Science.gov

Sample records for advanced meteorological radar

  1. Joint Target Detection and Tracking Filter for Chilbolton Advanced Meteorological Radar Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Correa, J.; Adams, M.; Clark, D.; Delande, E.; Houssineau, J.; Franco, J.; Frueh, C.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the growing number of inactive Resident Space Objects (RSOs), or space debris, has provoked increased interest in the field of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and various investigations of new methods for orbital object tracking. In comparison with conventional tracking scenarios, state estimation of an orbiting object entails additional challenges, such as orbit determination and orbital state and covariance propagation in the presence of highly nonlinear system dynamics. The sensors which are available for detecting and tracking space debris are prone to multiple clutter measurements. Added to this problem, is the fact that it is unknown whether or not a space debris type target is present within such sensor measurements. Under these circumstances, traditional single-target filtering solutions such as Kalman Filters fail to produce useful trajectory estimates. The recent Random Finite Set (RFS) based Finite Set Statistical (FISST) framework has yielded filters which are more appropriate for such situations. The RFS based Joint Target Detection and Tracking (JoTT) filter, also known as the Bernoulli filter, is a single target, multiple measurements filter capable of dealing with cluttered and time-varying backgrounds as well as modeling target appearance and disappearance in the scene. Therefore, this paper presents the application of the Gaussian mixture-based JoTT filter for processing measurements from Chilbolton Advanced Meteorological Radar (CAMRa) which contain both defunct and operational satellites. The CAMRa is a fully-steerable radar located in southern England, which was recently modified to be used as a tracking asset in the European Space Agency SSA program. The experiments conducted show promising results regarding the capability of such filters in processing cluttered radar data. The work carried out in this paper was funded by the USAF Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0069, Chilean Conicyt - Fondecyt grant number 1150930, EU Erasmus Mundus MSc

  2. The UAH/NSSTC Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Knupp, Kevin; Carey, Lawrence D.; Phillips, Dustin; Deierling, Wiebke; Gatlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The past four years have seen a marked enhancement in meteorological-radar infrastructure and radar-research capability at the University of Alabama-Huntsville (UAH) and National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC; a collaborative center supported by UAH, NASA-MSFC and USRA). This enhancement is due in part to the development of the ARMOR C-band dual-polarimetric radar facility (amongst other mobile radar facilities also discussed in this conference). The ARMOR radar, located at Huntsville International Airport, originated as a unique collaboration between university, government and broadcast meteorologists (the very first of its kind relative to concurrent operational, research and broadcast applications of dual-polarimetry). Contributions from each of these entities resulted in the upgrade of a surplus National Weather Service WSR-74C radar to a research-grade C-band polarimetric radar. The initial upgrade of the radar took place in late 2004 with WHNT-TV purchase and installation of a SIGMET (now Vaisala) Antenna Mounted Receiver (AMR), RVP8/RCP8 radar processor/antenna controller, new radome, and a new dual-polarimetric antenna feed. The AMR enabled simultaneous transmit and receive (STSR) capability and hence collection of dual-polarimetric moments. During the initial part of the AMR upgrade the original WSR74C antenna reflector and 250 kW magnetron-transmitter were used. In early 2005, a new 350 kW magnetron transmitter was purchased from Baron Services and installed. In October of 2006 a new high performance parabolic antenna and dual-pol feed (Seavey) were installed together with a new Orbit pedestal. ARMOR Radar control and data delivery are facilitated through the use of T-1 lines that run from the airport to both NSSTC and WHNT-TV in Huntsville. Under current operating protocols radar scanning and product development are completed at NSSTC, though meteorologists at WHNT-TV can also control the radar if desired. In its default scanning

  3. Spaceborne meteorological radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.

    1988-01-01

    Various radar designs and methods are studied for the estimation of rainfall parameters from space. An immediate goal is to support the development of the spaceborne radar that has been proposed for the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The effort is divided into two activities: a cooperative airborne rain measuring experiment with the Radio Research Laboratory of Japan (RRL), and the modelling of spaceborne weather radars. An airborne rain measuring experiment was conducted at Wallops Flight Facility in 1985 to 1986 using the dual-wavelength radar/radiometer developed by RRL. The data are presently being used to test a number of methods that are relevant to spaceborne weather radars. An example is shown of path-averaged rain rates as estimated from three methods: the standard reflectivity rain rate method (Z-R), a dual-wavelength method, and a surface reference method. The results from the experiment shows for the first time the feasibility of using attenuation methods from space. The purposes of the modelling are twofold: to understand in a quantitative manner the relationships between a particular radar design and its capability for estimating precipitation parameters and to help devise and test new methods. The models are being used to study the impact of various TRMM radar designs on the accuracy of rain rate estimation as well as to test the performance of range-profiling algorithms, the mirror-image method, and some recently devised graphical methods for the estimation of the drop size distribution.

  4. Meteorological radar facility. Part 1: System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassaw, L. L., Jr.; Hamren, S. D.; Mullins, W. H.; Schweitzer, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of information regarding systems design of space shuttles used in meteorological radar probes is presented. Necessary radar equipment is delineated, while space system elements, calibration techniques, antenna systems and other subsystems are reviewed.

  5. Polarization Diversity in Radar Meteorology: Early Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    polarized light , and an examination of par- meteors resulted from experimental backscattering studies ticles of various forms. of ice models by Harper... randomly oriented , oblate and prolate water ment of polarimetry in radar meteorology. and ice spheroids at 1.25, 3.2 and 10-cm wavelengths. Among the...measure of the "round- sity from horizontally oriented oblate particles contained ness" of the scatterers. Since their antenna was unable tO

  6. Meteorological radar facility (MRF) slot conductance investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratkevich, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary meteorological radar facility (MRF) array design was completed in support of the slot conductance measurement program. Three different slot measurement techniques were evaluated. The selection of the probe comparison measurement technique was selected as the principal experimental method with the impedance measurement technique chosen to measure a few higher conductance slots to be used as reference slots. The impedance of 43 slots in 0.9 x 0.4 inch standard waveguide and of 40 slots in 0.835 x 0.4 inch waveguide was measured. Also, impedance measurements were made of a few slots using image planes to simulate mutual coupling effects. The measured and theoretical conductance, susceptance, and radiation phase data are presented in graphic form as a function of slot displacement for constant slot length, and of slot length for constant slot displacement. It is concluded that the proposed MRF array design approach is a feasible one.

  7. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  8. Modern colour display and processing system for meteorological radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, N. A.

    1981-02-01

    The paper describes a color display and data processing system for use on conventional weather radars. It also discusses aspects of the meteorological echo characteristics, the implications on data processing equipment, and the implementation adopted in the Plessey Colourscan equipment to meet the requirements for quantitative analysis and storm warning applications.

  9. Mesospheric turbulence detection and characterization with AMISR-class radars under consistent meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Collins, R. L.; Newman, D.; Nicolls, M. J.; Varney, R. H.; Thurairajah, B.

    2015-12-01

    A recent study has shown the ability of the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR, PFISR) to characterize turbulence in the mesosphere (D-Region) [Nicolls et. al, 2011]. We present case studies of AMISR measurements of turbulence where the meteorological conditions are defined by the presence of persistent Mesospheric Inversion Layers (MILs). We consider MILs that are detected by satellite over a day and are also detected by Rayleigh lidar at PFRR [Irving et. al, 2014]. MILs are a signature of large-scale planetary wave breaking in the upper atmosphere, where a region with a temperature inversion lies below a region with an adiabatic lapse rate. The region with the inversion allows small-scale waves to become unstable, break, and generate turbulence. The region with the adiabatic lapse rate is indicative of a well-mixed layer and the presence of turbulence. AMISR-class radars have a steerable narrow beam (1°) and high vertical resolution (750 m). We review the principles and practices of incoherent scatter radar with a focus on detection of D-region turbulence using radar spectra. We present the geometry of the turbulence and the radar, comparing the turbulent, plasma, and radar spatial scales. We develop a turbulence retrieval algorithm using a Voigt function spectral line. We fit the spectra to a Voigt function using the Levenberg-Marquardt method and use the Gaussian component of the Voigt spectra to calculate the RMS velocity, and hence the turbulent energy dissipation rate. With the environmental conditions characterized by satellite and lidar and the turbulence characterized by radar data, we can test the ability of PFISR to characterize mesospheric turbulence under consistent meteorological conditions and develop robust technique for turbulence measurements.

  10. Meteorological radar services: a brief discussion and a solution in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, K. A.

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Meteorology is the organization designated by the Civil Aviation Department and by the National Supervisory Authority of the Republic of Cyprus, as an air navigation service provider, based on the regulations of the Single European Sky. Department of Meteorology holds and maintains also an ISO: 9001/2008, Quality System, for the provision of meteorological and climatological services to aeronautic and maritime community, but also to the general public. In order to fulfill its obligations the Department of Meteorology customs the rather dense meteorological stations network, with long historical data series, installed and maintained by the Department, in parallel with modelling and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), along with training and gaining of expertise. Among the available instruments in the community of meteorologists is the meteorological radar, a basic tool for the needs of very short/short range forecasting (nowcasting). The Department of Meteorology installed in the mid 90's a C-band radar over «Throni» location and expanded its horizons in nowcasting, aviation safety and warnings issuance. The radar has undergone several upgrades but today technology has over passed its rather old technology. At the present the Department of Meteorology is in the process of buying Meteorological Radar Services as a result of a public procurement procedure. Two networked X-band meteorological radar will be installed (the project now is in the phase of infrastructure establishment while the hardware is in the process of assemble), and maintained from Space Hellas (the contractor) for a 13 years' time period. The present article must be faced as a review article of the efforts of the Department of Meteorology to support its weather forecasters with data from meteorological radar.

  11. Meteorological Studies with the Phased Array Weather Radar and Data Assimilation Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    was included. (4) Technology Innovation: Spectral processing was identified by Fabry and Keeler (2003) as one of the trends in meteorological radar...University College London, 227 pp. Fabry, F. and R. J. Keeler : 2003, Innovative signal utilization and processing. Radar and Atmospheric Science

  12. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  13. Advanced Meteorological Temperature Sounder (AMTS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a system definition study (theoretical) for an Advanced Meteorological Temperature Sounder (AMTS) is described. From the data the atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles can be determined over the entire earth's surface with a spatial resolution of 45 km. x 45 km; amounts and type of cloud cover as well as surface temperatures of the earth are also determined. The major purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of cooling twenty-eight detectors to the 80-90 Kelvin region by means of a radiative cooler. Other related considerations were achieving high signal-to-noise ratios, maximizing optical throughput through the grating spectrometer, and reducing preamplifier noise. A detailed optical design of an f/5 Ebert-Fastie spectrometer was carried out to verify that image quality is adequate; field lenses near the spectrometer focal plane were designed to image the grating onto the smallest size detectors for each channel.

  14. NEXRAD - An advanced Doppler weather radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, A. F.

    The WSR-57 system, which was first placed into operation in 1957, forms the backbone of the current radar observation network of the National Weather Service. However, in connection with its age, it has become increasingly difficult and expensive to maintain this system. The present investigation is concerned with the replacement of the WSR-57 by a new system which incorporates important advances made in radar technology since the 1950s. The new system considered, called the Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) makes use of highly automated Doppler techniques to measure the radial velocity of air movement within the internal structure of a storm system. Attention is given to background regarding the NEXRAD system development, the four phases of the NEXRAD program, NEXRAD system capabilities, operational (display) products, and questions of siting.

  15. [Hygienic standardization of electromagnetic radiation from two-channel meteorological radar stations].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, N G; Tomashevskaia, L A

    1990-08-01

    The study was designed to analyze the impact of the combined electromagnetic fields (EMF) with the wavelength of 10 and 0.8 cm and various levels of energy current density on the central nervous system, metabolic processes, immune resistance and reproductive function. Proceeding from the obtained data maximum allowable levels of EMF produced by the prospective two-channel meteorological++ radars were established.

  16. Digital Meteorological Radar Data Compared with Digital Infrared Data from a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    Martin, J. Stout, and D.N. Sikdar , 1978: Rain estimation from geosynchronous satellite imagery - visible and infrared studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106...techniques in the detection and analysis of severe storms from digital radar data. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, 141 pp. Sikdar , D.N., 1972

  17. Effects of Tunable Data Compression on Geophysical Products Retrieved from Surface Radar Observations with Applications to Spaceborne Meteorological Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Philip M.; Yeh, Penshu; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results and analyses of applying an international space data compression standard to weather radar measurements that can easily span 8 orders of magnitude and typically require a large storage capacity as well as significant bandwidth for transmission. By varying the degree of the data compression, we analyzed the non-linear response of models that relate measured radar reflectivity and/or Doppler spectra to the moments and properties of the particle size distribution characterizing clouds and precipitation. Preliminary results for the meteorologically important phenomena of clouds and light rain indicate that for a 0.5 dB calibration uncertainty, typical for the ground-based pulsed-Doppler 94 GHz (or 3.2 mm, W-band) weather radar used as a proxy for spaceborne radar in this study, a lossless compression ratio of only 1.2 is achievable. However, further analyses of the non-linear response of various models of rainfall rate, liquid water content and median volume diameter show that a lossy data compression ratio exceeding 15 is realizable. The exploratory analyses presented are relevant to future satellite missions, where the transmission bandwidth is premium and storage requirements of vast volumes of data, potentially problematic.

  18. Field Studies of Raindrop Oscillations with Applications to Radar Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, Ali

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and causes of raindrop oscillations were studied from two field experiments in Hawaiian and Illinois showers. The former experiment (HaRP) focused on the onset of raindrop oscillations as well as oscillations frequencies of small raindrops, whereas the latter experiment (ISWS) had a broader purpose to investigate the oscillation characteristics of moderate-to-large size raindrops including amplitudes as well as frequencies, and oscillation causes. Raindrop oscillations were found to start at a diameter of d = 1.0 to 1.1 mm in both HaRP and ISWS experiments, consistent with 1991 laboratory observations of Beard, Kubesh and Ochs and with the expected onset of eddy shedding. Most of the oscillation frequencies (>95%) were near the fundamental harmonic (f_2) with only a few observed near the first harmonic (f _3) in both experiments. The oscillation frequencies around the fundamental harmonic showed a size dependency that crossed the theoretical value for f _2 at about d = 1.5 to 1.6 mm. The oscillation amplitude measurements determined from the vertical extent of the dash streaks showed good agreement with the 1988 data of Sterlyadkin, whereas the oscillation amplitudes estimated from the distortion indicated somewhat larger values for d > 2mm. Eddy shedding was found to be the most likely cause of small raindrop oscillations because of the onset oscillations near 1.0 mm and weak forcing by drop collisions, turbulence, and wind shear. The influence of raindrop oscillations on dual -polarization radar parameters was investigated for the observed and theoretical size distributions using axis ratios based on four different sets of calculations and measurements. Differential reflectivity (Z_ {rm DR}) decreased by as much as 0.74 dB from its value for non-oscillating raindrops. Similar change caused by raindrop oscillations were also found for the other dual-polarization parameters, such as the circular and linear depolarization ratios (CDR, LDR

  19. Recent advances in radar applications to agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.

    1970-01-01

    A series of remote radar sensing studies are summarized. These efforts comprise geoscience interpretations of such complex phenomena as those manifested in agricultural patterns. Considered are basic remote sensing needs in agriculture and the design and implementation of radar keys in the active microwave region as well as fine resolution radar imagery techniques for agriculture determinations and soil mapping.

  20. Recent advances in geologic mapping by radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative techniques are available which allow the analysis of SAR images for the derivation of geological surface and process data. In conjunction with calibrated radar sensors operating at several incidence angles, wavelengths, and polarizations, the compilation of multiparameter radar signatures of lithological and geomorphic units can accordingly proceed for geological mapping in unknown areas. While radar image tone can be used in arid zones to derive surface micromorphology, heavily vegetated tropical regions require the analysis of radar image texture by means of Fourier techniques which decompose the image into bandpasses that represent different scales of texture.

  1. Exploring single polarization X-band weather radar potentials for local meteorological and hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Conti, Francesco; Francipane, Antonio; Pumo, Dario; Noto, Leonardo V.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of a low-cost single polarization X-band weather radar, verified by a disdrometer and a dense rain gauge network, installed as a supporting tool for hydrological applications and for monitoring the urban area of Palermo (Italy). Moreover, this study focuses on studying the temporal variability of the Z-R relation for Mediterranean areas. The radar device is provided with an automatic operational ground-clutter filter developed by the producer. Attention has been paid to the development of blending procedures between radar measurements and other auxiliary instruments and to their suitability for both meteorological and hydrological applications. A general scheme enveloping these procedures and achieving the combination of data retrieved from the weather radar, the optical disdrometer, and the rain gauge network distributed within the monitored area has been designed. The first step of the procedure consists in the calibration of the radar equation by comparing the match between the radar raw data and the disdrometer reflectivity. The second step is the calibration of the Z-R relationship based on the retrieval of parameters that optimize the transformation of disdrometer reflectivity into rainfall intensity, starting from the disdrometer rainfall intensity measurements. The Z-R calibration has been applied to the disdrometer measurements retrieved during a 1 year observation period, after a preliminary segmentation into separated rainfall events. This analysis allows for the characterization of the variability of the Z-R relationship from event to event, deriving some considerations about its predictability as well. Results obtained from this analysis provide a geographical specific record, for the Mediterranean area, for the study of the spatial variability of the Z-R relationship. Finally, the set of operational procedures also includes a correction procedure of radar estimates based on rain gauge data. Each

  2. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  3. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  4. Advanced Meteor radar at Tirupati: System details and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Sundararaman, Sathishkumar; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Eethamakula, Kosalendra; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    An advanced meteor radar viz., Enhanced Meteor Detection Radar (EMDR) operating at 35.25 MHz is installed at Sri Venkateswara University (SVU), Tirupati (13.63oN, 79.4oE), India, in the month of August 2013. Present communication describes the need for the meteor radar at present location, system description, its measurement techniques, its variables and comparison of measured mean winds with contemporary radars over the Indian region. The present radar site is selected to fill the blind region of Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) MST radar, which covers mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region (70-110 km). By modifying the receiving antenna structure and elements, this radar is capable of providing accurate wind information between 70 and 110 km unlike other similar radars. Height covering region is extended by increasing the meteor counting capacity by modifying the receiving antenna structure and elements and hence its wind estimation limits extended below and above of 80 and 100 km, respectively. In the present study, we also made comparison of horizontal winds in the MLT region with those measured by similar and different (MST and MF radars) techniques over the Indian region including the model (HWM 07) data sets. The comparison showed a very good agreement between the overlapping altitudes (82-98 km) of different radars. Zonal winds compared very well as that of meridional winds. The observed discrepancies and limitations in the wind measurement are discussed. This new radar is expected to play important role in understanding the vertical and lateral coupling by forming a unique local network.

  5. Advanced meteor radar installed at Tirupati: System details and comparison with different radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Eswaraiah, S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Kosalendra, E.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Sathish Kumar, S.; Patil, P. T.; Gurubaran, S.

    2014-11-01

    An advanced meteor radar, viz, Sri Venkateswara University (SVU) meteor radar (SVU MR) operating at 35.25 MHz, was installed at Sri Venkateswara University (SVU), Tirupati (13.63°N, 79.4°E), India, in August 2013 for continuous observations of horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This manuscript describes the purpose of the meteor radar, system configuration, measurement techniques, its data products, and operating parameters, as well as a comparison of measured mean winds in the MLT with contemporary radars over the Indian region. It is installed close to the Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar to fill the region between 85 and 100 km where this radar does not measure winds. The present radar provides additional information due to its high meteor detection rate, which results in accurate wind information from 70 to 110 km. As a first step, we made a comparison of SVU MR-derived horizontal winds in the MLT region with those measured by similar and different (MST and MF radars) techniques over the Indian region, as well as model (horizontal wind model 2007) data sets. The comparison showed an exquisite agreement between the overlapping altitudes (82-98 km) of different radars. Zonal winds compared very well, as did the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies and limitations in the wind measurement are discussed in the light of different measuring techniques and the effects of small-scale processes like gravity waves. This new radar is expected to play an important role in our understanding of the vertical and lateral coupling of different regions of the atmosphere that will be possible when measurements from nearby locations are combined.

  6. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  7. Identification and removal of non-meteorological echoes in dual-polarization radar data based on a fuzzy logic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Young; Lee, GyuWon; Park, Hong-Mok

    2015-09-01

    A major issue in radar quantitative precipitation estimation is the contamination of radar echoes by non-meteorological targets such as ground clutter, chaff, clear air echoes etc. In this study, a fuzzy logic algorithm for the identification of non-meteorological echoes is developed using optimized membership functions and weights for the dual-polarization radar located at Mount Sobaek. For selected precipitation and non-meteorological events, the characteristics of the precipitation and non-meteorological echo are derived by the probability density functions of five fuzzy parameters as functions of reflectivity values. The membership functions and weights are then determined by these density functions. Finally, the nonmeteorological echoes are identified by combining the membership functions and weights. The performance is qualitatively evaluated by long-term rain accumulation. The detection accuracy of the fuzzy logic algorithm is calculated using the probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR), and clutter-signal ratio (CSR). In addition, the issues in using filtered dual-polarization data are alleviated.

  8. The COST 731 Action: A review on uncertainty propagation in advanced hydro-meteorological forecast systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossa, Andrea; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano; Bruen, Michael; Germann, Urs; Haase, Günther; Keil, Christian; Krahe, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in flood forecasting is a difficult task, given the multiple and strongly non-linear model components involved in such a system. Much effort has been and is being invested in the quest of dealing with uncertain precipitation observations and forecasts and the propagation of such uncertainties through hydrological and hydraulic models predicting river discharges and risk for inundation. The COST 731 Action is one of these and constitutes a European initiative which deals with the quantification of forecast uncertainty in hydro-meteorological forecast systems. COST 731 addresses three major lines of development: (1) combining meteorological and hydrological models to form a forecast chain, (2) propagating uncertainty information through this chain and make it available to end users in a suitable form, (3) advancing high-resolution numerical weather prediction precipitation forecasts by using non-conventional observations from, for instance, radar to determine details in the initial conditions on scales smaller than what can be resolved by conventional observing systems. Recognizing the interdisciplinarity of the challenge COST 731 has organized its work forming Working Groups at the interfaces between the different scientific disciplines involved, i.e. between observation and atmospheric (and hydrological) modelling (WG-1), between atmospheric and hydrologic modelling (WG-2) and between hydrologic modelling and end-users (WG-3). This paper summarizes the COST 731 activities and its context, provides a review of the recent progress made in dealing with uncertainties in flood forecasting, and sets the scene for the papers of this Thematic Issue. In particular, a bibliometric analysis highlights the strong recent increase in addressing the uncertainty analysis in flood forecasting from an integrated perspective. Such a perspective necessarily involves the area of meteorology, hydrology, and decision making in order to take operational advantage

  9. Ranger© - An Affordable, Advanced, Next-Generation, Dual-Pol, X-Band Weather Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedronsky, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Enterprise Electronics Corporation (EEC) Ranger© system is a new generation, X-band (3 cm), Adaptive Polarization Doppler Weather Surveillance Radar that fills the gap between high-cost, high-power traditional radar systems and the passive ground station weather sensors. Developed in partnership with the University of Oklahoma Advanced Radar Research Center (ARRC), the system uses relatively low power solid-state transmitters and pulse compression technology to attain nearly the same performance capabilities of much more expensive traditional radar systems. The Ranger© also employs Adaptive Dual Polarization (ADP) techniques to allow Alternating or Simultaneous Dual Polarization capability with total control over the transmission polarization state using dual independent coherent transmitters. Ranger© has been designed using the very latest technology available in the industry and the technical and manufacturing experience gained through over four decades of successful radar system design and production at EEC. The entire Ranger© design concept emphasizes precision, stability, reliability, and value using proven solid state technology combined with the most advanced motion control system ever conceived for weather radar. Key applications include meteorology, hydrology, aviation, offshore oil/gas drilling, wind energy, and outdoor event situational awareness.

  10. Recent Advances in Radar Polarimetry and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerner, Wolfgang-Martin

    2005-01-01

    The development of Radar Polarimetry and Radar Interferometry is advancing rapidly, and these novel radar technologies are revamping Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging decisively. In this exposition the successive advancements are sketched; beginning with the fundamental formulations and high-lighting the salient points of these diverse remote sensing techniques. Whereas with radar polarimetry the textural fine-structure, target-orientation and shape, symmetries and material constituents can be recovered with considerable improvements above that of standard amplitude-only Polarization Radar ; with radar interferometry the spatial (in depth) structure can be explored. In Polarimetric-Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POL-IN-SAR) Imaging it is possible to recover such co-registered textural plus spatial properties simultaneously. This includes the extraction of Digital Elevation Maps (DEM) from either fully Polarimetric (scattering matrix) or Interferometric (dual antenna) SAR image data takes with the additional benefit of obtaining co-registered three-dimensional POL-IN-DEM information. Extra-Wide-Band POL-IN-SAR Imaging - when applied to Repeat-Pass Image Overlay Interferometry - provides differential background validation and measurement, stress assessment, and environmental stress-change monitoring capabilities with hitherto unattained accuracy, which are essential tools for improved global biomass estimation. More recently, by applying multiple parallel repeat-pass EWB-POL-D(RP)-IN-SAR imaging along stacked (altitudinal) or displaced (horizontal) flight-lines will result in Tomographic (Multi- Interferometric) Polarimetric SAR Stereo-Imaging , including foliage and ground penetrating capabilities. It is shown that the accelerated advancement of these modern EWB-POL-D(RP)-IN-SAR imaging techniques is of direct relevance and of paramount priority to wide-area dynamic homeland security surveillance and local-to-global environmental ground-truth measurement

  11. An 11-CM Full-Matrix Polarimetric Radar for Meteorological Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-26

    Geophysics Directorate operates a unique 11-cm (S- band ) coherent polarimetric radar . The radar can transmit signals of alternating orthogonal...of Switchable Circulator Network 8 iv Preface This report describes the 11-cm (S- band ) Doppler radar operated by the Ground Based Remote Sensing...wavelength (S- band ) Doppler radar operated by the Geophysics Directorate in Sudbury, Mass., 1 has been used for several years for investigations of the

  12. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  13. Economic project perspectives: An overview of the impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R.; Boness, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The impact of advanced satellite meteorology on long range weather forecasts, agriculture, commerce, and resource utilization are examined. All data are geared to obtaining a picture of various user needs and possible benefits.

  14. Polarization-Diversity Radar and Lidar Technology in Meteorological Research. A Review of Theory and Measurements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-31

    1952: Cross—Polarization of the Radar Melting Band . Nature, UQ~ 1078—1079. ~ 40 ~Austin, P.M., and Bernie, A. C ., 1950: A Quantitative Study of The...Post , E. A., 1954: Evaluation of C — Band (5.5 cm) Air— borne Weather Radar . United Air Lines, Inc., Denver , Cob . ~ 43 ~At1as, D., and Wexier , R., 1963...Hydrometeors in a Thunderstorm. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 974—977. Hendry , A. , and McCormick , C . C . , 1968 : A Polarization Diversity Ku— Band Radar for the

  15. Temporal Stability of Soil Moisture and Radar Backscatter Observed by the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Pathe, Carsten; Doubkova, Marcela; Sabel, Daniel; Bartsch, Annett; Hasenauer, Stefan; Blöschl, Günter; Scipal, Klaus; Martínez-Fernández, José; Löw, Alexander

    2008-02-21

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture is the result of atmosphericforcing and redistribution processes related to terrain, soil, and vegetation characteristics.Despite this high variability, many field studies have shown that in the temporal domainsoil moisture measured at specific locations is correlated to the mean soil moisture contentover an area. Since the measurements taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)instruments are very sensitive to soil moisture it is hypothesized that the temporally stablesoil moisture patterns are reflected in the radar backscatter measurements. To verify this hypothesis 73 Wide Swath (WS) images have been acquired by the ENVISAT AdvancedSynthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) over the REMEDHUS soil moisture network located inthe Duero basin, Spain. It is found that a time-invariant linear relationship is well suited forrelating local scale (pixel) and regional scale (50 km) backscatter. The observed linearmodel coefficients can be estimated by considering the scattering properties of the terrainand vegetation and the soil moisture scaling properties. For both linear model coefficients,the relative error between observed and modelled values is less than 5 % and thecoefficient of determination (R²) is 86 %. The results are of relevance for interpreting anddownscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data retrieved from active (METOP ASCAT)and passive (SMOS, AMSR-E) instruments.

  16. A depolarization and attenuation experiment using the CTS satellite. [meteorological radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostian, C. W.; Holt, S. B., Jr.; Kauffman, S. R.; Manus, E. A.; Marshall, R. E.; Stutzman, W. L.; Wiley, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Rain attenuation and depolarization data collected on the communications technology satellite 11.7 GHz downlink, and changes made in equipment following rain leak damage to the parametric amplifier are discussed. A 15 GHz radar system is described.

  17. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  18. Using Remote Sensing and Radar Meteorological Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) traditionally have been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations, although these data may not be the most appropriate for adequate spatial and temporal resolution...

  19. Radar analyses of mesoscale meteorological phenomena during the AVE/VAS correlation field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Radar data were collected during the selected critical times of the field experiment and subsequently analyzed for specific items. The analyses of the radar data for the AVE/VAS experiment provided statistically significant values for each of the 10 Km by 10 Km grids within radar range. The resulting information for correlation with satellite data included the following derived items that were averaged for each grid area: (1) rainfall rate in mm/hr; (2) dBZ (reflectivity) values; (3) accumulated rainfall values per hour; (4) accumulated rainfall values for a 6-hour period; (5) vertically integrated liquid water content per square meter; and (6) vertical height of the radar axis at the midpoint of each grid. Additional products derived from radar data are being investigated. An example of one such product is the derivation of the errors in integrated rainfall with different sampling periods. This is of significance for correlation with satellite data in that normally a step-function type of rainfall rate is used to derive the total rainfall over a period.

  20. Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E.; Lee, Hua

    1993-08-01

    Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

  1. Advanced Research into Moving Target Imaging Using Multistatic Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    From [2])...........................................................................................................5 Figure 6. SAR and ISAR schemes...SAR and ISAR schemes for imaging targets (From [2]) Synthetic aperture imaging can be accomplished using a stationary antenna and rotating target or a...with a series of pulses from the moving antenna (Figure 6). Inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) assumes a stationary radar radiating a moving

  2. Advances in Reservoir Monitoring Using High Resolution Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasco, D. W.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Tamburini, A.; Fumagalli, A.; Rucci, A.; Falorni, G.

    2009-12-01

    Surface deformation monitoring provides unique data for observing and measuring the performance of producing hydrocarbon reservoirs, for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS). To this aim, radar interferometry (InSAR) and, in particular, multi-interferogram Permanent Scatterer (PS) techniques are innovative, valuable and cost-effective tools. Depending on reservoir characteristics and depth, oil or gas production can induce surface subsidence or, in the cases of EOR and CCS, ground heave, potentially triggering fault reactivation and in some cases threatening well integrity. Mapping the surface effects of fault reactivation, due to either fluid extraction or injection, usually requires the availability of hundreds of measurement points per square km with millimeter-level precision, which is time consuming and expensive to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but can be readily obtained with InSAR data. Moreover, more advanced InSAR techniques developed in the last decade are capable of providing millimeter precision, comparable to optical leveling, and a high spatial density of displacement measurements, over long periods of time without need of installing equipment or otherwise accessing the study area. Until recently, a limitation to the application of InSAR was the relatively long revisiting time (24 or 35 days) of the previous generation of C-band satellites (ERS1-2, Envisat, Radarsat). However, a new generation of X-band radar satellites (TerraSAR-X and the COSMO-SkyMed constellation), which have been operational since 2008, are providing significant improvements. TerraSAR-X has a repeat cycle of 11 days while the two sensors of the COSMO-SkyMed constellation have an effective repeat cycle of just 8 days (the third sensor has already been successfully launched and is presently in the calibration phase). With the launch of the fourth satellite of the constellation, COSMO-SkyMed will have a revisiting time of

  3. Impact of mesoscale meteorological processes on anomalous radar propagation conditions over the northern Adriatic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Horvat, Igor; Tomažić, Igor; Kvakić, Marko; Viher, Mladen; Grisogono, Branko

    2015-09-01

    The impact of mesoscale structures on the occurrence of anomalous propagation (AP) conditions for radio waves, including ducts, superrefractive, and subrefractive conditions, was studied. The chosen meteorological situations are the bora wind and the sporadic sea/land breeze (SB/LB) during three selected cases over a large portion of the northern Adriatic. For this purpose, we used available radio soundings and numerical mesoscale model simulations (of real cases and their sensitivity tests) at a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km and 81 vertical levels. The model simulated the occurrences of AP conditions satisfactorily, although their intensities and frequency were underestimated at times. Certain difficulties appeared in reproducing the vertical profile of the modified refractive index, which is mainly dependent on the accuracy of the modeled humidity. The spatial distributions of summer AP conditions reveal that the surface layer above the sea (roughly between 30 and 100 m asl) is often covered by superrefractive conditions and ducts. The SB is highly associated with the formations of AP conditions: (i) in the first 100 m asl, where trapping and superrefractive conditions form because of the advection of cold and moist air, and (ii) inside the transition layer between the SB body and the elevated return flow in the form of subrefractive conditions. When deep convection occurs, all three types of AP conditions are caused by the downdraft beneath the cumulonimbus cloud base in its mature phase that creates smaller but marked pools of cold and dry air. The bora wind usually creates a pattern of AP conditions associated with the hydraulic jump and influences distribution of AP conditions over the sea surface.

