, dentine, and the pump cavity.

  7. A Review of Significant Advances in Neutron Imaging from Conception to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenizer, J. S.

    This review summarizes the history of neutron imaging with a focus on the significant events and technical advancements in neutron imaging methods, from the first radiograph to more recent imaging methods. A timeline is presented to illustrate the key accomplishments that advanced the neutron imaging technique. Only three years after the discovery of the neutron by English physicist James Chadwick in 1932, neutron imaging began with the work of Hartmut Kallmann and Ernst Kuhn in Berlin, Germany, from 1935-1944. Kallmann and Kuhn were awarded a joint US Patent issued in January 1940. Little progress was made until the mid-1950's when Thewlis utilized a neutron beam from the BEPO reactor at Harwell, marking the beginning of the application of neutron imaging to practical applications. As the film method was improved, imaging moved from a qualitative to a quantitative technique, with applications in industry and in nuclear fuels. Standards were developed to aid in the quantification of the neutron images and the facility's capabilities. The introduction of dynamic neutron imaging (initially called real-time neutron radiography and neutron television) in the late 1970's opened the door to new opportunities and new challenges. As the electronic imaging matured, the introduction of the CCD imaging devices and solid-state light intensifiers helped address some of these challenges. Development of improved imaging devices for the medical community has had a major impact on neutron imaging. Additionally, amorphous silicon sensors provided improvements in temporal resolution, while providing a reasonably large imaging area. The development of new neutron imaging sensors and the development of new neutron imaging techniques in the past decade has advanced the technique's ability to provide insight and understanding of problems that other non-destructive techniques could not provide. This rapid increase in capability and application would not have been possible without the

  8. Radiation oncology physicists will need to better understand medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, X Allen; Hendee, William R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging is affecting radiation oncology at a dramatically advancing pace and scale and is likely to create a transformation to individualized, biologically conformal radiation therapy. Deploying and improving imaging technologies and ensuring their correct uses in treatment planning and delivery are the responsibilities of radiation oncology physicists. The potential magnitude of errors arising from the incorrect use of imaging may be far greater than that resulting from typical errors in dose calibration. A major effort is required for radiation oncology physicists to raise the quality assurance of image guidance to a level comparable with that achieved in the maintenance of dosimetric performance. Most radiation oncology physicists lack adequate knowledge to assume this emerging responsibility. Their knowledge of imaging must be enhanced, in most cases through on-the-job training and self-learning. Effective learning strategies include routine interactions with diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine physicists and physicians and the use of educational opportunities provided by professional organizations and vendors. PMID:17412223

  9. Mimos: a description framework for exchanging medical image processing results.

    PubMed

    Aubry, F; Todd-Pokropek, A

    2001-01-01

    Image processing plays increasingly important role in using medical images, both for routine as for research purposes, due to the growing interest in functional studies (PET, MR, etc.). Unfortunately, there exist nearly as many formats for data and results coding as image processing procedures. If Dicom presently supports a kind of structured reporting of image studies, it does not take into account the semantics of the image handling domain. This can impede the exchange and the interpretation of processing results. In order to facilitate the use of image processing results, we have designed a framework for representing image processing results. This framework, whose principle is called an "ontology" in the literature, extends the formalism, which we have used in our previous work on image databases. It permits a systematic representation of the entities and information involved in the processing, that is not only input data, command parameters, output data, but also software and hardware descriptions, and relationships between these different parameters. Consequently, this framework allows the building of standardized documents, which can be exchanged amongst various users. As the framework is based on a formal grammar, documents can be encoded using XML. They are thus compatible with Internet / Intranet technology. In this paper, the main characteristics of the framework are presented and illustrated. We also discuss implementation issues in order to be able to integrate documents, and correlated images, handling these with a classical Web browser.

  10. Total variation minimization-based multimodality medical image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuelin; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge; Mili, Lamine

    2014-09-01

    Since its recent inception, simultaneous image reconstruction for multimodality fusion has received a great deal of attention due to its superior imaging performance. On the other hand, the compressed sensing (CS)-based image reconstruction methods have undergone a rapid development because of their ability to significantly reduce the amount of raw data. In this work, we combine computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single CS-based reconstruction framework. From a theoretical viewpoint, the CS-based reconstruction methods require prior sparsity knowledge to perform reconstruction. In addition to the conventional data fidelity term, the multimodality imaging information is utilized to improve the reconstruction quality. Prior information in this context is that most of the medical images can be approximated as piecewise constant model, and the discrete gradient transform (DGT), whose norm is the total variation (TV), can serve as a sparse representation. More importantly, the multimodality images from the same object must share structural similarity, which can be captured by DGT. The prior information on similar distributions from the sparse DGTs is employed to improve the CT and MRI image quality synergistically for a CT-MRI scanner platform. Numerical simulation with undersampled CT and MRI datasets is conducted to demonstrate the merits of the proposed hybrid image reconstruction approach. Our preliminary results confirm that the proposed method outperforms the conventional CT and MRI reconstructions when they are applied separately.

  11. Improving medical imaging report turnaround times: the role of technolgy.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Luis O; Stewart, Howard

    2005-01-01

    At Southern Ohio Medical Center (SOMC), the medical imaging department and the radiologists expressed a strong desire to improve workflow. The improved workflow was a major motivating factor toward implementing a new RIS and speech recognition technology. The need to monitor workflow in a real-time fashion and to evaluate productivity and resources necessitated that a new solution be found. A decision was made to roll out both the new RIS product and speech recognition to maximize the resources to interface and implement the new solution. Prior to implementation of the new RIS, the medical imaging department operated in a conventional electronic-order-entry to paper request manner. The paper request followed the study through exam completion to the radiologist. SOMC entered into a contract with its PACS vendor to participate in beta testing and clinical trials for a new RIS product for the US market. Backup plans were created in the event the product failed to function as planned--either during the beta testing period or during clinical trails. The last piece of the technology puzzle to improve report turnaround time was voice recognition technology. Speech recognition enhanced the RIS technology as soon as it was implemented. The results show that the project has been a success. The new RIS, combined with speech recognition and the PACS, makes for a very effective solution to patient, exam, and results management in the medical imaging department.

  12. Decision making on the adoption of advanced medical technology in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lan, C F

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses both the current interest in and approaches to the employment of advanced medical technology in Taiwan. It describes the formation of the national policy, including funding, reimbursement, and regulatory processes, on adopting innovative and expensive medical technologies. Using the case of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), the key players who affect organizational decision making on the adoption and diffusion of medical technology have also been analyzed. Finally, it examines some of the salient features of medical technology adoption and assessment in Taiwan, and in other countries which depend heavily upon imported advanced medical technology. It is hoped that an understanding of Taiwan's attempts to use innovative medical technology wisely while incorporating the practice of technology assessment and appropriate policies, will assist other countries with similar conditions to gain maximal benefit from technological advancement.

  13. Predicting Semantic Descriptions from Medical Images with Convolutional Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Schlegl, Thomas; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Learning representative computational models from medical imaging data requires large training data sets. Often, voxel-level annotation is unfeasible for sufficient amounts of data. An alternative to manual annotation, is to use the enormous amount of knowledge encoded in imaging data and corresponding reports generated during clinical routine. Weakly supervised learning approaches can link volume-level labels to image content but suffer from the typical label distributions in medical imaging data where only a small part consists of clinically relevant abnormal structures. In this paper we propose to use a semantic representation of clinical reports as a learning target that is predicted from imaging data by a convolutional neural network. We demonstrate how we can learn accurate voxel-level classifiers based on weak volume-level semantic descriptions on a set of 157 optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes. We specifically show how semantic information increases classification accuracy for intraretinal cystoid fluid (IRC), subretinal fluid (SRF) and normal retinal tissue, and how the learning algorithm links semantic concepts to image content and geometry.

  14. A cryptologic based trust center for medical images.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate practical solutions that can integrate cryptographic techniques and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) to improve the security of medical images. DESIGN: The PACS at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center consolidate images and associated data from various scanners into a centralized data archive and transmit them to remote display stations for review and consultation purposes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the model of a digital trust center that integrates cryptographic algorithms and protocols seamlessly into such a digital radiology environment to improve the security of medical images. MEASUREMENTS: The timing performance of encryption, decryption, and transmission of the cryptographic protocols over 81 volumetric PACS datasets has been measured. Lossless data compression is also applied before the encryption. The transmission performance is measured against three types of networks of different bandwidths: narrow-band Integrated Services Digital Network, Ethernet, and OC-3c Asynchronous Transfer Mode. RESULTS: The proposed digital trust center provides a cryptosystem solution to protect the confidentiality and to determine the authenticity of digital images in hospitals. The results of this study indicate that diagnostic images such as x-rays and magnetic resonance images could be routinely encrypted in PACS. However, applying encryption in teleradiology and PACS is a tradeoff between communications performance and security measures. CONCLUSION: Many people are uncertain about how to integrate cryptographic algorithms coherently into existing operations of the clinical enterprise. This paper describes a centralized cryptosystem architecture to ensure image data authenticity in a digital radiology department. The system performance has been evaluated in a hospital-integrated PACS environment. PMID:8930857

  15. Advanced image analysis for the preservation of cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Fenella G.; Christens-Barry, William; Toth, Michael B.; Boydston, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    The Library of Congress' Preservation Research and Testing Division has established an advanced preservation studies scientific program for research and analysis of the diverse range of cultural heritage objects in its collection. Using this system, the Library is currently developing specialized integrated research methodologies for extending preservation analytical capacities through non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of cultural objects. The research program has revealed key information to support preservation specialists, scholars and other institutions. The approach requires close and ongoing collaboration between a range of scientific and cultural heritage personnel - imaging and preservation scientists, art historians, curators, conservators and technology analysts. A research project of the Pierre L'Enfant Plan of Washington DC, 1791 had been undertaken to implement and advance the image analysis capabilities of the imaging system. Innovative imaging options and analysis techniques allow greater processing and analysis capacities to establish the imaging technique as the first initial non-invasive analysis and documentation step in all cultural heritage analyses. Mapping spectral responses, organic and inorganic data, topography semi-microscopic imaging, and creating full spectrum images have greatly extended this capacity from a simple image capture technique. Linking hyperspectral data with other non-destructive analyses has further enhanced the research potential of this image analysis technique.