  4. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Puget Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.

  5. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; William H. Hensley, Jr.; Burns, Bryan L.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-11-01

    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  6. Investigation of Advanced Radar Techniques for Atmospheric Hazard Detection with Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazmany, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 ProSensing Inc. conducted a study to investigate the hazard detection potential of aircraft weather radars with new measurement capabilities, such as multi-frequency, polarimetric and radiometric modes. Various radar designs and features were evaluated for sensitivity, measurement range and for detecting and quantifying atmospheric hazards in wide range of weather conditions. Projected size, weight, power consumption and cost of the various designs were also considered. Various cloud and precipitation conditions were modeled and used to conduct an analytic evaluation of the design options. This report provides an overview of the study and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Polarimetric analysis of radar backscatter from ground-based scatterometers and wheat biomass monitoring with advanced synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Tong, Ling; Li, Yuxia; Chen, Yan; Tan, Longfei; Guo, Caizheng

    2016-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the scattering measurements for an entire wheat growth cycle by ground-based scatterometers at a frequency of 5.3 GHz. Since wheat ears are related to wheat growth and yield, the radar backscatter of wheat was analyzed at two different periods, i.e., with and without wheat ears. Simultaneously, parameters such as wheat and soil characteristics as well as volume scattering and soil scattering were analyzed for the two periods during the entire growth cycle. Wheat ears have been demonstrated to have a great influence on radar backscatter; therefore, a modified version of water-cloud model used for retrieving biomass should consider the effect of wheat ears. This work presents two retrieval models based on the water-cloud model and adopts the advanced integral equation model to simulate the soil backscatter before the heading stage and the backscatter from the layer under wheat ears after the heading stage. The research results showed that the biomass retrieved from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) images to agree well with the data measured in situ after setting the modified water-cloud model for the growth stages with ears. Furthermore, it was concluded that wheat ears should form an essential component of theoretical modeling as they influence the final yield.

  8. Recent Advances in Radar Polarimetry and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Cologne, Germany. Krieger, G., M. Wendler, J. Mittermayer ,, S. Buckreuss F. Witte, W. Keydel, A. Moreira, 2002, “Sector Imaging Radar for Enhanced...twentieth printing: 1997) Mittermayer , J., A. Moreira and O. Lofeld., 1999, "The frequency scaling algorithm for spotlight SAR data processing". IEEE

  9. Using the Scientific Python ecosystem to advance open radar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, S. M.; Helmus, J.

    2015-12-01

    The choice of a programming language or environment is rarely made with consideration of its benefits and disadvantages. Often it is something inherited from mentor or enforced by an institution. Python, developed as a "hobby" programming project, has seen increased migration of users from more traditional domain specific environments. This presentation charts our own journey in using the scientific python ecosystem, first as users and then as the developers of a community based toolkit for working with weather radar data, the Python ARM Radar Toolkit, Py-ART. We will highlight how a data model driven design approach can extend the usefulness and reusability of code and act as a bridge between amorphous mathematical algorithms and domain specific data. Finally we will showcase how Python and Py-ART can be used on clusters to tackle pleasantly parallel problems like deriving climatologies swiftly, painlessly and most importantly: reproducibly.

  10. Radar interferometry recent advances and promising steps toward new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, D.

    In recent years, radar interferometry has brought a revolutionary insight into ground displacements. A long practice has now established a good knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the technique. The main drawbacks are : 1) surfaces changes due to a variety of causes which inhibit the interferometric principle, 2) atmospheric contribution to the path delay which complicates interpretation and 3) operational limitations due to the limited lifetime of radar space systems and the incompatibility of their instruments and orbital features. Several methods are being applied to attempt to override these limitations. In the meantime specific spaceborne systems have proved very valuable to providing risk-related auxiliary information such as an accurate topography. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is exe mplary in this regard. The next generation of such systems might bring another application breakthrough by allowing the monitoring of subsidence even in the case of varying surface states and atmospheric artefacts, and by accessing a long sought goal: the global monitoring of the erosion as well as the ablation rate of ice caps

  11. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  12. Advanced application flight experiment breadboard pulse compression radar altimeter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design, development and performance of the pulse compression radar altimeter is described. The high resolution breadboard system is designed to operate from an aircraft at 10 Kft above the ocean and to accurately measure altitude, sea wave height and sea reflectivity. The minicomputer controlled Ku band system provides six basic variables and an extensive digital recording capability for experimentation purposes. Signal bandwidths of 360 MHz are obtained using a reflective array compression line. Stretch processing is used to achieve 1000:1 pulse compression. The system range command LSB is 0.62 ns or 9.25 cm. A second order altitude tracker, aided by accelerometer inputs is implemented in the system software. During flight tests the system demonstrated an altitude resolution capability of 2.1 cm and sea wave height estimation accuracy of 10%. The altitude measurement performance exceeds that of the Skylab and GEOS-C predecessors by approximately an order of magnitude.

  13. Distress detection, location, and communications using advanced space technology. [satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a concept for low-cost, global, day-night, all-weather disaster warning and assistance. Evolving, advanced space technology with passive radio frequency reflectors in conjunction with an imaging synthetic aperture radar is employed to detect, identify, locate, and provide passive communication with earth users in distress. This concept evolved from a broad NASA research on new global search and rescue techniques. Appropriate airborne radar test results from this research are reviewed and related to potential disaster applications. The analysis indicates the approach has promise for disaster communications relative to floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms.

  14. Comparison of mesospheric winds from a high-altitude meteorological analysis system and meteor radar observations during the boreal winters of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, J.; Hoppel, K.; Kuhl, D.; de Wit, R.; Stober, G.; Espy, P.; Baker, N.; Brown, P.; Fritts, D.; Jacobi, C.; Janches, D.; Mitchell, N.; Ruston, B.; Swadley, S.; Viner, K.; Whitcomb, T.; Hibbins, R.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) during the boreal winters of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013 produced with a new high-altitude numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. This system is based on a modified version of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) with an extended vertical domain up to ∼116 km altitude coupled with a hybrid four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system that assimilates both standard operational meteorological observations in the troposphere and satellite-based observations of temperature, ozone and water vapor in the stratosphere and mesosphere. NAVGEM-based MLT analyzed winds are validated using independent meteor radar wind observations from nine different sites ranging from 69°N-67°S latitude. Time-averaged NAVGEM zonal and meridional wind profiles between 75 and 95 km altitude show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with corresponding meteor radar wind profiles. Wavelet analysis finds that the 3-hourly NAVGEM and 1-hourly radar winds both exhibit semi-diurnal, diurnal, and quasi-diurnal variations whose vertical profiles of amplitude and phase are also in good agreement. Wavelet analysis also reveals common time-frequency behavior in both NAVGEM and radar winds throughout the Northern extratropics around the times of major stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) in January 2010 and January 2013, with a reduction in semi-diurnal amplitudes beginning around the time of a mesospheric wind reversal at 60°N that precedes the SSW, followed by an amplification of semi-diurnal amplitudes that peaks 10-14 days following the onset of the mesospheric wind reversal. The initial results presented in this study demonstrate that the wind analyses produced by the high-altitude NAVGEM system accurately capture key features in the observed MLT winds during these two boreal winter periods.

  15. System Concepts for the Advanced Post-TRMM Rainfall Profiling Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Global rainfall is the primary distributor of latent heat through atmospheric circulation. The recently launched Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite is dedicated to advance our understanding of tropical precipitation patterns and their implications on global climate and its change. The Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the satellite is the first radar ever flown in space and has provided. exciting, new data on the 3-D rain structures for a variety of scientific uses. However, due to the limited mission lifetime and the dynamical nature of precipitation, the TRMM PR data acquired cannot address all the issues associated with precipitation, its related processes, and the long-term climate variability. In fact, a number of new post-TRMM mission concepts have emerged in response to the recent NASA's request for new ideas on Earth science missions at the post 2002 era. This paper will discuss the system concepts for two advanced, spaceborne rainfall profiling radars. In the first portion of this paper, we will present a system concept for a second-generation spaceborne precipitation radar for operations at the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The key PR-2 electronics system will possess the following capabilities: (1) A 13.6/35 GHz dual frequency radar electronics that has Doppler and dual-polarization capabilities. (2) A large but light weight, dual-frequency, wide-swath scanning, deployable antenna. (3) Digital chirp generation and the corresponding on-board pulse compression scheme. This will allow a significant improvement on rain signal detection without using the traditional, high-peak-power transmitters and without sacrificing the range resolution. (4) Radar electronics and algorithm to adaptively scan the antenna so that more time can be spent to observe rain rather than clear air. and (5) Built-in flexibility on the radar parameters and timing control such that the same radar can be used by different future rain missions. This will help to reduce the overall

  16. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

  17. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  18. Ducted electromagnetic waves in the Martian ionosphere detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenfei; Orosei, Roberto; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the data of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Mars Express (MEX), a distinctive type of signals (called the "epsilon signature"), which is similar to that previously detected during radio sounding of the terrestrial F region ionosphere, is found. The signature is interpreted to originate from multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves propagating along sounder pulse-created, crustal magnetic field-aligned plasma bubbles (waveguides). The signatures have a low (below 0.5%) occurrence rate and apparent cutoff frequencies 3-5 times higher than the theoretical one for an ordinary mode wave. These properties are explained by the influence of the perpendicular ionospheric plasma density gradient and the sounder pulse frequency on the formation of waveguides.

  19. A Study of the Use of Meteorological Satellite, Weather Radar, and Integrated Graphics Products in the Flight Service Station System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    watershed hydrological estimates, tops maps, and a vertically integrated liquid water content (VIL) map. System movement vectors are computed, and a flash ... flood monitor is maintained. The maps produced are not exact images of the picture seen on the radar CRT, but rather are processed data presented on

  20. Recent advances in radar remote sensing of forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letoan, Thuy

    1993-01-01

    On a global scale, forests represent most of the terrestrial standing biomass (80 to 90 percent). Thus, natural and anthropogenic change in forest covers can have major impacts not only on local ecosystems but also on global hydrologic, climatic, and biogeochemical cycles that involve exchange of energy, water, carbon, and other elements between the earth and atmosphere. Quantitative information on the state and dynamics of forest ecosystems and their interactions with the global cycles appear necessary to understand how the earth works as a natural system. The information required includes the lateral and vertical distribution of forest cover, the estimates of standing biomass (woody and foliar volume), the phenological and environmental variations and disturbances (clearcutting, fires, flood), and the longer term variations following deforestation (regeneration, successional stages). To this end, seasonal, annual, and decadal information is necessary in order to separate the long term effects in the global ecosystem from short term seasonal and interannual variations. Optical remote sensing has been used until now to study the forest cover at local, regional, and global scales. Radar remote sensing, which provides recent SAR data from space on a regular basis, represents an unique means of consistently monitoring different time scales, at all latitudes and in any atmospheric conditions. Also, SAR data have shown the potential to detect several forest parameters that cannot be inferred from optical data. The differences--and complementarity--lie in the penetration capabilities of SAR data and their sensitivity to dielectric and geometric properties of the canopy volume, whereas optical data are sensitive to the chemical composition of the external foliar layer of the vegetation canopy.

  1. Vensis: Venus Advanced Radar For Subsurface And Ionosphere Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biccari, D.; Gurnett, D.; Jordan, R.; Huff, R.; Marinangeli, L.; Nielsen, E.; Ori, G. G.; Picardi, G.; Plaut, J.; Provvedi, F.; Seu, R.; Zampolini, E.

    Due to optically opaque atmosphere of Venus radar is the best way to observe the surface of the planet from orbit. Magellan has obtained global SAR imaging, as well as altimetry and emissivity. As a subsurface sounder, working at low frequency and preferably in the night time, VENSIS would obtain fundamentally different kinds of geologic information than Magellan, mapping of interfaces of geologic units (e.g. tessera, plains, lava flows, impact debris) could in fact be extended into the third di- mension. A subsurface investigation of the first 1-2 Km will show the internal defor- mations of the Venusian surface and will depict the structural styles of old crust which are essential to define the crust dynamics, an improved understanding of the evolu- tion of complex Venusian features is a key to define the geological evolution of the planet. Furthermore in standard subsurface sounding mode VENSIS will be able to transmit four different bandwidth, so the possibility of multi frequency observations will allow the estimate of the material attenuation in the crust and will give significant indications on the dielectric properties of the detected interfaces. Thus the Primary Scientific Objectives of VENSIS are the following: 1-Characterize surface roughness, composition and electrical properties at long wavelengths (orders of magnitude longer than Magellan) 2-Probe the subsurface of Venus (to few km depth) to detect and map geologic materials and large scale structures at planetary level VENSIS sounder, using active sounding in a frequency range of 100 kHz to 7 MHz, would also allow detailed characterization of the Venus ionosphere while in passive mode it can be used to detect lightning, the presence of which remains both controversial and critical to understand the behavior of the atmosphere and the possibility of present day volcanism. Therefore a secondary objective is to Probe the ionosphere to characterize interactions between the solar wind and the Venusian

  2. Advanced Precipitation Radar Antenna to Measure Rainfall From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Lin, John; Huang, John; Im, Eastwood; Lou, Michael; Lopez, Bernardo; Durden, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    To support NASA s planned 20-year mission to provide sustained global precipitation measurement (EOS-9 Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)), a deployable antenna has been explored with an inflatable thin-membrane structure. This design uses a 5.3 5.3-m inflatable parabolic reflector with the electronically scanned, dual-frequency phased array feeds to provide improved rainfall measurements at 2.0-km horizontal resolution over a cross-track scan range of up to 37 , necessary for resolving intense, isolated storm cells and for reducing the beam-filling and spatial sampling errors. The two matched radar beams at the two frequencies (Ku and Ka bands) will allow unambiguous retrieval of the parameters in raindrop size distribution. The antenna is inflatable, using rigidizable booms, deployable chain-link supports with prescribed curvatures, a smooth, thin-membrane reflecting surface, and an offset feed technique to achieve the precision surface tolerance (0.2 mm RMS) for meeting the low-sidelobe requirement. The cylindrical parabolic offset-feed reflector augmented with two linear phased array feeds achieves dual-frequency shared-aperture with wide-angle beam scanning and very low sidelobe level of -30 dB. Very long Ku and Ka band microstrip feed arrays incorporating a combination of parallel and series power divider lines with cosine-over-pedestal distribution also augment the sidelobe level and beam scan. This design reduces antenna mass and launch vehicle stowage volume. The Ku and Ka band feed arrays are needed to achieve the required cross-track beam scanning. To demonstrate the inflatable cylindrical reflector with two linear polarizations (V and H), and two beam directions (0deg and 30deg), each frequency band has four individual microstrip array designs. The Ku-band array has a total of 166x2 elements and the Ka-band has 166x4 elements with both bands having element spacing about 0.65 lambda(sub 0). The cylindrical reflector with offset linear array feeds

  3. Detection of landmines and UXO using advanced synthetic aperture radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Heinzel, Andreas; Bischeltsrieder, Florian

    2016-05-01

    A main problem of effective landmine and UXO decontamination is efficient and reliable detection and localization of suspicious objects in reasonable time. This requirement demands for fast sensors investigating large areas with sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a suitable tool and is considered as a complementing sensor since nearly two decades. However, most GPRs operate in very close distance to ground in a rather punctual method of operation. In contrast, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a technique allowing fast and laminar stand-off investigation of an area. TIRAMI-SAR is imaging radar at lower microwaves for fast close-in detection of buried and unburied objects on a larger area. This allows efficient confirmation of a threat by investigating such regions of detection by other sensors. For proper object detection sufficient spatial resolution is required. Hence the SAR principle is applied. SAR for landmine/UXO detection can be applied by side-looking radar moved on safe ground along the area of interest, being typically the un-safe ground. Additionally, reliable detection of buried and unburied objects requires sufficient suppression of background clutter. For that purpose TIRAMI-SAR is using several antennas in multi-static configuration and wave polarization together with advanced SAR processing. The advantages and necessity of a multi-static antenna configuration for this kind of GPR approach is illustrated in the paper.

  4. Advanced multi-frequency radar: Design, preliminary measurements and particle size distribution retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majurec, Ninoslav

    In the spring of 2001 the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) at the University of Massachusetts began the development of an advanced Multi-Frequency Radar (AMFR) system for studying clouds and precipitation. This mobile radar was designed to consist of three polarimetric Doppler subsystems operating at Ku-band (13.4 GHz), Ka-band (35.6 GHz) and W-band (94.92 GHz). This combination of frequency bands allows a measurement of a wide range of atmospheric targets ranging from weakly reflecting clouds to strong precipitation. The antenna beamwidths at each frequency were intentionally matched, ensuring consistent sampling volume. Multi-frequency radar remote sensing techniques are not widely used because few multi-frequency radars are available to the science community. One exception is the 33 GHz/95 GHz UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS), which AMFR is intended to replace. AMFR's multi-parameter capabilities are designed for characterizing the complex microphysics of layer clouds and precipitation processes in winter storms. AMFR will also play an important role in developing algorithms and validating measurements for an upcoming generation of space-borne radars. The frequency bands selected for AMFR match those of several sensors that have been deployed or are under development. These include the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agencies (JAXA's) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Ku-band (13 GHz) radar, the CloudSat W-band (95 GHz) radar, and the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite radars at Ku-band and Ka-band. This dissertation describes the AMFR hardware design and development. Compared to CPRS, the addition of one extra frequency band (Ku) will extend AMFR's measurement capabilities towards the larger particle sizes (precipitation). AMFR's design is based around high-power klystron amplifiers. This ensures complete coherency (CPRS uses magnetrons and coherent-on-receive technique). The partial loss in sensitivity due to

  5. Optical techniques for signal distribution and control in advanced radar and communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1985-03-01

    It is concluded that optical techniques offer some advantages for signal distribution and control in advanced radar and communication systems. They are clearly ideal for transporting microwave signals over considerable distances, as in remote positioning of radar receivers, provided high dynamic range is not required and an enclosed transmission path is essential. They are an elegant means of distributing low level r.f. or i.f. signals around an active phased array where these signals are of relatively constant amplitude (as in mixer local oscillator applications). However, there is currently a rather restrictive limit on the size of distribution network possible. Optical techniques are obviously suitable for distributing digital control signals to phased array modules and confer considerable immunity to interference. They are less suitable for high dynamic range signals, such as the received radar returns, either at r.f. or when downcovered to i.f. Future developments in coherent optics or in fast optical A/D technology could, however, influence this conclusion. Currently, the optimum applications for optical techniques appear to be i.f. beamformers for multibeam communication satellite systems and in calibration/monitoring systems for phased arrays.

  6. Advanced Differential Radar Interferometry (A-DInSAR) as integrative tool for a structural geological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, B.; Calcagni, L.; Rossi, G.; Sternai, P.

    2009-04-01

    Advanced Differential SAR interferometry (A-DInSAR) is a technique monitoring large-coverage surface deformations using a stack of interferograms generated from several complex SLC SAR images, acquired over the same target area at different times. In this work are described the results of a procedure to calculate terrain motion velocity on highly correlated pixels (E. Biescas, M. Crosetto, M. Agudo, O. Monserrat e B. Crippa: Two Radar Interferometric Approaches to Monitor Slow and Fast Land Deformation, 2007) in two area Gemona - Friuli, Northern Italy, Pollino - Calabria, Southern Italy, and, furthermore, are presented some consideration, based on successful examples of the present analysis. The choice of these pixels whose displacement velocity is calculated depends on the dispersion index value (DA) or using coherence values along the stack interferograms. A-DInSAR technique allows to obtain highly reliable velocity values of the vertical displacement. These values concern the movement of minimum surfaces of about 80m2 at the maximum resolution and the minimum velocity that can be recognized is of the order of mm/y. Because of the high versatility of the technology, because of the large dimensions of the area that can be analyzed (of about 10000Km2) and because of the high precision and reliability of the results obtained, we think it is possible to exploit radar interferometry to obtain some important information about the structural context of the studied area, otherwise very difficult to recognize. Therefore we propose radar interferometry as a valid investigation tool whose results must be considered as an important integration of the data collected in fieldworks.

  7. Advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar (InSAR) for Dune Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, Shiran; Amir, Doron; Schvartzman, Ilan; August, Yitzhak; Mamman, Shimrit; Rotman, Stanely R.; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2016-04-01

    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available lose particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970s, remote sensing imagery, both optical and radar, have been used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two or more images. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR methods. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This work aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the coherence change detection method was used, in order to identify dune stability or instability and the dune activity level. The Nitzanim-Ashdod coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of

  8. Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) after nine years of operation: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosei, R.; Jordan, R. L.; Morgan, D. D.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Heggy, E.; Kirchner, D. L.; Noschese, R.; Kofman, W.; Masdea, A.; Plaut, J. J.; Seu, R.; Watters, T. R.; Picardi, G.

    2015-07-01

    Mars Express, the first European interplanetary mission, carries the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) to search for ice and water in the Martian subsurface. Developed by an Italian-US team, MARSIS transmits low-frequency, wide-band radio pulses penetrating below the surface and reflected by dielectric discontinuities linked to structural or compositional changes. MARSIS is also a topside ionosphere sounder, transmitting a burst of short, narrow-band pulses at different frequencies that are reflected by plasma with varying densities at different altitudes. The radar operates since July 2005, after the successful deployment of its 40 m antenna, acquiring data at altitudes lower than 1200 km. Subsurface sounding (SS) data are processed on board by stacking together a batch of echoes acquired at the same frequency. On ground, SS data are further processed by correlating the received echo with the transmitted waveform and compensating de-focusing caused by the dispersive ionosphere. Ground processing of active ionospheric sounding (AIS) data consists in the reconstruction of the electron density profile as a function of altitude. MARSIS observed the internal structure of Planum Boreum outlining the Basal Unit, an icy deposit lying beneath the North Polar Layered Deposits thought to have formed in an epoch in which climate was markedly different from the current one. The total volume of ice in polar layered deposits could be estimated, and parts of the Southern residual ice cap were revealed to consist of ≈ 10 m of CO2 ice. Radar properties of the Vastitas Borealis Formation point to the presence of large quantities of ice buried beneath the surface. Observations of the ionosphere revealed the complex interplay between plasma, crustal magnetic field and solar wind, contributing to space weather studies at Mars. The presence of three-dimensional plasma structures in the ionosphere was revealed for the first time. MARSIS could

  9. Hydro-meteorological Inverse Problems via Sparse Regularization: Advanced frameworks for rainfall spaceborne estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebtehaj, Mohammad

    The past decades have witnessed a remarkable emergence of new spaceborne and ground-based sources of multiscale remotely sensed geophysical data. Apart from applications related to the study of short-term climatic shifts, availability of these sources of information has improved dramatically our real-time hydro-meteorological forecast skills. Obtaining improved estimates of hydro-meteorological states from a single or multiple low-resolution observations and assimilating them into the background knowledge of a prognostic model have been a subject of growing research in the past decades. In this thesis, with particular emphasis on precipitation data, statistical structure of rainfall images have been thoroughly studied in transform domains (i.e., Fourier and Wavelet). It is mainly found that despite different underlying physical structure of storm events, there are general statistical signatures that can be robustly characterized and exploited as a prior knowledge for solving hydro-meteorological inverse problems such rainfall downscaling, data fusion, retrieval and data assimilation. In particular, it is observed that in the wavelet domain or derivative space, rainfall images are sparse. In other words, a large number of the rainfall expansion coefficients are very close to zero and only a small number of them are significantly non-zero, a manifestation of the non-Gaussian probabilistic structure of rainfall data. To explain this signature, relevant family of probability models including Generalized Gaussian Density (GGD) and a specific class of conditionally linear Gaussian Scale Mixtures (GSM) are studied. Capitalizing on this important but overlooked property of precipitation, new methodologies are proposed to optimally integrate and improve resolution of spaceborne and ground-based precipitation data. In particular, a unified framework is proposed that ties together the problems of downscaling, data fusion and data assimilation via a regularized variational

  10. A System Concept for the Advanced Post-TRMM Rainfall Profiling Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    ultimate goal. The Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite is the first ever spaceborne radar dedicated to three-dimensional, global precipitation measurements over the tropics and the subtropics, as well as the detailed synopsis of a wide range of tropical rain storm systems. In only twelve months since launch, the PR, together with other science instruments abroad the satellite have already provided unprecedented insights into the rainfall systems. It is anticipated the a lot more exciting and important rain observations would be made by TRMM throughout its mission duration. While TRMM has provided invaluable data to the user community, it is only the first step towards advancing our knowledge on rain processes and its contributions to climate variability. It is envisioned that a TRMM follow-on mission is needed in such a way to capitalize on the pioneering information provided by TRMM, and its instrument capability must be extended beyond TRMM in such a way to fully address the key science questions from microphysical to climatic time scale. In fact, a number of new and innovative mission concepts have recently put forth for this purpose. Almost all of these new concepts have suggested the utility of a more advanced, high-resolution, Doppler-enabled, vertical profiling radar that can provide multi-parameter observations of precipitation. In this paper, a system concept for a second- gene ration precipitation radar (PR-2) which addresses the above requirements will be described.

  11. A Low-order Coupled Chemistry Meteorology Model for Testing Online and Offline Advanced Data Assimilation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, M.; Haussaire, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bocquet and Sakov have recently introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of thechaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with thetransport of a tracer species advected by this wind field. It has been used to testadvanced data assimilation methods with an online model that couples meteorology andtracer transport. In the present study, the tracer subsystem of the model is replacedwith a reduced photochemistry module meant to emulate reactive air pollution. Thiscoupled chemistry meteorology model, the L95-GRS model, mimics continental andtranscontinental transport and photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds andnitrogen dioxides.The L95-GRS is specially useful in testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as theiterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) that combines the best of ensemble andvariational methods. The model provides useful insights prior to any implementation ofthe data assimilation method on larger models. For instance, online and offline dataassimilation strategies based on the ensemble Kalman filter or the IEnKS can easily beevaluated with it. It allows to document the impact of species concentration observationson the wind estimation. The model also illustrates a long standing issue in atmosphericchemistry forecasting: the impact of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical speciesnon-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the selected data assimilation approach.

  12. Accurate Characterization of Winter Precipitation Using In-Situ Instrumentation, CSU-CHILL Radar, and Advanced Scattering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. J.; Notaros, B. M.; Bringi, V. N.; Kleinkort, C.; Huang, G. J.; Kennedy, P.; Thurai, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel approach to remote sensing and characterization of winter precipitation and modeling of radar observables through a synergistic use of advanced in-situ instrumentation for microphysical and geometrical measurements of ice and snow particles, image processing methodology to reconstruct complex particle three-dimensional (3D) shapes, computational electromagnetics to analyze realistic precipitation scattering, and state-of-the-art polarimetric radar. Our in-situ measurement site at the Easton Valley View Airport, La Salle, Colorado, shown in the figure, consists of two advanced optical imaging disdrometers within a 2/3-scaled double fence intercomparison reference wind shield, and also includes PLUVIO snow measuring gauge, VAISALA weather station, and collocated NCAR GPS advanced upper-air system sounding system. Our primary radar is the CSU-CHILL radar, with a dual-offset Gregorian antenna featuring very high polarization purity and excellent side-lobe performance in any plane, and the in-situ instrumentation site being very conveniently located at a range of 12.92 km from the radar. A multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) is used to capture multiple different high-resolution views of an ice particle in free-fall, along with its fall speed. We apply a visual hull geometrical method for reconstruction of 3D shapes of particles based on the images collected by the MASC, and convert these shapes into models for computational electromagnetic scattering analysis, using a higher order method of moments. A two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), collocated with the MASC, provides 2D contours of a hydrometeor, along with the fall speed and other important parameters. We use the fall speed from the MASC and the 2DVD, along with state parameters measured at the Easton site, to estimate the particle mass (Böhm's method), and then the dielectric constant of particles, based on a Maxwell-Garnet formula. By calculation of the "particle-by-particle" scattering

  13. Advanced parametrical modelling of 24 GHz radar sensor IC packaging components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, R.; John, W.; Wellmann, J.; Bala, U. B.; Thiede, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the development of an advanced parametrical modelling concept for packaging components of a 24 GHz radar sensor IC used in automotive driver assistance systems. For fast and efficient design of packages for system-in-package modules (SiP), a simplified model for the description of parasitic electromagnetic effects within the package is desirable, as 3-D field computation becomes inefficient due to the high density of conductive elements of the various signal paths in the package. By using lumped element models for the characterization of the conductive components, a fast indication of the design's signal-quality can be gained, but so far does not offer enough flexibility to cover the whole range of geometric arrangements of signal paths in a contemporary package. This work pursues to meet the challenge of developing a flexible and fast package modelling concept by defining parametric lumped-element models for all basic signal path components, e.g. bond wires, vias, strip lines, bumps and balls.

  14. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  15. Advanced Polarimetric Measurements and Analysis with the CSD-CHILL Weather Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-20

    echo with respect to increased range. Shown in Fig. 9 is an example of three-body scattering from DLR’s (German Aerospace Agency) C - band radar located...Seeliger ground model for (a) S- band and (b) C - band . There are three sets of curves in each plot corresponding to radar beam heights at 0.01, 0.1 and...reflectivity, Preprints 25th Conf. Radar Meteor., 8-12 Sept., Austin, TX. 10. Brunkow, D., P. C . Kennedy, S. A. Rutledge, V. N. Bringi and V

  16. Investigating snow wetness using dual polarization advanced synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, G.; Singh, Gulab; Kumar, V.; Mohite, Kishor; Rao, Y. S.

    2007-09-01

    The main objective of the study is to estimate snow wetness using ENVISAT ASAR data. Snow surface backscattering can be expressed as a function of permittivity of snow. Coding has been done for backscattering coefficient image generation using ENVISAT- Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR), single look complex (SLC) data with dual (HH and VV) polarization as well as single (HH) polarization data. Incidence angle images were extracted from the ASAR header data using interpolation method. These mages were multi-looked 5 times in azimuth and 1 time in range direction. ASAR backscattering coefficient images have been calibrated and processed into terrain corrected images in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), zone 43 north and WGS-84 datum map projection using ERDAS Imagine software. Corrected backscattering images are despeckled using Frost filter technique. For this study Integral equation method (IEM) for first order surface scattering based inversion model has been used. A Software has been developed using integral equation method (IEM) based inversion model to estimate snow permittivity, which can be further related to estimating snow wetness. A comparison was done between inversion model estimated snow wetness and field values of snow wetness in the study region. Comparison with field measurement showed that the correlation coefficient for snow wetness estimated from ASAR data was observed to be 0.94 at 95% confidence interval and standard error is observed as 1.28% by volume at 95% confidence interval. The comparison of ASAR derived snow wetness with ground measurements shows the average absolute error at 95% confidence interval as 2.8%. The snow wetness range varies from 0-15% by volume.

  17. The Use of Radar to Improve Rainfall Estimation over the Tennessee and San Joaquin River Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Felix, Mariana; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the collaborative radar rainfall project between the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Von Braun Center for Science & Innovation (VCSI), NASA MSFC and UAHuntsville. Two systems were used in this project, Advanced Radar for Meteorological & Operational Research (ARMOR) Rainfall Estimation Processing System (AREPS), a demonstration project of real-time radar rainfall using a research radar and NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS). The objectives, methodology, some results and validation, operational experience and lessons learned are reviewed. The presentation. Another project that is using radar to improve rainfall estimations is in California, specifically the San Joaquin River Valley. This is part of a overall project to develop a integrated tool to assist water management within the San Joaquin River Valley. This involves integrating several components: (1) Radar precipitation estimates, (2) Distributed hydro model, (3) Snowfall measurements and Surface temperature / moisture measurements. NREPS was selected to provide precipitation component.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  19. Multidisciplinary studies of the social, economic and political impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The multidisciplinary studies explore and evaluate the impact of the meteorological satellite and the concomitant impact of the data derived from it on various user groups. As expected, the primary impact related to those who would use satellite data for weather prediction and related purposes. A secondary impact was in the area of international concerns where GARP and other international meteorological activities were affected and international law was developed. A tertiary impact was exemplified by satellite photographs utilized in advertisements and related materials. The case studies, supporting studies, and independent studies all emphasize the potential of the meteorological satellite.

  20. Multi-damage detection with embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm using piezoelectric wafer active sensors through advanced signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2005-05-01

    The embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm was developed by using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. EUSR has been verified to be effective for detecting a single crack either at a broadside or at an offside position. In this research, advanced signal processing techniques were included to enhance inspection image quality and detect multiple damage. The signal processing methods include discrete wavelet transform for signal denoising, short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform for time-frequency analysis, continuous wavelet transform for frequency filtering, and Hilbert transform for envelope extraction. All these signal processing modules were implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabVIEW. The paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm, followed with the theoretical aspect of the phased array signal processing method. Then, the mathematical algorithms for advanced signal processing are introduced. In the end, laboratory experimental results are presented to show how efficiently the improved EUSR works. The results are analyzed and EUSR is concluded to have been improved by using the advanced signal processing techniques. The improvements include: 1) EUSR is able to provide better image of the specimen under monitoring; 2) it is able to detect multi-damage such as several cracks; 3) it is able to identify different damage types.

  1. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  2. Theoretical analysis and meteorological interpretation of the role of raindrop shape on microwave attenuation and propagation phase shifts - Implications for the radar measurement of rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of raindrop shape on the attenuation and propagation phase shift at vertical and horizontal linear polarizations is examined, focusing on the implications of these effects on rain measurements by radars. Analytic expressions for the imaginary and real components of the forward scattering amplitude function are dervied for a wavelength of 2.2 cm. It is shown that the summation attenuation rate and the rate of summation propagation phase shift are both insensitive to the shapes of raindrops.

  3. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  4. FACILITATING ADVANCED URBAN METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING CAPABILITIES WITH HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN DATABASE AND ACCESS PORTAL TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information of urban morphological features at high resolution is needed to properly model and characterize the meteorological and air quality fields in urban areas. We describe a new project called National Urban Database with Access Portal Tool, (NUDAPT) that addresses this nee...

  5. The Influence on CMAQ Modeled Wet and Dry Deposition of Advances in the CMAQ Systems for Meteorology and Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Process level improvements in the CMAQ system have been made to WRF meteorology, national ammonia emission profiles, and CMAQ ammonia air-surface exchange. An incremental study was conducted to quantify the impact of individual and combined changes on modeled inorganic depositio...

  6. Imaging of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes with the 450 MHz Poker Flat Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M. J.; Heinselman, C. J.; Hope, E. A.; Ranjan, S.; Kelley, M. C.; Kelly, J. D.

    2007-10-01

    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) occur near the mesopause during the polar summer months. PMSE are primarily studied at VHF, however there have been some detections at higher frequencies. Here, we report on some of the first detections of PMSE with the 450 MHz (67 cm) Poker Flat Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR). Echoes were observed with volume reflectivities (radar scattering cross section per unit volume) near 2-3 × 10-17 m-1. On 11 June 2007, PFISR was operating in a 26-beam position mode, with look directions spread over an approximately 80 by 80 km2 region at 85 km altitude with elevation angles as low as ~50°. The measurements showed patchy (tens of kilometer) irregularity regions drifting in from the north, in addition to smaller, more localized structures. There was no evidence for strong aspect sensitivity of these UHF echoes, as PMSE was observed in all look directions with relatively uniform intensity. The observations indicate the presence of fossilized irregularities drifting with the background wind field as well as areas of developing irregularities possibly associated with the presence of active neutral air turbulence.

  7. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  8. Advanced system model for 1574-nm imaging, scannerless, eye-safe laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schael, Ulrich; Rothe, Hendrik

    2002-10-01

    Laser radar based on gated viewing uses narrow laser pulses to illuminate a whole scene for direct (incoherent) detection. Due to the time of flight principle and a very fast shutter with precisely controlled delay time, only light reflected in the range R (range slice ΔR) is detected by a camera. Scattered light which reaches the shutter outside a given exposure time (gate) is suppressed. Hence, it is possible to "look" along the optical axis through changing atmospheric transmissions (rain, haze, fog, snow). For each laser pulse, the grey value image ES(x,y) of the camera is captured by a framegrabber for subsequent evaluation. Image sequences from these laser radar systems are ideally suited to recognize objects, because of the automatic contrast generation of the technology. Difficult object recognition problems, detection, target tracking, or obstacle avoidance at bad weather conditions are favorite applications. In this paper we discuss improvements in the system modelling and simulation of our laser radar system. Formerly the system performance was calculated for the whole system using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), leading to a general estimation of the maximum range of target detection. Changing to a pixel oriented approach, we are now able to study the system response for targets with arbitrary two and even three dimensional form. We take into account different kinds of target reflectivity and the Gaussian nature of the illuminating laser spot. Hence it is possible to simulate gray value images (range slices) and calculate range images. This will lead to a modulation transfer function for the system in future. Finally, the theoretical considerations are compared with experimental results from indoor measurements.

  9. Advancing migratory bird conservation and management by using radar: An interagency collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, Janet M.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Manville, Albert; Green, Michael T.; Krueper, David J.; Johnston, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Many technical issues make this work difficult, including complex data structures, massive data sets, digital recognition of birds, large areas not covered by weather radar, and model validation; however, progress will only be furthered by tackling the challenge. The new coalition will meets its goals by: (1) facilitating a productive collaboration with NOAA, Department of the Interior bureaus, state wildlife agencies, universities, power companies, and other potential partners; (2) building and strengthening scientific capabilities within USGS; (3) addressing key migratory bird management issues; and (4) ensuring full funding for the collaborative effort.

  10. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

  11. Propagation of radar rainfall uncertainty in urban flood simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Sara; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    , 2010. Review of the different sources of uncertainty in single polarization radar-based estimates of rainfall. Surveys in Geophysics 31: 107-129. [4] Rossa A, Liechti K, Zappa M, Bruen M, Germann U, Haase G, Keil C, Krahe P, 2011. The COST 731 Action: A review on uncertainty propagation in advanced hydrometeorological forecast systems. Atmospheric Research 100, 150-167. [5] Rossa A, Bruen M, Germann U, Haase G, Keil C, Krahe P, Zappa M, 2010. Overview and Main Results on the interdisciplinary effort in flood forecasting COST 731-Propagation of Uncertainty in Advanced Meteo-Hydrological Forecast Systems. Proceedings of Sixth European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology ERAD 2010. [6] Germann U, Berenguer M, Sempere-Torres D, Zappa M, 2009. REAL - ensemble radar precipitation estimation for hydrology in a mountainous region. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 135: 445-456. [8] Bowler NEH, Pierce CE, Seed AW, 2006. STEPS: a probabilistic precipitation forecasting scheme which merges and extrapolation nowcast with downscaled NWP. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 132: 2127-2155. [9] Zappa M, Rotach MW, Arpagaus M, Dorninger M, Hegg C, Montani A, Ranzi R, Ament F, Germann U, Grossi G et al., 2008. MAP D-PHASE: real-time demonstration of hydrological ensemble prediction systems. Atmospheric Science Letters 9, 80-87. [10] Liguori S, Rico-Ramirez MA. Quantitative assessment of short-term rainfall forecasts from radar nowcasts and MM5 forecasts. Hydrological Processes, accepted article. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8415 [11] Liguori S, Rico-Ramirez MA, Schellart ANA, Saul AJ, 2012. Using probabilistic radar rainfall nowcasts and NWP forecasts for flow prediction in urban catchments. Atmospheric Research 103: 80-95. [12] Harrison DL, Driscoll SJ, Kitchen M, 2000. Improving precipitation estimates from weather radar using quality control and correction techniques. Meteorological Applications 7: 135-144. [13] Harrison DL, Scovell RW, Kitchen

  12. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    This grant provides for some investigations related to weather radar measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand. Quality data are needed from those systems to support TRMM and other scientific investigations. Activities carried out during a trip to the radar facilities at Phuket are described.

  13. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  14. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  15. Very Long Microstrip Array Feeds of a Membrane Reflector for the Advanced Precipitation Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood

    2005-01-01

    Very long microstrip arrays have been developed at the Ku- and Ka-band frequencies. Each array having an electrical length of about 110 free-space wavelengths is used to feed a deployable thin-membrane cylindrical reflector for a spaceborne precipitation radar application. These arrays, designed for 0(deg) and 30(deg) beam directions, achieved peak sidelobes of -20 dB and average sidelobes below -30 dB with peak cross-pol levels below -20 dB. Several unique challenges were encountered during the development of these very long arrays, such as the strong coupling between very long power divider lines, the strong leakage radiation from the lengthy transmission lines, and the lack of computer analysis capability of these electrically large arrays.

  16. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.

    2015-01-01

    The USGS has compiled a continuous, cloud-free 12.5-meter resolution radar mosaic of SAR data of approximately 212,000 square kilometers to examine the suitability of this technology for geologic mapping. This mosaic was created from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data collected from 2007 to 2010 spanning the Kahiltna terrane and the surrounding area. Interpretation of these data may help geologists understand past geologic processes and identify areas with potential for near-surface mineral resources for further ground-based geological and geochemical investigations.

  17. Radar derived spatial statistics of summer rain. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronnenburg, C.; Bassnett, A.; Knapp, H.; Vann, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    A collection of selected important memoranda written during the course of the experiment. It contains detailed information on: (1) frequency diversity, (2) radar controller and radar video processor, (3) SPANDAR calibration, and (4) meteorological summaries.

  18. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  19. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Recent Advances @ the ELEDIA Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salucci, Marco; Tenuti, Lorenza; Nardin, Cristina; Oliveri, Giacomo; Viani, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The application of non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) methodologies in civil engineering has raised a growing interest during the last years because of its potential impact in several different scenarios. As a consequence, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technologies have been widely adopted as an instrument for the inspection of the structural stability of buildings and for the detection of cracks and voids. In this framework, the development and validation of GPR algorithms and methodologies represents one of the most active research areas within the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento. More in detail, great efforts have been devoted towards the development of inversion techniques based on the integration of deterministic and stochastic search algorithms with multi-focusing strategies. These approaches proved to be effective in mitigating the effects of both nonlinearity and ill-posedness of microwave imaging problems, which represent the well-known issues arising in GPR inverse scattering formulations. More in detail, a regularized multi-resolution approach based on the Inexact Newton Method (INM) has been recently applied to subsurface prospecting, showing a remarkable advantage over a single-resolution implementation [1]. Moreover, the use of multi-frequency or frequency-hopping strategies to exploit the information coming from GPR data collected in time domain and transformed into its frequency components has been proposed as well. In this framework, the effectiveness of the multi-resolution multi-frequency techniques has been proven on synthetic data generated with numerical models such as GprMax [2]. The application of inversion algorithms based on Bayesian Compressive Sampling (BCS) [3][4] to GPR is currently under investigation, as well, in order to exploit their capability to provide satisfactory reconstructions in presence of single and multiple sparse scatterers [3][4]. Furthermore, multi-scaling approaches exploiting level

  20. Advanced signal processing method for ground penetrating radar feature detection and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Venkatachalam, Anbu Selvam; Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on new signal processing algorithms customized for an air coupled Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system targeting highway pavements and bridge deck inspections. The GPR hardware consists of a high-voltage pulse generator, a high speed 8 GSps real time data acquisition unit, and a customized field-programmable gate array (FPGA) control element. In comparison to most existing GPR system with low survey speeds, this system can survey at normal highway speed (60 mph) with a high horizontal resolution of up to 10 scans per centimeter. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of subsurface media, the GPR signal processing is important but challenging. In this GPR system, an adaptive GPR signal processing algorithm using Curvelet Transform, 2D high pass filtering and exponential scaling is proposed to alleviate noise and clutter while the subsurface features are preserved and enhanced. First, Curvelet Transform is used to remove the environmental and systematic noises while maintain the range resolution of the B-Scan image. Then, mathematical models for cylinder-shaped object and clutter are built. A two-dimension (2D) filter based on these models removes clutter and enhances the hyperbola feature in a B-Scan image. Finally, an exponential scaling method is applied to compensate the signal attenuation in subsurface materials and to improve the desired signal feature. For performance test and validation, rebar detection experiments and subsurface feature inspection in laboratory and field configurations are performed.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  2. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  3. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 30: International School on Atmospheric Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukao, Shoichiro (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Broad, tutorial coverage is given to the technical and scientific aspects of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) meteorological radar systems. Control issues, signal processing, atmospheric waves, the historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics, incoherent scatter radars, radar echoes, radar targets, and gravity waves are among the topics covered.

  4. Space-based radar representation in the advanced warfighting simulation (AWARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phend, Andrew E.; Buckley, Kathryn; Elliott, Steven R.; Stanley, Page B.; Shea, Peter M.; Rutland, Jimmie A.

    2004-09-01

    Space and orbiting systems impact multiple battlefield operating systems (BOS). Space support to current operations is a perfect example of how the United States fights. Satellite-aided munitions, communications, navigation and weather systems combine to achieve military objectives in a relatively short amount of time. Through representation of space capabilities within models and simulations, the military will have the ability to train and educate officers and soldiers to fight from the high ground of space or to conduct analysis and determine the requirements or utility of transformed forces empowered with advanced space-based capabilities. The Army Vice Chief of Staff acknowledged deficiencies in space modeling and simulation during the September 2001 Space Force Management Analsyis Review (FORMAL) and directed that a multi-disciplinary team be established to recommend a service-wide roadmap to address shortcomings. A Focus Area Collaborative Team (FACT), led by the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command with participation across the Army, confirmed the weaknesses in scope, consistency, correctness, completeness, availability, and usability of space model and simulation (M&S) for Army applications. The FACT addressed the need to develop a roadmap to remedy Space M&S deficiencies using a highly parallelized process and schedule designed to support a recommendation during the Sep 02 meeting of the Army Model and Simulation Executive Council (AMSEC).

  5. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  6. Polarimetric Intensity Parameterization of Radar and Other Remote Sensing Sources for Advanced Exploitation and Data Fusion: Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Ramin Sabry Ramin Sabry Defence Scientist Approved by Original signed by Paris Vachon Paris Vachon A/Head, Radar Applications and Space Technologies...En se basant sur ce qui précède, on étudie les caractéristiques communes, l’interfonctionnement et la fusion de divers produits de capteurs ...polarimétriques dans diverses régions du spectre, p. ex. le radar classique ou le radar à synthèse d’ouverture et des capteurs électro-optiques, et on formule

  7. Anisotropic mechanical behaviour of sedimentary basins inferred by advanced radar interferometry above gas storage fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Gambolati, G.; Ferretti, A.

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas is commonly stored underground in depleted oil and gas fields to provide safe storage capacity and deliverability to market areas where production is limited, or to take advantage of seasonal price swings. In response to summer gas injection and winter gas withdrawal the reservoir expands and contracts with the overlying land that moves accordingly. Depending on the field burial depth, a few kilometres of the upper lithosphere are subject to local three-dimensional deformations with the related cyclic motion of the ground surface being both vertical and horizontal. Advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, obtained by combining ascending and descending RADARSAT-1 images acquired from 2003 to 2008 above gas storage fields located in the sedimentary basin of the Po river plain, Italy, provide reliable measurement of these seasonal vertical ups and downs as well as horizontal displacements to and from the injection/withdrawal wells. Combination of the land surface movements together with an accurate reconstruction of the subsurface geology made available by three-dimensional seismic surveys and long-time records of fluid pore pressure within the 1000-1500 m deep reservoirs has allowed for the development of an accurate 3D poro-mechanical finite-element model of the gas injection/removal occurrence. Model calibration based on the observed cyclic motions, which are on the range of 10-15 mm and 5-10 mm in the vertical and horizontal west-east directions, respectively, helps characterize the nonlinear hysteretic geomechanical properties of the basin. First, using a basin-scale relationship between the oedometric rock compressibility cM in virgin loading conditions versus the effective intergranular stress derived from previous experimental studies, the modeling results show that the ratio s between loading and unloading-reloading cM is about 4, consistent with in-situ expansions measured by the radioactive marker technique in similar reservoirs

  8. Adriatic Meteorology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    positioned at the Croatian coastal town of Zadar (see following image of the launch of a balloon sounding at Zadar ) . This station was set-up but...a-day Zadar soundings between 1 January – 30 June and twice-a-day operational soundings at Zagreb. Figure 1. Start of sounding at Zadar ...Meteorological Service was contracted to double the number of upper air soundings at the Croatian coastal station of Zadar (44.10 N 15.34 E , 79 m/MSL

  9. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  10. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  11. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  12. Advanced Radar Reflector Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    early history of the cloud, before it fully blooms , these dipoles are closely spaced and strongly coupled electromagnetically. Furthermore, blooming ...preferred?" "What are the expected scintillation rates?" "Can one make a cloud bloom faster electromagnetically?" These questions cannot be...ensemble average of backscatter calculated for each time sample. As time progresses and the cloud blooms , we assume the ensemble averages from each

  13. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  14. Total Lightning Observations within Electrified Snowfall using Polarimetric Radar, LMA, and NLDN Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawerence D.; Brunning, Eric C.; Blakeslee, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Four electrified snowfall cases are examined using total lightning measurements from lightning mapping arrays (LMAs), and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) from Huntsville, AL and Washington D.C. In each of these events, electrical activity was in conjunction with heavy snowfall rates, sometimes exceeding 5-8 cm hr-1. A combination of LMA, and NLDN data also indicate that many of these flashes initiated from tall communications towers and traveled over large horizontal distances. During events near Huntsville, AL, the Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) C-band polarimetric radar was collecting range height indicators (RHIs) through regions of heavy snowfall. The combination of ARMOR polarimetric radar and VHF LMA observations suggested contiguous layer changes in height between sloping aggregate-dominated layers and horizontally-oriented crystals. These layers may have provided ideal conditions for the development of extensive regions of charge and resultant horizontal propagation of the lightning flashes over large distances.

  15. Advancing Understanding of the Role of Belowground Processes in Terrestrial Carbon Sinks trhrough Ground-Penetrating Radar. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Frank P.

    2015-02-06

    Coarse roots play a significant role in belowground carbon cycling and will likely play an increasingly crucial role in belowground carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise, yet they are one of the most difficult ecosystem parameters to quantify. Despite promising results with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method of quantifying biomass of coarse roots, this application of GPR is in its infancy and neither the complete potential nor limitations of the technology have been fully evaluated. The primary goals and questions of this study fell into four groups: (1) GPR methods: Can GPR detect change in root biomass over time, differentiate live roots from dead roots, differentiate between coarse roots, fine roots bundled together, and a fine root mat, remain effective with varied soil moisture, and detect shadowed roots (roots hidden below larger roots); (2) CO2 enrichment study at Kennedy Space Center in Brevard County, Florida: Are there post-fire legacy effects of CO2 fertilization on plant carbon pools following the end of CO2application ? (3) Disney Wilderness Study: What is the overall coarse root biomass and potential for belowground carbon storage in a restored longleaf pine flatwoods system? Can GPR effectively quantify coarse roots in soils that are wetter than the previous sites and that have a high percentage of saw palmetto rhizomes present? (4) Can GPR accurately represent root architecture in a three-dimensional model? When the user is familiar with the equipment and software in a setting that minimizes unsuitable conditions, GPR is a relatively precise, non-destructive, useful tool for estimating coarse root biomass. However, there are a number of cautions and guidelines that should be followed to minimize inaccuracies or situations that are untenable for GPR use. GPR appears to be precise as it routinely predicts highly similar values for a given area across multiple

  16. LANL Meteorology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  17. Advances in ice radar studies of a temperate alpine glacier, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fountain, A.G.; Jacobel, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., is one of the most extensively studied glaciers in the Western Hemisphere. In addition to mass-balance measurements, which date to 1958, numerous hydrological investigations have been carried out during the last three decades, and repeated ice-thickness determinations have been made using a variety of techniques. In the late 1960s, the basal topography was initially determined by gravitimetric methods. In the mid-1970s some of the first depth measurements using radar on temperate ice were made. The basal topography was remapped soon after from a series of point radar measurements and boreholes drilled to the glacier bottom. During the 1990s, the ice thickness was remapped using digital recording of continuous profiles that obtained over 5000 ice-thickness measurements. Profiles have been corrected for the finite beamwidth of the antenna radiation pattern and reflections in steep terrain, resulting in a significantly improved depiction of the basal surface and internal structures. The map based on our recent radar profiles confirms the large-scale features of the basal topography previously depicted and reveals more structural detail. A bright reflector was detected at the base of the glacier and could be traced in adjacent profiles. Comparison with results from water-level measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed indicates that the reflector is a subglacial conduit.

  18. X-band radar field campaign data analysis for orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcacchia, Leonardo; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Bousquet, Olivier; Cheong, Boon-Leng; Maggioni, Viviana; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation over mountainous basins is of great importance because of their susceptibility to hazards such as flash floods, shallow landslides, and debris flows. It is usually hard to obtain reliable weather radar information in mountainous areas, due to difficulties connected to non-meteorological scattering and the elevation of the study sites. Such regions are particularly interested by orographic/warm-rain precipitation processes, characterized by no ice phase in the cloud and prevailing concentration of small drops in the drop size distribution. Field campaigns are able to provide complete and solid datasets in mountainous regions, thanks to mobile radars and the complementary information provided by rain gauges and disdrometers. This study analyzes datasets collected during the Hymex, IPHEX, and Colorado field campaigns in mountainous areas in Italy, France, North Carolina, and Colorado. Mobile X-band radars from the NOAA National Severe Storm Laboratory and the Advanced Radar Research Center at the University of Oklahoma are utilized. The X-band dual polarimetric radar data are corrected for attenuation through the SCOP algorithm, and evaluated against disdrometer and rain-gauge data. Warm-rain events are identified by looking at the Gorgucci, Cao-Zhang, and Kumjian-Ryzhkov parameter spaces relating polarimetric radar variables to precipitation development processes in the cloud and rain size distributions. A conceptual model for the vertical profile of precipitation and microphysical structure of the cloud is also derived, to be contrasted against other typical convective and stratiform profiles.

  19. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  20. Ground-penetrating radar for sedimentology: methodological advances and examples from the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta plain, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Remke; Nooren, Kees; Dogan, Mine; Hoek, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is widely used as a tool for imaging sedimentary structures and reconstructing depositional history in a range of settings. Most GPR systems use a pair of dipole antennas to transmit and receive electromagnetic energy, typically in the frequency range of 0.025-1 GHz. Radar reflections result from contrasts in dielectric properties, which can be induced by small textural variations between layers. To generate cross sections of the subsurface, the common-offset antenna pair is moved along surface transects. The GPR method benefits from its relative ease of use and relatively limited basic processing that is required for interpretation of field data. Drawbacks include the high signal attenuation in electrically conductive material such as clay and the trade-off between penetration depth and resolution for different antenna frequencies. In recent years, various equipment advances and novel field practices and processing strategies have improved the ability of GPR to provide high-resolution data in a wider range of settings and scenarios. Advances include multi-channel systems for more efficient data collection, multi-offset data collection and processing for improved signal-to-noise ratios, full-resolution and multi-component imaging, and full-waveform inversion. In this presentation, we will discuss some of these methodological advances and present full-resolution field data from a highly heterogeneous fluvial site in Mississippi, USA. We will also present GPR data from a project focused on reconstructing depositional history of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in Tabasco, México, which is the world's largest beach ridge plain. Here we used common-offset GPR antenna pairs at two frequencies to assess the varying thickness of the eolian cover of individual beach ridges. We also characterized systematic changes in the dip of beach face and foreshore deposits to study its possible relation with temporal changes in coastal processes.

  1. Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Dennis W. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Reports on aviation meteorology, most of them informal, are presented by representatives of the National Weather Service, the Bracknell (England) Meteorological Office, the NOAA Wave Propagation Lab., the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Additional presentations are included on aircraft/lidar turbulence comparison, lightning detection and locating systems, objective detection and forecasting of clear air turbulence, comparative verification between the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Model and official aviation terminal forecasts, the evaluation of the Prototype Regional Observation and Forecast System (PROFS) mesoscale weather products, and the FAA/MIT Lincoln Lab. Doppler Weather Radar Program.

  2. Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Crystal J.; Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Roeder, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this NASA MSFC and NOAA CSTAR funded study is to develop and test operational forecast algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation utilizing the C-band dual-polarimetric radar, UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Although there is a rich research history of radar signatures associated with lightning initiation, few studies have utilized dual-polarimetric radar signatures (e.g., Z(sub dr) columns) and capabilities (e.g., fuzzy-logic particle identification [PID] of precipitation ice) in an operational algorithm for first flash forecasting. The specific goal of this study is to develop and test polarimetric techniques that enhance the performance of current operational radar reflectivity based first flash algorithms. Improving lightning watch and warning performance will positively impact personnel safety in both work and leisure environments. Advanced warnings can provide space shuttle launch managers time to respond appropriately to secure equipment and personnel, while they can also provide appropriate warnings for spectators and players of leisure sporting events to seek safe shelter. Through the analysis of eight case dates, consisting of 35 pulse-type thunderstorms and 20 non-thunderstorm case studies, lightning initiation forecast techniques were developed and tested. The hypothesis is that the additional dual-polarimetric information could potentially reduce false alarms while maintaining high probability of detection and increasing lead-time for the prediction of the first lightning flash relative to reflectivity-only based techniques. To test the hypothesis, various physically-based techniques using polarimetric variables and/or PID categories, which are strongly correlated to initial storm electrification (e.g., large precipitation ice production via drop freezing), were benchmarked against the operational reflectivity-only based approaches to find the best compromise between

  3. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  4. Classification and correction of the radar bright band with polarimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Will; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel; Kramer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The annular region of enhanced radar reflectivity, known as the Bright Band (BB), occurs when the radar beam intersects a layer of melting hydrometeors. Radar reflectivity is related to rainfall through a power law equation and so this enhanced region can lead to overestimations of rainfall by a factor of up to 5, so it is important to correct for this. The BB region can be identified by using several techniques including hydrometeor classification and freezing level forecasts from mesoscale meteorological models. Advances in dual-polarisation radar measurements and continued research in the field has led to increased accuracy in the ability to identify the melting snow region. A method proposed by Kitchen et al (1994), a form of which is currently used operationally in the UK, utilises idealised Vertical Profiles of Reflectivity (VPR) to correct for the BB enhancement. A simpler and more computationally efficient method involves the formation of an average VPR from multiple elevations for correction that can still cause a significant decrease in error (Vignal 2000). The purpose of this research is to evaluate a method that relies only on analysis of measurements from an operational C-band polarimetric radar without the need for computationally expensive models. Initial results show that LDR is a strong classifier of melting snow with a high Critical Success Index of 97% when compared to the other variables. An algorithm based on idealised VPRs resulted in the largest decrease in error when BB corrected scans are compared to rain gauges and to lower level scans with a reduction in RMSE of 61% for rain-rate measurements. References Kitchen, M., R. Brown, and A. G. Davies, 1994: Real-time correction of weather radar data for the effects of bright band, range and orographic growth in widespread precipitation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1231-1254. Vignal, B. et al, 2000: Three methods to determine profiles of reflectivity from volumetric radar data to correct

  5. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    part of the regions. 25 REFERENCES Bean, B. R. and E. J. Dutton, 1967: Radio meteorology. NBS monograph 92. National Bureau of Standards, Washington...lower boundary. Radio Sci., 13, 3, p. 489. Hitney, H. V., 1975: Propagation modeling in the evaporation duct. NELC TR-1947. Naval Electronics...Laboratory Center, San Diego, CA 92152. Jeske, H., 1971. The state of radar range propagation over sea. Tropospheric radio wave propagation, part II. NATO

  6. Radar volcano monitoring system in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arason, Þórður; Yeo, Richard F.; Sigurðsson, Geirfinnur S.; Pálmason, Bolli; von Löwis, Sibylle; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór

    2013-04-01

    Weather radars are valuable instruments in monitoring explosive volcanic eruptions. Temporal variations in the eruption strength can be monitored as well as variations in plume and ash dispersal. Strength of the reflected radar signal of a volcanic plume is related to water content and droplet sizes as well as type, shape, amount and the grain size distribution of ash. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) owns and operates three radars and one more is planned for this radar volcano monitoring system. A fixed position 250 kW C-band weather radar was installed in 1991 in SW-Iceland close to Keflavík International Airport, and upgraded to a doppler radar in 2010. In cooperation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), IMO has recently invested in two mobile X-band radars and one fixed position C-band radar. The fixed position 250 kW doppler C-band weather radar was installed in April 2012 at Fljótsdalsheiði, E-Iceland, and in June 2012 IMO received a mobile 65 kW dual-polarization doppler X-band radar. Early in 2013 IMO will acquire another mobile radar of the same type. Explosive volcanic eruptions in Iceland during the past 22 years were monitored by the Keflavík radar: Hekla 1991, Gjálp 1996, Grímsvötn 1998, Hekla 2000, Grímsvötn 2004, Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Grímsvötn 2011. Additionally, the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption was mointored by a mobile X-band radar on loan from the Italian Civil Protection Authorities. Detailed technical information is presented on the four radars with examples of the information acquired during previous eruptions. This expanded network of radars is expected to give valuable information on future volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

  7. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  8. A new approach to lightweight radar altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanon, N.; Stremler, F. G.; Suomi, V. E.

    1974-01-01

    Test results and key principles are given for a radar altimeter designed for meteorological balloons. The instrument, which weighs 160 g and consumes 0.7 W, will fill a gap in meteorological sensing using balloons - an area where pressure altitude was formerly the prevailing reference. The instrument is basically a delay-lock radar utilizing a superregenerative RF stage. Long-term absolute accuracy of plus or minus 10 m and short-term stability of better than 2 m rms were measured at altitudes of 20 km.

  9. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  10. Advances in 3D soil mapping and water content estimation using multi-channel ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar systems have recently become widely available, thereby opening new possibilities for shallow imaging of the subsurface. One advantage of these systems is that they can significantly reduce survey times by simultaneously collecting multiple lines of GPR reflection data. As a result, it is becoming more practical to complete 3D surveys - particularly in situations where the subsurface undergoes rapid changes, e.g., when monitoring infiltration and redistribution of water in soils. While 3D and 4D surveys can provide a degree of clarity that significantly improves interpretation of the subsurface, an even more powerful feature of the new multi-channel systems for hydrologists is their ability to collect data using multiple antenna offsets. Central mid-point (CMP) surveys have been widely used to estimate radar wave velocities, which can be related to water contents, by sequentially increasing the distance, i.e., offset, between the source and receiver antennas. This process is highly labor intensive using single-channel systems and therefore such surveys are often only performed at a few locations at any given site. In contrast, with multi-channel GPR systems it is possible to physically arrange an array of antennas at different offsets, such that a CMP-style survey is performed at every point along a radar transect. It is then possible to process this data to obtain detailed maps of wave velocity with a horizontal resolution on the order of centimeters. In this talk I review concepts underlying multi-channel GPR imaging with an emphasis on multi-offset profiling for water content estimation. Numerical simulations are used to provide examples that illustrate situations where multi-offset GPR profiling is likely to be successful, with an emphasis on considering how issues like noise, soil heterogeneity, vertical variations in water content and weak reflection returns affect algorithms for automated analysis of the data. Overall

  11. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  12. The problem of regime summaries of the data from radar observations. [for cloud system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divinskaya, B. S.; Salman, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    Peculiarities of the radar information about clouds are examined in comparison with visual data. An objective radar classification is presented and the relation of it to the meteorological classification is shown. The advisability of storage and summarization of the primary radar data for regime purposes is substantiated.

  13. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  14. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  15. Least square spline decomposition in time-frequency analysis of weather radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelevytska, K. I.; Semenova, O. S.; Shelevytsky, I. V.; Yanovsky, F. J.

    2011-10-01

    Meteorology plays an important role in aviation, as it enables to predict weather conditions and detect flight dangerous meteorological phenomena. Meteorological radar is used to detect the intensity and possible location of precipitation and dangerous zones in them. Doppler radar systems are able to measure the speed of scatteres that constitute meteorological formations and phenomena. The tasks of measurement accuracy increasing and reliability rise of hazardous meteorological phenomena detection become much more relevant after establishing new flight control system CNS ATM adopted by ICAO - the International Civil Aviation Organization.

  16. Acoustic radar investigations of boundary layer phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison is made between acoustic radar echoes and conventional meteorological data obtained from the WKY tower, for the purpose of better understanding the relationships between acoustic radar echoes and boundary layer processes. Two thunderstorm outflow cases are presented and compared to both acoustic radar data and Charba's gust front model. The acoustic radar echoes reveal the boundary between warm and cold air and other areas of mixing and strong thermal gradient quite well. The thunderstorm outflow of 27 June 1972 is found to compare with in most respects to Charba's gust front model. The major difference is the complete separation of the head from the main body of cold air, probably caused by erosion of the area behind the head by mixing with the ambient air. Two cases of nocturnal inversions caused by advection of warmer air aloft are presented. It is found that areas of turbulent mixing or strong thermal gradient can be identified quite easily in the acoustic radar record.

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  18. RADAR WARNING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADAR TRACKING, *AIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, RADAR EQUIPMENT, AIR TO AIR, SEARCH RADAR, GUIDED MISSILES, HIGH SPEED BOMBING, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AIRCRAFT, TIME, CHINA.

  19. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  20. Recent advances in efficient long-life, eye-safe solid state and CO2 lasers for laser radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Brockman, P.; Bair, C. H.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Wood, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The key problems in the development of eye-safe solid-state lasers are discussed, taking into account the energy transfer mechanisms between the complicated energy level manifolds of the Tm, Ho, Er ion dopants in hosts with decreasing crystal fields such as YAG or YLF. Optimization of energy transfer for efficient lasing through choice of dopant concentration, power density, crystal field and temperature is addressed. The tailoring of energy transfer times to provide efficient energy extraction for short pulses used in DIAL and Doppler lidar is considered. Recent advances in Pt/SnO2 oxide catalysts and other noble metal/metal oxide combinations for CO2 lasers are discussed. Emphasis is given to the dramatic effects of small quantities of H2O vapor for increasing the activity and lifetime of Pt/SnO2 catalysts and to increased lifetime operation with rare isotope (C-12)(O-18)2 lasing mixtures.