  16. Conventional and advanced imaging in neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Y; Sutton, I J; Ghadiri, M; Masters, L; Zivadinov, R; Barnett, M H

    2014-08-01

    Myelitis and optic neuritis are prototypic clinical presentations of both multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Once considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, is now known to have a discrete pathogenesis in which antibodies to the water channel, aquaporin 4, play a critical role. Timely differentiation of neuromyelitis optica from MS is imperative, determining both prognosis and treatment strategy. Early, aggressive immunosuppression is required to prevent the accrual of severe disability in neuromyelitis optica; conversely, MS-specific therapies may exacerbate the disease. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica requires the integration of clinical, MR imaging, and laboratory data, but current criteria are insensitive and exclude patients with limited clinical syndromes. Failure to recognize the expanding spectrum of cerebral MR imaging patterns associated with aquaporin 4 antibody seropositivity adds to diagnostic uncertainty in some patients. We present the state of the art in conventional and nonconventional MR imaging in neuromyelitis optica and review the place of neuroimaging in the diagnosis, management, and research of the condition.

  17. Recent advances in echocardiography: strain and strain rate imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirea, Oana; Duchenne, Jurgen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Deformation imaging by echocardiography is a well-established research tool which has been gaining interest from clinical cardiologists since the introduction of speckle tracking. Post-processing of echo images to analyze deformation has become readily available at the fingertips of the user. New parameters such as global longitudinal strain have been shown to provide added diagnostic value, and ongoing efforts of the imaging societies and industry aimed at harmonizing methods will improve the technique further. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of echocardiographic strain and strain rate imaging, and provides an overview on its current and potential future clinical applications. PMID:27158476

  18. Magnetic particle imaging: advancements and perspectives for real-time in vivo monitoring and image-guided therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico-Lansigan, Michele H.; Situ, Shu F.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that allows the direct quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. MPI's increased sensitivity and short image acquisition times foster the creation of tomographic images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The contrast and sensitivity of MPI is envisioned to transcend those of other medical imaging modalities presently used, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray scans, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances in the rapidly developing field of MPI. We begin with a basic introduction of the fundamentals of MPI, followed by some highlights over the past decade of the evolution of strategies and approaches used to improve this new imaging technique. We also examine the optimization of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used for imaging, underscoring the importance of size homogeneity and surface engineering. Finally, we present some future research directions for MPI, emphasizing the novel and exciting opportunities that it offers as an important tool for real-time in vivo monitoring. All these opportunities and capabilities that MPI presents are now seen as potential breakthrough innovations in timely disease diagnosis, implant monitoring, and image-guided therapeutics.

  19. Integrated multimedia timeline of medical images and data for thoracic oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Aberle, D R; Dionisio, J D; McNitt-Gray, M F; Taira, R K; Cárdenas, A F; Goldin, J G; Brown, K; Figlin, R A; Chu, W W

    1996-05-01

    A prototype multimedia medical database has been developed to provide image and textual data for thoracic oncology patients undergoing treatment of advanced malignancies. The database integrates image data from the hospital picture archiving and communication system with textual reports from the radiology information system, alphanumeric data contained in the hospital information system, and other electronic medical data. The database presents information in a timeline format and also contains visualization programs that permit the user to view and annotate radiographic measurements in tabular or graphic form. The database provides an efficient and intuitive display of the changing status of oncology patients. The ability to integrate, manage, and access relevant multimedia information may substantially enhance communication among distributed multidisciplinary health care providers and may ensure greater consistency and completeness of patient-related data.

  20. Multimodality medical image fusion: probabilistic quantification, segmentation, and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue J.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Xuan, Jian Hua; Zheng, Qinfen; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Multimodality medical image fusion is becoming increasingly important in clinical applications, which involves information processing, registration and visualization of interventional and/or diagnostic images obtained from different modalities. This work is to develop a multimodality medical image fusion technique through probabilistic quantification, segmentation, and registration, based on statistical data mapping, multiple feature correlation, and probabilistic mean ergodic theorems. The goal of image fusion is to geometrically align two or more image areas/volumes so that pixels/voxels representing the same underlying anatomical structure can be superimposed meaningfully. Three steps are involved. To accurately extract the regions of interest, we developed the model supported Bayesian relaxation labeling, and edge detection and region growing integrated algorithms to segment the images into objects. After identifying the shift-invariant features (i.e., edge and region information), we provided an accurate and robust registration technique which is based on matching multiple binary feature images through a site model based image re-projection. The image was initially segmented into specified number of regions. A rough contour can be obtained by delineating and merging some of the segmented regions. We applied region growing and morphological filtering to extract the contour and get rid of some disconnected residual pixels after segmentation. The matching algorithm is implemented as follows: (1) the centroids of PET/CT and MR images are computed and then translated to the center of both images. (2) preliminary registration is performed first to determine an initial range of scaling factors and rotations, and the MR image is then resampled according to the specified parameters. (3) the total binary difference of the corresponding binary maps in both images is calculated for the selected registration parameters, and the final registration is achieved when the

  1. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  2. Advanced Breast Imaging Availability by Screening Facility Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christoph I.; Bogart, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Obadina, Eniola T.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A.; Sprague, Brian L.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lehman, Constance D.; Onega, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objective To determine the relationship between screening mammography facility characteristics and on-site availability of advanced breast imaging services required for supplemental screening and the diagnostic evaluation of abnormal screening findings. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from all active imaging facilities across six regional registries of the National Cancer Institute-funded Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium offering screening mammography in calendar years 2011–2012 (n=105). We used generalized estimating equations regression models to identify associations between facility characteristics (e.g., academic affiliation, practice type) and availability of on-site advanced breast imaging (e.g., ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and image-guided biopsy services. Results Breast MRI was not available at any non-radiology or breast imaging only facilities. A combination of breast US, breast MRI, and imaging-guided breast biopsy services was available at 76.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 22.2% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p=0.0047) and 75.0% of facilities with academic affiliations compared to 29.0% of those without academic affiliations (p=0.04). Both supplemental screening breast ultrasound and screening breast MRI were available at 28.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 4.7% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p<0.01) and 25.0% of academic facilities compared to 8.5% of non-academic facilities (p=0.02). Conclusion Screening facility characteristics are strongly associated with the availability of on-site advanced breast imaging and image-guided biopsy service. Therefore, the type of imaging facility a woman attends for screening may have important implications on her timely access to supplemental screening and diagnostic breast imaging services. PMID:25851643

  3. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    PubMed

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  4. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  5. Radiation risks of medical imaging: separating fact from fantasy.

    PubMed

    Hendee, William R; O'Connor, Michael K

    2012-08-01

    During the past few years, several articles have appeared in the scientific literature that predict thousands of cancers and cancer deaths per year in the U.S. population caused by medical imaging procedures that use ionizing radiation. These predictions are computed by multiplying small and highly speculative risk factors by large populations of patients to yield impressive numbers of "cancer victims." The risk factors are acquired from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report without attention to the caveats about their use presented in the BEIR VII report. The principal data source for the risk factors is the ongoing study of survivors of the Japanese atomic explosions, a population of individuals that is greatly different from patients undergoing imaging procedures. For the purpose of risk estimation, doses to patients are converted to effective doses, even though the International Commission on Radiological Protection warns against the use of effective dose for epidemiologic studies or for estimation of individual risks. To extrapolate cancer incidence to doses of a few millisieverts from data greater than 100 mSv, a linear no-threshold model is used, even though substantial radiobiological and human exposure data imply that it is not an appropriate model. The predictions of cancers and cancer deaths are sensationalized in electronic and print public media, resulting in anxiety and fear about medical imaging among patients and parents. Not infrequently, patients are anxious about a scheduled imaging procedure because of articles they have read in the public media. In some cases, medical imaging examinations may be delayed or deferred as a consequence, resulting in a much greater risk to patients than that associated with imaging examinations. © RSNA, 2012.

  6. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

  7. The IRMA code for unique classification of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Thomas M.; Schubert, Henning; Keysers, Daniel; Kohnen, Michael; Wein, Berthold B.

    2003-05-01

    Modern communication standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) include non-image data for a standardized description of study, patient, or technical parameters. However, these tags are rather roughly structured, ambiguous, and often optional. In this paper, we present a mono-hierarchical multi-axial classification code for medical images and emphasize its advantages for content-based image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA). Our so called IRMA coding system consists of four axes with three to four positions, each in {0,...9,a,...,z}, where "0" denotes "unspecified" to determine the end of a path along an axis. In particular, the technical code (T) describes the imaging modality; the directional code (D) models body orientations; the anatomical code (A) refers to the body region examined; and the biological code (B) describes the biological system examined. Hence, the entire code results in a character string of not more than 13 characters (IRMA: TTTT - DDD - AAA - BBB). The code can be easily extended by introducing characters in certain code positions, e.g., if new modalities are introduced. In contrast to other approaches, mixtures of one- and two-literal code positions are avoided which simplifies automatic code processing. Furthermore, the IRMA code obviates ambiguities resulting from overlapping code elements within the same level. Although this code was originally designed to be used in the IRMA project, other use of it is welcome.

  8. Expectation-Driven Text Extraction from Medical Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Reul, Christian; Köberle, Philipp; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Puppe, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this study an expectation-driven approach is proposed to extract data stored as pixel structures in medical ultrasound images. Prior knowledge about certain properties like the position of the text and its background and foreground grayscale values is utilized. Several open source Java libraries are used to pre-process the image and extract the textual information. The results are presented in an Excel table together with the outcome of several consistency checks. After manually correcting potential errors, the outcome is automatically stored in the main database. The proposed system yielded excellent results, reaching an accuracy of 99.94% and reducing the necessary human effort to a minimum. PMID:27577478

  9. Holography and the virtual patient: the holographic medical image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kathryn; Erickson, Ronald R.; Webster, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Practical holographic systems utilizing the pulsed laser are finding potential applications in medicine. Exploiting both the hologram's true 3D image and holographic interferometry these techniques enhance the physician's vision beyond the 2D radiological imaging of even the best CT and MRI. The authors describe the use of pulsed laser holography as applied to the morphological specialties: anatomy, pathology, and surgery. The authors report on the Holographic Brain Anatomy Atlas for medical education; pathologic documentation with holography, and the use of holographic interferometry in surgical planning. The techniques are outlined and a discussion on the interpretation of holographic interferometry with living subjects is provided.

  10. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Oralkan, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure, and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2-D and 3-D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a MEMS technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21860542

  11. Running medical image analysis on GridFactory desktop grid.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko; Zhou, Xin; Rosendahl, Peter; Müller, Henning; Waananen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    At the Geneva University Hospitals work is in progress to establish a computing facility for medical image analysis, potentially using several hundreds of desktop computers. Typically, hospitals do not have a computer infrastructure dedicated to research, nor can the data leave the hospital network for the reasons of privacy. For this purpose, a novel batch system called GridFactory has been tested along-side with the well-known batch system Condor. GridFactory's main benefits, compared to other batch systems, lie in its virtualization support and firewall friendliness. The tests involved running visual feature extraction from 50,000 anonymized medical images on a small local grid of 20 desktop computers. A comparisons with a Condor based batch system in the same computers is then presented. The performance of GridFactory is found satisfactory. PMID:19593040

  12. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced Earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuperfman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced Earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from Earth Orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s.

  13. Advanced digital detectors for neutron imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2003-12-01

    Neutron interrogation provides unique information valuable for Nonproliferation & Materials Control and other important applications including medicine, airport security, protein crystallography, and corrosion detection. Neutrons probe deep inside massive objects to detect small defects and chemical composition, even through high atomic number materials such as lead. However, current detectors are bulky gas-filled tubes or scintillator/PM tubes, which severely limit many applications. Therefore this project was undertaken to develop new semiconductor radiation detection materials to develop the first direct digital imaging detectors for neutrons. The approach relied on new discovery and characterization of new solid-state sensor materials which convert neutrons directly to electronic signals via reactions BlO(n,a)Li7 and Li6(n,a)T.

  14. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  15. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  16. Adapting content-based image retrieval techniques for the semantic annotation of medical images.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashnil; Dyer, Shane; Kim, Jinman; Li, Changyang; Leong, Philip H W; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2016-04-01

    The automatic annotation of medical images is a prerequisite for building comprehensive semantic archives that can be used to enhance evidence-based diagnosis, physician education, and biomedical research. Annotation also has important applications in the automatic generation of structured radiology reports. Much of the prior research work has focused on annotating images with properties such as the modality of the image, or the biological system or body region being imaged. However, many challenges remain for the annotation of high-level semantic content in medical images (e.g., presence of calcification, vessel obstruction, etc.) due to the difficulty in discovering relationships and associations between low-level image features and high-level semantic concepts. This difficulty is further compounded by the lack of labelled training data. In this paper, we present a method for the automatic semantic annotation of medical images that leverages techniques from content-based image retrieval (CBIR). CBIR is a well-established image search technology that uses quantifiable low-level image features to represent the high-level semantic content depicted in those images. Our method extends CBIR techniques to identify or retrieve a collection of labelled images that have similar low-level features and then uses this collection to determine the best high-level semantic annotations. We demonstrate our annotation method using retrieval via weighted nearest-neighbour retrieval and multi-class classification to show that our approach is viable regardless of the underlying retrieval strategy. We experimentally compared our method with several well-established baseline techniques (classification and regression) and showed that our method achieved the highest accuracy in the annotation of liver computed tomography (CT) images.

  17. Advanced Medical Technology Capacity Building and the Medical Mentoring Event: A Unique Application of SOF Counterinsurgency Medical Engagement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Dan; Tate, Charmaine; Wey, Pierre-Francois; Batjom, Emmanuel; Nicholas, Thomas A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) is a military commander?s tool developed during the Vietnam War to gain access to and positively influence an indigenous population through the provision of direct medical care provided by military medical personnel, particularly in Counter Insurgency Operations (COIN). An alternative to MEDCAPs is the medical seminar (MEDSEM). The MEDSEM uses a Commander?s military medical assets to share culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population in order to create a sustainable training resource for the local population?s health system. At the heart of the MEDSEM is the ?train the trainer? concept whereby medical information is passed to indigenous trainers who then pass that information to an indigenous population. The MEDSEM achieves the Commander?s objectives of increasing access and influence with the population through a medical training venue rather than direct patient care. Previous MEDSEMS conducted in Afghanistan by military forces focused on improvement of rural healthcare through creation of Village Health Care Workers. This model can also be used to engage host nation (HN) medical personnel and improve medical treatment capabilities in population centers. The authors describe a modification of the MEDSEM, a Medical Mentorship (MM), conducted in November 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan, at the Afghan National Army (ANA) National Medical Hospital. This training was designed to improve intubation skills in Afghan National Army Hospitals by ANA medical providers, leave residual training capability, and build relationships within the institution that not only assist the institution, but can also be leveraged to foster Commanders? objectives, such as health and reconstruction initiatives and medical partnering for indigenous corps and medical forces described below. Methods We, the authors, developed a culturally appropriate endotracheal intubation training package including a Dari and

  18. Combining image features, case descriptions and UMLS concepts to improve retrieval of medical images.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Miguel E

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates a system, UBMedTIRS, for retrieval of medical images. The system uses a combination of image and text features as well as mapping of free text to UMLS concepts. UBMedTIRS combines three publicly available tools: a content-based image retrieval system (GIFT), a text retrieval system (SMART), and a tool for mapping free text to UMLS concepts (MetaMap). The system is evaluated using the ImageCLEFmed 2005 collection that contains approximately 50,000 medical images with associated text descriptions in English, French and German. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed approach yields significant improvements in retrieval performance. Our system performs 156% above the GIFT system and 42% above the text retrieval system.

  19. Technical advances of interventional fluoroscopy and flat panel image receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2008-11-01

    In the past decade, various radiation reducing devices and control circuits have been implemented on fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Because of the potential for lengthy fluoroscopic procedures in interventional cardiovascular angiography, these devices and control circuits have been developed for the cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional angiography suites. Additionally, fluoroscopic systems equipped with image intensifiers have benefited from technological advances in x-ray tube, x-ray generator, and spectral shaping filter technologies. The high heat capacity x-ray tube, the medium frequency inverter generator with high performance switching capability, and the patient dose reduction spectral shaping filter had already been implemented on the image intensified fluoroscopy systems. These three underlying technologies together with the automatic dose rate and image quality (ADRIQ) control logic allow patients undergoing cardiovascular angiography procedures to benefit from "lower patient dose" with "high image quality." While photoconductor (or phosphor plate) x-ray detectors and signal capture thin film transistor (TFT) and charge coupled device (CCD) arrays are analog in nature, the advent of the flat panel image receptor allowed for fluoroscopy procedures to become more streamlined. With the analog-to-digital converter built into the data lines, the flat panel image receptor appears to become a digital device. While the transition from image intensified fluoroscopy systems to flat panel image receptor fluoroscopy systems is part of the on-going "digitization of imaging," the value of a flat panel image receptor may have to be evaluated with respect to patient dose, image quality, and clinical application capabilities. The advantage of flat panel image receptors has yet to be fully explored. For instance, the flat panel image receptor has its disadvantages as compared to the image intensifiers; the cost of the equipment is probably the most

  20. ImageParser: a tool for finite element generation from three-dimensional medical images

    PubMed Central

    Yin, HM; Sun, LZ; Wang, G; Yamada, T; Wang, J; Vannier, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful mathematical tool to simulate and visualize the mechanical deformation of tissues and organs during medical examinations or interventions. It is yet a challenge to build up an FEM mesh directly from a volumetric image partially because the regions (or structures) of interest (ROIs) may be irregular and fuzzy. Methods A software package, ImageParser, is developed to generate an FEM mesh from 3-D tomographic medical images. This software uses a semi-automatic method to detect ROIs from the context of image including neighboring tissues and organs, completes segmentation of different tissues, and meshes the organ into elements. Results The ImageParser is shown to build up an FEM model for simulating the mechanical responses of the breast based on 3-D CT images. The breast is compressed by two plate paddles under an overall displacement as large as 20% of the initial distance between the paddles. The strain and tangential Young's modulus distributions are specified for the biomechanical analysis of breast tissues. Conclusion The ImageParser can successfully exact the geometry of ROIs from a complex medical image and generate the FEM mesh with customer-defined segmentation information. PMID:15461787

  1. Combined self-learning based single-image super-resolution and dual-tree complex wavelet transform denoising for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Ye, Xujiong; Slabaugh, Greg; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad; Firmin, David

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning based single-image super-resolution (SR) method, which is coupled with dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based denoising to better recover high-resolution (HR) medical images. Unlike previous methods, this self-learning based SR approach enables us to reconstruct HR medical images from a single low-resolution (LR) image without extra training on HR image datasets in advance. The relationships between the given image and its scaled down versions are modeled using support vector regression with sparse coding and dictionary learning, without explicitly assuming reoccurrence or self-similarity across image scales. In addition, we perform DTCWT based denoising to initialize the HR images at each scale instead of simple bicubic interpolation. We evaluate our method on a variety of medical images. Both quantitative and qualitative results show that the proposed approach outperforms bicubic interpolation and state-of-the-art single-image SR methods while effectively removing noise.