  1. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  2. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Meteorology impact on ATC system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of meteorology on air traffic control (ATC) system design for designs, and for cost benefit evaluations is discussed. The myriad of choices for implementation is a problem of great magnitude, given the economic climate of today. Cost versus benefit requires greater emphasis. Expanding and improving weather data acquisition, increasing the speed of weather data transmission and automating those actions that lend themselves to standardization for automated data processing are outlined. Three programs are mentioned: (1) automated weather observations, (2) weather radar and improvements to the national airspace system as related to the handling of weather data; and (3) products.

  4. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  5. Representing radar QPE and QPF uncertainties using radar ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere-Torres, D.; Llort, X.; Roca, J.; Pegram, G.

    2009-09-01

    In the last years, new comprehension of the physics underlying the radar measurements as well as new technological advancements have allowed radar community to propose better algorithms and methodologies and significant advancements have been achieved in improving Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) and Quantitative Precipitation forecasting (QPF) by radar. Thus the study of the 2D uncertainties field associated to these estimates has become an important subject, specially to enhance the use of radar QPE and QPF in hydrological studies, as well as in providing a reference for satellite precipitations measurements. In this context the use of radar-based rainfall ensembles (i.e. equiprobable rainfall field scenarios generated to be compatible with the observations/forecasts and with the inferred structure of the uncertainties) has been seen as an extremely interesting tool to represent their associated uncertainties. The generation of such radar ensembles requires first the full characterization of the 3D field of associated uncertainties (2D spatial plus temporal), since rainfall estimates show an error structure highly correlated in space and time. A full methodology to deal with this kind of radar-based rainfall ensembles is presented. Given a rainfall event, the 2D uncertainty fields associated to the radar estimates are defined for every time step using a benchmark, or reference field, based on the best available estimate of the rainfall field. This benchmark is built using an advanced non parametric interpolation of a dense raingauge network able to use the spatial structure provided by the radar observations, and is confined to the region in which this combination could be taken as a reference measurement (Velasco-Forero et al. 2008, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.10.004). Then the spatial and temporal structures of these uncertainty fields are characterized and a methodology to generate consistent multiple realisations of them is used to generate the

  6. Compendium of Lecture Notes for Training Class III Meteorological Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallack, B. J.

    This compendium of lecture notes provides a course of study for persons who may be involved in a variety of specialized meteorological tasks. The course is considered to be advanced and assumes students have had introductory experiences in meteorology and earth science (covered in a similar compendium). The material is presented in seven units…

  7. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  8. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  9. Climate and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  10. Meteorology for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, Kornelija; Rasol, Dubravka; Milković, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Meteorological and Hydrological Service in Croatia (MHSC) is, as a public service, open to and concentrated on public. The organization of visits to the MHSC for groups started in 1986. The GLOBE program in Croatia started in 1995 and after that interest for the group tours at the MHSC has increased. The majority of visitors are school and kindergarten children, students and groups of teachers. For each group tour we try to prepare the content that is suitable for the age and interest of a group. Majority of groups prefer to visit the meteorological station where they can see meteorological instruments and learn how they work. It is organized as a little workshop, where visitors can ask questions and discuss with a guide not only about the meteorological measurements but also about weather and climate phenomena they are interested in. Undoubtedly the highlight of a visit is the forecaster's room where visitors can talk to the forecasters (whom they can also see giving a weather forecast on the national TV station) and learn how weather forecasts are made. Sometimes we offer to visitors to make some meteorological experiments but that is still not in a regular program of the group tours due to the lack of performing space. Therefore we give them the instructions for making instruments and simulations of meteorological phenomena from household items. Visits guides are meteorologists with profound experience in the popularization of science.

  11. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  13. Radars in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

  14. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  15. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows: Radar QPE (Kwon et al.; Hall et al.; Chen and Chandrasekar; Seo and Krajewski; Sandford).

  16. Measurements of vertical velocity over flat terrain by ST radar and other related uses of the radar data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The need to study vertical velocity measurements from an ST radar located on the plains, far from the mountains is pointed out, as all presently available clear-air radars are located in or near mountains. The construction and operation of a VHF Doppler (ST) radar in the midwestern part of the United States to make meteorological measurements is also discussed. While primary interest is in measuring the synoptic-scale vertical velocities in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, it should be stressed, however, that the radar data set generated during the radar experiment would have many other valuable uses of interest to us and others some of whom are listed below. The required radar parameters, approximate costs, and recommended mode of operation are also detailed.

  17. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    over the shorter time period (resulting in a multilook SAR ) with the result that spatial resolution, the usual r~ason for using SAR techniques, degrades...Field - - - ALT 21. Sea Surface Topography - - - SAR , ALT 22. Ocean Waves (sea, swell, surf) V. Good Some V. Good SAR , ALT * with additional lower freq...OLS - Operational Line-scan System radiometer (4-6 GHz?) ALT - Altimeter •* good at low microwave SAR - Synthetic Aperture frequencies Radar + over

  18. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  19. Probabilistic forecasts based on radar rainfall uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, S.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The potential advantages resulting from integrating weather radar rainfall estimates in hydro-meteorological forecasting systems is limited by the inherent uncertainty affecting radar rainfall measurements, which is due to various sources of error [1-3]. The improvement of quality control and correction techniques is recognized to play a role for the future improvement of radar-based flow predictions. However, the knowledge of the uncertainty affecting radar rainfall data can also be effectively used to build a hydro-meteorological forecasting system in a probabilistic framework. This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic forecasting system developed to improve ensemble predictions over a small urban area located in the North of England. An ensemble of radar rainfall fields can be determined as the sum of a deterministic component and a perturbation field, the latter being informed by the knowledge of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the radar error assessed with reference to rain-gauges measurements. This approach is similar to the REAL system [4] developed for use in the Southern-Alps. The radar uncertainty estimate can then be propagated with a nowcasting model, used to extrapolate an ensemble of radar rainfall forecasts, which can ultimately drive hydrological ensemble predictions. A radar ensemble generator has been calibrated using radar rainfall data made available from the UK Met Office after applying post-processing and corrections algorithms [5-6]. One hour rainfall accumulations from 235 rain gauges recorded for the year 2007 have provided the reference to determine the radar error. Statistics describing the spatial characteristics of the error (i.e. mean and covariance) have been computed off-line at gauges location, along with the parameters describing the error temporal correlation. A system has then been set up to impose the space-time error properties to stochastic perturbations, generated in real-time at

  20. AOIPS/2: An interactive system to process, analyze, and display meteorological data sets for nowcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Desjardins, M. L.

    The Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System 2 (AOIPS/2) is a high performance interactive meteorological processing system where many meteorological data ingest, processing, analysis and display functions may be performed. These functions may be carried out on many types of meteorological data including those from satellites, radars, rawinsondes, surface observations, as well as special aircraft instruments and 3D numerical weather model simulations. Presently the capability to ingest real-time conventional data is being enhanced, and work is in progress to directly receive satellite and radar data. The AOIPS/2 capability to integrate these real-time data makes it an effective tool for nowcasting experiments. The AOIPS/2 hardware system consists of several 32 bit super microcomputers networked to a larger general purpose computer. Two of the ``super micros'' serve as hosts to commercially available image terminals while two others act as hosts to satellite and conventional data ingest systems. When the AOIPS/2 system was designed the following improvements over previous systems were sought: 1) integration of all the major software packages used by the Severe Storms Branch into the METPAK software system, 2) use of microcomputers which could be located near the users, 3) use of a distributed system to eliminate interference of CPU intensive image processing function with other users, and 4) minimization of the work involved in future upgrades to new computers or image terminals. The basic specifications and features of the AOIPS/2 include: 1) a distributed system of MicroVAX IIs, linked by Ethernet to a VAX 780 running VMS based software, 2) two International Imaging System (IIS) 75 image terminals with advanced hardware features like shift, zoom, and histogram etc. on dedicated MicroVAX II host computers eliminating interference between users 3) the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE), user interface and the Display Management System (DMS

  1. Software For Clear-Air Doppler-Radar Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    System of software developed to present plan-position-indicator scans of clear-air Doppler radar station on color graphical cathode-ray-tube display. Designed to incorporate latest accepted standards for equipment, computer programs, and meteorological data bases. Includes use of Ada programming language, of "Graphical-Kernel-System-like" graphics interface, and of Common Doppler Radar Exchange Format. Features include portability and maintainability. Use of Ada software packages produced number of software modules reused on other related projects.

  2. Information on bird navigation obtained by British long range radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    Radar observations of the migratory habits of passerine birds over a 10 year period are presented. The relationships between intensity of cloud cover and the frequency and density of migration are illustrated. The aspects of migration which were determined by the radar were: (1) migration under total overcast, (2) compensation for wind drift, (3) changes in flight direction during migration, and (4) effects of meteorological parameters.

  3. Meteorological support for anticipatory water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, C. J.; Wichers Schreur, B. G. J.; Vogelezang, D. H. P.

    2011-05-01

    Living with water is second nature to the inhabitants of the Netherlands. Managing water both as a resource and as a threat is a vital concern to the country. The responsibility for regional water management lies with the Dutch Regional Water Authorities. Their basic philosophy of a balance of safety and economic interests requires a sophisticated control and decision support system, with high quality meteorological inputs. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI in conjunction with the Dutch Association of Regional Water Authorities has developed a warning system for extreme precipitation in support of anticipatory water management. Radar observations, short range deterministic forecasts and medium range ensemble predictions of precipitation are combined with risk profiles of individual water control boards in an automatic system, that warns of possible conditions outside normal control. This article describes the current operational system and presents examples of its application. A first evaluation of the possible value of this system, that essentially decouples meteorology and hydrology, is discussed, based on a first evaluation of the reliability of the precipitation forecasts. Finally, the article presents the current development of an extended system that uses combined probabilities of precipitation with wind, surge and river level forecasts to more accurately define risk conditions.

  4. On data-based analysis of extreme events in multidimensional non-stationary meteorological systems: Based on advanced time series analysis methods and general extreme value theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, O.; Horenko, I.

    2012-04-01

    Given an observed series of extreme events we are interested to capture the significant trend in the underlying dynamics. Since the character of such systems is strongly non-linear and non-stationary, the detection of significant characteristics and their attribution is a complex task. A standard tool in statistics to describe the probability distribution of extreme events is the General Extreme Value Theory (GEV). While the univariate stationary GEV distribution is well studied and results in fitting the data to the model parameters using Likelihood Techniques and Bayesian Methods (Coles,'01; Davison, Rames, '00 ), analysis of non-stationary extremes is based on the a priori assumption about the trend behavior (e.g linear combination of external factors/polynomials (Coles,'01)). Additionally, analysis of multivariate, non-stationary extreme events remains still a strong challenge, since analysis without strong a priori assumptions is limited to low dimensional cases (Nychka, Cooley,'09). We introduce FEM-GEV approach, which is based on GEV and advanced Finite Element time series analysis Methods (FEM) (Horenko,'10-11). The main idea of the FEM framework is to interpolate adaptively the corresponding non-stationary model parameters by a linear convex combination of K local stationary models and a switching process between them. To apply FEM framework to a time series of extremes we extend FEM by defining the model parameters wrt GEV distribution, as external factors we consider global atmospheric patterns. The optimal number of local models K and the best combination of external factors is estimated using Akaike Information Criteria. FEM-GEV approach allows to study the non-stationary dynamics of GEV parameters without a priori assumptions on the trend behavior and also captures the non-linear, non-stationary dependence on external factors. The series of extremes has by definition no connection to real time scale, for this reason the results of FEM-GEV can be only

  5. Special Issue on Results from Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (Sir-C/X-SAR): Foreword

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jefferey J.

    1996-01-01

    The two flights of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour represent a major advance in remote sensing technology for studies of planetary surfaces.

  6. Modern meteorological computing resources - The Maryland experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Meteorology at the University of Maryland is developing one of the first computer systems in meteorology to take advantage of the new networked computer architecture that has been made possible by recent advances in computer and communication technology. Elements of the department's system include scientific workstations, local mainframe computers, remote mainframe computers, local-area networks,'long-haul' computer-to-computer communications, and 'receive-only' communications. Some background is provided, together with highlights of some lessons that were learned in carrying out the design. In agreement with work in the Unidata Project, this work shows that the networked computer architecture discussed here presents a new style of resources for solving problems that arise in meteorological research and education.

  7. Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

  8. Development of Radar-Satellite Blended QPF (Quantitative Precipitation Forecast) Technique for heavy rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sangmin; Yoon, Sunkwon; Rhee, Jinyoung; Park, Kyungwon

    2016-04-01

    Due to the recent extreme weather and climate change, a frequency and size of localized heavy rainfall increases and it may bring various hazards including sediment-related disasters, flooding and inundation. To prevent and mitigate damage from such disasters, very short range forecasting and nowcasting of precipitation amounts are very important. Weather radar data very useful in monitoring and forecasting because weather radar has high resolution in spatial and temporal. Generally, extrapolation based on the motion vector is the best method of precipitation forecasting using radar rainfall data for a time frame within a few hours from the present. However, there is a need for improvement due to the radar rainfall being less accurate than rain-gauge on surface. To improve the radar rainfall and to take advantage of the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) data, a technique to blend the different data types for very short range forecasting purposes was developed in the present study. The motion vector of precipitation systems are estimated using 1.5km CAPPI (Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator) reflectivity by pattern matching method, which indicates the systems' direction and speed of movement and blended radar-COMS rain field is used for initial data. Since the original horizontal resolution of COMS is 4 km while that of radar is about 1 km, spatial downscaling technique is used to downscale the COMS data from 4 to 1 km pixels in order to match with the radar data. The accuracies of rainfall forecasting data were verified utilizing AWS (Automatic Weather System) observed data for an extreme rainfall occurred in the southern part of Korean Peninsula on 25 August 2014. The results of this study will be used as input data for an urban stream real-time flood early warning system and a prediction model of landslide. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by

  9. New law enforcement applications of millimeter-wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Nicholas C.; Ferris, David D., Jr.; McMillan, Robert W.; Wicks, Michael C.

    1997-06-01

    Recent advances in millimeter-wave (MMW) radar technologies provide new applications for law enforcement use over-and- above the venerable speed timing radar. These applications include the potential to detect weapons under clothing and to conduct surveillance through walls. Concealed Weapon Detection and covert surveillance are of high interest to both the Department of Defense in support of Small Unit Operations and the Justice Department for civilian law enforcement applications. MMW sensors are under development which should provide the needed capabilities including radiometric sensors at 95 GHz, active 95 GHz real aperture radars, active focal plane array (FPA) radars, and holographic radars. Radiometric sensors include 2D FPA systems, 1D FPA, scanned systems, and single element scanned sensors. Active FPA radars include illuminated radiometric systems and coherent radar systems. Real aperture MMW radar systems include raster scanned and conical scanned sensors. Holographic systems ruse mechanical scanners to collect coherent data over a significant solid angular sector.

  10. Meteorology: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    This document on meteorology is one of a four-volume series of Project Earth Science that includes exemplary hands-on science and reading materials for use in the classroom. This book is divided into three sections: activities, readings, and appendix. The activities are constructed around three basic concept divisions. First, students investigate…

  11. FRAM I Meteorology Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    kilometer south of the initial -- - 7 -FM 3. April camp. Change of weather regime to light and variable winds, generally northerly. 2 Meteorological... sunshot at the main part of the camp. South FRAM" dire ction to ’main camp PRIL ambient nto’s. Distance from UW hut BID to NPI hut at the main seismic

  12. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  13. Current status of Dual Ka-band radar field campaign in Japan for GPM/DPR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Hanado, Hiroshi; Minda, Haruya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Oki, Riko; Furukawa, Kinji

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an expanded follow-on mission to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and a GPM core satellite will carry dual frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a GPM Microwave Imager on board. The DPR, which is being developed by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), consists of two radars; Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band radar (KaPR). The DPR is expected to advance precipitation science by expanding the coverage of observations to higher latitudes than those of the TRMM/PR, measuring snow and light rain by the KaPR, and providing drop size distribution information based on the differential attenuation of echoes at two frequencies. In order to secure the quality of precipitation estimates, ground validation (GV) of satellite data and retrieval algorithms is essential. Since end-to-end comparisons between instantaneous precipitation data observed by satellite and ground-based instruments is not enough to improve the algorithms. The error of various physical parameters in the precipitation retrieval algorithms (e.g. attenuation factor, drop size distribution, terminal velocity, density of the snow particles, etc.) will be estimated by the comparison with the ground-based observation data. A dual Ka-band radar system is developed by the JAXA for the GPM/DPR algorithm development. The dual Ka-radar system which consists of two identical Ka-band radars can measure both the specific attenuation and the equivalent radar reflectivity at Ka-band. Those parameters are important particularly for snow measurement. Using the dual Ka-radar system along with other instruments, such as a polarimetric precipitation radar, a wind-profiler radar, ground-based precipitation measurement systems, the uncertainties of the parameters in the DPR algorithm can be reduced. The verification of improvement of rain retrieval with the DPR algorithm is

  14. A Study of the Identification and Development of Precipitation Using Dual Polarization Radar.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-30

    velocity of 5 m s- -. The two minute period when there was a column of positive ZDR extending towards the -100 C isotherm appeared to coincide with the... Radar Meteorology, Boulder Colorado, Septemoer 1986) Appendix C - "Polarisation radar studies of precipitation development in convective storms... Radar Meteroolgy conference, and the third has been submitted for publication. The subject of the first paper is the use of Z and ZDR for identification

  15. Radar observations of land breeze fronts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a radar-observed apparent land breeze front 12 to 14 n mi off the coast of Wallops Island, Va. Accompanying meteorological data show the land breeze at the shore to be a layer of cold air less than 300 ft deep moving seaward at approximately 2 knots. The radar observations show the land breeze vertical frontal surface sloping landward at about 20 deg, with convection over the warm water increasing the layer thickness to 2000 ft near the frontal zone. The radar-observed horizontal frontal surface is a sharp scalloped line echo in the lower 1000 ft, but becomes diffuse above. As the local circulation during daylight hours changes to a sea breeze, the land breeze front recedes toward land and dissipates.

  16. Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science Lecture: Thermophotonic and Photoacoustic Radar Imaging Methods for Biomedical and Dental Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    In the first part of this presentation I will introduce thermophotonic radar imaging principles and techniques using chirped or binary-phase-coded modulation, methods which can break through the maximum detection depth/depth resolution limitations of conventional photothermal waves. Using matched-filter principles, a methodology enabling parabolic diffusion-wave energy fields to exhibit energy localization akin to propagating hyperbolic wave-fields has been developed. It allows for deconvolution of individual responses of superposed axially discrete sources, opening a new field: depth-resolved thermal coherence tomography. Several examples from dental enamel caries diagnostic imaging to metal subsurface defect thermographic imaging will be discussed. The second part will introduce the field of photoacoustic radar (or sonar) biomedical imaging. I will report the development of a novel biomedical imaging system that utilizes a continuous-wave laser source with a custom intensity modulation pattern, ultrasonic phased array for signal detection and processing coupled with a beamforming algorithm for reconstruction of photoacoustic correlation images. Utilization of specific chirped modulation waveforms (``waveform engineering'') achieves dramatic signal-to-noise-ratio increase and improved axial resolution over pulsed laser photoacoustics. The talk will conclude with aspects of instrumental sensitivity of the PA Radar to optical contrast using cancerous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast enhancement agents and in-vivo tissue samples.

  17. Meteorological Measurements With a MWR-05XP Phased Array Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...2O-Tall =-u (4.3) For a spectrum width accuracy of ±1 m/s with a’, = 2.0 m/s ( tomadic measurements), 2 = 0.32 m, and T, = 0.0001 s, the number of...most stringent Doppler sample requirement was determined to be 45 for tomadic measurements, and 90 for severe thunderstorm clusters. In Figure 3.6

  18. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  19. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Paths Associated with EF-4 and EF-5 Tornadoes over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Darden, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    An historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by a large number of tornadoes, including several that reached EF-4 and EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of more people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Two long-track and violent (EF-4 and EF-5) tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes on the ground. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures and identify the associated debris paths of the long-track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes near ARMOR. The relative locations of the debris and damage paths for each tornado will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys. With the ongoing upgrade of the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler) operational network to dual-polarimetry and a similar process having already taken place or ongoing for many private sector radars, dual-polarimetric radar signatures of tornado debris promise the potential to assist in the situational awareness of government and private sector forecasters and emergency managers during tornadic events. As such, a companion abstract (Schultz et al.) also submitted to this conference explores "The use of dual-polarimetric tornadic

  20. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Paths Associated with EF-4 and EF-5 Tornadoes over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chrstopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Darden, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    An historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by a large number of tornadoes, including several that reached EF-4 and EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of more people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Two long-track and violent (EF-4 and EF-5) tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes on the ground. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures and identify the associated debris paths of the long-track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes near ARMOR. The relative locations of the debris and damage paths for each tornado will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys. With the ongoing upgrade of the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler) operational network to dual-polarimetry and a similar process having already taken place or ongoing for many private sector radars, dual-polarimetric radar signatures of tornado debris promise the potential to assist in the situational awareness of government and private sector forecasters and emergency managers during tornadic events. As such, a companion abstract (Schultz et al.) also submitted to this conference explores The use of dual-polarimetric tornadic debris

  1. Survey: National Meteorological Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Meteorological Center (NMC) is comprised of three operational divisions (Development, Automation, and Forecast) and an Administrative Division. The Development Division develops and implements mathematical models for forecasting the weather. The Automation Division provides the software and processing services to accommodate the models used in daily forecasts. The Forecasting Division applies a combination of numerical and manual techniques to produce analyses and prognoses up to 120 hr into the future. This guidance material is combined with severe storm information from the National Hurricane Center and the National Severe Storms Forecasting Center to develop locally tailored forecasts by the Weather Service Forecast Offices and, in turn, by the local Weather Service Offices. A very general flow of this information is shown. A more detailed illustration of data flow into, within, and from the NMC is given. The interrelations are depicted between the various meteorological organizations and activities.

  2. Vega balloon meteorological measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Preston, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Vega balloons obtained in situ measurements of pressure, temperature, vertical winds, cloud density, ambient illumination, and the frequency of lightning during their flights in the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements were used to develop a comprehensive description of the meteorology of the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements provide the following picture: large horizontal temperature gradients near the equator, vigorous convection, and weather conditions that can change dramatically on time scales as short as one hour.

  3. Monitoring the urban heat island of Bucharest (Romania) through a network of automatic meteorological sensors - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Lucaschi, Bogdan; Ioja, Cristian; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Manea, Ancuta; Radulescu, Adrian; Dumitrache, Catalin; Tudorache, George; Vanau, Gabriel; Onose, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Extreme warm temperatures and heat waves represent one of the major climate hazards which impact the city of Bucharest (Romania), favoured by the climate background and by the urban characteristics. Previous studies based either on sparse ground sensors or satellite remote sensing indicate that the average differences between the monthly temperature of the built area and the neighbouring rural buffers of Bucharest can reach 3-4°C, but instantaneous values are certainly higher. Since the city shelters about 2 million residents, as well as the major administrative and economic facilities of the country, the hazard management should receive a vivid attention. The meteorological monitoring of the city is currently performed in a systematic manner by the National Meteorological Administration (NMA) through 3 ground-based stations following the standards of the World Meteorological Organization, and through radar and satellite remote sensing. In 2014, NMA set up 7 automatic sensors in specific urban conditions, while the University of Bucharest deployed 30 mobile sensors in a joint effort for enhancing the accuracy of the urban heat island monitoring. Both sensor devices are designed for continuous monitoring (24/7). This presentation focuses on the technical characteristics of the recently implemented network (1), and brings to the public the first results of the monitoring (2), including the implementation experience, the observed benefits and plans for development and applications. The data obtained are compared with the existing data sets from meteorological stations and satellite products, and they are currently integrated in a common database, providing valuable information about the Bucharest's urban heat island. The results have been obtained within the project UCLIMESA (Urban Heat Island Monitoring under Present and Future Climate), ongoing between 2013 and 2015 in the framework of the Programme for Research-Development-Innovation for Space Technology and

  4. Initial testing of advanced ground-penetrating radar technology for the inspection of bridge decks: the HERMES and PERES Bridge Inspectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nigel C.; Chase, Steven B.

    1999-02-01

    Since early 1995 the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has been sponsoring the development of ground-penetrating radar technology to produce a tool for the non-destructive evaluation of bridge decks. Under contract with the FHWA, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory designed and built a system capable of recording data over a 2 meter width during normal traffic flow. The derived system is called `The HERMES Bridge Inspector' (High-speed Electromagnetic Roadway Measurement and Evaluation System) and includes a 64 channel antenna array within a 30 ft trailer. For detailed investigation of portions of a bridge deck, a robotic cart mounted radar has been developed. This cart system is named `The PERES Bridge Inspector' (Precision Electromagnetic Roadway Evaluation System). PERES records data over the chosen area by rastering a single transceiver over the road. Images of the deck interior are reconstructed from the original synthetic aperture data using diffraction tomography. The work presented herein describes the findings of initial experiments conducted to determine the inspection capabilities of these systems. Internal defects such as delaminations, voids and disbonds; and construction details including deck thickness, asphalt overlay thickness and reinforcement layout were the features targeted. The final goal is for these systems, and other non-destructive technologies, to provide information on the condition of the nation's bridges for input to bridge management systems.

  5. Furthur remarks on atmospheric probing by ultrasensitive radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper is supplementary to that of Hardy and Katz. It emphasizes the meteorological value of the various capabilities of ultrasensitive radar, highlights the points of agreement and disagreement, and focuses upon the directions of promising research. The theory of backscatter from a refractively turbulent region is said to be confirmed by the radar observations both with respect to magnitude and wavelength dependence. A reason for the apparent discrepancy between the results of some of the forwardscatter experiments and theory is suggested. Disagreement still exists with respect to the origin of clear air sea breeze echoes; the author does not agree with Hardy and Katz that they are due to insects. However, it is agreed that some unusually widespread echo displays on clear days are indeed due to insects. The meteorological value of ultrasensitive radars demonstrated by Hardy and Katz, here, and by others is so profound as to demand their use in remote atmospheric probing.

  6. Sea-air boundary meteorological sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric environment can significantly affect radio frequency and optical propagation. In the RF spectrum refraction and ducting can degrade or enhance communications and radar coverage. Platforms in or beneath refractive boundaries can exploit the benefits or suffer the effects of the atmospheric boundary layers. Evaporative ducts and surface-base ducts are of most concern for ocean surface platforms and evaporative ducts are almost always present along the sea-air interface. The atmospheric environment also degrades electro-optical systems resolution and visibility. The atmospheric environment has been proven not to be uniform and under heterogeneous conditions substantial propagation errors may be present for large distances from homogeneous models. An accurate and portable atmospheric sensor to profile the vertical index of refraction is needed for mission planning, post analysis, and in-situ performance assessment. The meteorological instrument used in conjunction with a radio frequency and electro-optical propagation prediction tactical decision aid tool would give military platforms, in real time, the ability to make assessments on communication systems propagation ranges, radar detection and vulnerability ranges, satellite communications vulnerability, laser range finder performance, and imaging system performance predictions. Raman lidar has been shown to be capable of measuring the required atmospheric parameters needed to profile the atmospheric environment. The atmospheric profile could then be used as input to a tactical decision aid tool to make propagation predictions.

  7. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  8. The meteorology of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    From the point of view of meteorology the most important differences between Jupiter and the earth are related to the fact that Jupiter has an appreciable internal energy source and probably lacks a solid surface. The composition and vertical structure of the Jovian atmosphere is considered along with the composition of Jovian cloud particles, turbulence in Jupiter's atmosphere, data on the horizontal structure and motions of the atmosphere, and questions related to the longevity of Jupiter's clouds. Attention is given to the barotropic characteristics of Jupiter's atmosphere, the radiation balance in the atmosphere of the earth and of Jupiter, and studies of the Great Red Spot.

  9. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  11. An Automatic Meteorological Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    the measurement site. Not only the transmission depends on meteorological conditions, but also the thermal behaviour of materials. Solar heating for... pannel in the power supply box. 0 0 FUSE 0 0 0 0 220-MAINS 0 PIR S-NETr AMRP CM1 1 0 0/1 o 0 0 0 220-T+RH PRECIP WIND.DIR T+RH WIND.SP.Q Fa.4.1 Lay-u co...ectr pannel in pow mipply box TNOMW The codes on the cables consist of two parts. The first parn indicates the sga flow, the second part describes

  12. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  13. Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The tenth conference on coherent laser radar technology and applications is the latest in a series beginning in 1980 which provides a forum for exchange of information on recent events current status, and future directions of coherent laser radar (or lidar or lader) technology and applications. This conference emphasizes the latest advancement in the coherent laser radar field, including theory, modeling, components, systems, instrumentation, measurements, calibration, data processing techniques, operational uses, and comparisons with other remote sensing technologies.

  14. Meteorological Instruction Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    At Florida State University and the Naval Postgraduate School, meteorology students have the opportunity to apply theoretical studies to current weather phenomena, even prepare forecasts and see how their predictions stand up utilizing GEMPAK. GEMPAK can display data quickly in both conventional and non-traditional ways, allowing students to view multiple perspectives of the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure. With GEMPAK, mathematical equations come alive as students do homework and laboratory assignments on the weather events happening around them. Since GEMPAK provides data on a 'today' basis, each homework assignment is new. At the Naval Postgraduate School, students are now using electronically-managed environmental data in the classroom. The School's Departments of Meteorology and Oceanography have developed the Interactive Digital Environment Analysis (IDEA) Laboratory. GEMPAK is the IDEA Lab's general purpose display package; the IDEA image processing package is a modified version of NASA's Device Management System. Bringing the graphic and image processing packages together is NASA's product, the Transportable Application Executive (TAE).

  15. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The AMU Team began four new tasks in this quarter: (1) began work to improve the AMU-developed tool that provides the launch weather officers information on peak wind speeds that helps them assess their launch commit criteria; (2) began updating lightning climatologies for airfields around central Florida. These climatologies help National Weather Service and Air Force forecasters determine the probability of lightning occurrence at these sites; (3) began a study for the 30th Weather Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to determine if precursors can be found in weather observations to help the forecasters determine when they will get strong wind gusts in their northern towers; and (4) began work to update the AMU-developed severe weather tool with more data and possibly improve its performance using a new statistical technique. Include is a section of summaries and detail reporting on the quarterly tasks: (1) Peak Wind Tool for user Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (LCC), Phase IV, (2) Situational Lightning climatologies for Central Florida, Phase V, (3) Vandenberg AFB North Base Wind Study and (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS).

  16. Modern Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arokiasamy, B. J.; Bianchi, C.; Sciacca, U.; Tutone, G.; Zirizzotti, A.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade of the evolution of radar was heavily influenced by the rapid increase in the information processing capabilities. Advances in solid state radio HF devices, digital technology, computing architectures and software offered the designers to develop very efficient radars. In designing modern radars the emphasis goes towards the simplification of the system hardware, reduction of overall power, which is compensated by coding and real time signal processing techniques. Radars are commonly employed in geophysical radio soundings like probing the ionosphere; stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast, GPR and radio-glaciology etc. In the laboratorio di Geofisica Ambientale of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome, Italy, we developed two pulse compression radars. The first is a HF radar called AIS-INGV; Advanced Ionospheric Sounder designed both for the purpose of research and for routine service of the HF radio wave propagation forecast. The second is a VHF radar called GLACIORADAR, which will be substituting the high power envelope radar used by the Italian Glaciological group. This will be employed in studying the sub glacial structures of Antarctica, giving information about layering, the bed rock and sub glacial lakes if present. These are low power radars, which heavily rely on advanced hardware and powerful real time signal processing. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Applications of high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, J. M.; Thomason, J. F.

    1998-07-01

    Efforts to extend radar range by an order of magnitude with use of the ionosphere as a virtual mirror started after the end of World War II. A number of HF radar programs were pursued, with long-range nuclear burst and missile launch detection demonstrated by 1956. Successful east coast radar aircraft detect and track tests extending across the Atlantic were conducted by 1961. The major obstacles to success, the large target-to-clutter ratio and low signal-to-noise ratio, were overcome with matched filter Doppler processing. To search the areas that a 2000 nautical mile (3700 km) radar can reach, very complex and high dynamic range processing is required. The spectacular advances in digital processing technology have made truly wide-area surveillance possible. Use of the surface attached wave over the oceans can enable HF radar to obtain modest extension of range beyond the horizon. The decameter wavelengths used by both skywave and surface wave radars require large physical antenna apertures, but they have unique capabilities for air and surface targets, many of which are of resonant scattering dimensions. Resonant scattering from the ocean permits sea state and direction estimation. Military and commercial applications of HF radar are in their infancy.

  18. Weather Radar Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    uelocitV WMs ) data processing systems such as NEXRAD to have a reliable technique for removing ambiguities due to velocity aliasing. Performance of many...intended for automated implementation on radar systems such as the NEXt generation weather RADar ( NEXRAD ) system. Several research areas were addressed...with Doppler radar will soon be realized with the deployment of the NEXRAD radar systems. Some of these large scale storms can have devastating wind

  19. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology necessitate an updated review of the state of the art in such radar rainfall data and applications. Three key areas with significant advances over the past decade have been identified: (1) temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data required for different types of hydrological applications, (2) rainfall estimation, radar data adjustment and data quality, and (3) nowcasting of radar rainfall and real-time applications. Based on these three fields of research, the paper provides recommendations based on an updated overview of shortcomings, gains, and novel developments in relation to urban hydrological applications. The paper also reviews how the focus in urban hydrology research has shifted over the last decade to fields such as climate change impacts, resilience of urban areas to hydrological extremes, and online prediction/warning systems. It is discussed how radar rainfall data can add value to the aforementioned emerging fields in current and future applications, but also to the analysis of integrated water systems.

  20. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 14: URSI/SCOSTEP Workshop on Technical Aspects of MST Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A. (Editor); Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics relative to middle atmosphere research were discussed. meteorological and aeronomical requirements for mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar networks, general circulation of the middle atmosphere, the interpretation of radar returns from clear air, spaced antenna and Doppler techniques for velocity measurement, and techniques for the study of gravity waves and turbulence are among the topics discussed.

  1. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  2. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  3. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  4. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  5. Phase correlator reduces mm-wave radar cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R., Sr.; Hobbs, P.; Locatelli, J.

    1986-03-01

    A technique involving the IC storage of magnetron phase for reference has been developed to make possible the use of the low-cost efficient magnetron in obtaining phase coherent signals for pulse Doppler radar. In the new external coherence method, the recorded random midpulse-region phase is compared with the frequency of the echo allowing Doppler information, free of phase noise, to be extracted. The gated magnetron was tested at Ka-band in a 35-GHz radar, and good agreement with the CP-4 5.5 GHz radar was shown. With good accuracy down to 10 cm/s, the present system, especially in the mm-wave region, has important applications to meteorological and military radar.

  6. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  7. Partly cloudy with a chance of migration: Weather, radars, and aeroecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilson, Phillip B.; Frick, Winifred F.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Howard, Kenneth W.; Larkin, Ronald P.; Diehl, Robert H.; Westbrook, John K.; Kelly, T. Adam; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Aeroecology is an emerging scientific discipline that integrates atmospheric science, Earth science, geography, ecology, computer science, computational biology, and engineering to further the understanding of biological patterns and processes. The unifying concept underlying this new transdisciplinary field of study is a focus on the planetary boundary layer and lower free atmosphere (i.e., the aerosphere), and the diversity of airborne organisms that inhabit and depend on the aerosphere for their existence. Here, we focus on the role of radars and radar networks in aeroecological studies. Radar systems scanning the atmosphere are primarily used to monitor weather conditions and track the location and movements of aircraft. However, radar echoes regularly contain signals from other sources, such as airborne birds, bats, and arthropods. We briefly discuss how radar observations can be and have been used to study a variety of airborne organisms and examine some of the many potential benefits likely to arise from radar aeroecology for meteorological and biological research over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Radar systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated with the advent of innovative signal processing and dual-polarimetric capabilities. These capabilities should be better harnessed to promote both meteorological and aeroecological research and to explore the interface between these two broad disciplines. We strongly encourage close collaboration among meteorologists, radar scientists, biologists, and others toward developing radar products that will contribute to a better understanding of airborne fauna.

  8. Exploring the Use of Radar for a Physically Based Lightning Cessation Nowcasting Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. This project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and hydrometeors. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the NASA-MSFC North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. Thus far, our case study results suggest that the negative differential phase shift signature weakens and disappears after the analyzed storms ceased lightning production (i.e., after the last lightning flash occurred). This is a key observation because it suggests that while strong electric fields may still have been present, the lightning cessation signature encompassed the period of the polarimetric negative phase shift signature. To the extent

  9. Exploring the Use of Radar for Physically-Based Nowcasting of Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. This project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically-based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms driven primarily by trending in the actual total lightning flash rate, we believe that dual polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and ice-microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can propagation phase-based ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the NASA-MSFC North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. Thus far our case study results suggest that the negative differential phase shift signature weakens and disappears after the analyzed storms ceased lightning production (i.e., after the last lightning flash occurred). This is a key observation because it suggests that while strong electric fields may still have been present, the lightning cessation signature was

  10. A lightweight ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S.K.; Allen, C.M.; Gardner, D.; Wong, H.R.

    1998-12-31

    The detection of buried objects, particularly unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the US in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing humanitarian concern. The application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. Bechtel Nevada, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) has developed several frequency modulated, continuous wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units for the US Department of Energy since 1984. To meet these new technical requirements for high resolution data and UXO detection, STL is moving forward with advances to GPR technology, signal processing, and imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery operated unit that does not require surface contact and can be operated by a novice user.

  11. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  12. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, J. W., Jr.; Arnold, C. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is a total satellite system composed of spacecraft with meteorological sensors, an Earth-based command and control network, user stations, launch vehicle and support; with a communication network linking the various segments together. The various system segments are described.

  13. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  14. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  15. Development of the Application techniques for KMA dual-pol. radar network in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suk, Mi-Kyung; Nam, Kyung-Yeub; Jung, Sung-A.; Ko, Jeong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Korea is located between the Eurasian continent and Northwestern pacific. So East Asian Monsoon affects the country every season and every year with the rainy season (Chang-ma front), convective stroms, snow storms, and sometimes typhoons. Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has been operating many kinds of meteorological observation networks, including 10 operational radars and 1 testbed radar. Weather Radar Center (WRC) of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) performs a task of development and application of cross governmental dual-pol. radar harmonization for the effective use of the national resources from 2013 since the tri-agencies (KMA, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Ministry of National Defense) singed the MOU for the co-utilization of cross governmental dual-pol. radar. This task develops the techniques of the high-quality data processing, the support of the forecasting, etc. The techniques of the high-quality data processing are the quality control for the removal of non-meteorological echoes, the classification of the hydrometeors. The techniques for support of the forecasting are the computation and verification of the rainfall estimation of dual-pol. and single-pol. radars, etc. And it is developed the application techniques by using Yong-In Testbed dual-pol. radar, the merged rainfall field of the radars and the satellites, etc. Further works are the computation of the high-resolution 3-dimensional wind field, the quantitative precipitation forecasting, the development of the application and the information service techniques for the hydrology, climate, industry, aviation for the prevention techniques against the severe weather by using multi-wavelengths ( X, C, S-band radars) of the cross governments, etc.

  16. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  17. Satellite remote sensing of meteorological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in remote atmospheric sensing are briefly reviewed, with particular attention given to vertical temperature and humidity profiles, cloud structure, and wind. Present capabilities and projections of future improvements in accuracy and resolution are given for the Microwave Sounding Unit, High Resolution Infrared Sounder, Defence Meteorological Satellite Project, and VISSR Atmospheric Sounder. It is noted that future sounding systems will require (1) high spectral resolution; (2) multispectral observations of the atmosphere and the surface in order to correct for most of the geophysical processes contaminating the outgoing radiance; and (3) a control algorithm capable of using information from multispectral channels to identify those parameters that have errors larger than a specified value.

  18. TOPEX Project Radar Altimeter Development Requirements and Specifications, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Laurence C.

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the guidelines by which the TOPEX Radar Altimeter hardware development effort for the TOPEX flight project shall be implemented and conducted. The conduct of this activity shall take maximum advantage of the efforts expended during the TOPEX Radar Altimeter Advanced Technology Model development program and other related Radar Altimeter development efforts. This document complies with the TOPEX Project Office document 633-420 (D-2218), entitled, "TOPEX Project Requirements and Constraints for the NASA Radar Altimeter" dated December 1987.

  19. Comparison Between Radar and Automatic Weather Station Refractivity Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallali, Ruben; Dalaudier, Francis; Parent du Chatelet, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Weather radars measure changes in the refractive index of air in the atmospheric boundary layer. The technique uses the phase of signals from ground targets located around the radar to provide information on atmospheric refractivity related to meteorological quantities such as temperature, pressure and humidity. The approach has been successfully implemented during several field campaigns using operational S-band radars in Canada, UK, USA and France. In order to better characterize the origins of errors, a recent study has simulated temporal variations of refractivity based on Automatic Weather Station (AWS) measurements. This reveals a stronger variability of the refractivity during the summer and in the afternoon when the refractivity is the most sensitive to humidity, probably because of turbulence close to the ground. This raises the possibility of retrieving information on the turbulent state of the atmosphere from the variability in radar refractivity. An analysis based on a 1-year dataset from the operational C-band radar at Trappes (near Paris, France) and AWS refractivity variability measurements was used to measure those temporal and spatial variabilities. Particularly during summer, a negative bias increasing with range is observed between radar and AWS estimations, and is well explained by a model based on Taylor's hypotheses. The results demonstrate the possibility of establishing, depending on season, a quantitative and qualitative link between radar and AWS refractivity variability that reflects low-level coherent turbulent structures.

  20. A Conceptual Titan Orbiter Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Shirley, James H.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This study details a conceptual follow-on Titan orbiter mission that would provide full global topographic coverage. surface imaging, and meteorological characterization of the atmosphere over a nominal 5-year science mission duration. The baseline power requirement is approx.1 kWe at EOM and is driven by a high power radar instrument that would provide 3-dimensional measurements of atmospheric clouds, precipitation, and surface topography. While this power level is moderately higher than that of the Cassini spacecraft. higher efficiency advanced RPSs could potentially reduce the plutonium usage to less than 1/3rd of that used on the Cassini spacecraft. The Titan Orbiter mission is assumed to launch in 2015. It would utilize advanced RPSs to provide all on-board power.

  1. Uncertainty in vertically integrated liquid water content due to radar reflectivity observation error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mark N.; Andrieu, Herve; Krajewski, Witold F.

    1995-01-01

    Radar reflectivity is used to estimate meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate, liquid water content, and the related quantity, vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content. The estimation of any of these quantities depends on several assumptions related to the characteristics of the physical processes controlling the occurrence and character of water in the atmosphere. Additionally, there are many sources of error associated with radar observations, such as those due to brighthand, hail, and drop size distribution approximations. This work addresses one error of interest, the radar reflectivity observation error; other error sources are assumed to be corrected or negligible. The result is a relationship between the uncertainty in VIL water content and radar reflectivity measurement error. An example application illustrates the estimation of VIL uncertainty from typical radar reflectivity observations and indicates that the coefficient of variation in VIL is much larger than the coefficient of variation in radar reflectivity.

  2. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  3. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  4. Four-planet meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All planets with atmospheres have common characteristics which are helpful in understanding weather and climate on earth. Of the terrestrial planets, Mars displays the most earth-like characteristics. The feedback mechanism of the Martian Great Dust Storms may control climate on a global scale and shows some parallels to the water cycle on the earth. Venus, on the other hand, has atmosphere motions and characteristics far different from those of earth but appears to be valuable for comparative meteorology and it seems to be a simple weather machine due to absence of axial tilt. A completely gaseous Jupiter also can help because its atmosphere, driven by internal heat, flows round-and-round, showing the same general patterns for years at a time. Results of studying extraterrestrial atmospheres are most important for understanding earth's multi-year weather cycles such as the droughts in the American West every 22 years or effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1915) on agriculture in the North Hemisphere.

  5. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  6. Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lybanon, M.

    1973-01-01

    The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

  7. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  9. Advances in monitoring dynamic hydrologic conditions in the vadose zone through automated high-resolution ground-penetrating radar imaging and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, Adam R.

    This body of research focuses on resolving physical and hydrological heterogeneities in the subsurface with ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Essentially, there are two facets of this research centered on the goal of improving the collective understanding of unsaturated flow processes: i) modifications to commercially available equipment to optimize hydrologic value of the data and ii) the development of novel methods for data interpretation and analysis in a hydrologic context given the increased hydrologic value of the data. Regarding modifications to equipment, automation of GPR data collection substantially enhances our ability to measure changes in the hydrologic state of the subsurface at high spatial and temporal resolution (Chapter 1). Additionally, automated collection shows promise for quick high-resolution mapping of dangerous subsurface targets, like unexploded ordinance, that may have alternate signals depending on the hydrologic environment (Chapter 5). Regarding novel methods for data inversion, dispersive GPR data collected during infiltration can constrain important information about the local 1D distribution of water in waveguide layers (Chapters 2 and 3), however, more data is required for reliably analyzing complicated patterns produced by the wetting of the soil. In this regard, data collected in 2D and 3D geometries can further illustrate evidence of heterogeneous flow, while maintaining the content for resolving wave velocities and therefore, water content. This enables the use of algorithms like reflection tomography, which show the ability of the GPR data to independently resolve water content distribution in homogeneous soils (Chapter 5). In conclusion, automation enables the non-invasive study of highly dynamic hydrologic processes by providing the high resolution data required to interpret and resolve spatial and temporal wetting patterns associated with heterogeneous flow. By automating the data collection, it also allows for the novel

  10. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  11. Historical sketch: Radar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    A chronological assessment is given of the broad spectra of technology associated with radar geology. Particular attention is given to the most recent developments made in the areas of microwave Earth resources applications and geologic remote sensing from aircraft and satellite. The significance of space derived radar in geologic investigations is discussed and the scientific basis for exploiting the sensitivity of radar signals to various aspects of geologic terrain is given.

  12. Simulation of meteorological satellite (METSAT) data using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Ryland, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The information content which can be expected from the advanced very high resolution radiometer system, AVHRR, on the NOAA-6 satellite was assessed, and systematic techniques of data interpretation for use with meteorological satellite data were defined. In-house data from LANDSAT 2 and 3 were used to simulate the spatial, spectral, and sampling methods of the NOAA-6 satellite data.

  13. Meteorological Processors and Accessory Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Surface and upper air data, provided by NWS, are important inputs for air quality models. Before these data are used in some of the EPA dispersion models, meteorological processors are used to manipulate the data.

  14. Air Modeling - Observational Meteorological Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Observed meteorological data for use in air quality modeling consist of physical parameters that are measured directly by instrumentation, and include temperature, dew point, wind direction, wind speed, cloud cover, cloud layer(s), ceiling height,

  15. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  16. X-Band local area weather radar--preliminary calibration results.

    PubMed

    Jensen, N E

    2002-01-01

    DHI has developed a cost-effective X-Band Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) with a typical range (radius) of 60 km, 500 x 500 m areal resolution and 253 reflection levels. The development is performed in a co-operation with a number of European partners, including Danish Meteorological Institute. The specifications of the weather radar and preliminary results from the calibration are presented. Good calibration results have been obtained using high-resolution rain gauges.

  17. BOREAS Derived Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Twine, Tracy; Rinker, Donald; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the BOREAS science teams identified the need for a continuous surface meteorological and radiation data set to support flux and surface process modeling efforts. This data set contains actual, substituted, and interpolated 15-minute meteorological and radiation data compiled from several surface measurements sites over the BOREAS SSA and NSA. Temporally, the data cover 01-Jan-1994 to 31-Dec-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  18. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  19. Radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kirchner, D L; Huff, R L; Morgan, D D; Persoon, A M; Averkamp, T F; Duru, F; Nielsen, E; Safaeinili, A; Plaut, J J; Picardi, G

    2005-12-23

    We report the first radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on board the orbiting Mars Express spacecraft. Several types of ionospheric echoes are observed, ranging from vertical echoes caused by specular reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere to a wide variety of oblique and diffuse echoes. The oblique echoes are believed to arise mainly from ionospheric structures associated with the complex crustal magnetic fields of Mars. Echoes at the electron plasma frequency and the cyclotron period also provide measurements of the local electron density and magnetic field strength.

  20. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  1. Multiparameter radar study of rainfall: Potential application to area-time integral studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    1994-01-01

    Multiparameter radars measure one or more additional parameters in addition to the coventional reflectivity factor. The combination of radar observations from a multiparameter radar is used to study the time evolution of rainstorms. A technique is presented to self-consistently compare the area-time integral (ATI) and rainfall volume estimates from convective storms, using two different measurements from a multiparameter radar. Rainfall volumes for the lifetime of individual storms are computed using the reflectivity at S band (10-cm wavelength) as well as one-way specific attenuation at X band (3-cm wavelength). Area-time integrals are computed by summing all areas in each radar snapshot having reflectivities (S band) in excess of a preselected threshold. The multiparameter radar data used in this study were acquired by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CP-2 radar during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) and the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE), respectively. ATI studies were accomplished in this work using multiparameter radar data acquired during the lifetime of six convective events that occurred in the COHMEX radar coverage area. A case study from the COMHEX field campaign (20 July 1986) was selected to depict the various stages in the evolution of a storm over which the ATI and rainfall volume computations were performed using multiparameter radar data. Another case study from the CaPE field campaign (12 August 1991) was used to demonstrate the evolution of a convective cell based on differential reflectivity observations.

  2. An overview of neural network applications for soil moisture retrieval from radar satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, E.; Paloscia, S.; Pettinato, S.

    2014-10-01

    Frequent and spatially distributed measurements of soil moisture (SMC), at different spatial scales, are advisable for all applications related to the environmental disciplines, such as climatology, meteorology, hydrology and agriculture. Satellite sensors operating in the low part of microwave spectrum are very suitable for this purpose, and their signals can be directly related to the moisture content of the observed surfaces, provided that all the contributions from soil and vegetation to the measured signal are properly accounted for. Among the algorithms used for the retrieval of SMC from both active (i.e. Synthetic Aperture Radar, SAR or real aperture radars) and passive (radiometers) microwave sensors, the artificial neural networks (ANN) represent the best compromise between accuracy and computation speed. ANN based algorithms have been developed at IFAC, and adapted to several radar and radiometric satellite sensors, in order to generate SMC products at different spatial resolutions, varying from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. These algorithms, which use the ANN techniques for inverting theoretical and semi-empirical models, such as Advanced Integral Equation (AIEM), Oh models, and Radiative transfer Theory (RTT), have been adapted to the C-band acquisitions from SAR (Envisat/ASAR) and real aperture radar (ASCAT) and to the X-band SAR acquisitions of Cosmo-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X. Moreover, a specific ANN algorithm has also been implemented for the L-band active and passive acquisitions of the incoming SMAP mission. The latter satellite will carry onboard simultaneously one radar and one radiometer operating at the same frequency, but with different spatial resolutions (3 and 40 km, respectively). Large datasets of co-located satellite acquisitions and direct SMC measurements on several test sites located worldwide have been used along with simulations derived from forward electromagnetic models for setting up, training and validating these

  3. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  4. Metamaterial for Radar Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Circuit Board RAM Radar Absorbing Material RCS Radar Cross Section SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNG Single-Negative SRR Split Ring Resonator...although some can be single-negative ( SNG ). DNG refers to material with simultaneous negative real parts of the permittivity r  and permeability

  5. Synchronization in multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubrink, H. G.

    1993-08-01

    This report gives a summary of multistatic radar principles and synchronization methods. Different methods are described using direct and indirect synchronization. The report also presents a general review of synchronization methods for the future. Two LORAN C receivers have been analyzed for use as local reference oscillators in multistatic radar.

  6. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  7. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  8. Polarization Radar Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Oi"C FILE ( J qII RADC-TR-89-144 In-House Report October 1989 AD-A215 242 POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Kenneth C. Stiefvater, Russell D...NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62702F 4506 11 58 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  9. Determination of radar MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  10. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  11. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  12. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  13. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  14. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  15. Intelligent radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  16. Representing rainfall uncertainties using radar ensembles: generation of radar based rainfall ensembles for QPE and QPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere-Torres, D.; Llort, X.; Roca, J.; Pegram, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the last years, new comprehension of the physics underlying the radar measurements as well as new technological advancements have allowed radar community to propose better algorithms and methodologies and significant advancements have been achieved in improving Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) and Quantitative Precipitation forecasting (QPF) by radar. Thus the study of the 2D uncertainties field associated to these estimates has become an important subject, specially to enhance the use of radar QPE and QPF in hydrological studies, as well as in providing a reference for satellite precipitations measurements. In this context the use of radar-based rainfall ensembles (i.e. equiprobable rainfall field scenarios generated to be compatible with the observations/forecasts and with the inferred structure of the uncertainties) has been seen as an extremely interesting tool to represent their associated uncertainties. The generation of such radar ensembles requires first the full characterization of the 3D field of associated uncertainties (2D spatial plus temporal), since rainfall estimates show an error structure highly correlated in space and time. A full methodology to deal with this kind of radar-based rainfall ensembles is presented. Given a rainfall event, the 2D uncertainty fields associated to the radar estimates are defined for every time step using a benchmark, or reference field, based on the best available estimate of the rainfall field. This benchmark is built using an advanced non parametric interpolation of a dense raingauge network able to use the spatial structure provided by the radar observations, and is confined to the region in which this combination could be taken as a reference measurement (Velasco-Forero et al. 2008, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.10.004). Then the spatial and temporal structures of these uncertainty fields are characterized and a methodology to generate consistent multiple realisations of them is used to generate the

  17. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  18. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  19. Scientific reasons for a network of ST radars and cooperative campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petitdidier, M.; Crochet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Due to their capabilities of measuring wind profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere with good time and height resolution, whatever the weather conditions, stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radars are well adapted to carry out atmospheric research in many fields as well as to fulfill the meteorological forecasting needs. Examples are presented from previous and future national or international campaigns planned in France. The ST radars were used first by themselves with the adjunction of radiosonde data. Then networks were built and used to get horizontal parameters. It appears that ST radar networks should naturally be included in cooperative campaigns.

  20. Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar Developments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung Kuk; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Perrine, Martin; Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar; Beck, Jaclyn; Lu, Daniel; Bollian, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Digital Beamforming (DBF) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology is an area of research and development pursued at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Advanced SAR architectures enhances radar performance and opens a new set of capabilities in radar remote sensing. DBSAR-2 and EcoSAR are two state-of-the-art radar systems recently developed and tested. These new instruments employ multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) architectures characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instruments have been developed to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. This paper describes the radars advanced features and report on the latest SAR processing and calibration efforts.

  1. Doppler radar sensing of fish physiological motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Noah

    The monitoring vital of signs for fish is critical for advancing the study of trophic and energetic strategies, distributions and behavior, environmental impact, and aquaculture approaches. Presented here is a new approach for monitoring fish metabolic state without the trauma and stress associated with capture, surgical ECG, or other implanted sensing systems. Original research contributions include analysis for radar operation under water, development of radar systems for aquatic operation, and application of these systems to non invasively sense the heart and gill motion of fish. Tilapia and Sturgeon were studied to test the efficacy across varied fish body shapes and sizes, ranging from 0.1 to 1.3m in snout to tail length. Monitoring experiments were conducted with eleven tilapia and three sturgeons to assess activity level participated in these experiments, the results from which include activity level monitoring (tilapia: still or fidgeting 94% of time observed), ventilation rate (tilapia: 42 bpm, sturgeon: 145 bpm), and heart rate (tilapia: 41 bpm, sturgeon: 35 bpm). Bland-Altman analysis of radar and ECG measured heart rate indicate agreement between the two measurement techniques and the suitability of radar as an alternative to ECG. The initial steps for developing a system for practical application is also presented including designs for radar system miniaturization and discussion on further characterization steps with less constrained environments.

  2. A new microtelesensor chip for meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Smith, S.F.; Britton, C.L.

    1997-03-04

    A new technology exploiting commercial, micro-sensors developed for atomic force microscopy offers breakthrough capability in high accuracy wireless sensors for meteorological measurements. Historically sensors used in air-borne and buoy-based platforms required compromises in performance to achieve the low-weight and low power requirements of the mobile platforms. Recent innovations in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) provided opportunities to reduce size, weight, and power requirements but each sensor required a specially fabricated device with inherent calibration, repeatability, and traceability problems. This new approach allows identical sensors to be fabricated on the same semiconductor substrate as the conditioning electronics and the telemetry components. Exploiting semiconductor fabrication technology offers the potential to reduce fabrication costs to a few dollars per component. Sensing humidity, temperature and pressure have been demonstrated with plans for meteorological deployment scheduled for later in 1997. Cost, reliability, size, power consumption, and accuracy are key factors in the deployment of advanced meteorological sensor arrays. ORNL is actively integrating the sensing technologies, electronic processing, and telemetry that build a family of sensors with multiple-input capabilities. One of the key elements in ORNL`s sensor technology is coated microcantilever arrays, which form a powerful universal platform for multiple physical and chemical measurements. Telemetry is also being developed to add robust spread-spectrum data transmission capabilities to the necessary signal processing electronics. In collaboration with the NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Lab, a chip-level temperature/humidity module with onboard telemetry is slated for demonstration later in 1997. Future additions would include sensors for atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, turbulence measurement, and radiometry.

  3. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  4. Radar frequency radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowicki, E.

    1981-11-01

    A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA and BEALE AFB CA about the possible radar frequency radiation hazard of the PAVE PAWS radar. The method is based on the following main assumptions that: (a) the total field can be computed as the vector summation of the individual fields due to each antenna element; (b) the individual field can be calculated using distances for which the field point is in the far field of the antenna element. An RFR computer program was coded for the RADC HE 6180 digital computer and exercised to calculate the radiation levels in the air and ground space for the present baseline and the possible Six DB and 10 DB growth systems of the PAVE PAWS radar system at OTIS AFB MA. The average radiation levels due to the surveillance fence were computed for three regions: in the air space in front of the radar, at the radar hazard fence at OTIS AFB MA and at representative ground points in the OTIS AFB vicinity. It was concluded that the radar frequency radiation of PAVE PAWS does not present a hazard to personnel provided there is no entry to the air hazard zone or to the area within the hazard fence. The method developed offers a cost effective way to determine radiation levels from a phased array radar especially in the near field and transition regions.

  5. Diagnosing Meteorological Conditions Associated with Sprites and Lightning with Large Charge Moment Changes (CMC) over Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Lang, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sprites are a category of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the upper atmosphere above the tops of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). They are commonly associated with lightning that produce large charge moment changes (CMCs). Synergistic use of satellite and radar-retrieved observations together with sounding data, forecasts, and lightning-detection networks allowed the diagnosis and analysis of the meteorological conditions associated with sprites as well as large-CMC lightning over Oklahoma.

  6. Joint Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    decision usually cannot be derived from a single source. Instead, METOC data from the MFC, component, and tactical sources should be assembled into...sounding devices; meteorological satellites; weather radar; lightning detection systems; atmospheric profilers; solar telescopes; ionospheric sounders...theater and/or regional and worldwide data bases from which METOC services and products are derived . Due to the rapidly changing nature of the METOC

  7. Contributions to the American Meteorological Society 16th Conference on Severe Local Storms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    34 - (86.0) national Airport). Corona current measurements (Williams 0 1 1989) showed lightning was in the area during at least 5 of 0 10 20 3D 4D the...Producing Storms in Denver Pre- prints , 24th Conference on Radar Meteorology. Tallahassee, FL. suiting equations since the significance of interannual vari...the country except the clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research. i print Western Plateau, statistics on wet and dry microbursts will Williams, E.R

  8. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  9. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts were focused on: (1) acquisition of radar data at Arecibo; (2) examination of raw data; (3) reduction of the unmodulated data to background-free, calibrated spectra; (4) integration and coherent analyses of the phase-coded data; and (5) calculation of Doppler shifts and preliminary values for echo limb-to-limb bandwidths, radar cross sections, and circular polarization ratios. Asteroids observed to data have radar properties distinct from those of the rocky terrestrial planets and those of the icy Galilean satellites.

  10. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  11. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  12. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-11-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  13. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  14. Shuttle imaging radar-C science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire images at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as images of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into images using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and radar stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of radar penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to radar backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization imaging capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.

  15. Studies on Radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-08

    through-foliage target detection using UWB radar sensor network based on real-world data; 2. Foliage clutter modeling using UWB radars; 3. Outdoor UWB...channel modeling based on field data; 4. Multi-target detection using radar sensor networks (theoretical studies); 5. SVD-QR and graph theory for MIMO...Superimposed code based channel assignment in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radar Sensor Network, UWB Radar, Sense

  16. Application of Near-Space Passive Radar for Homeland Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenqin

    2007-03-01

    To protect the homeland from terrorist attacks employing explosive devices, revolutionary advances across a wide range of technologies are required. Inspired by recent advances in near-space (defined as the region between 20 km and 100 km), this paper proposes a new passive radar system using opportunistic transmitter as an illuminator and near-space platform as a receiver. This concept differs substantially from current radars. This system can be operated as a passive bistatic or multistatic radar and hence largely immune to jamming. By placing the receiver in near-space platforms, many functions that are currently performed with satellites or airplanes could be performed much more cheaply and with much greater operational utility. These advantages make near-space passive attractive for a variety of applications, many of which fit well with the needs of homeland security. This paper details the role of near-space passive radar as sensor system that can support homeland security applications. The strengths and weakness of near-space passive radar, compared to current spaceborne and airborne radars, are detailed. The signal models and processing algorithms for near-space passive radar are provided. It is shown that the use of cost effective near-space platforms can provide the solutions that were previously thought to be out of reach to remote sensing and government customers.

  17. Power centroid radar and its rise from the universal cybernetics duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2014-05-01

    Power centroid radar (PC-Radar) is a fast and powerful adaptive radar scheme that naturally surfaced from the recent discovery of the time-dual for information theory which has been named "latency theory." Latency theory itself was born from the universal cybernetics duality (UC-Duality), first identified in the late 1970s, that has also delivered a time dual for thermodynamics that has been named "lingerdynamics" and anchors an emerging lifespan theory for biological systems. In this paper the rise of PC-Radar from the UC-Duality is described. The development of PC-Radar, US patented, started with Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded research on knowledge-aided (KA) adaptive radar of the last decade. The outstanding signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance of PC-Radar under severely taxing environmental disturbances will be established. More specifically, it will be seen that the SINR performance of PC-Radar, either KA or knowledgeunaided (KU), approximates that of an optimum KA radar scheme. The explanation for this remarkable result is that PC-Radar inherently arises from the UC-Duality, which advances a "first principles" duality guidance theory for the derivation of synergistic storage-space/computational-time compression solutions. Real-world synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be used as prior-knowledge to illustrate these results.

  18. Three-dimensional mosaicking of the South Korean radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, Marc; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Lee, GyuWon

    2016-04-01

    Dense radar networks offer the possibility of improved Quantitative Precipitation Estimation thanks to the additional information collected in the overlapping areas, which allows mitigating errors associated with the Vertical Profile of Reflectivity or path attenuation by intense rain. With this aim, Roca-Sancho et al. (2014) proposed a technique to generate 3-D reflectivity mosaics from the multiple radars of a network. The technique is based on an inverse method that simulates the radar sampling of the atmosphere considering the characteristics (location, frequency and scanning protocol) of each individual radar. This technique has been applied to mosaic the observations of the radar network of South Korea (composed of 14 S-band radars), and integrate the observations of the small X-band network which to be installed near Seoul in the framework of a project funded by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA). The evaluation of the generated 3-D mosaics has been done by comparison with point measurements (i.e. rain gauges and disdrometers) and with the observations of independent radars. Reference: Roca-Sancho, J., M. Berenguer, and D. Sempere-Torres (2014), An inverse method to retrieve 3D radar reflectivity composites, Journal of Hydrology, 519, 947-965, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.07.039.

  19. Radar Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Giulio; Johnson, David; Underwood, James

    2015-01-01

    Radar overcomes the shortcomings of laser, stereovision, and sonar because it can operate successfully in dusty, foggy, blizzard-blinding, and poorly lit scenarios. This paper presents a novel method for ground and obstacle segmentation based on radar sensing. The algorithm operates directly in the sensor frame, without the need for a separate synchronised navigation source, calibration parameters describing the location of the radar in the vehicle frame, or the geometric restrictions made in the previous main method in the field. Experimental results are presented in various urban scenarios to validate this approach, showing its potential applicability for advanced driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicle operations. PMID:26102493

  20. Operation of a Radar Altimeter over the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grund, Matthew D.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents documentation for the Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) pulse compression radar altimeter and its role in the NASA Multisensor Airborne Altimetry Experiment over Greenland in 1993. The AAFE Altimeter is a Ku-band microwave radar which has demonstrated 14 centimeter range precision in operation over arctic ice. Recent repairs and improvements were required to make the Greenland missions possible. Transmitter, receiver and software modifications, as well as the integration of a GPS receiver are thoroughly documented. Procedures for installation, and operation of the radar are described. Finally, suggestions are made for further system improvements.

  1. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  2. Laser Radar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

  3. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  4. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  5. Climate Analysis and Long Range Forecasting of Radar Performance in the Western North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    LONG RANGE FORECASTING OF RADAR PERFORMANCE IN THE WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC by David Ramsaur June 2009 Thesis Co-Advisors...2. REPORT DATE June 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Analysis and Long Range...degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN METEOROLOGY from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2009 Author: David C. Ramsaur

  6. Support of imaging radar for the shuttle system and subsystem definition study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An orbital microwave imaging radar system suggested for use in conjunction with the space shuttle is presented. Several applications of the system are described, including agriculture, meteorology, terrain analysis, various types of mapping, petroleum and mineral exploration, oil spill detection and sea and lake ice monitoring. The design criteria, which are based on the requirements of the above applications, are discussed.

  7. Implementation and evaluation of the new wind algorithm in NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Manobianco, John T.; Schumann, Robin S.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Applied Meteorology Unit's implementation and evaluation of the wind algorithm developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on the data analysis processor (DAP) of NASA's 50 MHz doppler radar wind profiler (DRWP). The report also includes a summary of the 50 MHz DRWP characteristics and performance and a proposed concept of operations for the DRWP.