  2. Contemporary issues for experimental design in assessment of medical imaging and computer-assist systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert F.; Beiden, Sergey V.; Campbell, Gregory; Metz, Charles E.; Sacks, William M.

    2003-05-01

    The dialog among investigators in academia, industry, NIH, and the FDA has grown in recent years on topics of historic interest to attendees of these SPIE sub-conferences on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment. Several of the most visible issues in this regard have been the emergence of digital mammography and modalities for computer-assisted detection and diagnosis in breast and lung imaging. These issues appear to be only the "tip of the iceberg" foreshadowing a number of emerging advances in imaging technology. So it is timely to make some general remarks looking back and looking ahead at the landscape (or seascape). The advances have been facilitated and documented in several forums. The major role of the SPIE Medical Imaging Conferences i well-known to all of us. Many of us were also present at the Medical Image Perception Society and co-sponsored by CDRH and NCI in September of 2001 at Airlie House, VA. The workshops and discussions held at that conference addressed some critical contemporary issues related to how society - and in particular industry and FDA - approach the general assessment problem. A great deal of inspiration for these discussions was also drawn from several workshops in recent years sponsored by the Biomedical Imaging Program of the National Cancer Institute on these issues, in particular the problem of "The Moving Target" of imaging technology. Another critical phenomenon deserving our attention is the fact that the Fourth National Forum on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology was recently held in Bethesda, MD., February 6-7, 2003. These forums are presented by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). They are sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (NIH/FAES). These forums led to the development of the NCI

  3. Advanced Medical Technology Capacity Building and the Medical Mentoring Event: A Unique Application of SOF Counterinsurgency Medical Engagement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Dan; Tate, Charmaine; Wey, Pierre-Francois; Batjom, Emmanuel; Nicholas, Thomas A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    Background The Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) is a military commander?s tool developed during the Vietnam War to gain access to and positively influence an indigenous population through the provision of direct medical care provided by military medical personnel, particularly in Counter Insurgency Operations (COIN). An alternative to MEDCAPs is the medical seminar (MEDSEM). The MEDSEM uses a Commander?s military medical assets to share culturally appropriate medical information with a defined indigenous population in order to create a sustainable training resource for the local population?s health system. At the heart of the MEDSEM is the ?train the trainer? concept whereby medical information is passed to indigenous trainers who then pass that information to an indigenous population. The MEDSEM achieves the Commander?s objectives of increasing access and influence with the population through a medical training venue rather than direct patient care. Previous MEDSEMS conducted in Afghanistan by military forces focused on improvement of rural healthcare through creation of Village Health Care Workers. This model can also be used to engage host nation (HN) medical personnel and improve medical treatment capabilities in population centers. The authors describe a modification of the MEDSEM, a Medical Mentorship (MM), conducted in November 2010 in Kabul, Afghanistan, at the Afghan National Army (ANA) National Medical Hospital. This training was designed to improve intubation skills in Afghan National Army Hospitals by ANA medical providers, leave residual training capability, and build relationships within the institution that not only assist the institution, but can also be leveraged to foster Commanders? objectives, such as health and reconstruction initiatives and medical partnering for indigenous corps and medical forces described below. Methods We, the authors, developed a culturally appropriate endotracheal intubation training package including a Dari and

  4. [Application of advanced engineering technologies to medical and rehabilitation fields].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Masakatsu

    2012-07-01

    The words "Japan syndrome" can now be heard increasingly through the media. Facing the approach of an elderly-dominated society, Robot Technology(RT)is expected to play an important role in Japan's medical, rehabilitation, and daily support fields. The industrial robot, which has already spread through the world with a great success in certain isolated environments by doing the work which is specialized for the thing with the hard known characteristic. By comparison, in the medical and rehabilitation fields, environments always change intricately, and individual characteristics differ from person to person. Furthermore, there are many times when a robot will be asked to directly interact with people. Moreover, the relation between a robot and a person turns into a relation which should involve contact flexibly according to a situation, and also turns into a relation which should avoid contact. In our group, we have so far developed practical rehabilitation and medical robots which can respond to difficulties such as environmental change and individual specificity. In developing rehabilitation robots, it is especially important to consider intuitive operability and individual differences. In addition, in developing medical robots, it is important to replace the experimental knowledge of surgeons to the mechanical quantitative properties. In this article, we introduce some practical examples of rehabilitation and medical robots interweaving several detailed technologies we have so far developed. PMID:22790039

  5. [Application of advanced engineering technologies to medical and rehabilitation fields].

    PubMed

    Fujie, Masakatsu

    2012-07-01

    The words "Japan syndrome" can now be heard increasingly through the media. Facing the approach of an elderly-dominated society, Robot Technology(RT)is expected to play an important role in Japan's medical, rehabilitation, and daily support fields. The industrial robot, which has already spread through the world with a great success in certain isolated environments by doing the work which is specialized for the thing with the hard known characteristic. By comparison, in the medical and rehabilitation fields, environments always change intricately, and individual characteristics differ from person to person. Furthermore, there are many times when a robot will be asked to directly interact with people. Moreover, the relation between a robot and a person turns into a relation which should involve contact flexibly according to a situation, and also turns into a relation which should avoid contact. In our group, we have so far developed practical rehabilitation and medical robots which can respond to difficulties such as environmental change and individual specificity. In developing rehabilitation robots, it is especially important to consider intuitive operability and individual differences. In addition, in developing medical robots, it is important to replace the experimental knowledge of surgeons to the mechanical quantitative properties. In this article, we introduce some practical examples of rehabilitation and medical robots interweaving several detailed technologies we have so far developed.

  6. The ADIS advanced data acquisition, imaging, and storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The design and development of Automated Ultrasonic Scanning Systems (AUSS) by McDonnell Aircraft Company has provided the background for the development of the ADIS advanced data acquisition, imaging, and storage system. The ADIS provides state-of-the-art ultrasonic data processing and imaging features which can be utilized in both laboratory and production line composite evaluation applications. System features, such as, real-time imaging, instantaneous electronic rescanning, multitasking capability, histograms, and cross-sections, provide the tools necessary to inspect and evaluate composite parts quickly and consistently.

  7. Recent Advances of Radionuclide-based Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuma, Soraya M.; Sultan, Deborah; Zhao, Yongfeng; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions, affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclide-based imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression. PMID:26369676

  8. AXIOM: Advanced X-Ray Imaging Of the Magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembay, S.; Branduardi-Rayrnont, G.; Eastwood, J. P.; Sibeck, D. G.; Abbey, A.; Brown, P.; Carter, J. A.; Carr, C. M.; Forsyth, C; Kataria, D.; Kemble, S.; Milan, S.; Owen, C. J.; Read, A. M.; Peacocke, L.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Collier, M. R.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Fraser, G.; Jones, G. H.; Lallement, R.; Lester, M.; Porter, F. S.

    2012-01-01

    AXIOM (Advanced X-ray Imaging Of the Magnetosphere) is a concept mission which aims to explain how the Earth's magnetosphere responds to the changing impact of the solar wind using a unique method never attempted before; performing wide-field soft X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the magnetosheath. magnetopause and bow shock at high spatial and temporal resolution. Global imaging of these regions is possible because of the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) process which produces elevated soft X-ray emission from the interaction of high charge-state solar wind ions with primarily neutral hydrogen in the Earth's exosphere and near-interplanetary space.

  9. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This concise review attempts to highlight the recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to all the different aspects of prostate cancer (PCa), and outlines future implications of MRI in the diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of PCa. PMID:21283654

  10. Integration of Medical Imaging Including Ultrasound into a New Clinical Anatomy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A.; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the…

  11. 76 FR 45578 - Request for Nominations for Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. FDA... requesting nominations for voting members on the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee (the...

  12. 76 FR 25357 - Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee; Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee... Administration (FDA) is announcing the ] reestablishment of the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee in the.... 101-635); and 21 CFR 14.40(b), FDA is announcing the reestablishment of the Medical Imaging...

  13. 76 FR 45402 - Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee; Re-Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Medical Imaging Drugs.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the re- establishment of the Medical Imaging... language for the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee in the Agency's list of standing...

  14. TH-E-18A-01: Developments in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Badal, A; Zbijewski, W; Bolch, W; Sechopoulos, I

    2014-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are widely used in medical physics research and are starting to be implemented in clinical applications such as radiation therapy planning systems. Monte Carlo simulations offer the capability to accurately estimate quantities of interest that are challenging to measure experimentally while taking into account the realistic anatomy of an individual patient. Traditionally, practical application of Monte Carlo simulation codes in diagnostic imaging was limited by the need for large computational resources or long execution times. However, recent advancements in high-performance computing hardware, combined with a new generation of Monte Carlo simulation algorithms and novel postprocessing methods, are allowing for the computation of relevant imaging parameters of interest such as patient organ doses and scatter-to-primaryratios in radiographic projections in just a few seconds using affordable computational resources. Programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), for example, provide a convenient, affordable platform for parallelized Monte Carlo executions that yield simulation times on the order of 10{sup 7} xray/ s. Even with GPU acceleration, however, Monte Carlo simulation times can be prohibitive for routine clinical practice. To reduce simulation times further, variance reduction techniques can be used to alter the probabilistic models underlying the x-ray tracking process, resulting in lower variance in the results without biasing the estimates. Other complementary strategies for further reductions in computation time are denoising of the Monte Carlo estimates and estimating (scoring) the quantity of interest at a sparse set of sampling locations (e.g. at a small number of detector pixels in a scatter simulation) followed by interpolation. Beyond reduction of the computational resources required for performing Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging, the use of accurate representations of patient anatomy is crucial to the

  15. Web-based platform for collaborative medical imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Leticia; Bento, Mariana P.; Costa, André L.; Souza, Roberto M.; Machado, Rubens C.; Lotufo, Roberto A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging research depends basically on the availability of large image collections, image processing and analysis algorithms, hardware and a multidisciplinary research team. It has to be reproducible, free of errors, fast, accessible through a large variety of devices spread around research centers and conducted simultaneously by a multidisciplinary team. Therefore, we propose a collaborative research environment, named Adessowiki, where tools and datasets are integrated and readily available in the Internet through a web browser. Moreover, processing history and all intermediate results are stored and displayed in automatic generated web pages for each object in the research project or clinical study. It requires no installation or configuration from the client side and offers centralized tools and specialized hardware resources, since processing takes place in the cloud.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging applied to medical diagnoses and food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Oscar; Gomez, Richard B.; Chainani, Arun; Roper, William E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility and performance of HSI systems for medical diagnosis as well as for food safety. Illness prevention and early disease detection are key elements for maintaining good health. Health care practitioners worldwide rely on innovative electronic devices to accurately identify disease. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that may provide a less invasive procedure than conventional diagnostic imaging. By analyzing reflected and fluorescent light applied to the human body, a HSI system serves as a diagnostic tool as well as a method for evaluating the effectiveness of applied therapies. The safe supply and production of food is also of paramount importance to public health illness prevention. Although this paper will focus on imaging and spectroscopy in food inspection procedures -- the detection of contaminated food sources -- to ensure food quality, HSI also shows promise in detecting pesticide levels in food production (agriculture.)

  17. Segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures from volumetric medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jonghyun; Park, Soonyoung; Cho, Wanhyun; Kim, Sunworl; Kim, Gisoo; Ahn, Gukdong; Lee, Myungeun; Lim, Junsik

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method that can extract and visualize anatomical structures from volumetric medical images by using a 3D level set segmentation method and a hybrid volume rendering technique. First, the segmentation using the level set method was conducted through a surface evolution framework based on the geometric variation principle. This approach addresses the topological changes in the deformable surface by using the geometric integral measures and level set theory. These integral measures contain a robust alignment term, an active region term, and a mean curvature term. By using the level set method with a new hybrid speed function derived from the geometric integral measures, the accurate deformable surface can be extracted from a volumetric medical data set. Second, we employed a hybrid volume rendering approach to visualize the extracted deformable structures. Our method combines indirect and direct volume rendering techniques. Segmented objects within the data set are rendered locally by surface rendering on an object-by-object basis. Globally, all the results of subsequent object rendering are obtained by direct volume rendering (DVR). Then the two rendered results are finally combined in a merging step. This is especially useful when inner structures should be visualized together with semi-transparent outer parts. This merging step is similar to the focus-plus-context approach known from information visualization. Finally, we verified the accuracy and robustness of the proposed segmentation method for various medical volume images. The volume rendering results of segmented 3D objects show that our proposed method can accurately extract and visualize human organs from various multimodality medical volume images.

  18. Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D. K.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

    2000-10-01

    Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

  19. Automated semantic indexing of imaging reports to support retrieval of medical images in the multimedia electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A; Mailhot, M

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes preliminary work evaluating automated semantic indexing of radiology imaging reports to represent images stored in the Image Engine multimedia medical record system at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors used the SAPHIRE indexing system to automatically identify important biomedical concepts within radiology reports and represent these concepts with terms from the 1998 edition of the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This automated UMLS indexing was then compared with manual UMLS indexing of the same reports. Human indexing identified appropriate UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 81% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. SAPHIRE automatically identified UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 64% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. The overall conclusions of this pilot study were that the UMLS metathesaurus provided adequate coverage of the majority of the important concepts contained within the radiology report test set and that SAPHIRE could automatically identify and translate almost two thirds of these concepts into appropriate UMLS descriptors. Further work is required to improve both the recall and precision of this automated concept extraction process. PMID:10805018

  20. Automated semantic indexing of imaging reports to support retrieval of medical images in the multimedia electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A; Mailhot, M

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes preliminary work evaluating automated semantic indexing of radiology imaging reports to represent images stored in the Image Engine multimedia medical record system at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors used the SAPHIRE indexing system to automatically identify important biomedical concepts within radiology reports and represent these concepts with terms from the 1998 edition of the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This automated UMLS indexing was then compared with manual UMLS indexing of the same reports. Human indexing identified appropriate UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 81% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. SAPHIRE automatically identified UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 64% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. The overall conclusions of this pilot study were that the UMLS metathesaurus provided adequate coverage of the majority of the important concepts contained within the radiology report test set and that SAPHIRE could automatically identify and translate almost two thirds of these concepts into appropriate UMLS descriptors. Further work is required to improve both the recall and precision of this automated concept extraction process.

  1. Proposal for DICOM multiframe medical image integrity and authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Luiz O M; Furuie, Sergio S

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to successfully achieve viable integrity and authenticity addition and verification of n-frame DICOM medical images using cryptographic mechanisms. The aim of this work is the enhancement of DICOM security measures, especially for multiframe images. Current approaches have limitations that should be properly addressed for improved security. The algorithm proposed in this work uses data encryption to provide integrity and authenticity, along with digital signature. Relevant header data and digital signature are used as inputs to cipher the image. Therefore, one can only retrieve the original data if and only if the images and the inputs are correct. The encryption process itself is a cascading scheme, where a frame is ciphered with data related to the previous frames, generating also additional data on image integrity and authenticity. Decryption is similar to encryption, featuring also the standard security verification of the image. The implementation was done in JAVA, and a performance evaluation was carried out comparing the speed of the algorithm with other existing approaches. The evaluation showed a good performance of the algorithm, which is an encouraging result to use it in a real environment.

  2. X-space MPI: magnetic nanoparticles for safe medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Patrick William; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Croft, Laura Rose; Kim, Tyson N; Krishnan, Kannan M; Schaffer, David V; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-07-24

    One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), to replace X-ray and CT iodinated angiography, especially for CKD patients. MPI uses magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents that are much safer than iodine for CKD patients. MPI already offers superb contrast and extraordinary sensitivity. The iron oxide nanoparticle tracers required for MPI are also used in MRI, and some are already approved for human use, but the contrast agents are far more effective at illuminating blood vessels when used in the MPI modality. We have recently developed a systems theoretic framework for MPI called x-space MPI, which has already dramatically improved the speed and robustness of MPI image reconstruction. X-space MPI has allowed us to optimize the hardware for fi ve MPI scanners. Moreover, x-space MPI provides a powerful framework for optimizing the size and magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used in MPI. Currently MPI nanoparticles have diameters in the 10-20 nanometer range, enabling millimeter-scale resolution in small animals. X-space MPI theory predicts that larger nanoparticles could enable up to 250 micrometer resolution imaging, which would represent a major breakthrough in safe imaging for CKD patients.

  3. Integrated ultrasound and gamma imaging probe for medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Polito, C.; Orlandi, C.; Fabbri, A.; De Vincentis, G.

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years, integrated multi-modality systems have been developed, aimed at improving the accuracy of medical diagnosis correlating information from different imaging techniques. In this contest, a novel dual modality probe is proposed, based on an ultrasound detector integrated with a small field of view single photon emission gamma camera. The probe, dedicated to visualize small organs or tissues located at short depths, performs dual modality images and permits to correlate morphological and functional information. The small field of view gamma camera consists of a continuous NaI:Tl scintillation crystal coupled with two multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. Both detectors were characterized in terms of position linearity and spatial resolution performances in order to guarantee the spatial correspondence between the ultrasound and the gamma images. Finally, dual-modality images of custom phantoms are obtained highlighting the good co-registration between ultrasound and gamma images, in terms of geometry and image processing, as a consequence of calibration procedures.

  4. Medical image compression by using three-dimensional wavelet transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Huang, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) medical image compression method for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) that uses a separable nonuniform 3-D wavelet transform. The separable wavelet transform employs one filter bank within two-dimensional (2-D) slices and then a second filter bank on the slice direction. CT and MR image sets normally have different resolutions within a slice and between slices. The pixel distances within a slice are normally less than 1 mm and the distance between slices can vary from 1 mm to 10 mm. To find the best filter bank in the slice direction, the authors use the various filter banks in the slice direction and compare the compression results. The results from the 12 selected MR and CT image sets at various slice thickness show that the Haar transform in the slice direction gives the optimum performance for most image sets, except for a CT image set which has 1 mm slice distance. Compared with 2-D wavelet compression, compression ratios of the 3-D method are about 70% higher for CT and 35% higher for MR image sets at a peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of 50 dB, In general, the smaller the slice distance, the better the 3-D compression performance. PMID:18215935

  5. Managing medical images and clinical information: InCor's experience.

    PubMed

    Furuie, Sergio S; Rebelo, Marina S; Moreno, Ramon A; Santos, Marcelo; Bertozzo, Nivaldo; Motta, Gustavo H M B; Pires, Fabio A; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2007-01-01

    Patients usually get medical assistance in several clinics and hospitals during their lifetime, archiving vital information in a dispersed way. Clearly, a proper patient care should take into account that information in order to check for incompatibilities, avoid unnecessary exams, and get relevant clinical history. The Heart Institute (InCor) of São Paulo, Brazil, has been committed to the goal of integrating all exams and clinical information within the institution and other hospitals. Since InCor is one of the six institutes of the University of São Paulo Medical School and each institute has its own information system, exchanging information among the institutes is also a very important aspect that has been considered. In the last few years, a system for transmission, archiving, retrieval, processing, and visualization of medical images integrated with a hospital information system has been successfully created and constitutes the InCor's electronic patient record (EPR). This work describes the experience in the effort to develop a functional and comprehensive EPR, which includes laboratory exams, images (static, dynamic, and three dimensional), clinical reports, documents, and even real-time vital signals. A security policy based on a contextual role-based access control model was implemented to regulate user's access to EPR. Currently, more than 10 TB of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images have been stored using the proposed architecture and the EPR stores daily more than 11 GB of integrated data. The proposed storage subsystem allows 6 months of visibility for rapid retrieval and more than two years for automatic retrieval using a jukebox. This paper addresses also a prototype for the integration of distributed and heterogeneous EPR.

  6. A telemedicine system for remote cooperative medical imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez, E J; del Pozo, F; Quiles, J A; Arredondo, M T; Rahms, H; Sanz, M; Cano, P

    1996-01-01

    Telemedicine is changing the classical form of health care delivery, by providing efficient solutions to an increasing number of new situations: here we consider those which require some type of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) between health care professionals located in different clinical sites. This paper presents the design and development of a telemedicine system for remote computer-supported cooperative medical imaging diagnosis. The main and novel component of our system is a new CSCW distributed architecture, comprised by a collaborative toolkit to add audioconferencing, telepointing, window sharing, user's coordination and application synchronization facilities, either to existing or new medical imaging diagnosis applications. In comparison with existing CSCW products, mainly based on centralized architectures, our distributed toolkit is specially designed for telemedicine applications: to allow different levels of sharing between participants, to improve user feedback in highly interactive user interfaces, and to optimize the required communication bandwidth in order to implement a telemedicine CSCW application on almost any telecommunication network. This telemedicine CSCW system has been applied to build a cooperative medical imaging diagnosis application, in which two doctors, located in different hospitals, need to achieve a cooperative diagnosis on haemodynamic studies using cardiac angiography images. The design of the graphical user interface for this kind of telemedicine CSCW systems, a critical component which conforms any telemedicine application, is also addressed with a new methodological approach, to assure the system usability and final user acceptance. The telemedicine cardiac angiography pilot has been implemented, tested and evaluated within the Research Project 'FEST-Framework for European Services in Telemedicine' funded by EU AIM Programme.

  7. [Adverse events and near misses in medical imaging].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Paulo; Rodrigues, Susana; Nelas, Luís; Neves, José; Alves, Vítor

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, caught the public attention documenting the magnitude of the medical error problem and the inherent patient safety: medical errors cause between 44,000 and 98,000 deaths annually in the United States. Currently, there is a growing interest in risk management on the medical field, particularly in the management of adverse events. It has been mainly due to the commitment of the World Health Organization, that this field of research has gained increasing the attention it deserves. Medical imaging is one of the high risk fields for the occurrence of errors, especially due to the multiplicity of techniques, the several stakeholders and the complexity of the whole circuit that involves the conduct of studies. Many of the methods used to analyze patient safety were adapted from risk-management techniques in high-risk industries (e.g. chemical, nuclear power and aviation industry). It is recognized that we can learn more from our mistakes than from our successes and the reporting systems in these industries have provided a valuable contribution to error prevention and risk management techniques. At a minimum, adverse events reporting systems can help to identify hazards and risks, providing important information on the system aspects that should be improved. However, the accumulation of potentially relevant data contributes little to healthcare services improvement. It is crucial to apply models to identify the underlying system failures, the root causes, and enhance the sharing of knowledge and experience. In this paper, it is suggested a solution to reduce adverse events, by identifying and eliminating the root causes that are in their source. How the Eindhoven Classification Model was adapted and extended specifically for the Medical Imaging field is also presented. The proposed approach includes the root causes analysis and introduces incomplete information concepts through

  8. Characterization of various tissue mimicking materials for medical ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenot, Audrey; Poepping, Tamie; Peters, Terry M.; Chen, Elvis C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Tissue mimicking materials are physical constructs exhibiting certain desired properties, which are used in machine calibration, medical imaging research, surgical planning, training, and simulation. For medical ultrasound, those specific properties include acoustic propagation speed and attenuation coefficient over the diagnostic frequency range. We investigated the acoustic characteristics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and isopropanol using a time-of-light technique, where a pulse was passed through a sample of known thickness contained in a water bath. The propagation speed in PVC is approximately 1400ms-1 depending on the exact chemical composition, with the attenuation coefficient ranging from 0:35 dB cm-1 at 1MHz to 10:57 dB cm-1 at 9 MHz. The propagation speed in PDMS is in the range of 1100ms-1, with an attenuation coefficient of 1:28 dB cm-1 at 1MHz to 21:22 dB cm-1 at 9 MHz. At room temperature (22 °C), a mixture of water-isopropanol (7:25% isopropanol by volume) exhibits a propagation speed of 1540ms-1, making it an excellent and inexpensive tissue-mimicking liquid for medical ultrasound imaging.

  9. Sensor-based architecture for medical imaging workflow analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Campos, Samuel; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2014-08-01

    The growing use of computer systems in medical institutions has been generating a tremendous quantity of data. While these data have a critical role in assisting physicians in the clinical practice, the information that can be extracted goes far beyond this utilization. This article proposes a platform capable of assembling multiple data sources within a medical imaging laboratory, through a network of intelligent sensors. The proposed integration framework follows a SOA hybrid architecture based on an information sensor network, capable of collecting information from several sources in medical imaging laboratories. Currently, the system supports three types of sensors: DICOM repository meta-data, network workflows and examination reports. Each sensor is responsible for converting unstructured information from data sources into a common format that will then be semantically indexed in the framework engine. The platform was deployed in the Cardiology department of a central hospital, allowing identification of processes' characteristics and users' behaviours that were unknown before the utilization of this solution. PMID:24957389

  10. Advanced Respite Care: Medically Challenged. Teacher Edition. Respite Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers to provide advanced-level training for care providers who want to work with individuals who are chronically or terminally ill and require specialized care. The curriculum contains seven units. Each of the instructional units includes some or all of these basic components: performance objectives,…

  11. Work-Family Balance and Academic Advancement in Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geri; Schwartz, Alan; Hart, Katherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines various options that a faculty member might exercise to achieve work-family balance in academic medicine and their consequences for academic advancement. Method: Three data sets were analyzed: an anonymous web-administered survey of part-time tenure track-eligible University of Illinois College of Medicine (UI-COM)…

  12. Fabrication and characterization of silica aerogel as synthetic tissues for medical imaging phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani

    2015-05-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in the field of healthcare industry both in clinical settings and in research and development. It is used in prevention, early detection of disease, in choosing the optimal treatment, during surgical interventions and monitoring of the treatment effects. Despite much advancement in the last few decades, rapid change on its technology development and variety of imaging parameters that differ with the manufacturer restrict its further development. Imaging phantom is a calibrating medium that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to evaluate, analyze and tune the performance of various imaging devices. A phantom used to evaluate an imaging device should respond in a similar manner to how human tissue and organs would act in that specific imaging modality. There has been many research on the phantom materials; however, there has been no attempt to study on the material that mimics the structure of lung or fibrous tissue. So with the need for development of gel with such structure, we tried to mimic this structure with aerogel. Silica aerogels have unique properties that include low density (0.003g/cm) and mesoporosity (pore size 2-50nm), with a high thermal insulation value (0.005W/mK) and high surface area (500-1200m-2/g).] In this study, we cross-linked with di-isocyanate, which is a group in polyurethane to covalently bond the polymer to the surface of silica aerogel to enhance the mechanical properties. By formation of covalent bonds, the structure can be reinforced by widening the interparticle necks while minimally reducing porosity.

  13. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  14. Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Clinical Development of Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa

    There has been significant progress in development of therapeutics for prevention and management of several disease areas in recent years, leading to increased average life expectancy, as well as of quality of life, globally. However, due to complexity of addressing a number of medical needs and financial burden of development of new class of therapeutics, there is a need for better tools for decision making and validation of efficacy and safety of new compounds. Numerous biological markers (biomarkers) have been proposed either as adjunct to current clinical endpoints or as surrogates. Imaging biomarkers are among rapidly increasing biomarkers, being examined to expedite effective and rational drug development. Clinical imaging often involves a complex set of multi-modality data sets that require rapid and objective analysis, independent of reviewer's bias and training. In this chapter, an overview of imaging biomarkers for drug development is offered, along with challenges that necessitate quantitative and objective image analysis. Examples of automated and semi-automated analysis approaches are provided, along with technical review of such methods. These examples include the use of 3D MRI for osteoarthritis, ultrasound vascular imaging, and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for oncology. Additionally, a brief overview of regulatory requirements is discussed. In conclusion, this chapter highlights key challenges and future directions in this area.

  15. Self-Aligning Manifolds for Matching Disparate Medical Image Datasets.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christian F; Gomez, Alberto; Koch, Lisa M; Housden, James R; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andy P

    2015-01-01

    Manifold alignment can be used to reduce the dimensionality of multiple medical image datasets into a single globally consistent low-dimensional space. This may be desirable in a wide variety of problems, from fusion of different imaging modalities for Alzheimer's disease classification to 4DMR reconstruction from 2D MR slices. Unfortunately, most existing manifold alignment techniques require either a set of prior correspondences or comparability between the datasets in high-dimensional space, which is often not possible. We propose a novel technique for the 'self-alignment' of manifolds (SAM) from multiple dissimilar imaging datasets without prior correspondences or inter-dataset image comparisons. We quantitatively evaluate the method on 4DMR reconstruction from realistic, synthetic sagittal 2D MR slices from 6 volunteers and real data from 4 volunteers. Additionally, we demonstrate the technique for the compounding of two free breathing 3D ultrasound views from one volunteer. The proposed method performs significantly better for 4DMR reconstruction than state-of-the-art image-based techniques. PMID:26221687

  16. In-vivo synthetic aperture flow imaging in medical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-07-01

    A new method for acquiring flow images using synthetic aperture techniques in medical ultrasound is presented. The new approach makes it possible to have a continuous acquisition of flow data throughout the whole image simultaneously, and this can significantly improve blood velocity estimation. Any type of filter can be used for discrimination between tissue and blood flow without initialization, and the number of lines used for velocity estimation is limited only by the nonstationarity of the flow. The new approach is investigated through both simulations and measurements. A flow rig is used for generating a parabolic laminar flow, and a research scanner is used for acquiring RF data from individual transducer elements. A reference profile is calculated from a mass flow meter. The parabolic velocity profile is estimated using the new approach with a relative standard deviation of 2.2% and a mean relative bias of 3.4% using 24 pulse emissions at a flow angle of 45 degrees. The 24 emissions can be used for making a full-color flow map image. An in-vivo image of flow in the carotid artery for a 29-year-old male also is presented. The full image is acquired using 24 emissions.

  17. [Research advances on medical genetics in China in 2015].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanfeng; Han, Yubo; Cao, Pengbo; Meng, Jinfeng; Li, Haibei; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Guangfu; Yang, Yong; Wu, Lingqian; Ping, Jie; Zhou, Gangqiao

    2016-05-01

    Steady progress has been achieved in the medical genetics in China in 2015, as numerous original researches were published in the world's leading journals. Chinese scientists have made significant contributions to various fields of medical genetics, such as pathogenicity of rare diseases, predisposition of common diseases, somatic mutations of cancer, new technologies and methods, disease-related microRNAs (miRNAs), disease-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), disease-related competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), disease-related RNA splicing and molecular evolution. In these fields, Chinese scientists have gradually formed the tendency, from common variants to rare variants, from single omic analyses to multipleomics integration analyses, from genetic discovery to functional confirmation, from basic research to clinical application. Meanwhile, the findings of Chinese scientists have been drawn great attentions of international peers. This review aims to provide an overall picture of the front in Chinese medical genetics, and highlights the important findings and their research strategy.

  18. Generative-Discriminative Basis Learning for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batmanghelich, Nematollah K.; Taskar, Ben; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dimensionality reduction method for classification in medical imaging. The goal is to transform very high-dimensional input (typically, millions of voxels) to a low-dimensional representation (small number of constructed features) that preserves discriminative signal and is clinically interpretable. We formulate the task as a constrained optimization problem that combines generative and discriminative objectives and show how to extend it to the semi-supervised learning (SSL) setting. We propose a novel large-scale algorithm to solve the resulting optimization problem. In the fully supervised case, we demonstrate accuracy rates that are better than or comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms on several datasets while producing a representation of the group difference that is consistent with prior clinical reports. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for SSL is evaluated with both benchmark and medical imaging datasets. In the benchmark datasets, the results are better than or comparable to the state-of-the-art methods for SSL. For evaluation of the SSL setting in medical datasets, we use images of subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is believed to be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as unlabeled data. AD subjects and Normal Control (NC) subjects are used as labeled data, and we try to predict conversion from MCI to AD on follow-up. The semi-supervised extension of this method not only improves the generalization accuracy for the labeled data (AD/NC) slightly but is also able to predict subjects which are likely to converge to AD. PMID:21791408

  19. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  20. Optimal grid point selection for improved nonrigid medical image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fookes, Clinton; Maeder, Anthony

    2004-05-01

    Non-rigid image registration is an essential tool required for overcoming the inherent local anatomical variations that exist between medical images acquired from different individuals or atlases, among others. This type of registration defines a deformation field that gives a translation or mapping for every pixel in the image. One popular local approach for estimating this deformation field, known as block matching, is where a grid of control points are defined on an image and are each taken as the centre of a small window. These windows are then translated in the second image to maximise a local similarity criterion. This generates two corresponding sets of control points for the two images, yielding a sparse deformation field. This sparse field can then be propagated to the entire image using well known methods such as the thin-plate spline warp or simple Gaussian convolution. Previous block matching procedures all utilise uniformly distributed grid points. This results in the generation of a sparse deformation field containing displacement estimates at uniformly spaced locations. This neglects to make use of the evidence that block matching results are dependent on the amount of local information content. That is, results are better in regions of high information when compared to regions of low information. Consequently, this paper presents a solution to this drawback by proposing the use of a Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) statistical procedure to optimally select grid points of interest. These grid points have a greater concentration in regions of high information and a lower concentration in regions of small information. Results show that non-rigid registration can by improved by using optimally selected grid points of interest.

  1. Medical X-ray Imaging by MIRRORCLE-6X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Hirai, T.; Yamada, H.; Morita, M.; Takaku, J.; Nitta, T.; Takahashi, M.; Murata, K.

    2007-03-01

    The portable synchrotron "MIRRORCLE-6X" provides hard x-rays with high brightness and wide energy spectrum ranging from 10-300 keV, emitted from a micron-sized source, with wide divergence of ± 85 mrad. Correspondingly, images obtained using the "MIRRORCLE-6X" showed significantly improved characteristics compared to conventional x-ray tube images, namely, improved refraction contrast, high resolution, and high magnification. Thus, the "MIRRORCLE-6X" is considered to be a novel medical imaging source. A magnified image of a chest phantom, wherein a urethane ball of 8 mm diameter was implanted as an imitation of a cancer, was obtained. The detector used was an imaging-plate (Fujifilm imaging plate, FCR ST-IV) with 150 μm pixel size. The phantom and the detector were respectively set at 50 cm and 540 cm from the x-ray source, so that the magnification was 10.8x. The x-ray source was a Cu 25 μm rod. The resolution was about 25 μm. Images with such high resolution and magnification cannot be obtained by conventional x-ray tubes with a source size of mm order. We can see the edges of costae and of the urethane ball at the back of the costae by the refraction contrast effect. Furthermore, we also see blood vessels surrounding the urethane ball. White spots, which are cross sections of blood vessels, were also observed. Therefore, observations of the shape of a cancer without surgical resection should be possible, and accurate diagnosis can be given using the "MIRRORCLE-6X".

  2. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent Herein, we advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  3. Medical Image Fusion Based on Rolling Guidance Filter and Spiking Cortical Model

    PubMed Central

    Shuaiqi, Liu; Jie, Zhao; Mingzhu, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. Although numerous medical image fusion methods have been proposed, most of these approaches are sensitive to the noise and usually lead to fusion image distortion, and image information loss. Furthermore, they lack universality when dealing with different kinds of medical images. In this paper, we propose a new medical image fusion to overcome the aforementioned issues of the existing methods. It is achieved by combining with rolling guidance filter (RGF) and spiking cortical model (SCM). Firstly, saliency of medical images can be captured by RGF. Secondly, a self-adaptive threshold of SCM is gained by utilizing the mean and variance of the source images. Finally, fused image can be gotten by SCM motivated by RGF coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to other current popular ones in both subjectively visual performance and objective criteria. PMID:26146512

  4. Advances in imaging explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, H; Bandak, A; Ling, G; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    In the past, direct physical evidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blast has been difficult to obtain through conventional imaging modalities such as T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Here, we review current progress in detecting evidence of brain injury from explosive blast using advanced imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and the metabolic imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where each targets different aspects of the pathology involved in mTBI. DTI provides a highly sensitive measure to detect primary changes in the microstructure of white matter tracts. fMRI enables the measurement of changes in brain activity in response to different stimuli or tasks. Remarkably, all three of these paradigms have found significant success in conventional mTBI where conventional clinical imaging frequently fails to provide definitive differences. Additionally, although used less frequently for conventional mTBI, PET has the potential to characterize a variety of neurotransmitter systems using target agents and will undoubtedly play a larger role, once the basic mechanisms of injury are better understood and techniques to identify the injury are more common. Finally, our MRSI imaging studies, although acquired at much lower spatial resolution, have demonstrated selectivity to different metabolic and physiologic processes, uncovering some of the most profound differences on an individual by individual basis, suggesting the potential for utility in the management of individual patients.

  5. Study warns of radiation risk in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A study of a million US patients suggests that some who undergo medical imaging could be exposed to more ionizing radiation than those who work with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The study, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine (361 849), implies that current exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray equipment as well as computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners could lead to tens of thousands of extra cases of cancer in the US alone.

  6. Detectors based on silicon photomultiplier arrays for medical imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Llosa, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Lacasta, C.; Oliver, J. F.; Stankova, V.; Solaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have experienced a fast development and are now employed in different research fields. The availability of 2D arrays that provide information of the interaction position in the detector has had a high interest for medical imaging. Continuous crystals combined with segmented photodetectors can provide higher efficiency than pixellated crystals and very high spatial resolution. The IRIS group at IFIC is working on the development of detector heads based on continuous crystals coupled to SiPM arrays for different applications, including a small animal PET scanner in collaboration with the Univ. of Pisa and INFN Pisa, and a Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (authors)

  7. Integrating patient digital photographs with medical imaging examinations.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Senthil; Bhatti, Pamela; Arepalli, Chesnal D; Salama, Mohamed; Provenzale, James M; Tridandapani, Srini

    2013-10-01

    We introduce the concept, benefits, and general architecture for acquiring, storing, and displaying digital photographs along with medical imaging examinations. We also discuss a specific implementation built around an Android-based system for simultaneously acquiring digital photographs along with portable radiographs. By an innovative application of radiofrequency identification technology to radiographic cassettes, the system is able to maintain a tight relationship between these photographs and the radiographs within the picture archiving and communications system (PACS) environment. We provide a cost analysis demonstrating the economic feasibility of this technology. Since our architecture naturally integrates with patient identification methods, we also address patient privacy issues.