  8. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    aircraft in its fleet for airborne atmospheric measurements, including dropsonde, and in situ sampling and remote sensing of clouds, chemistry and aerosols. Therefore, the addition of a precipitation radar to the NSF/NCAR C-130 platform will produce transformational change in its mission. This new design can be cloned for C-130s operated by a number of agencies, including NOAA and the Air Force hurricane reconnaissance fleet. This paper presents a possible configuration of a novel, airborne phased array radar (APAR) to be installed on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft with improved spatial resolution and polarimetric capability to meet or exceed that of ELDORA. The preliminary design, an update of the APAR project, and a future plan will be presented. References: Bell, M. M. , M. T. Montgomery, 2008: Observed Structure, Evolution, and Potential Intensity of Category 5 Hurricane Isabel (2003) from 12 to 14 September. Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 136, Issue 6, pp. 2023-2046. Hildebrand, P. H., W.-C. Lee, C. A. Walther, C. Frush, M. Randall, E. Loew, R. Neitzel, R. Parsons, J. Testud, F. Baudin, and A. LeCornec, 1996: The ELDORA/ASTRAIA airborne Doppler weather radar: High resolution observations from TOGA COARE. Bull. Amer. Metoro. Soc., 77, 213-232 Howard B. Bluestein, Roger M. Wakimoto, 2003: Mobile Radar Observations of Severe Convective Storms re Convective Storms. Meteorological Monographs, Vol. 30, Issue 52, pp. 105-105. Montgomery, M. T., M. M. Bell, S. D. Aberson, M. L. Black, 2006: Hurricane Isabel (2003): New Insights into the Physics of Intense Storms. Part I: Mean Vortex Structure and Maximum Intensity Estimates. Bull. of the American Meteorl. Soc., Vol. 87, Issue 10, pp. 1335-1347.

  9. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  10. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  11. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  12. Airborne MIMO GMTI Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    applications [1], [2], [3], [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. Conventional phased array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and...intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional phased - array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and measure the backscattered response... steering vector for a SI MO array with nr"/? receiver phase centers located at positions xm + y„. This is how the MIMO virtual array arises. The waveforms

  13. Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D.

    1993-11-29

    Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like embedded reinforcing bars, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to quickly locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without resorting to destructive methods. In this paper, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept (Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar, GPIR) and present results from experiments designed to simulate the concept.

  14. Meteorological forecasting for emergency preparedness and response at the Kennedy Space Center of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Hodur, R.; Liou, C.S.

    1995-10-13

    The NORAPS model has been used to simulate the motion of Hurricane Erin over Florida. A triplynested grid was used to capture the meteorological features which span from regional to local scales with the highest resolution nest centered at the Kennedy Space Center area. The simulated storm track agreed remarkably well with the observed path of the hurricane. There was also good qualitative agreement between the computed surface precipitation pattern and observations based on radar signatures. Although the validity of the Kuo- type cumulus parameterization scheme used in the model was marginal and even questionable on the finest resolution (4 km) nest, the simulated results were nevertheless qualitatively reasonable. The results generated by NORAPS from the simulation of such a numerical challenging meteorological event were very encouraging. Our next step is to use the meteorological information from the model to provide wind fields for dispersion model simulations of potential atmospheric releases.

  15. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    active phased array radar and the RC system ensures that the commands/experimental parameter data are properly transferred to all subsystems especially to TR modules. In case of failure of any TR module, it is indicated to the user for further rectification. Realisation of the RC system is at an advanced stage. More details will be presented in the conference.

  16. Synoptic Analysis of Heavy Rainfall and Flood Observed in Izmir on 20 May 2015 Using Radar and Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, Ercument

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a meteorological analysis is conducted on the sudden and heavy rainfall that occurred in Izmir on May 20, 2015. The barotropic model that is observed in upper carts is shown in detail. We can access the data of and analyze the type, severity and amount of many meteorological parameters using the meteorological radars that form a remote sensing system. The one field that uses the radars most intensively is rainfall. Images from the satellite and radar systems are used in the meteorological analysis of the heavy rainfall that occurred in Izmir on 20 May 2015, and the development of the system that led to this rainfall is shown. In this study, data received from Bornova Automatic Meteorological Observation Station (OMGI), which is under the management of Meteorology General Directorate (MGM), Izmir 2. Regional Directorate; satellite images; Radar PPI (Plan Position Indicator) and Radar MAX (Maximum Display) images are evaluated. In addition, synoptic situation, outputs of numerical estimation models, indices calculated from Skew T Log-P diagram are shown. All these results are mapped and analyzed. At the end of these analyses, it is found that this sudden rainfall had developed according to the frontal system motion. A barotropic model occurred on the day of the rainfall over the Aegean Region. As a result of the rainfall that happened in Izmir at 12.00 UTC (Universal Coordinated Time), the May month rainfall record for the last 64 years is achieved with a rainfall amount of 67.7 mm per meter square. Keywords: Izmir, barotropic model, heavy rainfall, radar, synoptic analysis

  17. NASA's DC-8 With Rain Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In a joint venture between NASA and Japan's NASDA, scientists have been using satellites, airplanes, and boats to measure rain physics in and under thunderstorms over open water. This Quick Time movie shows NASA's DC-8 jet with the instruments like the airborne rain mapping radar, i.e., the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) and a lightening imaging sensor. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  18. Radar Technology Development at NASA/JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar at JPL and worldwide is enjoying a period of unprecedented development. JPL's science-driven program focuses on exploiting commercially available components to build new technologies to meet NASA's science goals. Investments in onboard-processing, advanced digital systems, and efficient high-power devices, point to a new generation of high-performance scientific SAR systems in the US. Partnerships are a key strategy for US missions in the coming decade

  19. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Eyster, R S; Wolf, W W

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated (r2=0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed (r2=0.56) and wind direction (r2=0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  20. WSR-88D doppler radar detection of corn earworm moth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Eyster, R. S.; Wolf, W. W.

    2014-07-01

    Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (CEW) populations infesting one crop production area may rapidly migrate and infest distant crop production areas. Although entomological radars have detected corn earworm moth migrations, the spatial extent of the radar coverage has been limited to a small horizontal view above crop production areas. The Weather Service Radar (version 88D) (WSR-88D) continuously monitors the radar-transmitted energy reflected by, and radial speed of, biota as well as by precipitation over areas that may encompass crop production areas. We analyzed data from the WSR-88D radar (S-band) at Brownsville, Texas, and related these data to aerial concentrations of CEW estimated by a scanning entomological radar (X-band) and wind velocity measurements from rawinsonde and pilot balloon ascents. The WSR-88D radar reflectivity was positively correlated ( r 2 = 0.21) with the aerial concentration of corn earworm-size insects measured by a scanning X-band radar. WSR-88D radar constant altitude plan position indicator estimates of wind velocity were positively correlated with wind speed ( r 2 = 0.56) and wind direction ( r 2 = 0.63) measured by pilot balloons and rawinsondes. The results reveal that WSR-88D radar measurements of insect concentration and displacement speed and direction can be used to estimate the migratory flux of corn earworms and other nocturnal insects, information that could benefit areawide pest management programs. In turn, identification of the effects of spatiotemporal patterns of migratory flights of corn earworm-size insects on WSR-88D radar measurements may lead to the development of algorithms that increase the accuracy of WSR-88D radar measurements of reflectivity and wind velocity for operational meteorology.

  1. Correction of Sampling Errors in Ocean Surface Cross-Sectional Estimates from Nadir-Looking Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, I. Jeff; Meneghini, R.; Miller, L. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The return from the ocean surface has a number of uses for airborne meteorological radar. The normalized surface cross section has been used for radar system calibration, estimation of surface winds, and in algorithms for estimating the path-integrated attenuation in rain. However, meteorological radars are normally optimized for observation of distributed targets that fill the resolution volume, and so a point target such as the surface can be poorly sampled, particularly at near-nadir look angles. Sampling the nadir surface return at an insufficient rate results in a negative bias of the estimated cross section. This error is found to be as large as 4 dB using observations from a high-altitude airborne radar. An algorithm for mitigating the error is developed that is based upon the shape of the surface echo and uses the returned signal at the three range gates nearest the peak surface echo.

  2. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  3. Enhanced Capabilities of Advanced Airborne Radar Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    RCF UNIX-Based Machine 65 BAUHAUS A-l Illustrations to Understand How GTD Files are Read 78 C-l Input File for Sidelobe Jammer Nulling...on the UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS are provided to illustrate the enhancements in run time, as compared to the original version of the simulation [1...Figure 27 presents some CPU run times for executing the enhanced simulation on the RCF UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS . The run times are shown only for

  4. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  5. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  7. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part I. Operational Sampling Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Jo, Ieng; Johnson, Karen

    2013-12-03

    Probing clouds in three-dimensions has never been done with scanning millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars in a continuous operating environment. The acquisition of scanning cloud radars by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and research institutions around the world generate the need for developing operational scan strategies for cloud radars. Here, the first generation of sampling strategies for the Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) is discussed. These scan strategies are designed to address the scientific objectives of the ARM program, however, they introduce an initial framework for operational scanning cloud radars. While the weather community uses scan strategies that are based on a sequence of scans at constant elevations, the SACRs scan strategies are based on a sequence of scans at constant azimuth. This is attributed to the cloud properties that are vastly different for rain and snow shafts that are the primary target of precipitation radars. A “cloud surveillance” scan strategy is introduced (HS-RHI) based on a sequence of horizon-to-horizon Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans that sample the hemispherical sky (HS). The HS-RHI scan strategy is repeated every 30 min to provide a static view of the cloud conditions around the SACR location. Between HS-RHI scan strategies other scan strategies are introduced depending on the cloud conditions. The SACRs are pointing vertically in the case of measurable precipitation at the ground. The radar reflectivities are corrected for water vapor attenuation and non-meteorological detection are removed. A hydrometeor detection mask is introduced based on the difference of cloud and noise statistics is discussed.

  8. Development and Testing of the VAHIRR Radar Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe III; Miller, Juli; Charnasky, Debbie; Gillen, Robert; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Hood, Doris; McNamara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) and Flight Rules (FR) are used for launches and landings at government and commercial spaceports. They are designed to avoid natural and triggered lightning strikes to space vehicles, which can endanger the vehicle, payload, and general public. The previous LLCC and FR were shown to be overly restrictive, potentially leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. A radar algorithm called Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), along with new LLCC and FR for anvil clouds, were developed using data collected by the Airborne Field Mill II research program. VAHIRR is calculated at every horizontal position in the coverage area of the radar and can be displayed similar to a two-dimensional derived reflectivity product, such as composite reflectivity or echo tops. It is the arithmetic product of two quantities not currently generated by the Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D): a volume average of the reflectivity measured in dBZ and the average cloud thickness based on the average echo top height and base height. This presentation will describe the VAHIRR algorithm, and then explain how the VAHIRR radar product was implemented and tested on a clone of the National Weather Service's (NWS) Open Radar Product Generator (ORPG-clone). The VAHIRR radar product was then incorporated into the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), to make it more convenient for weather forecasters to utilize. Finally, the reliability of the VAHIRR radar product was tested with real-time level II radar data from the WSR-88D NWS Melbourne radar.

  9. 66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 95-GHz millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHarg, J. C.; Abouzahra, Mohamed D.; Lucey, R. F.

    1996-12-01

    Recent advances in MMW solid-state technology, combined with state-of-the-art quasi-optical feed elements, have made possible upgrades to an instrumentation radar in the W-band. Mixer diodes capable of cryogenic operation have led to a reduction in the receiver noise figure, and a Gunn-effect diode amplifier has boosted transmit power. Application of Gaussian beam optics has provided a reduction in transmit and receive losses, while increasing transmit/receive isolation and power handling capability. In all, an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude is ought, yielding the capability to provide metric tracking and range-Doppler imaging on a variety of important targets.

  11. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  12. Metrology for meteorology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, Andrea; Bellagarda, Simone; Bertiglia, Fabio; Coppa, Graziano; Lopardo, Giuseppina; Roggero, Guido; Sanna, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    For a few years now, a fruitful collaboration has been growing between the metrology and meteorology communities. The main need expressed by top level Institutions was for the availability of robust data for environmental and meteorological studies and for the benefit of the present and future generations of climatologists. This was translated by the metrology community into two key objectives centred on traceability and uncertainty. Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) are continuously recorded by a multitude of different sensors on satellites, balloon radiosondes, aircraft, surface weather stations, buoys, and deep sea devices; all of them working in different operating environments and affected by different influence quantities. This complex system, as a whole, requires dedicated calibration techniques and methods to guarantee fully documented traceability and measurements uncertainty evaluation, thus ensuring complete comparability of measurement results. The inclusion of measurement uncertainty in historical and future data series represents a fundamental step towards greater public confidence in evaluations of climate change. EURAMET, the European association of national institute of metrology is funding several joint research projects on those topics and is launching a task group of experts, formed by both metrologists and members of environmental, meteorological Institutions and climatologists. One of those projects, "MeteoMet" (www.meteomet.org), started in 2011 and re-funded in 2014, stands out since it hits both targets: improve the traceability of an increasing number of ECVs and promote the involvement of stakeholders in support of their needs. This mission leads to a novel vision: a permanent cooperation between metrology and meteorology based on new and existing institutions and infrastructures.

  13. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  14. Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Pulse compression has been widely used in radars so that low-power, long RF pulses can be transmitted, rather than a highpower short pulse. Pulse compression radars offer a number of advantages over high-power short pulsed radars, such as no need of high-power RF circuitry, no need of high-voltage electronics, compact size and light weight, better range resolution, and better reliability. However, range sidelobe associated with pulse compression has prevented the use of this technique on spaceborne radars since surface returns detected by range sidelobes may mask the returns from a nearby weak cloud or precipitation particles. Research on adaptive pulse compression was carried out utilizing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) waveform generation board and a radar transceiver simulator. The results have shown significant improvements in pulse compression sidelobe performance. Microwave and millimeter-wave radars present many technological challenges for Earth and planetary science applications. The traditional tube-based radars use high-voltage power supply/modulators and high-power RF transmitters; therefore, these radars usually have large size, heavy weight, and reliability issues for space and airborne platforms. Pulse compression technology has provided a path toward meeting many of these radar challenges. Recent advances in digital waveform generation, digital receivers, and solid-state power amplifiers have opened a new era for applying pulse compression to the development of compact and high-performance airborne and spaceborne remote sensing radars. The primary objective of this innovative effort is to develop and test a new pulse compression technique to achieve ultrarange sidelobes so that this technique can be applied to spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing radars to meet future science requirements. By using digital waveform generation, digital receiver, and solid-state power amplifier technologies, this improved pulse compression

  15. Radar Imaging of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.

    2007-10-01

    Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by improvements in radar systems. Probably the most important result of the imaging work has been the discovery and mapping of radar-bright features at the poles. The radar scattering properties of these features, and their confinement to permanently shaded crater floors, is consistent with volume backscatter from a low-loss volatile such as clean water ice. Questions remain, however, regarding the source and long-term stability of the putative ice, which underscores the need for independent confirmation by other observational methods. Radar images of the non-polar regions have also revealed a plethora of bright features, most of which are associated with fresh craters and their ejecta. Several very large impact features, with rays and other bright ejecta spreading over distances of 1,000 km or more, have been traced to source craters with diameters of 80-125 km. Among these large rayed features are some whose relative faintness suggests that they are being observed in an intermediate stage of degradation. Less extended ray/ejecta features have been found for some of the freshest medium-size craters such as Kuiper and Degas. Much more common are smaller (<40 km diameter) fresh craters showing bright rim-rings but little or no ray structure. These smaller radar-bright craters are particularly common over the H-7 quadrangle. Diffuse areas of enhanced depolarized brightness have been found in the smooth plains, including the circum-Caloris planitiae and Tolstoj Basin. This is an interesting finding, as it is the reverse of the albedo contrast seen between the radar-dark maria and the radar-bright cratered highlands

  16. Radar Imaging of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.

    Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by improvements in radar systems. Probably the most important result of the imaging work has been the discovery and mapping of radar-bright features at the poles. The radar scattering properties of these features, and their confinement to permanently shaded crater floors, is consistent with volume backscatter from a low-loss volatile such as clean water ice. Questions remain, however, regarding the source and long-term stability of the putative ice, which underscores the need for independent confirmation by other observational methods. Radar images of the non-polar regions have also revealed a plethora of bright features, most of which are associated with fresh craters and their ejecta. Several very large impact features, with rays and other bright ejecta spreading over distances of 1,000 km or more, have been traced to source craters with diameters of 80-125 km. Among these large rayed features are some whose relative faintness suggests that they are being observed in an intermediate stage of degradation. Less extended ray/ejecta features have been found for some of the freshest medium-size craters such as Kuiper and Degas. Much more common are smaller (<40 km diameter) fresh craters showing bright rim-rings but little or no ray structure. These smaller radar-bright craters are particularly common over the H-7 quadrangle. Diffuse areas of enhanced depolarized brightness have been found in the smooth plains, including the circum-Caloris planitiae and Tolstoj Basin. This is an interesting finding, as it is the reverse of the albedo contrast seen between the radar-dark maria and the radar-bright cratered highlands

  17. Seventh Annual Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems 26-28 October 1983, Tullahoma, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, D. W.; Frost, W.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of reports and recommendations resulting from the Workshop on Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems is presented. The Workshops have been held to characterize the interaction between aircraft and airport operators with the atmosphere, identify necessary meteorological enhancements, and establish criteria for meteorological data needed by the aviation community. The topics covered included winds and wind shear, turbulence, fog, visibility and ceiling, lightning and atmospheric electricity, icing, frost and snow, rain, ozone and acid rain. The recommendations issued included a denser meteorological network with more automated stations, the development of radar systems for icing forecasts and wind shear alerts, the accumulation of a greater data base on convective cells and lightning strikes, and further study of the impact of rain on aircraft performance.

  18. Quality Control of Meteorological Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William; Dee, Dick; Rukhovets, Leonid

    1999-01-01

    For the first time, a problem of the meteorological observation quality control (QC) was formulated by L.S. Gandin at the Main Geophysical Observatory in the 70's. Later in 1988 L.S. Gandin began adapting his ideas in complex quality control (CQC) to the operational environment at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The CQC was first applied by L.S.Gandin and his colleagues to detection and correction of errors in rawinsonde heights and temperatures using a complex of hydrostatic residuals.Later, a full complex of residuals, vertical and horizontal optimal interpolations and baseline checks were added for the checking and correction of a wide range of meteorological variables. some other of Gandin's ideas were applied and substantially developed at other meteorological centers. A new statistical QC was recently implemented in the Goddard Data Assimilation System. The central component of any quality control is a buddy check which is a test of individual suspect observations against available nearby non-suspect observations. A novel feature of this test is that the error variances which are used for QC decision are re-estimated on-line. As a result, the allowed tolerances for suspect observations can depend on local atmospheric conditions. The system is then better able to accept extreme values observed in deep cyclones, jet streams and so on. The basic statements of this adaptive buddy check are described. Some results of the on-line QC including moisture QC are presented.

  19. A barrier radar concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  20. The new approach of polarimetric attenuation correction for improving radar quantitative precipitation estimation(QPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ji-Young; Suk, Mi-Kyung; Nam, Kyung-Yeub; Ko, Jeong-Seok; Ryzhkov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To obtain high-quality radar quantitative precipitation estimation data, reliable radar calibration and efficient attenuation correction are very important. Because microwave radiation at shorter wavelength experiences strong attenuation in precipitation, accounting for this attenuation is the essential work at shorter wavelength radar. In this study, the performance of different attenuation/differential attenuation correction schemes at C band is tested for two strong rain events which occurred in central Oklahoma. And also, a new attenuation correction scheme (combination of self-consistency and hot-spot concept methodology) that separates relative contributions of strong convective cells and the rest of the storm to the path-integrated total and differential attenuation is among the algorithms explored. A quantitative use of weather radar measurement such as rainfall estimation relies on the reliable attenuation correction. We examined the impact of attenuation correction on estimates of rainfall in heavy rain events by using cross-checking with S-band radar measurements which are much less affected by attenuation and compared the storm rain totals obtained from the corrected Z and KDP and rain gages in these cases. This new approach can be utilized at shorter wavelength radars efficiently. Therefore, it is very useful to Weather Radar Center of Korea Meteorological Administration preparing X-band research dual Pol radar network.

  1. Estimating reflectivity values from wind turbines for analyzing the potential impact on weather radar services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, I.; Grande, O.; Jenn, D.; Guerra, D.; de la Vega, D.

    2015-05-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has repeatedly expressed concern over the increasing number of impact cases of wind turbine farms on weather radars. Current signal processing techniques to mitigate wind turbine clutter (WTC) are scarce, so the most practical approach to this issue is the assessment of the potential interference from a wind farm before it is installed. To do so, and in order to obtain a WTC reflectivity model, it is crucial to estimate the radar cross section (RCS) of the wind turbines to be built, which represents the power percentage of the radar signal that is backscattered to the radar receiver. For the proposed model, a representative scenario has been chosen in which both the weather radar and the wind farm are placed on clear areas; i.e., wind turbines are supposed to be illuminated only by the lowest elevation angles of the radar beam. This paper first characterizes the RCS of wind turbines in the weather radar frequency bands by means of computer simulations based on the physical optics theory and then proposes a simplified model to estimate wind turbine RCS values. This model is of great help in the evaluation of the potential impact of a certain wind farm on the weather radar operation.

  2. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. Coordinated Radar Resource Management for Networked Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development Canada Ottawa, Canada K1A 0Z4 Email: Peter.Moo@drdc-rddc.gc.ca Abstract A phased array radar has the ability to rapidly and...search and Development Canada (DRDC) Ottawa to analyse the performance of radar resource management techniques for naval radars operating in a littoral

  4. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  5. Technology Needs Assessment of an Atmospheric Observation System for Multidisciplinary Air Quality/Meteorology Missions, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Brehm, W. F.; Frippel, G. G.; Alyea, F.; Kraiman, H.; Folder, P.; Krowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements that will be necessary to implement the atmospheric observation systems are considered. Upper and lower atmospheric air quality and meteorological parameters necessary to support the air quality investigations were included. The technology needs were found predominantly in areas related to sensors and measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements.

  6. An interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for compositing digital radar data and GOES satellite data for meteorological analysis. The processing is performed on a user-oriented image processing system, and is designed to be used in the research mode. It has a capability to construct PPIs and three-dimensional CAPPIs using conventional as well as Doppler data, and to composite other types of data. In the remapping of radar data to satellite coordinates, two steps are necessary. First, PPI or CAPPI images are remapped onto a latitude-longitude projection. Then, the radar data are projected into satellite coordinates. The exact spherical trigonometric equations, and the approximations derived for simplifying the computations are given. The use of these approximations appears justified for most meteorological applications. The largest errors in the remapping procedure result from the satellite viewing angle parallax, which varies according to the cloud top height. The horizontal positional error due to this is of the order of the error in the assumed cloud height in mid-latitudes. Examples of PPI and CAPPI data composited with satellite data are given for Hurricane Frederic on 13 September 1979 and for a squall line on 2 May 1979 in Oklahoma.

  7. Coherent IR radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, A. B.; Harney, R. C.; Hull, R. J.

    Recent progress in the development of coherent IR radar equipment is reviewed, focusing on the Firepond laser radar installation and the more compact systems derived for it. The design and capabilities of Firepond as a long-range satellite-tracking device are outlined. The technological improvements necessary to make laser radar mobile are discussed: a lightweight, stable 5-10-W transmitter laser for both CW and pulsed operation, a 12-element HgCdTe detector array, an eccentric-pupil Ritchey-Chretien telescope, and a combination of near-field phase modification and anamorphic expansion to produce a fan beam of relatively uniform intensity. Sample images obtained with a prototype system are shown, and the applicability of the mobile system to range-resolved coherent DIAL measurement is found to be similar to that of a baseline DIAL system.

  8. Ground penetrating radar for underground sensing in agriculture: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Dong, Xuejun; Leskovar, Daniel I.

    2016-10-01

    Belowground properties strongly affect agricultural productivity. Traditional methods for quantifying belowground properties are destructive, labor-intensive and pointbased. Ground penetrating radar can provide non-invasive, areal, and repeatable underground measurements. This article reviews the application of ground penetrating radar for soil and root measurements and discusses potential approaches to overcome challenges facing ground penetrating radar-based sensing in agriculture, especially for soil physical characteristics and crop root measurements. Though advanced data-analysis has been developed for ground penetrating radar-based sensing of soil moisture and soil clay content in civil engineering and geosciences, it has not been used widely in agricultural research. Also, past studies using ground penetrating radar in root research have been focused mainly on coarse root measurement. Currently, it is difficult to measure individual crop roots directly using ground penetrating radar, but it is possible to sense root cohorts within a soil volume grid as a functional constituent modifying bulk soil dielectric permittivity. Alternatively, ground penetrating radarbased sensing of soil water content, soil nutrition and texture can be utilized to inversely estimate root development by coupling soil water flow modeling with the seasonality of plant root growth patterns. Further benefits of ground penetrating radar applications in agriculture rely on the knowledge, discovery, and integration among differing disciplines adapted to research in agricultural management.

  9. A study of radar backscattering from water surface in response to rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinan; Zheng, Quanan; Liu, Ren; Wang, Dan; Duncan, James H.; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radar backscattering from a water surface in response to rainfall was studied. The paper consists of two parts. First, the spatial characteristics of raindrops in rain fields were analyzed based on published data and the response of a water surface to rainfall was experimentally studied in the laboratory. Rain-generated surface features including stalks, crowns, ring waves, and secondary drops were measured. It was found that stalks and crowns are dominant in terms of their height and energy. Second, the radar signatures of a rainfall event simultaneously observed by C band ENVISAT (European satellite), ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar), and ground-based weather radar in the Northwest Pacific were investigated. The relationship between the radar return intensity extracted from the C band ASAR image and the reflectivity factor (rain rate) obtained from ground-based weather radar was analyzed. For light/moderate rain (with low reflectivity factors), the radar backscattering intensity increases as the reflectivity factor increases. For heavy rain (with high reflectivity factors), the radar backscattering intensity decreases as the reflectivity factor increases. The maximum radar backscattering intensity occurs at a reflectivity factor of 45 dBZ (with rain rate of 24 mm/h). It was found that the spaceborne radar backscattering intensity strongly correlates with the average distance between the stalks on the water surface in the rain field in a nonlinear manner. The physics of the radar signatures of the rain event are explored.

  10. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  11. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  12. Lightning Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and Other Meteorological Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The lightning jump algorithm has a robust history in correlating upward trends in lightning to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The algorithm uses the correlation between the physical principles that govern an updraft's ability to produce microphysical and kinematic conditions conducive for electrification and its role in the development of severe weather conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that the lightning jump algorithm concept holds significant promise in the operational realm, aiding in the identification of thunderstorms that have potential to produce severe or hazardous weather. However, a large amount of work still needs to be completed in spite of these positive results. The total lightning jump algorithm is not a stand-alone concept that can be used independent of other meteorological measurements, parameters, and techniques. For example, the algorithm is highly dependent upon thunderstorm tracking to build lightning histories on convective cells. Current tracking methods show that thunderstorm cell tracking is most reliable and cell histories are most accurate when radar information is incorporated with lightning data. In the absence of radar data, the cell tracking is a bit less reliable but the value added by the lightning information is much greater. For optimal application, the algorithm should be integrated with other measurements that assess storm scale properties (e.g., satellite, radar). Therefore, the recent focus of this research effort has been assessing the lightning jump's relation to thunderstorm tracking, meteorological parameters, and its potential uses in operational meteorology. Furthermore, the algorithm must be tailored for the optically-based GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), as what has been observed using Very High Frequency Lightning Mapping Array (VHF LMA) measurements will not exactly translate to what will be observed by GLM due to resolution and other instrument differences. Herein, we present some of

  13. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  14. Microwave radar oceanographic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique was developed and demonstrated for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from air and space platforms. The measurement technique was well demonstrated with data collected in a number of flight experiments involving wave spectral comparisons with wave buoys and the Surface Contour Radar (SCR). Recent missions include the SIR-B underflight experiment (1984), FASINEX (1986), and LEWEX (1987). ROWS related activity is presently concentrating on using the aircraft instrument for wave-processes investigations and obtaining the necessary support (consensus) for a satellite instrument development program. Prospective platforms include EOS and the Canadian RADARSAT.

  15. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  16. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  17. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  18. Side looking radar calibration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

  19. The Meteorology of Storms that Produce Narrow Bipolar Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Narrow Bipolar Events (NBEs) are compact intracloud discharges that produce the most powerful lightning-related radio frequency signals that have been observed. However, their luminosity is below the threshold for detectability from current and past spaceborne optical sensors. NBEs have been loosely associated with convective intensity, but their occurrence tends to be highly localized in time and space within a thunderstorm, and there remain many questions about whether and to what extent they are significantly related to meteorological processes within thunderstorms. Using the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA), the National Lightning Detection Network, and available Doppler and polarimetric radar data, case studies will be presented for storm events that produced large numbers of NBEs (10s-100s) during their lifetimes. NBEs are documented via a method that identifies high peak power (>40-50 dBW) initial VHF sources within a specific altitude band in the upper levels of thunderstorms. The production of NBEs, including spatial and temporal variability, will be compared to the radar-inferred kinematic and microphysical structure and evolution of thunderstorms, as well as their NALMA- and NLDN-inferred electrical characteristics. The results should provide new insights into the relationships between NBEs and thunderstorm processes.

  20. Properties of echo spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakasugi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Turbulent scatter and Fresnel reflection are the fundamental echoing mechanisms to interpret the signals observed by Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars. Turbulent scattered echoes provide information about the turbulence structure and mean flow of the atmosphere. Observational results with VHF MST radars, however, show the importance of Fresnel reflection due to the infinite gradient of reflectivity at the edges of a scattering layer. This condition is excluded for the weak fluctuation models but it is still possible to include the observed aspect sensitivity by assuming an anisotropic structure of fluctuations. Another explanation of the aspect sensitivity observed by MST radars is advanced. Spectral estimates by the widely used periodogram were related to a four-dimensional spectrum of atmospheric fluctuations with anisotropic structure. Effects of the radar system such as antenna beam width, beam direction and Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) data length were discussed for the anisotropic turbulent atmosphere. Echo parameters were also estimated.

  1. Scanning Radar Investigations to Characterize Cloud and Precipitation Processes for ASR

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, Chandrasekar

    2016-12-17

    The project conducted investigations in the following areas related to scanning radar retrievals: a) Development for Cloud drizzle separation studies for the ENA site based on Doppler Spectra b) Advanced radar retrieval for the SGP site c) Characterizing falling snow using multifrequency dual-polarization measurements d) BAECC field experiment. More details about these investigations can be found within each subtopic within the report.

  2. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  3. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Signatures and Paths Associated with Tornadoes Over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedloved, Gary J.; Carcione, Brian C.; Darden, Christopher B.; Crowe, Christina C.

    2012-01-01

    A historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by 40 tornadoes, including 6 that reached EF-4 to EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Many of these tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures in 6 tornadoes in North Alabama on April 27, 2011. Several of these debris signatures were disseminated in real-time to the NWS Huntsville and local media to confirm storm spotter reports, confidence to enhance wording within warnings, and accurately pinpoint the locations of tornadoes for residents downstream of the storm. Also, the debris signature locations were used in post-event storm surveys to help locate areas of damage in regions where damage went unreported, or to help separate tornado tracks that were in close proximity to each other. Furthermore, the relative locations of the debris and damage paths for long track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys.

  4. From GNSS and meteorological data to NRT 4D water vapour distribution - GNSS meteorology activities at WUELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Rohm, Witold; Sierny, Jan; Wilgan, Karina; Hadas, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The GNSS and Meteo group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS), Poland is continuously working on GNSS meteorology since 2010. Currently group maintain real-time (RT) service collecting GNSS and meteorological data and near real-time (NRT) services for estimation of Zenith Troposphere Delay (ZTD), Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and GNSS tomography over the territory of Poland. Data are obtained with high resolution from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations and Ground Base Augmentation System (GBAS) called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). The GNSS data are available from 124 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries, with the average 70km distance between stations. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from: ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), airport meteorological stations (METAR messages stations) and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). The first part of the paper presents the methodology of ASG-EUPOS GNSS data processing for NRT ZTD and ZTD horizontal gradients estimation in double-differenced mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.0) as well as new results from PPP mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.2) and their validation with respect to Rapid and Final troposphere products. The second part is describing the quality assessment of meteorological parameters interpolation methods for determination of ZHD at GNSS sites performed on GNSS stations equipped with meteorological sensors. The third part concerns on the comparisons of ZTD from GNSS data and meteorological parameters from SYNOP stations with data from COAMPS numerical weather prediction system (NWP) and IWV calculation. The fourth part presents the development of GNSS tomography model TOMO2. The last part describes methods of above products validation and visualization over the

  5. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  6. Interception of LPI Radar Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    AD-A246 315!I! I!! II I’ IIi INTERCEPTION OF LPI RADAR SIGNALS (U) by Jim P.Y. Lee DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT OTTAWA TECHNICAL NOTE 91-23 Canadd...November 1991Ottawa 92-041269’ 2 2 18 II.2t1111111I 111111! !_ 1+1 efrc nadonds INTERCEPTION OF LPI RADAR SIGNALS (U) by Jim P.Y. Lee Radar E"Sect&ion... radar may employ against current EW receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current

  7. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  8. Netted LPI RADARs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Characteristics ALQ-172 B-52G/H Self- protection Track/search radar jamming, steerable jam beams , software programmable, phased array antenna ...bore sight: knowing the pattern of the antenna’s gain, two or more intercepts within the antenna main beam are sufficient to determine the...14 a. Low Level Antenna Sidelobes .............14 b. Antenna Scan Patterns ...................18 4. Carrier Frequency Selection

  9. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  10. Frequency Diverse Array Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    the methods for electronic scanning of antenna systems. Techniques that have been studied in this connection include frequency variation, phase shift...an array antenna instantaneously into a desired direction where no mechanical mechanism is involved in the scanning process. Electronic scanning... methods including phase scanning, time delay scanning, and frequency scanning have been used in various radar applications; however new and cheaper

  11. Passive MIMO Radar Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3.3 Dependence on SNR...71 4.3.3 Dependence on SNR and DNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.4 Interpretations...described as a passive radar network. The topology of such networks is described as bistatic, multistatic, or multiple-input multiple-output, depending on

  12. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  13. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  14. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  15. Precipitation observations from high frequency spaceborne polarimetric synthetic aperture radar and ground-based radar: Theory and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Jason P.