  8. Visual performance in medical imaging using liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchou, Philip Marcel

    2007-12-01

    This thesis examined the contrast performance of liquid crystal display (LCD) devices for use in medical imaging. Novel experimental methods were used to measure the ability of medical LCD devices to produce just noticeable contrast. It was demonstrated that medical LCD devices are capable of high performance in medical imaging and are suitable for conducting psychovisual research experiments. Novel methods for measuring and controlling the luminance response of an LCD were presented in Chapter 3 and used to develop a software tools to apply DICOM GSDF calibrations. Several medical LCD systems were calibrated, demonstrating that the methods can be used to reliably measure luminance and manipulate fine contrast. Chapter 4 reports on a novel method to generate low contrast bi-level bar patterns by using the full palette of available gray values. The method was used in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychovisual experiment to measure the contrast threshold of human observers. Using a z-score analysis method, the results were found to be consistent with the Barten model of contrast sensitivity. Chapter 5 examined error distortion associated with using z-scores. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was presented as an alternative and was used to reevaluate the results from Chapter 4. The new results were consistent with the Barten model. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the statistical precision of the MLE method in relation to the number and distribution of trials. In Chapter 6, 2AFC tests were conducted examining contrast thresholds for complex sinusoid, white noise, and filtered noise patterns. The sinusoid test results were consistent with the Barten model while the noise patterns required more contrast for visibility. The effects of adaptation were also demonstrated. A noise visibility index (NVI) was introduced to describe noise power weighted by contrast sensitivity. Just noticeable white and filtered noise patterns exhibited similar NVI

  9. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  10. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  11. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  12. Procedural guidance using advance imaging techniques for percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Quaife, Robert A; Salcedo, Ernesto E; Carroll, John D

    2014-02-01

    The complexity of structural heart disease interventions such as edge-to edge mitral valve repair requires integration of multiple highly technical imaging modalities. Real time imaging with 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is a relatively new technique that first, allows clear volumetric imaging of target structures such as the mitral valve for both pre-procedural diagnosis and planning in patients with degenerative or functional mitral valve regurgitation. Secondly it provides intra-procedural, real-time panoramic volumetric 3D view of structural heart disease targets that facilitates eye-hand coordination while manipulating devices within the heart. X-ray fluoroscopy and RT 3D TEE images are used in combination to display specific targets and movement of catheter based technologies in 3D space. This integration requires at least two different image display monitors and mentally fusing the individual datasets by the operator. Combined display technology such as this, allow rotation and orientation of both dataset perspectives necessary to define targets and guidance of structural disease device procedures. The inherently easy concept of direct visual feedback and eye-hand coordination allows safe and efficient completion of MitraClip procedures. This technology is now merged into a single structural heart disease guidance mode called EchoNavigator(TM) (Philips Medical Imaging Andover, MA). These advanced imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of structural heart disease interventions and this experience is exemplified by a cooperative imaging approach used for guidance of edge-to-edge mitral valve repair procedures.

  13. Medical image segmentation using object atlas versus object cloud models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phellan, Renzo; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2015-03-01

    Medical image segmentation is crucial for quantitative organ analysis and surgical planning. Since interactive segmentation is not practical in a production-mode clinical setting, automatic methods based on 3D object appearance models have been proposed. Among them, approaches based on object atlas are the most actively investigated. A key drawback of these approaches is that they require a time-costly image registration process to build and deploy the atlas. Object cloud models (OCM) have been introduced to avoid registration, considerably speeding up the whole process, but they have not been compared to object atlas models (OAM). The present paper fills this gap by presenting a comparative analysis of the two approaches in the task of individually segmenting nine anatomical structures of the human body. Our results indicate that OCM achieve a statistically significant better accuracy for seven anatomical structures, in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient and Average Symmetric Surface Distance.

  14. Adaptive stereo medical image watermarking using non-corresponding blocks.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, H; Karimi, N; Soroushmehr, S M R; Samavi, S; Najarian, K

    2015-08-01

    Today with the advent of technology in different medical imaging fields, the use of stereoscopic images has increased. Furthermore, with the rapid growth in telemedicine for remote diagnosis, treatment, and surgery, there is a need for watermarking. This is for copyright protection and tracking of digital media. Also, the efficient use of bandwidth for transmission of such data is another concern. In this paper an adaptive watermarking scheme is proposed that considers human visual system in depth perception. Our proposed scheme modifies maximum singular values of wavelet coefficients of stereo pair for embedding watermark bits. Experimental results show high 3D visual quality of watermarked video frames. Moreover, comparison with a compatible state of the art method shows that the proposed method is highly robust against attacks such as AWGN, salt and pepper noise, and JPEG compression. PMID:26737224

  15. Data acquisition for a medical imaging MWPC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, B. T. A.; Harvey, P. J.; MacPhail, J. D.

    1991-12-01

    Multiwire proportional chambers, combined with drilled Pb converter stacks, are used as position sensitive gamma-ray detectors for medical imaging at Queen's University. This paper describes novel features of the address readout and data acquisition system. To obtain the interaction position, induced charges from wires in each cathode plane are combined using a three-level encoding scheme into 16 channels for amplification and discrimination, and then decoded within 150 ns using a lookup table in a 64 Kbyte EPROM. A custom interface card in an AT-class personal computer provides handshaking, rate buffering, and diagnostic capabilities for the detector data. Real-time software controls the data transfer and provides extensive monitor and control functions. The data are then transferred through an Ethernet link to a workstation for subsequent image analysis.

  16. Dicoogle Mobile: a medical imaging platform for Android.

    PubMed

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ferreira, Daniel; Valente, Frederico; Monteiro, Eriksson; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing technologies are increasingly becoming a valuable asset in healthcare information systems. The adoption of these technologies helps to assist in improving quality of care, increasing productivity and facilitating clinical decision support. They provide practitioners with ubiquitous access to patient records, being actually an important component in telemedicine and tele-work environments. We have developed Dicoogle Mobile, an Android application that provides remote access to distributed medical imaging data through a cloud relay service. Besides, this application has the capability to store and index local imaging data, so that they can also be searched and visualized. In this paper, we will describe Dicoogle Mobile concept as well the architecture of the whole system that makes it running. PMID:22874241

  17. Adaptive stereo medical image watermarking using non-corresponding blocks.

    PubMed

    Mohaghegh, H; Karimi, N; Soroushmehr, S M R; Samavi, S; Najarian, K

    2015-01-01

    Today with the advent of technology in different medical imaging fields, the use of stereoscopic images has increased. Furthermore, with the rapid growth in telemedicine for remote diagnosis, treatment, and surgery, there is a need for watermarking. This is for copyright protection and tracking of digital media. Also, the efficient use of bandwidth for transmission of such data is another concern. In this paper an adaptive watermarking scheme is proposed that considers human visual system in depth perception. Our proposed scheme modifies maximum singular values of wavelet coefficients of stereo pair for embedding watermark bits. Experimental results show high 3D visual quality of watermarked video frames. Moreover, comparison with a compatible state of the art method shows that the proposed method is highly robust against attacks such as AWGN, salt and pepper noise, and JPEG compression.

  18. Medical imaging equipment service in Kaiser Permanente, Northern California.

    PubMed

    Plasse, R J; Brooks, W G

    1993-01-01

    As the largest department in Biomedical Engineering, Medical Imaging Services (MIS) provides comprehensive equipment service for all imaging modalities in Kaiser Permanente, Northern California Region. MIS is customer-focused and committed to exploring better ways to deliver service, control costs and implement business strategies to meet customers' changing needs. Service extends beyond conventional preventive/corrective maintenance to include technology assessment, regulatory compliance, education and training, and managed vendor relationships. Program enhancements include film processor and solutions service, a second-source parts program, and a machine shop. In recent years, operations expanded to the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Region. Significant savings are available to any healthcare organization willing to embrace a new, expanded view of equipment management. PMID:10129805

  19. Simulation of Medical Imaging Systems: Emission and Transmission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert L.

    Simulation is an important tool in medical imaging research. In patient scans the true underlying anatomy and physiology is unknown. We have no way of knowing in a given scan how various factors are confounding the data: statistical noise; biological variability; patient motion; scattered radiation, dead time, and other data contaminants. Simulation allows us to isolate a single factor of interest, for instance when researchers perform multiple simulations of the same imaging situation to determine the effect of statistical noise or biological variability. Simulations are also increasingly used as a design optimization tool for tomographic scanners. This article gives an overview of the mechanics of emission and transmission tomography simulation, reviews some of the publicly available simulation tools, and discusses trade-offs between the accuracy and efficiency of simulations.

  20. Bioassay Phantoms Using Medical Images and Computer Aided Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. X. Geroge Xu

    2011-01-28

    A radiation bioassay program relies on a set of standard human phantoms to calibrate and assess radioactivity levels inside a human body for radiation protection and nuclear medicine imaging purposes. However, the methodologies in the development and application of anthropomorphic phantoms, both physical and computational, had mostly remained the same for the past 40 years. We herein propose a 3-year research project to develop medical image-based physical and computational phantoms specifically for radiation bioassay applications involving internally deposited radionuclides. The broad, long-term objective of this research was to set the foundation for a systematic paradigm shift away from the anatomically crude phantoms in existence today to realistic and ultimately individual-specific bioassay methodologies. This long-term objective is expected to impact all areas of radiation bioassay involving nuclear power plants, U.S. DOE laboratories, and nuclear medicine clinics.