    Global weather monitoring is a very useful tool to better understand the Earth's hydrological cycle and provide critical information for emergency and warning systems in severe cases. Developed countries have installed numerous ground-based radars for this purpose, but they obviously are not global in extent. To address this issue, the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) was launched in 1997 and has been quite successful. The follow-on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will replace TRMM once it is launched. However, a single precipitation radar satellite is still limited, so it would be beneficial if additional existing satellite platforms can be used for meteorological purposes. Within the past few years, several X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites have been launched and more are planned. While the primary SAR application is surface monitoring, and they are heralded as "all weather'' systems, strong precipitation induces propagation and backscatter effects in the data. Thus, there exists a potential for weather monitoring using this technology. The process of extracting meteorological parameters from radar measurements is essentially an inversion problem that has been extensively studied for radars designed to estimate these parameters. Before attempting to solve the inverse problem for SAR data, however, the forward problem must be addressed to gain knowledge on exactly how precipitation impacts SAR imagery. This is accomplished by simulating storms in SAR data starting from real measurements of a storm by ground-based polarimetric radar. In addition, real storm observations by current SAR platforms are also quantitatively analyzed by comparison to theoretical results using simultaneous acquisitions by ground radars even in single polarization. For storm simulation, a novel approach is presented here using neural networks to accommodate the oscillations present when the particle scattering requires the Mie solution, i

  16. ICT approaches to integrating institutional and non-institutional data services for better understanding of hydro-meteorological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrina, T.; Parodi, A.; Quarati, A.; Clematis, A.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely recognised that an effective exploitation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is an enabling factor to achieve major advancements in Hydro-Meteorological Research (HMR). Recently, a lot of attention has been devoted to the use of ICT in HMR activities, e.g. in order to facilitate data exchange and integration, to improve computational capabilities and consequently model resolution and quality. Nowadays, ICT technologies have demonstrated that it is possible to extend monitoring networks by integrating sensors and other sources of data managed by volunteer's communities. These networks are constituted by peers that span a wide portion of the territory in many countries. The peers are "location aware" in the sense that they provide information strictly related with their geospatial location. The coverage of these networks, in general, is not uniform and the location of peers may follow random distribution. The ICT features used to set up the network are lightweight and user friendly, thus, permitting the peers to join the network without the necessity of specialised ICT knowledge. In this perspective it is of increasing interest for HMR activities to elaborate of Personal Weather Station (PWS) networks, capable to provide almost real-time, location aware, weather data. Moreover, different big players of the web arena are now providing world-wide backbones, suitable to present on detailed map location aware information, obtained by mashing up data from different sources. This is the case, for example, with Google Earth and Google Maps. This paper presents the design of a mashup application aimed at aggregating, refining and visualizing near real-time hydro-meteorological datasets. In particular, we focused on the integration of instant precipitation depths, registered either by widespread semi-professional weather stations and official ones. This sort of information has high importance and usefulness in decision support systems and Civil

  17. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  18. Laser radar in a system perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Kamerman, Gary; Steinvall, Ove

    2011-06-01

    As a result of recent achievements in the field of laser radars, new options are available for their operation as system components. In addition to complementing and cross-checking one another, system components can generate new synergetic values. In this article, we address various roles and functions that laser radar may perform in a complete system context. Special attention is paid to range-gated imaging ladars operating in conjunction with infrared 2D sensors providing target recognition/identification at long distances and under adverse conditions of natural illumination. The multi- or hyper-spectral features of passive IR or visible sensors may be complemented by multispectral, broadband, tunable or switchable 3D imaging ladar in order to exploit the differences in target reflectance and absorption. This option opens another possibility for multi-spectral, mid-IR ladar to differentiate targets of various types, or to enhance the visualization potential and to facilitate the scene description with small targets like mines or mine-like objects. The recently discovered specificity of Raman scattering in the perturbed sea water makes the long-standing efforts in submarine wake detection more viable. Furthermore, the combination of microwave radar and laser radar, when amplified with new achievements in the fourth generation dual-mode imaging sensors, creates the possibility of single payload configurations suitable for small platforms. Emphasis is also made of the efficiency of Doppler velocimetry for precise vehicle navigation, such as for advance cruise missile control or autonomous landing. Finally, recent advances in coherent micro-ladars for optical coherence tomography now permit the reconstruction of time resolved 3D (i.e., 4D) dynamics of blood flow in heart vessels.

  19. Radar based rainfall forecast for sewage systems control.

    PubMed

    Aspegren, H; Bailly, C; Mpé, A; Bazzurro, N; Morgavi, A; Prem, E; Jensen, N E

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing demand for accurate rainfall forecast in urban areas from the water industry. Current forecasting systems provided mainly by meteorological offices are based on large-scale prediction and are not well suited for this application. In order to devise a system especially designed for the dynamic management of a sewerage system the "RADAR" project was launched. The idea of this project was to provide a short-term small-scale prediction of rain based on radar images. The prediction methodology combines two methods. An extrapolation method based on a sophisticated cross correlation of images is optimised by a neural network technique. Three different application sites in Europe have been used to validate the system.

  20. On the automatic classification of rain patterns on radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlina Bonati, Apolonia

    The automation of the process of identification and classification of rain patterns on radar derived images is approached using some tools of digital image interpretation adapted to the specific application. The formal characterization of rain patterns and their partition in classes related to the type of precipitation is the main problem addressed in the paper, as the standard well established criteria for such classification are not defined. The digital maps of rain at horizontal plane derived from three-dimensional radar scans are processed by the interpretation package which identifies and classifies rain structures present on the map. The results generated by this package are illustrated in the paper and offered for discussion. The interpretation procedure is tailored for the radio-meteorology applications but the method is adaptable to other field requirements.

  1. Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

    1999-02-01

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

  2. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar/Radiometer Measurements Within the GPM Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM mission centers upon the deployment of a Core Observatory in a 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for intersatellite calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles needed for improving precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1

  3. A multiparameter radar examination of a mesoscale convective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, P. D.; Goodman, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Differences in the rainrates of various cells embedded within a mesoscale convective system on July 13, 1986 during the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological experiment are examined. The NCAR CP2 S-band polarimetric radar deployed near Huntsville, Alabama, is used to characterize the rainfall field. Rainfall estimates are compared and contrasted using the single-parameter Marshall and Palmer (1948) method with the Illingworth and Caylor (1989) dual-polarization technique (ILC). The primary differences in the rainrate estimates are shown to be associated with the differences in the drop size distributions, derived from the ILC technique, that occur within the various storms.

  4. Dual frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission for monitoring our dynamic planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, J.; Bard, S.; Key, R.; Kim, Y.; Vaze, P.; Huneycutt, B.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing technology make it possible to acquire global-scale data sets that provide unique information about the Earth's continually changing surface characteristics.

  5. An image-based approach for classification of human micro-doppler radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Phung, Son Lam; Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam

    2013-05-01

    With the advances in radar technology, there is an increasing interest in automatic radar-based human gait identification. This is because radar signals can penetrate through most dielectric materials. In this paper, an image-based approach is proposed for classifying human micro-Doppler radar signatures. The time-varying radar signal is first converted into a time-frequency representation, which is then cast as a two-dimensional image. A descriptor is developed to extract micro-Doppler features from local time-frequency patches centered along the torso Doppler frequency. Experimental results based on real data collected from a 24-GHz Doppler radar showed that the proposed approach achieves promising classification performance.

  6. Proceedings of the International Meteorological Satellite Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    International Meteorological Satellite Workshop, November 13-22, 1961, presented the results of the meteorological satellite program of the United States and the possibilities for the future, so that-- the weather services of other nations may acquire a working knowledge of meteorological satellite data for assistance in their future analysis programs both in research and in daily synoptic application and guidance in their national observational support efforts; the world meteorological community may become more familiar with the TIROS program.; and the present activity may be put in proper perspective relative to future operational programs.

  7. Sensitivity of Radar Wave Propagation Power to the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentini, N.; Hackett, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Radar is a remote sensor used for scientific, meteorological, and military applications. Radar waves are affected by the medium through which they propagate, impacting the accuracy of radar measurements. Thus, environmental effects should be understood and quantified. The marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is highly dynamic and turbulent, and affects radar wave propagation. The ocean surface roughness impacts scattering behavior. These effects cause variability in constructive and destructive interference patterns due to reflection from the ocean surface, known as multipath. The atmospheric effects cause radar waves to attenuate and refract; this study focuses on the refractive effects. A high-fidelity, physics-based, parabolic wave equation simulation is used to model the radar propagation and accounts for effects of the rough ocean surface (wind seas and swell) as well as variable refractivity with height and range. We use a robust, variance based, sensitivity analysis method called the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test to quantify which environmental parameters have the most significant effect on the modeled radar wave propagation. In this sensitivity study, the environment is parameterized by 16 variables, 8 ocean surface and 8 atmospheric. Sensitivity analysis is performed for 3 radar frequencies (3, 9, and 15 GHz) and 2 polarizations (horizontal and vertical). Results indicate that radar wave propagation is more sensitive to atmospheric parameters than ocean surface parameters. The mixed layer has the most far-reaching effect over the entire model domain (a range of 60 km and altitudes up to 1 km), characterized by its height and refractivity gradient. The remaining important factors have a predominantly local effect in the region where they occur in the MABL atmospheric structure. At low altitudes, radar wave propagation power is most sensitive to the gradient and curvature of the vertical refractivity profile. This research provides insight

  8. The science case for the EISCAT_3D radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrea, Ian; Aikio, Anita; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Belova, Evgenia; Buchert, Stephan; Clilverd, Mark; Engler, Norbert; Gustavsson, Björn; Heinselman, Craig; Kero, Johan; Kosch, Mike; Lamy, Hervé; Leyser, Thomas; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Pitout, Frederic; Rapp, Markus; Stanislawska, Iwona; Vierinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    The EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATer) Scientific Association has provided versatile incoherent scatter (IS) radar facilities on the mainland of northern Scandinavia (the EISCAT UHF and VHF radar systems) and on Svalbard (the electronically scanning radar ESR (EISCAT Svalbard Radar) for studies of the high-latitude ionised upper atmosphere (the ionosphere). The mainland radars were constructed about 30 years ago, based on technological solutions of that time. The science drivers of today, however, require a more flexible instrument, which allows measurements to be made from the troposphere to the topside ionosphere and gives the measured parameters in three dimensions, not just along a single radar beam. The possibility for continuous operation is also an essential feature. To facilitatefuture science work with a world-leading IS radar facility, planning of a new radar system started first with an EU-funded Design Study (2005-2009) and has continued with a follow-up EU FP7 EISCAT_3D Preparatory Phase project (2010-2014). The radar facility will be realised by using phased arrays, and a key aspect is the use of advanced software and data processing techniques. This type of software radar will act as a pathfinder for other facilities worldwide. The new radar facility will enable the EISCAT_3D science community to address new, significant science questions as well as to serve society, which is increasingly dependent on space-based technology and issues related to space weather. The location of the radar within the auroral oval and at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex is also ideal for studies of the long-term variability in the atmosphere and global change. This paper is a summary of the EISCAT_3D science case, which was prepared as part of the EU-funded Preparatory Phase project for the new facility. Three science working groups, drawn from the EISCAT user community, participated in preparing this document. In addition to these working group members, who

  9. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  10. Developments in radar and remote-sensing methods for measuring and forecasting rainfall.

    PubMed

    Collier, C G

    2002-07-15

    Over the last 25 years or so, weather-radar networks have become an integral part of operational meteorological observing systems. While measurements of rainfall made using radar systems have been used qualitatively by weather forecasters, and by some operational hydrologists, acceptance has been limited as a consequence of uncertainties in the quality of the data. Nevertheless, new algorithms for improving the accuracy of radar measurements of rainfall have been developed, including the potential to calibrate radars using the measurements of attenuation on microwave telecommunications links. Likewise, ways of assimilating these data into both meteorological and hydrological models are being developed. In this paper we review the current accuracy of radar estimates of rainfall, pointing out those approaches to the improvement of accuracy which are likely to be most successful operationally. Comment is made on the usefulness of satellite data for estimating rainfall in a flood-forecasting context. Finally, problems in coping with the error characteristics of all these data using both simple schemes and more complex four-dimensional variational analysis are being addressed, and are discussed briefly in this paper.

  11. Determination of U, V, and W from single station Doppler radar radial velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Warnock, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The ST/MST (stratosphere troposphere/mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) clear air Doppler radar, or wind profiler, is an important tool in observational meteorology because of its capability to remote observe dynamic parameters of the atmosphere. There are difficulties in transforming the observed radial velocities into meteorological wind components. How this problem has been treated in the past is reviewed, and some of the analysis is recast to a form more suited to the high diagnostic abilities of a number of fixed beam configurations with reference to a linear wind field. The results, in conjunction with other works which treats problems such as the effects of finite sample volumes in the presence of nonhomogeneous atmospheric reflectivity, have implications important to the design of both individual MST/ST radars and MST/ST radar networks. The key parameters to uncoupling terms in the scaling equations are w sub x and w sub y. Whenever the stratiform condition, which states that these two parameters are negligible, is satisfied, a five beam ST radar may determine unbiased values of u, v, and w for sample volumes directly above the radar. The divergence and partial deformation of the flow may also be determined. Three beam systems can determine w and w sub z, but are unable to obtain u and v wind components uncontaminated by vertical sheer terms, even when the stratiform condition is satisfied.

  12. Hands-On Learning Modules for Interdisciplinary Environments: An Example with a Focus on Weather Radar Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilson, P. B.; Yeary, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Learning modules provide an effective means of encouraging cognition and active learning. This paper discusses several such modules that have been developed within a course on weather radar applications intended for students from Electrical Engineering and Meteorology. The modules were designed both to promote interdisciplinary exchange between…

  13. Diagnosing the Meteorological Conditions Associated with Sprites and Lightning with Large Change Moment Charges (CMC) over Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera Lizxandra Flores; Lang, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Sprites are a category of Transient Luminous Events (TLE's) that occur in the upper atmosphere above the tops of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). They are commonly associated with lightning strokes that produce large charge moment changes (CMCs). Synergistic use of satellite and radar-retrieved observations together with sounding data, forecasts, and lightning-detection-networks allowed the diagnosis and analysis of the meteorological conditions associated with sprites as well as large-CMC lightning over Oklahoma

  14. Radar Target Recognition Using Bispectrum Correlation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    21 2. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ...................................................22 3. Range Profiles...characteristics need to be stored. 2. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar We often identify things based on pictures and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an...By taking multiple discrete measurements while translating the radar , a larger effective aperture can be created. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar

  15. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  16. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  17. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  20. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  1. A New Method for Radar Rainfall Estimation Using Merged Radar and Gauge Derived Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Sharma, A.; Johnson, F.; Mariethoz, G.; Seed, A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of rainfall is critical for any hydrological analysis. The advantage of radar rainfall measurements is their ability to cover large areas. However, the uncertainties in the parameters of the power law, that links reflectivity to rainfall intensity, have to date precluded the widespread use of radars for quantitative rainfall estimates for hydrological studies. There is therefore considerable interest in methods that can combine the strengths of radar and gauge measurements by merging the two data sources. In this work, we propose two new developments to advance this area of research. The first contribution is a non-parametric radar rainfall estimation method (NPZR) which is based on kernel density estimation. Instead of using a traditional Z-R relationship, the NPZR accounts for the uncertainty in the relationship between reflectivity and rainfall intensity. More importantly, this uncertainty can vary for different values of reflectivity. The NPZR method reduces the Mean Square Error (MSE) of the estimated rainfall by 16 % compared to a traditionally fitted Z-R relation. Rainfall estimates are improved at 90% of the gauge locations when the method is applied to the densely gauged Sydney Terrey Hills radar region. A copula based spatial interpolation method (SIR) is used to estimate rainfall from gauge observations at the radar pixel locations. The gauge-based SIR estimates have low uncertainty in areas with good gauge density, whilst the NPZR method provides more reliable rainfall estimates than the SIR method, particularly in the areas of low gauge density. The second contribution of the work is to merge the radar rainfall field with spatially interpolated gauge rainfall estimates. The two rainfall fields are combined using a temporally and spatially varying weighting scheme that can account for the strengths of each method. The weight for each time period at each location is calculated based on the expected estimation error of each method

  2. Three-dimensional Radar Imaging of a Building

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Semicontrolled Conditions. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters January 2011, 8, 123–127. 4. Wang, Z.; Fathy, A. Advanced System Level...24. Skolnik, M. I. Introduction to Radar Systems; McGraw Hill: New York, 2001. 25. Gandhi , P. P.; Kassam, S. A. Analysis of CFAR Processors in

  3. An effective method for incoherent scattering radar's detecting ability evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ziqing; Yao, Ming; Deng, Xiaohua

    2016-06-01

    Ionospheric incoherent scatter radar (ISR), which is used to detect ionospheric electrons and ions, generally, has megawatt class transmission power and hundred meter level antenna aperture. The crucial purpose of this detecting technology is to get ionospheric parameters by acquiring the autocorrelation function and power spectrum of the target ionospheric plasma echoes. Whereas the ISR's echoes are very weak because of the small radar cross section of its target, estimating detecting ability will be significantly instructive and meaningful for ISR system design. In this paper, we evaluate the detecting ability through signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The soft-target radar equation is deduced to be applicable to ISR, through which we use data from International Reference Ionosphere model to simulate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of echoes, and then comparing the measured SNR from European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association and Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar with the simulation. The simulation results show good consistency with the measured SNR. For ISR, the topic of this paper is the first comparison between the calculated SNR and radar measurements; the detecting ability can be improved through increasing SNR. The effective method for ISR's detecting ability evaluation provides basis for design of radar system.

  4. Shuttle ku-band communications/radar technical concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, J. W.; Kelley, J. S.; Steiner, A. W.; Vang, H. A.; Zrubek, W. E.; Huth, G. K.

    1985-01-01

    Technical data on the Shuttle Orbiter K sub u-band communications/radar system are presented. The more challenging aspects of the system design and development are emphasized. The technical problems encountered and the advancements made in solving them are discussed. The radar functions are presented first. Requirements and design/implementation approaches are discussed. Advanced features are explained, including Doppler measurement, frequency diversity, multiple pulse repetition frequencies and pulse widths, and multiple modes. The communications functions that are presented include advances made because of the requirements for multiple communications modes. Spread spectrum, quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), variable bit rates, and other advanced techniques are discussed. Performance results and conclusions reached are outlined.

  5. Spaceborne Radar Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-28

    If comm beam contact is lost, the instrumentation data are sent via the omnichannel transmitter on command of the ground station. There are six ways...comm’beam) at all times except when comm beam contact is lost. A two-way omnidirectional (backup) command link is provided for initial stabilization...via either the oomm beam or the omnichannel . Satellite instrumentation data are sent to the ground station following every radar signal transmission

  6. Shuttle imaging radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

    1982-01-01

    The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  7. Weather Radar Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    and Doppler weather radar data from the National Center for Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National .Severe Storms Laboratory, are being...Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National Severe Storms Laboratory, are being analyzed to develop low-altitude wind-shear detection algorithms...pictures, and dusted for fingerprints. The wind sensors, rain gauge, and antenna were destroyed but the DCP, solar panel, and other site components

  8. The Radar Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c...ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE...object bistatic radars. The former allows high resolution without the use of pulse compression techniques and the latter promises cheaper systems by

  9. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  10. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  11. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Devices and Method for Detecting Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices, U. S. Patent 7,680,599, Mar. 16, 2010. 11. Steele, D.; Rotondo, F.; Houck...Patent 7,987,068, Jul. 26, 2011. 9 14. Keller, W. Active Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Electronic Signature Detection , U. S. Patent...operate without interfering with each other. The CNR uses a narrowband, nonlinear radar target detection methodology. This methodology has the advantage

  12. Weather Radar Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-31

    National Center for Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National Severe Storms Laboratory are being analyzed to develop low-altitude wind shear...public through low-altitude wind shear aviation weather products the National Technical Information Service, NEXR I turbulence., Springfield, VA 22161. 19...were analyzed preliminarily to determine wind shear characteristics in the Memphis area. Doppler weather radar data from the National Center for

  13. Comet radar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  14. Radar clutter classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  15. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  16. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydbal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1987-03-01

    An instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high-range resolution is described. High-range-resolution instrumentation radars evaluate the target response to operational waveforms used in high-performance radars and/or obtain a display of the individual target scattering mechanisms to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in-range resolution. A key feature of the radar is the combination of amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity to achieve a very good range sidelobe performance. This range sidelobe performance is important to avoid masking lower level target returns in the range sidelobes of higher target returns.

  17. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  18. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  19. Radar Studies of Aviation Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    4. TITLE AND SURTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS RADAR STUDIES OF AVIATION HAZARDS F1 9628-93- C -0054 _____________ __PE63707F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR278 1...foilowing processing steps have been adopted: a. acquire single scan radar data, b. distinguish individual storms, c . eliminate spurious data for...occurred only with radar reflectivities above 40 dBZ at the -10° C level and cloud tops above the -200C level. Lightning occurred only when tops extended

  20. Teaching a Course on Meteorological Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    A meteorological instruments course that provided undergraduate geography students the opportunity to use and/or observe meteorological equipment while also preparing for possible internships with the National Weather Service is evaluated and suggestions for improving it in the future are offered. The paper first provides a general course…

  1. Meteorological needs of the aviation community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the important meteorological needs of the aviation community and to recommend research in those areas judged most beneficial. The study was valuable in that it provided a comprehensive list of suspected meteorological deficiencies and ideas for research programs relative to these deficiencies. The list and ideas were generated from contacts with various pilots, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists.

  2. Aviation meteorology: Today and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    A representative of the Air Weather Service, USAF addressed the workshop and gave an assessment of the present state of aviation meteorology and a prognosis of the future. Three categories of meteorological support to aviation systems are considered and discussed; (1) terminal weather; (2) the winds for flight planning; and (3) en route flight hazards.

  3. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers

  4. Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A.; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Johnson, William T. K.; Jordan, Rolando L.; Kirchner, Donald L.; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

  5. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  6. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  7. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  8. The Chinese FY-1 Meteorological Satellite Application in Observation on Oceanic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimin, S.

    meteorological satellite is stated in this paper. exploration of the ocean resources has been a very important question of global strategy in the world. The exploration of the ocean resources includes following items: Making full use of oceanic resources and space, protecting oceanic environment. to observe the ocean is by using of satellite. In 1978, US successfully launched the first ocean observation satellite in the world --- Sea Satellite. It develops ancient oceanography in to advanced space-oceanography. FY-1 B and FY- IC respectively. High quality data were acquired at home and abroad. FY-1 is Chinese meteorological satellite, but with 0.43 ~ 0.48 μm ,0.48 ~ 0.53 μm and 0.53 ~ 0.58 μm three ocean color channels, actually it is a multipurpose remote sensing satellite of meteorology and oceanography. FY-1 satellite's capability of observation on ocean partly, thus the application field is expanded and the value is increased. With the addition of oceanic channels on FY-1, the design of the satellite is changed from the original with meteorological observation as its main purpose into remote sensing satellite possessing capability of observing meteorology and ocean as well. Thus, the social and economic benefit of FY-1 is increased. the social and economic benefit of the development of the satellite is the key technique in the system design of the satellite. technically feasible but also save the funds in researching and manufacturing of the satellite, quicken the tempo of researching and manufacturing satellite. the scanning radiometer for FY-1 is conducted an aviation experiment over Chinese ocean. This experiment was of vital importance to the addition of oceanic observation channel on FY-1. FY-1 oceanic channels design to be correct. detecting ocean color. This is the unique character of Chinese FY-1 meteorological satellite. meteorological remote sensing channel on FY-1 to form detecting capability of three visible channels: red, yellow and blue

  9. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  10. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  11. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  13. Role of Surface Characteristics in Urban Meteorology and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, David Jean

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result in higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4^circ C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  14. IIth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velden, Christopher; Digirolamo, Larry; Glackin, Mary; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Jedlovec, Gary; Lee, Thomas; Petty, Grant; Plante, Robert; Reale, Anthony; Zapotocny, John

    2002-11-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin, during 15-18 October 2001. The purpose of the conference, typically held every 18 months, is to promote a forum for AMS membership, international scientists, and student members to present and discuss the latest advances in satellite remote sensing for meteorological and oceanographical applications. This year, surrounded by inspirational designs by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the meeting focused on several broad topics related to remote sensing from space, including environmental applications of land and oceanic remote sensing, climatology and long-term satellite data studies, operational applications, radiances and retrievals, and new technology and methods. A vision of an increasing convergence of satellite systems emerged that included operational and research satellite programs and interdisciplinary user groups.The conference also hosted NASA's Electronic Theater, which was presented to groups of middle and high school students totaling over 5500. It was truly a successful public outreach event. The conference banquet was held on the final evening, where a short tribute to satellite pioneer Verner Suomi was given by Joanne Simpson. Suomi was responsible for establishing the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.

  15. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4°C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  16. 94 GHz doppler wind radar satellite mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Rommen, Björn; Buck, Christopher; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Extreme weather such as storms, hurricanes and typhoons, also called `high impact weather', is a high priority area of research for the atmospheric dynamics and meteorological science communities. 94 GHz Doppler wind radar satellite mission concepts have been elaborated, which use cloud and precipitation droplets/particles as tracers to measure 3-D wind fields. The so-called polarisation-diversity pulse-pair (PDPP) technique enables to derive line-of-sight wind speed with good accuracy (< 2-3 m/s) and large unambiguous dynamic range (e.g. 75 m/s). Two distinct system concepts have been elaborated: (1) a conically scanning radar concept with large coverage (> 800 km) and ˜50 km along-track sampling, and; (2) a stereo viewing concept with high sampling resolution (< 4 km) within an inclined cut through the atmosphere. The former concept is adequate for studying large-scale severe/extreme weather systems, whereas the latter would be more suitable for understanding of small-scale convective phenomena. For demonstrating the potential of the FDPP technique for deriving accurate Doppler observations, ground-based and airborne Doppler radar campaigns are in preparation. The Galileo 94 GHz radar, upgraded recently to include a FDPP capability, at Chilbolton in the UK, will be used for an extended ground-based campaign (6 months). For the airborne campaign, the dual-frequency (9.4 + 94 GHz) NAWX radar on board a Convair-580 aircraft of the National Science Council of Canada will be upgraded and flown. This paper describes the observation requirements, preliminary satellite mission concepts, associated wind retrieval aspects and the planned demonstration campaigns.

  17. Comparison of Beijing MST radar and radiosonde horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yufang; Lü, Daren

    2017-01-01

    To determine the performance and data accuracy of the 50 MHz Beijing Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar, comparisons of radar measured horizontal winds in the height range 3-25 km with radiosonde observations were made during 2012. A total of 427 profiles and 15 210 data pairs were compared. There was very good agreement between the two types of measurement. Standard deviations of difference (mean difference) for wind direction, wind speed, zonal wind and meridional wind were 24.86° (0.77°), 3.37 (-0.44), 3.33 (-0.32) and 3.58 (-0.25) m s-1, respectively. The annual standard deviations of differences for wind speed were within 2.5-3 m s-1 at all heights apart from 10-15 km, the area of strong winds, where the values were 3-4 m s-1. The relatively larger differences were mainly due to wind field variations in height regions with larger wind speeds, stronger wind shear and the quasi-zero wind layer. A lower MST radar SNR and a lower percentage of data pairs compared will also result in larger inconsistencies. Importantly, this study found that differences between the MST radar and radiosonde observations did not simply increase when balloon drift resulted in an increase in the real-time distance between the two instruments, but also depended on spatiotemporal structures and their respective positions in the contemporary synoptic systems. In this sense, the MST radar was shown to be a unique observation facility for atmospheric dynamics studies, as well as an operational meteorological observation system with a high temporal and vertical resolution.

  18. Atmospheric electricity/meteorology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Buechler, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    This activity focuses on Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)/Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) algorithm development and applied research. Specifically we are exploring the relationships between (1) global and regional lightning activity and rainfall, and (2) storm electrical development, physics, and the role of the environment. U.S. composite radar-rainfall maps and ground strike lightning maps are used to understand lightning-rainfall relationships at the regional scale. These observations are then compared to SSM/I brightness temperatures to simulate LIS/TRMM multi-sensor algorithm data sets. These data sets are supplied to the WETNET project archive. WSR88-D (NEXRAD) data are also used as it becomes available. The results of this study allow us to examine the information content from lightning imaging sensors in low-earth and geostationary orbits. Analysis of tropical and U.S. data sets continues. A neural network/sensor fusion algorithm is being refined for objectively associating lightning and rainfall with their parent storm systems. Total lightning data from interferometers are being used in conjunction with data from the national lightning network. A 6-year lightning/rainfall climatology has been assembled for LIS sampling studies.

  19. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  20. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  1. A Comparison of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System High Resolution Flight Element to the Kennedy Space Center 50 MHz Doppler Wind Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Wind profile measurement and the simulation of aerodynamic loads on a launch vehicle play an important role in determining launch capability and post launch assessment of the vehicle's performance. To date, all United States range certified wind profile measurement systems have been based on balloon tracking. Since the 1960's, the standard used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Air Force at the Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) for detailed wind profile measurements has been the radar tracked, aerodynamically stabilized Jimsphere balloon system. Currently, the Air Force is nearing certification and operational implementation of the Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) at CCAS and Vandenburg Air Force Base (VAFB). AMPS uses the Global Positioning System for tracking the Jimsphere balloon. It is anticipated that the AMPS/Jimsphere, named the High Resolution Flight Element (HRFE), will have equivalent, or better resolution than the radar tracked Jimsphere, especially when the balloon is far downrange, at a low elevation angle. By the 1980's, the development of Doppler Wind Profilers (DWP) had become sufficiently advanced to justify an experimental measurement program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In 1989 a 50 MHz DWP was installed at KSC. In principal, the 50 MHz DWP has the capability to track the evolution of wind profile dynamics within 5 minutes of a launch. Because of fundamental differences in the measurement technique, there is a significant time and space differential between 50 MHz DWP and HRFE wind profiles. This paper describes a study to quantify these differences from a sample of 50 MHz DWP/HRFE pairs obtained during the AMPS certification test program.

  2. Meteorology of the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The unique meteorology of the Beaufort Sea region is dominated by the presence of sea ice and a seasonal swing from a large heat loss in winter to a gain in summer. The primary determinant of this seasonal climate shift is the annual cycle of insolation from a maximum of 500 W/m2 near the summer solstice to darkness in winter, as the Beaufort Sea lies north of Alaska and northwestern Canada beyond 72°N. Even though the Sun angle is low in summer, the length of daylight provides as much energy to the surface as anywhere on the planet. As summer progresses, relative absorption of insolation at the surface increases as the albedo decreases due to snow and ice melt and increased open water area. This annual cycle results in a change from a winter continental-like air mass similar to the adjacent land areas to a summertime marine air mass characterized by low cloud and fogs. In winter the region is also influenced by the polar atmospheric vortex with strong westerly winds centered in the stratosphere, whose presence is felt at the surface. Recent sea ice losses are changing the climatology of the region, with extended periods of increased temperatures through the autumn months.

  3. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  4. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  5. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolà, Roger; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  6. Interferometric radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.

    2002-08-01

    The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept SWORD (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of past investments. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology (DAS(R&T) has a three- year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary bench-top experiment results will be presented in this paper.

  7. RADAR "SAIL" satellite concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguttes, Jean Paul; Sombrin, Jacques; Conde, Eric

    1996-11-01

    The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna deformation thus allowing structural relaxation. Less obviously, the geometry favours the RADAR design too, by allowing grating lobes and therefore a lower density of built-in electronic in the active antenna. The antenna can be thin and packed for launch inside a cylinder-shaped bus having pyrotechnic doors for the antenna deployement and bearing the rest of the payload and the service equipment. With respect to a standard design of performant missions, cost savings come from the bus, whose functions (AOCS, power supply) are simplified, from the launch since the mass budget and the stowing configuration become compatible with medium size rockets (LLV2/3, DELTA-LITE, LM-4.), and from the active antenna built-in electronics. The RADAR SAIL concept is all the more cost effective when the mission requires a large, high and short antenna, i.e. high resolution (<5m), low frequency band (L or S or even P), high revisiting, multiple frequencies. Mission implementation and funding can be favored by the new capability to share the satellite between autonomous regional operators. Combined with ground DBF (digital beam forming) technique, the concept allows extremely simple and low cost missions providing a fixed wide swath (10 to 15 m resolution within 500km to 1000 km swath) for systematic surveillance or monitoring.

  8. Venus - First Radar Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    After traveling more than 1.5 billion kilometers (948 million miles), the Magellan spacecraft was inserted into orbit around Venus on Aug. 10, 1990. This mosaic consists of adjacent pieces of two Magellan image strips obtained on Aug. 16 in the first radar test. The radar test was part of a planned In Orbit Checkout sequence designed to prepare the Magellan spacecraft and radar to begin mapping after Aug. 31. The strip on the left was returned to the Goldstone Deep Space Network station in California; the strip to the right was received at the DSN in Canberra, Australia. A third station that will be receiving Magellan data is located near Madrid, Spain. Each image strip is 20 km (12 miles) wide and 16,000 km (10,000 miles) long. This mosaic is a small portion 80 km (50 miles) long. This image is centered at 21 degrees north latitude and 286.8 degrees east longitude, southeast of a volcanic highland region called Beta Regio. The resolution of the image is about 120 meters (400 feet), 10 times better than previous images of the same area of Venus, revealing many new geologic features. The bright line trending northwest southeast across the center of the image is a fracture or fault zone cutting the volcanic plains. In the upper left corner of the image, a multiple ring circular feature of probable volcanic origin can be seen, approximately 4.27 km (2.65 miles) across. The bright and dark variations seen in the plains surrounding these features correspond to volcanic lava flows of varying ages. The volcanic lava flows in the southern half of the image have been cut by north south trending faults. This area is similar geologically to volcanic deposits seen on Earth at Hawaii and the Snake River Plains in Idaho.

  9. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    counter clockwise GARP GEMPAK Analysis and Rendering Program GEMPAK General Meteorology Package HF high frequency MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research...Ocean Dynamics Application Radar (CODAR), Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), and a 915 MHz wind profiler along the Monterey Bay coast...weak land breeze. In Hendrickson and MacMahan’s study (2009) they pointed out that “[d]uring sea breeze cross-shore exchange of material seems to

  10. Design and Implementation of an Active Calibration System for Weather Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Chassis( FPGAs ) and the LabVIEW FPGA module for programming commands that can be auto-compiled into VHDL for the CompactRIO Chassis( FPGAs ). 129 APPENDIX... sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden...unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Weather radars permit meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate and wind

  11. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  12. Weather Radar Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    Reflectivity Core Recognition 68 IV-10 Middle-Level Precursor Recognition 69 IV-l I Early Microburst Hazard Declaration 70 IV-12 Example of Results from...Denver Test Bed 106 V-I Selected Product Types 14 V-2 Encoded Map Size (in ELMs ) for Terminal Map Data Set 119 V-3 Encoded Map Size (in ELMs ) for En...Route Data Sets 119 V-4 Encoded Map Size (in ELMs ) for Terminal Map Data Set 125 xiii WEATHER RADAR STUDIES 1. INTRODUCTION The principal areas of

  13. Dr. J. R. Huynen's main contributions in the development of polarimetric radar techniques and how the 'Radar Targets Phenomenological Concept' becomes a theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, Eric

    1993-02-01

    Among the engineering scientists who have most decisively contributed toward forefront advances for the 'Development of POLARIMETRIC Radar Theory, Techniques and Target Phenomenology', Dr. Jean Richard HUYNEN stands out as one of the towering giants. This paper is dedicated to him, and it is a great honor for the author to present here a summary on some of the main Dr. J.R. HUYNEN's contributions in the development of Polarimetric Radar Techniques, including the 'Mueller Matrix Decomposition' approaches which this Senior Radar Polarimetrist considers as his 'life's main contribution'.

  14. Radar Imaging and Feature Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aperture radar (ISAR) autofocus and imaging, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus and motion compensation, superresolution SAR image formation... superresolution image formation, and two parametric methods, MCRELAX (Motion Compensation RELAX) and MCCLEAN (Motion Compensation CLEAN), for simultaneous target...Direction Estimation) together with WRELAX) algorithm is proposed for the superresolution time delay estimation.

  15. Millimeter radar improves target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2011-06-01

    Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

  16. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada by the McMaster University Intelligent PIXel (IPIX) X-band Polarimetric Coherent Radar during the OHGR - Dartmouth...Distribution is unlimited Wind Direction N Figure 7: Radar data collection site at OHGR, Nova Scotia. Source:[15] to having a significant wave height of 0.7 m

  17. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  18. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V. S.; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability. PMID:24790576

  20. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  1. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  2. BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  4. Estimating reflectivity values from wind turbines for analyzing the potential impact on weather radar services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, I.; Grande, O.; Jenn, D.; Guerra, D.; de la Vega, D.

    2015-02-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has repeatedly expressed concern over the increasing number of impact cases of wind turbine farms on weather radars. Since nowadays signal processing techniques to mitigate Wind Turbine Clutter (WTC) are scarce, the most practical approach to this issue is the assessment of the potential interference from a wind farm before it is installed. To do so, and in order to obtain a WTC reflectivity model, it is crucial to estimate the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the wind turbines to be built, which represents the power percentage of the radar signal that is backscattered to the radar receiver. This paper first characterizes the RCS of wind turbines in the weather radar frequency bands by means of computer simulations based on the Physical Optics theory, and then proposes a simplified model to estimate wind turbine RCS values. This model is of great help in the evaluation of the potential impact of a certain wind farm on the weather radar operation.

  5. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  6. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybdal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1986-09-01

    The development of an instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high range resolution is described. Such range resolution capability is required for two reasons: (1) to evaluate the response of targets to the operational waveforms used in high-performance radars; and (2) to obtain a means of separating the individual mechanisms that comprise the target scattering response to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house-fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in. range resolution. A key feature of the radar is its ability to combine amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity, with the result being very good range sidelobe performance.

  7. A radar image time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F.; Fuchs, H.; Ford, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A set of ten side-looking radar images of a mining area in Arizona that were aquired over a period of 14 yr are studied to demonstrate the photogrammetric differential-rectification technique applied to radar images and to examine changes that occurred in the area over time. Five of the images are rectified by using ground control points and a digital height model taken from a map. Residual coordinate errors in ground control are reduced from several hundred meters in all cases to + or - 19 to 70 m. The contents of the radar images are compared with a Landsat image and with aerial photographs. Effects of radar system parameters on radar images are briefly reviewed.

  8. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  9. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Törnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  10. Is the Martian Water Table Hidden from Radar View?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Plaut, J. J.; Cummer, S. A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Picardi, G.; Watters, T. R.; Safaeinili, A.

    2009-01-01

    Mars may possess a global sub-surface groundwater table as an integral part of its current hydrological system, However, the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) onboard the 'Mars Express (MEx) spacecraft has yet to make a definitive detection of such a body of liquid water. In this work, we quantify. the conditions that would allow a detection of a deep aquifer and demonstrate that the lack of radar detection doses not uniquely role out the presence of such a body. Specifically, if the overlying crustal material has a conductivity above approximately 10(exp -5) S/m (equivalent to a loss tangent of 0.008), a radar echo frown an aquifer could be sufficiently attenuated by the intetvening medium to prevent its detection by MARSIS. As such, the lack of direct detection by MARSIS -- a "null result" does not rule out the possibility of the water table's existence.

  11. Pathfinder radar development at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Since the invention of Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging in the 1950's, users or potential users have sought to exploit SAR imagery for a variety of applications including the earth sciences and defense. At Sandia Laboratories, SAR Research and Development and associated defense applications grew out of the nuclear weapons program in the 1980's and over the years has become a highly viable ISR sensor for a variety of tactical applications. Sandia SAR systems excel where real-­-time, high-­-resolution, all-­-weather, day or night surveillance is required for developing situational awareness. This presentation will discuss the various aspects of Sandia's airborne ISR capability with respect to issues related to current operational success as well as the future direction of the capability as Sandia seeks to improve the SAR capability it delivers into multiple mission scenarios. Issues discussed include fundamental radar capabilities, advanced exploitation techniques and human-­-computer interface (HMI) challenges that are part of the advances required to maintain Sandia's ability to continue to support ever changing and demanding mission challenges.

  12. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  13. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  14. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  15. Advanced Covariance-Based Stochastic Inversion and Neuro-Genetic Optimization for Rosetta CONSERT Radar Data to Improve Spatial Resolution of Multi-Fractal Depth Profiles for Cometary Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Peter; Ulamec, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to results of doctoral research work at University of Bochum as applied to the radar transmission experiment CONSERT of the ESA cometary mission Rosetta. This research aims at achieving the limits of optimum spatial (and temporal) resolution for radar remote sensing by implementation of covariance informations concerned with error-balanced control as well as coherence of wave propagation effects through random composite media involved (based on Joel Franklin's approach of extended stochastic inversion). As a consequence the well-known inherent numerical instabilities of remote sensing are significantly reduced in a robust way by increasing the weight of main diagonal elements of the resulting composite matrix to be inverted with respect to off-diagonal elements following synergy relations as to the principle of correlation receiver in wireless telecommunications. It is shown that the enhancement of resolution for remote sensing holds for an integral and differential equation approach of inversion as well. In addition to that the paper presents a discussion on how the efficiency of inversion for radar data gets achieved by an overall optimization of inversion due to a novel neuro-genetic approach. Such kind of approach is in synergy with the priority research program "Organic Computing" of DFG / German Research Organization. This Neuro-Genetic Optimization (NGO) turns out, firstly, to take into account more detailed physical informations supporting further improved resolution such as the process of accretion for cometary nucleus, wave propagation effects from rough surfaces, ground clutter, nonlinear focusing, etc. as well as, secondly, to accelerate the computing process of inversion in a really significantly enhanced and fast way, e.g., enabling online-control of autonomous processes such as detection of unknown objects, navigation, etc. The paper describes in some detail how this neuro-genetic approach of optimization is incorporated into the

  16. The role of smoothing parameters in radar data treating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamarchuk, Iuliia; Ivanov, Sergiy; Tishin, Petr; Kopytchuk, Igor; Ruban, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The forecast of precipitation is still behind the prediction of other atmospheric variables due to several reasons. The major ones are the complex microphysics acting on scales smaller than the resolution in numerical models and various sources of errors affecting the accuracy of measurements. Weather radar observations become an important tool for improving precipitation forecasts due to providing 3D volume information of a high resolution. The impact of the domain resolution both vertical and horizontal on the simulation of major precipitation properties is in the focus of the study. The attempt is made to take into account the incompatibility between scales of precipitation structures and scales resolved on a model domain. The influence from the non-uniform vertical profile of reflectivity, conversion of radar reflectivity into rain rates as well as contamination by non-meteorological echoes are not considered, but the attention is paid to the filtering and smoothing procedures used for retrieving precipitation patterns, in particular their structure functions and observation error correlations. The assimilation of radar information requires a complicated observation operator, which takes into account horizontal correlations in either reflectivity or precipitation fields. The 1D humidity pseudo observation vertical profile derived from reflectivity is necessary as well. Radar observations both single and mosaic gathered during the BaltRad experiment are used. They provide precipitation maps with high temporal (~5 min) and spatial (~250-500 m along a beam) resolution. However, the latter is heterogeneous and is a function of the distance from a radar location, while the initialization of NWP models requires gridded data. The results showed the sensitivity of the retrieved precipitation characteristics to tuning parameters used in the filtering and interpolating procedures. The oversmoothing provides more stable numerical integration in a model however looses

  17. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  18. Meteorological Conditions Causing Jet-Engine Poweloss Events: Current Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strapp, J. W.; Ratvasky, T. P.

    2009-09-01

    The aviation industry is currently investigating a regular occurrence of jet engine-powerloss events which have now been attributed to the ingestion of atmospheric ice particles, usually in the vicinity of deep convection. There is a limited amount of information on the cloud microphysical properties near the cores of deep convection due to the potential hazards of flying in these areas, and due to the fact that it is a very challenging environment for current instrumentation. Most of the information that has been used to deduce the details of the conditions that cause engine powerloss has been extracted from the event-aircraft flight data recorders, pilot interviews, ground radar and satellite, a series of flight test programs in the 1950s and again in the 1990s, and the most recently available limited data from the cloud physics community. These have led to the conclusion that engine events occur due to flight through high mass concentrations of ice particles, probably with ice water contents (IWCs) in excess of 2 grams per cubic meter, and perhaps as high as 8. The limited microphysical data available has been used to suggest a median mass diameter of the ice particles of ~200 microns, with some evidence that it may be as low as 40 microns. These small particle sizes in the presence of high mass concentration is consistent with the lack of radar echoes > 20 dBZ observed on the pilot's radar, a consistent observation during engine events. The Engine Harmonization Working Group, an industry/regulator/government committee investigating engine powerloss, has concluded that the level of understanding of the properties of these clouds is inadequate to provide guidance to industry for engine design and testing. In order to address this issue, NASA and Environment Canada are planning to instrument an aircraft to make measurements in high IWC regions of tropical monsoon and continental convection. There is also a significant effort to upgrade and develop new

  19. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  20. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  1. Assimilation of radar precipitation in the DMI-HIRLAM now-casting system - methodology and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsholm, Ulrik; Petersen, Claus

    2013-04-01

    Recent episodes of heavy rain and subsequent flooding in Denmark with large economical consequences have implied increased focus on very short range high quality forecasts of precipitation. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) have therefore developed a now-casting system based on a dense network of surface observations combined with radar and satellite products available every 10 and 15 minutes. The rapid update cycles are initialized from a new three dimensional variational (3dvar) analysis every hour to employ the latest observations and forecasts extends 12 hours with output every 10 minutes to enable comparison with radar and satellite input. Model precipitation fields are nudged towards radar reflectivity derived precipitation by performing a dynamical adjustment of the wind field, temperature and humidity. The talk focuses on the basic methodology of including radar precipitation in the system and shows preliminary results. An accompanying poster displays more results.

  2. Nowcasting of kinetic energy of hail precipitation using radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, J. L.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Gil, B.

    2013-04-01

    The detection of hail precipitation generated by a storm is a complicated task due to the limited spatial extension and the space-time irregularity of impacts generated on the ground. Some of the most extensive methods to create climatology of these impacts are observer networks or hailpad networks. Both methods are affected by numerous inconveniences, overall when it is necessary to work with an extensive area, in which it is necessary to maintain an operating network that has numerous maintenance costs. In this sense, there are numerous works done that have developed different models with the objective of detecting hail precipitation using meteorological radar. Some of these methods use discriminant statistic techniques that, through the combination of different radar parameters, can achieve very satisfactory results. On the other hand, it would be very interesting to know not only the probability of hail, but also some of the characteristics of the hailstones precipitated, such as the number or their kinetic energy, since these parameters are directly related to the damage generated in infrastructures and/or crops. The estimation of kinetic energy of hail precipitation using meteorological radar has caught the interest of some authors. In our case, we used the databases obtained by hailpad networks and the databases of C-band and S-Band radar to build an algorithm to estimate the vertical component of kinetic energy produced by a hail precipitation. In order to carry out this study, data on hail was gathered and analyzed from the hailpad networks in the province of Zaragoza (in the north-east of Spain) and the province of Mendoza (in Argentina, close to the Andes range on the border with Chile). These are two geographically distant regions, but which share a common characteristic: a high frequency of storms with hail precipitation, mainly during the summer months (Sánchez et al., 2009a). In order to compile the database, we have established two categories of

  3. Forecasting hailfall using parameters for convective cells identified by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigo, Tomeu; Carmen Llasat, M.

    2016-03-01

    The main goal of the present paper is to propose some new criteria that will improve the diagnosis for hail at the surface in real-time, so that they can be applied to surveillance tasks and for nowcasting purposes. The criteria are based on a better knowledge of convective cells that produce hail during their life cycle and better distinguishing between these cells and cells that do not produce hail on the surface. The work focused on a region in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, selecting hail events that occurred in the 2004-2012 period and using the information provided by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia's weather radar network. The methodology deals with the analysis of the level of reflectivity associated with the maximum values, which can be considered as the core of the convective vertical development. The chosen radar parameters are operative and they take into consideration the following: the reflectivity, the vertically integrated liquid, the highest altitude at which radar echoes have been observed over a determined reflectivity threshold, as well as the direction and the duration of the convective cells. This work aims to complement all the previous work carried out by different authors, in order to better identify hail in the chosen region.

  4. Understanding meteorology for pollution transport over Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Shreta; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen, Ps; Panday, Arnico

    2016-04-01

    The country of Bhutan spans over complex terrain in the Eastern Himalayan region. Several studies in the past have reported about transport of air pollution into the Himalayas from Indo-Gangetic plains. However, there is a lack of studies focusing over eastern Himalaya and particularly over Bhutan. Understanding air pollutant flows over this region requires good understanding of weather and atmospheric circulation pattern. We have used decadal data from ground based meteorological stations made available from the Department of Hydro-Meteorological Service (DHMS), Government of Bhutan to study rainfall and temperature patterns over different elevation. We also present preliminary results from few automatic weather stations that are analyzed for diurnal and seasonal variability. Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model was run to understand meteorological flows over the region. Preliminary results from WRF model will also be presented. Keywords: Bhutan, Meteorology, Air Pollution, Eastern Himalayas.

  5. CloudSat and CALIPSO Help Meteorology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The study of meteorology presents significant challenges to scientists. One of the most challenging aspects is the inherent complexity of weather coupled with its high rate of change. In the case o...

  6. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  7. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  8. Surface Meteorological Instruments for TWP (SMET) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2009-01-01

    The TWP Surface Meteorology station (SMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall amount.

  9. Analysis of Debris Flow Disaster due to Heavy Rain by X-Band MP Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, M.; Mori, M.

    2016-06-01

    On August 20 of 2014, Hiroshima City (Japan) was struck by local heavy rain from an autumnal rain front. The resultant debris flow disaster claimed 75 victims and destroyed many buildings. From 1:30 am to 4:30 am on August 20, the accumulated rainfall in Hiroshima City exceeded 200 mm. Serious damage occurred in the Asakita and Asaminami wards of Hiroshima City. As a disaster prevention measure, local heavy rain (localized torrential rains) is usually observed by the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and by the C-band radar operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan, with spatial resolutions of 2.5 km and 1 km, respectively. The new X-band MP radar system enables more detailed rainfall observations than the C-band radar. In fact, this radar can observe local rainfall throughout Japan in near-real time over a minimum mesh size of 250 m. A fine-scale accumulated rainfall monitoring system is crucial for disaster prevention, and potential disasters can be alerted by the hazard levels of the accumulated rainfall.

  10. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  11. Definition of The Consert / Rosetta Radar Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Kofman, W.

    A. et al. Kofman, Definition of the CONSERT / ROSETTA Radar perfor- mances, CEOS 2000 Japan - Kofman W., et al., Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmis- sion. Advances in Space Research, 1998, Vol 21, n11, pp 1589-1598.

  12. First operations of the RISR-C incoherent scatter radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Van Eyken, A. P.; Spanswick, E.; Nicolls, M. J.; Kelly, J. D.; Greffen, M. J.; Knudsen, D. J.; Connors, M. G.; Schutzer, M.; Valentic, T. A.; Malone, M.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Donovan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian face of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-C), the newest Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR), recently began routine operations and has been taking detailed measurements of the polar cap ionosphere. Like other AMISR radars, RISR-C has the ability to use electronic beam steering to simultaneously sample ionospheric plasma parameters in several different line-of-sight directions (over 4000 possible beam directions, of which, typically 10-50 are used in a given experiment). Electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and line-of-sight (LOS) plasma velocities are measured along these beam directions at several ranges in (typically) 1-minute intervals. Combining LOS velocity measurements from several different beam directions allows full 3-d ionospheric plasma velocities to be resolved within the field-of-view of the radar. Ionospheric measurements from the southward facing RISR-C are complemented by measurements by the co-located northward facing RISR-N radar operated by SRI International and the REGO redline optical camera operated by the University of Calgary. Initial comparisons between these instruments demonstrate that RISR-C is operating well and will provide vital new measurements of the polar cap ionosphere.

  13. Preliminary Comparisons of the GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar to Ground Validation Radars of the GPM Validation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, K. R.; Schwaller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite successfully launched in February, 2014, and is now providing precipitation observations from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). The GPM Validation Network (VN) provides unique, detailed information on the performance of the new DPR on GPM. The GPM VN collects GPM orbit subset data products and coincident ground radar observations, performs a unique spatial matching of the space and ground radar observations, and provides a set of software tools to analyze and visualize the matched data sets. For GPM, a DPR/GR comparison algorithmhas been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of DPR and GR rays, where smoothing of the DPR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The primary GR data source for the VN is a collection of National Weather Service WSR-88D S-band, dual-polarization radars located primarily in the eastern and central United States. This paper will concentrate on the results of the space- and ground-radar comparisons, and present preliminary evaluations of the performance of the DPR Ku-band radar relative to the legacy TRMM Ku-band PR over the same times and locations. Both the direct measurements of radar reflectivity as well as derived measurements of rain rate from the space and ground radars will be compared, down to the scale of individual instrument measurements. Vertical profiles, site-specific time series, Probability Density Function, scatter plots, and other analyses of the comparison data will be shown. Results for both the Ku-band and Ka-band DPR radars will be presented. Visualizations of the volume-matched and original GPM and ground radar data that assist in the understanding of the DPR-GR volume matching and comparison methods and data coverage will be included. GPM DPR data are still in evaluation and algorithm refinement at the time of this writing and have not been released to

  14. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  15. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  16. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  17. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  18. RADAR OBSERVATION CONDITIONS OF POOR VISIBILITY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Ship navigational radar is an effective means for revealing above-water objects in conditions of poor visibility. A radar image of the surrounding...radar observation and with the competent operation of the set, radar is a reliable means of detection of encountered vessels in conditions of poor

  19. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  20. Large phased-array radars

    SciTech Connect

    Brookner, D.E.

    1988-12-15

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  1. Analysis of the Meteorology Associated with the 1998 NASA Glenn Twin Otter Icing Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ben C.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains a basic analysis of the meteorology associated with the NASA Glenn Twin Otter icing encounters between December 1997 and March 1998. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a meteorological context for the aircraft data collected during these flights. For each case, the following data elements are presented: (1) A brief overview of the Twin Otter encounter, including locations, liquid water contents, temperatures and microphysical makeup of the clouds and precipitation aloft, (2) Upper-air charts, providing hand-analyzed locations of lows, troughs, ridges, saturated/unsaturated air, temperatures, warm/cold advection, and jet streams, (3) Balloon-borne soundings, providing vertical profiles of temperature, moisture and winds, (4) Infrared and visible satellite data, providing cloud locations and cloud top temperature, (5) 3-hourly surface charts, providing hand-analyzed locations of lows, highs, fronts, precipitation (including type) and cloud cover, (6) Hourly, regional radar mosaics, providing fine resolution of the locations of precipitation (including intensity and type), pilot reports of icing (including intensity and type), surface observations of precipitation type and Twin Otter tracks for a one hour window centered on the time of the radar data, and (7) Hourly plots of icing pilot reports, providing the icing intensity, icing type, icing altitudes and aircraft type. Outages occurred in nearly every dataset at some point. All relevant data that was available is presented here. All times are in UTC and all heights are in feet above mean sea level (MSL).

  2. Output tube emission characteristics of operational radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, R. J.; Smilley, J. D.; Falcon, G. D.; Lawrence, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of the emission spectra and other characteristics of many radars operating in the government frequency bands is described. The emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies are presented. The radars include examples of ground based search, airport surveillance, weather, and height finding radars operating in L band, S band, or C band. The RSMS, contained within a mobile van, is described, along with the measurement techniques used for obtaining radar emission characteristics. The emission limits imposed by the Radar Spectrum Engineering Criteria (RSEC) are displayed with each emission spectrum.

  3. The study of fresh-water lake ice using multiplexed imaging radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Bryan M.; Larson, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study of ice in the upper Great Lakes, both from the operational and the scientific points of view, is receiving continued attention. Quantitative and qualitative field work is being conducted to provide the needed background for accurate interpretation of remotely sensed data. The data under discussion in this paper were obtained by a side-looking multiplexed airborne radar (SLAR) supplemented with ground-truth data.Because of its ability to penetrate adverse weather, radar is an especially important instrument for monitoring ice in the upper Great Lakes. It has previously been shown that imaging radars can provide maps of ice cover in these areas. However, questions concerning both the nature of the surfaces reflecting radar energy and the interpretation of the radar imagery continually arise.Our analysis of ice in Whitefish Bay (Lake Superior) indicates that the combination of the ice/water interlace and the ice/air interface is the major contributor to the radar backscatter as seen on the imagery At these frequencies the ice has a very low relative dielectric permittivity (< 3.0) and a low loss tangent Thus, this ice is somewhat transparent to the energy used by the imaging SLAR system. The ice types studied include newly formed black ice, pancake ice, and frozen and consolidated pack and brash ice.Although ice thickness cannot be measured directly from the received signals, it is suspected that by combining the information pertaining to radar backscatter with data on the meteorological and sea-state history of the area, together with some basic ground truth, better estimates of the ice thickness may be provided. In addition, certain ice features (e.g. ridges, ice-foot formation, areas of brash ice) may be identified with reasonable confidence. There is a continued need for additional ground work to verify the validity of imaging radars for these types of interpretations.

  4. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment.

    PubMed

    Nozette, S; Lichtenberg, C L; Spudis, P; Bonner, R; Ort, W; Malaret, E; Robinson, M; Shoemaker, E M

    1996-11-29

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  5. Gyroklystron-Powered WARLOC Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danly, B. G.; Cheung, W. J.; Gregers-Hansen, V.; Linde, G.; Ngo, M.

    2003-12-01

    A high-power, coherent, W-band (94 GHz) millimeter-wave radar has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. This radar, named WARLOC, employs a 100 kW peak power, 10 kW average power gyro-klystron as the final power amplifier, an overmoded transmission line system, and a quasi-optical duplexer, together with a high gain antenna, four-channel receiver, and state-of-the-art signal processing. The gyro-amplifiers and the implementation in the WARLOC radar will be described.

  6. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  7. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C.L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, ??, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same- sense polarization enhancement around ?? = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  8. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  9. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-07-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  10. Studies on Radar and Non-radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-15

    selection based on specific applications. References [1] Q . Liang, "Waveform Design and Diversity in Radar Sensor Networks: Theoretical Analysis and...Application to Automatic Target Recognition," submitted to IEEE Trans on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. [2] Q . Liang, "Waveform Design and Diversity in...Sensor Networks, June 2006, New York. [3] Q . Liang, "Radar Sensor Networks: Algorithms for Waveform Design and Diversity with Appli- cation to ATR with

  11. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  12. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring weather phenomena from radar has an essential role in nowcasting applications. As one of the most useful sources of quantitative precipitation estimation, rainfall radar analysis can be a very useful research tool in supporting methods for rainfall forecasting. Its short-term prediction is often needed in various meteorological and hydrological applications where accurate prediction of rainfall is essential from national service and civil protection forecasting up to agriculture and urban issues. Very recently, Tuscany region (central Italy) is equipped with two X-band radars with a maximum range of 108 km, a beam width of 3° and a high spatial resolution (i.e., radial resolution up to 90m), located in Livorno and Cima del Monte (Elba island) sites. The first system is property of Livorno's port Authority, the second one of Consorzio LaMMA (Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modelling for the sustainable development) who has installed it in the framework of "RESMAR - Environmental Resources in the MARitime Space" activities, a strategic project, financed in the framework of the European Cross-Border Cooperation Programme Italy-France "Maritime", coordinated by the Liguria Region Administration. Both systems are managed by LaMMA. The cross-border sharing of such relevant meteorological observation instruments and the integration of these data with existing tools and methodologies is intended to improve operational regional weather services in nowcasting activities and their impacts on the territory, as those related to LaMMA daily issues. This sharing is widely promoted within RESMAR project between the different partner regions (ARPA-Sardinia, Meteo-France and Liguria). The integration of these data with other complementary and ancillary measurements is also needed to increase the reliability and accuracy of radar measurements in view of both a better meteorological phenomena understanding and quantitative precipitation estimation. The use of

  13. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  14. Application of Radar Data to Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanZyl, Jakob J.

    2000-01-01

    The field of synthetic aperture radar changed dramatically over the past decade with the operational introduction of advance radar techniques such as polarimetry and interferometry. Radar polarimetry became an operational research tool with the introduction of the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system in the early 1980's, and reached a climax with the two SIR-C/X-SAR flights on board the space shuttle Endeavour in April and October 1994. Radar interferometry received a tremendous boost when the airborne TOPSAR system was introduced in 1991 by NASA/JPL, and further when data from the European Space Agency ERS-1 radar satellite became routinely available in 1991. Several airborne interferometric SAR systems are either currently operational, or are about to be introduced. Radar interferometry is a technique that allows one to map the topography of an area automatically under all weather conditions, day or night. The real power of radar interferometry is that the images and digital elevation models are automatically geometrically resampled, and could be imported into GIS systems directly after suitable reformatting. When combined with polarimetry, a technique that uses polarization diversity to gather more information about the geophysical properties of the terrain, a very rich multi-layer data set is available to the remote sensing scientist. This talk will discuss the principles of radar interferometry and polarimetry with specific application to the automatic categorization of land cover. Examples will include images acquired with the NASA/JPL AIRSAR/TOPSAR system in Australia and elsewhere.

  15. Wuhan Atmosphere Radio Exploration (WARE) radar: System design and online winds measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyu, Zhao; Chen, Zhou; Haiyin, Qing; Guobin, Yang; Yuannong, Zhang; Gang, Chen; Yaogai, Hu

    2013-05-01

    The basic configuration of the Wuhan MST (mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere) radar, which was designed and constructed by the School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, is preliminarily described in this paper. The Wuhan MST radar operates at very high frequency (VHF) band (53.8 MHz) by observing the real-time characteristics of turbulence and the wind field vector in the height range of 3.5-90 km (not including 25-60 km) with high temporal and height resolutions. This all-solid-state, all-coherent pulse Doppler radar is China's first independent development of an MST radar focusing on atmospheric observation. The subsystems of the Wuhan MST radar include an antenna system, a feeder line system, all-solid-state radar transmitters, digital receivers, a beam control system, a signal processing system, a data processing system, a product generation system, and a user terminal. Advanced radar technologies are used, including highly reliable all-solid-state transmitters, low-noise large dynamic range digital receivers, an active phased array, high-speed digital signal processing, and real-time graphic terminals. This paper describes the design and implementation of the radar. Preliminary online wind measurements and results of the comparison to simultaneous observations by a GPS rawinsonde are presented as well.

  16. Use of Dual Polarization Radar in Validation of Satellite Precipitation Measurements: Rationale and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Hou, Arthur; Smith, Eric; Bringi, V. N.; Rutledge, S. A.; Gorgucci, E.; Petersen, W. A.; SkofronickJackson, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Dual-polarization weather radars have evolved significantly in the last three decades culminating in the operational deployment by the National Weather Service. In addition to operational applications in the weather service, dual-polarization radars have shown significant potential in contributing to the research fields of ground based remote sensing of rainfall microphysics, study of precipitation evolution and hydrometeor classification. Furthermore the dual-polarization radars have also raised the awareness of radar system aspects such as calibration. Microphysical characterization of precipitation and quantitative precipitation estimation are important applications that are critical in the validation of satellite borne precipitation measurements and also serves as a valuable tool in algorithm development. This paper presents the important role played by dual-polarization radar in validating space borne precipitation measurements. Starting from a historical evolution, the various configurations of dual-polarization radar are presented. Examples of raindrop size distribution retrievals and hydrometeor type classification are discussed. The quantitative precipitation estimation is a product of direct relevance to space borne observations. During the TRMM program substantial advancement was made with ground based polarization radars specially collecting unique observations in the tropics which are noted. The scientific accomplishments of relevance to space borne measurements of precipitation are summarized. The potential of dual-polarization radars and opportunities in the era of global precipitation measurement mission is also discussed.

  17. Development of NASA's Next Generation L-Band Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ranson, K. Jon; Marrero, Victor; Yeary, Mark

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Next generation Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR-2) is a state-of-the-art airborne L-band radar developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The instrument builds upon the advanced architectures in NASA's DBSAR-1 and EcoSAR instruments. The new instrument employs a 16-channel radar architecture characterized by multi-mode operation, software defined waveform generation, digital beamforming, and configurable radar parameters. The instrument has been design to support several disciplines in Earth and Planetary sciences. The instrument was recently completed, and tested and calibrated in a anechoic chamber.

  18. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  19. NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it o...

  20. Development of observed precipitation and meteorological database to understand the wet deposition and dispersion processes in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Watanabe, Akira; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishihara, Hirohiko; Takara, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    The transport and diffusion of the radioactive pollutants from the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP inthe atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Further, precipitation type and its amount affect the various transport process of the radioactive nuclides. Hence, this study first examine the qualitative precipitation pattern and timing in March 2011 using X-band radar data from Fukushima University and three dimensional C-band radar data network of Japan Meteorological Agency. Second, by collecting rain-gauge network and other surface meteorological data, we estimate quantitative precipitation and its type (rain/snow) according to the same method used to create APHRODITE daily grid precipitation (Yatagai et al., 2012) and judge of rain/snow (Yasutomi et al., 2011). For example, the data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northeast, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima