Science.gov

Sample records for advanced microelectronic devices

  1. Photoemission-based microelectronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Tyler J.; Tao, Andrea R.; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging. It often requires heating, applying high voltages, or using lasers with short wavelengths or high powers. Here, we show that the interaction between an engineered resonant surface and a low-power infrared laser can cause enough photoemission via electron tunnelling to implement feasible microelectronic devices such as transistors, switches and modulators. The proposed photoemission-based devices benefit from the advantages of gas-plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving the integrability of semiconductor-based devices. PMID:27811946

  2. Photoemission-based microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Tyler J.; Tao, Andrea R.; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2016-11-01

    The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging. It often requires heating, applying high voltages, or using lasers with short wavelengths or high powers. Here, we show that the interaction between an engineered resonant surface and a low-power infrared laser can cause enough photoemission via electron tunnelling to implement feasible microelectronic devices such as transistors, switches and modulators. The proposed photoemission-based devices benefit from the advantages of gas-plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving the integrability of semiconductor-based devices.

  3. Electrochemical investigations of advanced materials for microelectronic and energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonetilleke, Pubudu Chaminda

    A broad range of electrochemical techniques are employed in this work to study a selected set of advanced materials for applications in microelectronics and energy storage devices. The primary motivation of this study has been to explore the capabilities of certain modern electrochemical techniques in a number of emerging areas of material processing and characterization. The work includes both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, with applications in two rather general areas of technology, namely microelectronics and energy storage. The sub-systems selected for investigation are: (i) Electrochemical mechanical and chemical mechanical planarization (ECMP and CMP, respectively), (ii) Carbon nanotubes in combination with room temperature ionic liquids (ILs), and (iii) Cathode materials for high-performance Li ion batteries. The first group of systems represents an important building block in the fabrication of microelectronic devices. The second and third groups of systems are relevant for new energy storage technologies, and have generated immense interests in recent years. A common feature of these different systems is that they all are associated with complex surface reactions that dictate the performance of the devices based on them. Fundamental understanding of these reactions is crucial to further development and expansion of their associated technologies. It is the complex mechanistic details of these surface reactions that we address using a judicious combination of a number of state of the art electrochemical techniques. The main electrochemical techniques used in this work include: (i) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and slow scan cyclic voltammetry (SSCV, a special case of CV); (ii) Galvanostatic (or current-controlled) measurements; (iii) Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), based on two different methodologies, namely, Fourier transform EIS (FT-EIS, capable of studying fast reaction kinetics in a time-resolved mode), and EIS using frequency response

  4. Apparatus for assembly of microelectronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Lavin, Judith Maria; Resnick, Paul J.

    2017-09-12

    An apparatus including a carrier substrate configured to move a microelectronic device. The apparatus further includes a rotatable body configured to receive the microelectronic device. Additionally, the apparatus includes a second substrate configured to receive the microelectronic device from the rotatable body.

  5. Reliability and qualification of advanced microelectronics for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayali, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the subject and an approach to establish a reliability and qualification methodology to facilitate the utilization of state-of-the-art advanced microelectronic devices and structures in high reliability applications.

  6. Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

  7. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  8. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.

  9. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    DOE PAGES

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; ...

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with amore » statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.« less

  10. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  11. Single level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-09

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a multilayered LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during cofiring. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip interconnected so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A glob-top encapsulant or protective cover can be used to protect the microelectronic device and electrical interconnections. The result is a compact, low profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device.

  12. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Microelectronic Device Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Lou, John; Norton, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Finite element and finite volume methods are used in a variety of design simulations when it is necessary to compute fields throughout regions that contain varying materials or geometry. Convergence of the simulation can be assessed by uniformly increasing the mesh density until an observable quantity stabilizes. Depending on the electrical size of the problem, uniform refinement of the mesh may be computationally infeasible due to memory limitations. Similarly, depending on the geometric complexity of the object being modeled, uniform refinement can be inefficient since regions that do not need refinement add to the computational expense. In either case, convergence to the correct (measured) solution is not guaranteed. Adaptive mesh refinement methods attempt to selectively refine the region of the mesh that is estimated to contain proportionally higher solution errors. The refinement may be obtained by decreasing the element size (h-refinement), by increasing the order of the element (p-refinement) or by a combination of the two (h-p refinement). A successful adaptive strategy refines the mesh to produce an accurate solution measured against the correct fields without undue computational expense. This is accomplished by the use of a) reliable a posteriori error estimates, b) hierarchal elements, and c) automatic adaptive mesh generation. Adaptive methods are also useful when problems with multi-scale field variations are encountered. These occur in active electronic devices that have thin doped layers and also when mixed physics is used in the calculation. The mesh needs to be fine at and near the thin layer to capture rapid field or charge variations, but can coarsen away from these layers where field variations smoothen and charge densities are uniform. This poster will present an adaptive mesh refinement package that runs on parallel computers and is applied to specific microelectronic device simulations. Passive sensors that operate in the infrared portion of

  13. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Microelectronic Device Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Lou, John; Norton, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Finite element and finite volume methods are used in a variety of design simulations when it is necessary to compute fields throughout regions that contain varying materials or geometry. Convergence of the simulation can be assessed by uniformly increasing the mesh density until an observable quantity stabilizes. Depending on the electrical size of the problem, uniform refinement of the mesh may be computationally infeasible due to memory limitations. Similarly, depending on the geometric complexity of the object being modeled, uniform refinement can be inefficient since regions that do not need refinement add to the computational expense. In either case, convergence to the correct (measured) solution is not guaranteed. Adaptive mesh refinement methods attempt to selectively refine the region of the mesh that is estimated to contain proportionally higher solution errors. The refinement may be obtained by decreasing the element size (h-refinement), by increasing the order of the element (p-refinement) or by a combination of the two (h-p refinement). A successful adaptive strategy refines the mesh to produce an accurate solution measured against the correct fields without undue computational expense. This is accomplished by the use of a) reliable a posteriori error estimates, b) hierarchal elements, and c) automatic adaptive mesh generation. Adaptive methods are also useful when problems with multi-scale field variations are encountered. These occur in active electronic devices that have thin doped layers and also when mixed physics is used in the calculation. The mesh needs to be fine at and near the thin layer to capture rapid field or charge variations, but can coarsen away from these layers where field variations smoothen and charge densities are uniform. This poster will present an adaptive mesh refinement package that runs on parallel computers and is applied to specific microelectronic device simulations. Passive sensors that operate in the infrared portion of

  14. Advanced microelectronics technologies for future small satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2000-03-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjoint markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  15. Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1999-01-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  16. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-10-26

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  17. Optimization of Microelectronic Devices for Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    The NASA/JPL goal to reduce payload in future space missions while increasing mission capability demands miniaturization of active and passive sensors, analytical instruments and communication systems among others. Currently, typical system requirements include the detection of particular spectral lines, associated data processing, and communication of the acquired data to other systems. Advances in lithography and deposition methods result in more advanced devices for space application, while the sub-micron resolution currently available opens a vast design space. Though an experimental exploration of this widening design space-searching for optimized performance by repeated fabrication efforts-is unfeasible, it does motivate the development of reliable software design tools. These tools necessitate models based on fundamental physics and mathematics of the device to accurately model effects such as diffraction and scattering in opto-electronic devices, or bandstructure and scattering in heterostructure devices. The software tools must have convenient turn-around times and interfaces that allow effective usage. The first issue is addressed by the application of high-performance computers and the second by the development of graphical user interfaces driven by properly developed data structures. These tools can then be integrated into an optimization environment, and with the available memory capacity and computational speed of high performance parallel platforms, simulation of optimized components can proceed. In this paper, specific applications of the electromagnetic modeling of infrared filtering, as well as heterostructure device design will be presented using genetic algorithm global optimization methods.

  18. Thermal measurement. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A; White, E R; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B C

    2015-02-06

    Modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit's glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum's bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz(-1/2), an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Temporary coatings for protection of microelectronic devices during packaging

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2005-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, temporary protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

  20. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  1. Sealed symmetric multilayered microelectronic device package with integral windows

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A sealed symmetric multilayered package with integral windows for housing one or more microelectronic devices. The devices can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the windows being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic devices can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive sides are optically accessible through the windows. The result is a compact, low-profile, sealed symmetric package, having integral windows that can be hermetically-sealed.

  2. Life cycle assessment applied to the sector of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matarazzo, Agata; Ingrao, Carlo; Clasadonte, Maria Teresa

    2016-07-01

    This work is about the application of LCA to the ends of the environmental assessment of pure-silicon wafers production. The input-data quantification is realized studying two microelectronic devices and presenting schematically tables and graphs, to be easily interpreted. This will allow help the reader to individuate, clearly and immediately, the materials flows and the relationships among the different steps of the production process. The material flows, in terms of raw materials use and energy consumption, were studied using the data provided by a firm involved in the microelectronic device production field. The two devices environmental analysis was developed considering potential effects such as Acidification, Eutrophication, Ozone reduction, Global warming, Ozone photochemical formation, Human Toxicity.

  3. Multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices is disclosed, wherein the package includes an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can comprise, for example, a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package has an internal stepped structure made of a plurality of plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package, according to some embodiments. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination. The integral window can further include a lens for optically transforming light passing through the window. The package can include an array of binary optic lenslets made integral with the window. The package can include an electrically-switched optical modulator, such as a lithium niobate window attached to the package, for providing a very fast electrically-operated shutter.

  4. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  5. Raman Imaging in Semiconductor Physics: Applications to Microelectronic Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberj, Antoine; Camassel, Jean

    The unique versatility of micro-Raman spectroscopy (\\upmu RS) in semiconductor physics remains in Raman imaging. Numerous applications cover the whole development of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices: from semiconductor growth to advanced device inspection tools. In this chapter, a wide variety of semiconductors (SiC, graphene, GaN, GaAs, SiGe, strained Si, sSOI, SGOI) and devices (FETs, lasers, MEMS) are addressed. First, it will be shown how Raman mapping enables to check the crystalline quality, the composition, the doping, and the uniformity of as-grown semiconductors. Then, we will focus on the most popular application in microelectronics: strain measurements either at the device or at the full wafer scale. Finally, we will show how \\upmu RS imaging can be used for final device inspection through the temperature mapping of operating devices (FETs, lasers, actuators).

  6. Radiation effects microscopy for failure analysis of microelectronic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Brice, David Kenneth; Schwank, James Ralph

    2004-10-01

    Microelectronic devices in satellites and spacecraft are exposed to high energy cosmic radiation. Furthermore, Earth-based electronics can be affected by terrestrial radiation. The radiation causes a variety of Single Event Effects (SEE) that can lead to failure of the devices. High energy heavy ion beams are being used to simulate both the cosmic and terrestrial radiation to study radiation effects and to ensure the reliability of electronic devices. Broad beam experiments can provide a measure of the radiation hardness of a device (SEE cross section) but they are unable to pinpoint the failing components in the circuit. A nuclear microbeam is an ideal tool to map SEE on a microscopic scale and find the circuit elements (transistors, capacitors, etc.) that are responsible for the failure of the device. In this paper a review of the latest radiation effects microscopy (REM) work at Sandia will be given. Different SEE mechanisms (Single Event Upset, Single Event Transient, etc.) and the methods to study them (Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC), Single Event Upset mapping, etc.) will be discussed. Several examples of using REM to study the basic effects of radiation in electronic devices and failure analysis of integrated circuits will be given.

  7. Optical Microanalysis In Microelectronic Device And Packaging Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popek, K. M.; Ramsey, J. N...

    1983-11-01

    Electron probe microanalysis (and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis) has been used for small area analysis for many years, but it gives only elemental information, in general. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence have been available as small area analytical techniques for several years, giving molecular information. Two "new" small area molecular analysis techniques have become available in the last few years, viz Raman (to be discussed in this symposium by C.L. Needham) and infra-red, which we will discuss. Examples will be given of the application of these various optical microanalytical techniques to device and packaging manufacture. The electron probe microanalyzer has been used for many years for analysis of small areas of microelectronic devices and packaging (e.g. Prof. Dave Wittry's initial analysis of Purple Plague was 1959). This type of analysis has been extended widely with the developments of scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray analysis detectors and circuitry. Such analysis is elemental, in general, and has been very useful in the study of microstructure, thin films, contamination, corrosion products, etc. in all stages of device development, manufacture, test and application. However, often even quantitative elemental information lacks definition, and molecular information (how the elements are bonded together) is required. (In the analysis method described, some limited molecular information is available in low atomic number elements by measuring x-ray line shifts.)

  8. Symmetric miniaturized heating system for active microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Michael; Mayer, Michael; Jourard, Isaac; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Persic, John

    2010-07-01

    To qualify interconnect technologies such as microelectronic fine wire bonds for mass production of integrated circuit (IC) packages, it is necessary to perform accelerated aging tests, e.g., to age a device at an elevated temperature or to subject the device to thermal cycling and measure the decrease of interconnect quality. There are downsides to using conventional ovens for this as they are relatively large and have relatively slow temperature change rates, and if electrical connections are required between monitoring equipment and the device being heated, they must be located inside the oven and may be aged by the high temperatures. Addressing these downsides, a miniaturized heating system (minioven) is presented, which can heat individual IC packages containing the interconnects to be tested. The core of this system is a piece of copper cut from a square shaped tube with high resistance heating wire looped around it. Ceramic dual in-line packages are clamped against either open end of the core. One package contains a Pt100 temperature sensor and the other package contains the device to be aged placed in symmetry to the temperature sensor. According to the temperature detected by the Pt100, a proportional-integral-derivative controller adjusts the power supplied to the heating wire. The system maintains a dynamic temperature balance with the core hot and the two symmetric sides with electrical connections to the device under test at a cooler temperature. Only the face of the package containing the device is heated, while the socket holding it remains below 75 °C when the oven operates at 200 °C. The minioven can heat packages from room temperature up to 200 °C in less than 5 min and maintain this temperature at 28 W power. During long term aging, a temperature of 200 °C was maintained for 1120 h with negligible resistance change of the heating wires after 900 h (heating wire resistance increased 0.2% over the final 220 h). The device is also subjected to

  9. Symmetric miniaturized heating system for active microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Michael; Mayer, Michael; Jourard, Isaac; Moon, Jeong-Tak; Persic, John

    2010-07-01

    To qualify interconnect technologies such as microelectronic fine wire bonds for mass production of integrated circuit (IC) packages, it is necessary to perform accelerated aging tests, e.g., to age a device at an elevated temperature or to subject the device to thermal cycling and measure the decrease of interconnect quality. There are downsides to using conventional ovens for this as they are relatively large and have relatively slow temperature change rates, and if electrical connections are required between monitoring equipment and the device being heated, they must be located inside the oven and may be aged by the high temperatures. Addressing these downsides, a miniaturized heating system (minioven) is presented, which can heat individual IC packages containing the interconnects to be tested. The core of this system is a piece of copper cut from a square shaped tube with high resistance heating wire looped around it. Ceramic dual in-line packages are clamped against either open end of the core. One package contains a Pt100 temperature sensor and the other package contains the device to be aged placed in symmetry to the temperature sensor. According to the temperature detected by the Pt100, a proportional-integral-derivative controller adjusts the power supplied to the heating wire. The system maintains a dynamic temperature balance with the core hot and the two symmetric sides with electrical connections to the device under test at a cooler temperature. Only the face of the package containing the device is heated, while the socket holding it remains below 75 degrees C when the oven operates at 200 degrees C. The minioven can heat packages from room temperature up to 200 degrees C in less than 5 min and maintain this temperature at 28 W power. During long term aging, a temperature of 200 degrees C was maintained for 1120 h with negligible resistance change of the heating wires after 900 h (heating wire resistance increased 0.2% over the final 220 h). The

  10. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-03-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-01-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of advanced microelectronics for inclusion in MIL-STD-975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. Richard

    1991-01-01

    The approach taken by NASA and JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) in the development of a MIL-STD-975 section which contains advanced technology such as Large Scale Integration and Very Large Scale Integration (LSI/VLSI) microelectronic devices is described. The parts listed in this section are recommended as satisfactory for NASA flight applications, in the absence of alternate qualified devices, based on satisfactory results of a vendor capability audit, the availability of sufficient characterization and reliability data from the manufacturers and users and negotiated detail procurement specifications. The criteria used in the selection and evaluation of the vendors and candidate parts, the preparation of procurement specifications, and the status of this activity are discussed.

  13. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  14. Microelectronic superconducting device with multi-layer contact

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, Frederick C.; Kingston, John J.; Clarke, John

    1993-01-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T.sub.c superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO.sub.3 ; and a third high T.sub.c superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An insitu method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps. The photolithographic process is used to separately pattern the high T.sub.c superconductor thin films.

  15. Microelectronic superconducting device with multi-layer contact

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.

    1993-10-26

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3] ; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps. The photolithographic process is used to separately pattern the high T[sub c] superconductor thin films. 14 figures.

  16. Investigation of “benign” ionic content in epoxy that induces microelectronic device failure

    Treesearch

    Gregory T. Schueneman; Jeffery Kingsbury; Edmund Klinkerch

    2011-01-01

    Microelectronics and the devices dependent upon them have the extremely challenging requirements of becoming more capable and less expensive every year. This drives the industry to pack more functions into an ever smaller footprint until the next technological revolution. Adding to this situation is the removal of lead from the bill of materials followed closely by...

  17. Radiation hardness improvement of analog front-end microelectronic devices for particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. G.; Rodin, A. S.; Bakerenkov, A. S.; Felitsyn, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Series of schematic techniques for increasing radiation hardness of the current mirrors is developed. These techniques can be used for the design of analog front-end microelectronic devices based on the operational amplifiers. The circuit simulation of radiation degradation of current transmission coefficients was performed for various circuit solutions in LTSpice software.

  18. Bi-level multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A bi-level, multilayered package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A second chip can be bonded to the backside of the first chip, with the second chip being wirebonded to the second level of the bi-level package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed.

  19. Lithium and lithium ion batteries for applications in microelectronic devices: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Ferrara, Seth; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Batteries employing lithium chemistry have been intensively investigated because of their high energy attributes which may be deployed for vehicle electrification and large-scale energy storage applications. Another important direction of battery research for micro-electronics, however, is relatively less discussed in the field but growing fast in recent years. This paper reviews chemistry and electrochemistry in different microbatteries along with their cell designs to meet the goals of their various applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge and recent progress of microbatteries for emerging micro-electronic devices may shed light on the future development of microbatteries towards high energy density and flexible design.

  20. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  1. Resistance of Polyaniline Films as a Function of Electrochemical Potential and the Fabrication of Polyaniline-Based Microelectronic Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-16

    a Function of Electrochemical Potential and the Fabrication of Polyaniline-Based Microelectronic Devices " by Elizabeth W. Paul, Antonio J. Ricco and...electronic devices . 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an reverse aide If neceesary and Identify by block number) Attached. DD 1 ś 1473 EOITION OF I NOV 61 IS...characterization of I yaniline and to fabricate polyaniline-based microelectronic devices , dioe$ and transistors, that function when the polyaniline

  2. Problems encountered during automated testing of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, R. G.; Hall, F. G.; Horth, W. J.

    Several problems in the implementation of electrical tests for medium and large scale microcircuits (memory devices, microprocessors, peripherals) are discussed. Attention is given to the implementation of functional patterns measuring timing parameters such as access time on memory devices. As memory size increases, N2 type patterns become increasingly time consuming. Text fixturing is found to present problems which are extremely difficult to isolate because the fixture itself is usually the least most source of a problem. Proper thermal soak time can be a major factor influencing test times and test accuracy. A problem exists in knowing exactly when the device has reached the desired test temperature. Often device soak time and temp are overestimated to be safe, and productive test time is wasted. Several recommendations are made concerning ways to improve automated testing procedures.

  3. Method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window for providing optical access through an aperture in the package. The package is made of a multilayered insulating material, e.g., a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC). The window is inserted in-between personalized layers of ceramic green tape during stackup and registration. Then, during baking and firing, the integral window is simultaneously bonded to the sintered ceramic layers of the densified package. Next, the microelectronic device is flip-chip bonded to cofired thick-film metallized traces on the package, where the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. Finally, a cover lid is attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, flip-chip bonded, hermetically-sealed package having an integral window.

  4. Reliability of Small Geometry VLSI Devices for Microelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-15

    initiative under Re iable Advanced Electronics. The SDIO agent for the project has beer Dr. Clifford Lau and the ONR technical officer has been Dr. Al...oceration Is DaK -ne ngo ch arge from ’The nitrice tracs r*,o ,lie Siiicon bands. Th.e ac-,-.ai cn;-arce distribution i’n :he nitride is a ’,uncicn of

  5. Development of cost-effective biocompatible packaging for microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Qian, Karen; Malachowski, Karl; Fiorini, Paolo; Velenis, Dimitrios; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Van Hoof, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective, miniaturized and biocompatible packaging method for medical devices is proposed, resulting in a small, soft and comfortable implantable package. Towards this end, the barrier materials and fabrication process for the individual die encapsulation are largely explored. We demonstrate that various common clean room materials are good candidates for preventing metal leaching into body. In accelerated tests at higher temperature, several conductive barrier materials are damaged by the test bio-fluid, suggesting insufficient resistance to body fluids in long term. Covering electrodes by noble metals will solve this problem. For metallization, noble metals as Pt are best candidates. CoO calculations showed that selective plating of Pt is more cost-effective than sputtering. To reduce the cost of a sputter process, Pt recycling is very important.

  6. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  7. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  8. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  9. Reliability of small geometry VLSI devices for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Marvin H.

    1992-02-01

    This proposal is a continuation of a project which began in August 1986. The goal of the project, in a broad sense, is to perform exploratory research into the physics of carriers in silicon inversion layers with a focus on the issues which affect the reliability of small geometry VLSI devices. This project permits us to study the physical electronics of silicon surfaces and the overlying insulators. In the proposed project we stress the application of this research to the area of Wafer Scale Integration where reliability and fault tolerance are key issues for the SDI program. The extensive signal processing and data storage required to implement high-resolution, sensor-based systems demands that consideration be given to the area of system and component reliability. At the component level the issues revolve around the reliability of the scaled MOS Transistor with nanometric feature sizes. One important area is the susceptibility of the gate insulator to (1) hot electron trapping, (2) premature dielectric breakdown, and (3) space radiation environment considerations which can limit the MTTF of the SDIO mission. A second issue at the component level is the SDI need for low-power, high-density, nonvolatile data storage with nondestructive readout (NDRO), radiation tolerance and immunity to single event upsets (SEU's).

  10. Delayering of Microelectronic Devices Using an Adjustable Broad-Beam Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, A. C.; Cerchiara, R. R.; Fischione, P. E.; Boccabella, M. F.; Matesa, J. M.; Marsh, L. M.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of the integrated circuits of a microelectronic device depends on delayering. Focused ion beam (FIB) or broad ion beam (BIB) milling are effective complementary methods of delayering. FIB provides higher removal rates, but is limited in the effective area that can be revealed per unit time, while BIB provides lower removal rates, but has the advantage with respect to the size of the field of view produced. Microstructural features and the appearance of defects were identified and tracked for two model systems: Cu vias and Cu TSVs (through-silicon vias).

  11. Geckoprinting: assembly of microelectronic devices on unconventional surfaces by transfer printing with isolated gecko setal arrays.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaeyoung; Kim, Juho; Song, Kwangsun; Autumn, Kellar; Lee, Jongho

    2014-10-06

    Developing electronics in unconventional forms provides opportunities to expand the use of electronics in diverse applications including bio-integrated or implanted electronics. One of the key challenges lies in integrating semiconductor microdevices onto unconventional substrates without glue, high pressure or temperature that may cause damage to microdevices, substrates or interfaces. This paper describes a solution based on natural gecko setal arrays that switch adhesion mechanically on and off, enabling pick and place manipulation of thin microscale semiconductor materials onto diverse surfaces including plants and insects whose surfaces are usually rough and irregular. A demonstration of functional 'geckoprinted' microelectronic devices provides a proof of concept of our results in practical applications.

  12. Advanced Laser Chemical Processing For Microelectronics and Integrated Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-15

    Barbara, CA (June 25-27, 1990). 15. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Integrated Electronics and Optics," OITDA Conference, Tokyo, Japan, (July 5...Society Meeting, Boston, MA, November 26 - December 3, 1990. 20. R.M. Osgood, Jr., "Advances in Laser Fabrication for Solid-State Electronics and...Thin, Excimer Laser-Deposited Cd Interlayers," J. Elec. Mat. 12, 1239 (July, 1990). 14. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Solid State

  13. Simulation of ion beam induced current in radiation detectors and microelectronic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause Single Event Effects (SEE) in a variety of electronic devices. The mechanism that leads to these SEEs is current induced by the radiation in these devices. While this phenomenon is detrimental in ICs, this is the basic mechanism behind the operation of semiconductor radiation detectors. To be able to predict SEEs in ICs and detector responses we need to be able to simulate the radiation induced current as the function of time. There are analytical models, which work for very simple detector configurations, but fail for anything more complex. On the other end, TCAD programs can simulate this process in microelectronic devices, but these TCAD codes costs hundreds of thousands of dollars and they require huge computing resources. In addition, in certain cases they fail to predict the correct behavior. A simulation model based on the Gunn theorem was developed and used with the COMSOL Multiphysics framework.

  14. Simulation of ion beam induced current in radiation detectors and microelectronic devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

    2009-10-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to cause Single Event Effects (SEE) in a variety of electronic devices. The mechanism that leads to these SEEs is current induced by the radiation in these devices. While this phenomenon is detrimental in ICs, this is the basic mechanism behind the operation of semiconductor radiation detectors. To be able to predict SEEs in ICs and detector responses we need to be able to simulate the radiation induced current as the function of time. There are analytical models, which work for very simple detector configurations, but fail for anything more complex. On the other end, TCAD programs can simulate this process in microelectronic devices, but these TCAD codes costs hundreds of thousands of dollars and they require huge computing resources. In addition, in certain cases they fail to predict the correct behavior. A simulation model based on the Gunn theorem was developed and used with the COMSOL Multiphysics framework.

  15. Advanced system on a chip microelectronics for spacecraft and science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos P.

    2003-01-01

    instruments, etc. Common measurements that apply to many of these instruments are precise time interval measurement and high resolution read-out of solid state detectors. A precise time interval measurement chip was specially developed that achieves ˜100 ps (×10 improvement) time resolution at a power dissipation ˜20 mW (×50 improvement), dead time ˜1.5 μs (×20 improvement), and chip die size 5 mm×5 mm versus two 20 cm×20 cm doubled sided boards. This device is selected as a key enabling technology for several NASA particle, delay line imaging, and laser range finding instruments onboard (NASA Image, Messenger, etc. missions). Another device with universal application is radiation energy read-out from solid state detectors. Multi-channel low-power and end-to-end sensor input—digital output is key for the new generation instruments. The readout channel comprises of a Charge Sensitive Preamplifier with a target sensitivity of ˜1 KeV FWHM at 20 pf detector capacitance, a Shaper Amplifier with programmable time constant/gain, and an ADC. The read-out chip together with the precise time interval chip comprises the essential elements of a common particle spectroscopy instrument. To mention some more applications fast-signal acquisition—and digitization is a very useful function for a category of instrument such as mass spectroscopy and profile laser rangefinding. The single chip approach includes a high bandwidth preamplifier, fast sampling ˜5 ns, analog memory ˜10K locations, 12-bit ADC and serial/parallel I/Os. The wealth of the applications proves the advanced microelectronics field as a key enabling technology for the new millennium space exploration.

  16. Microelectronics technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovyy, M.

    1985-08-01

    To develop at a leading pace the production of high-speed control and computational systems, peripheral equipment and software for these, electronic devices for control and telemechanics applications, a nation must have a strong microelectronics industry. The world of microelectronics created by man is one of fantastic possibilities and its horizons broaden daily. It is undergoing a process of interlocking growth and of introduction into our daily lives as well as into many fields of human endeavor. Microelectronics is a catalyst for technical progress. It provides artificial intelligence for robots and systems of robots, for automated systems used in control, teaching, design and computing applications, spacecraft and production facilities. A country's economic might and defensive capability are defined by the scale at which it produces pure and ultrapure substances and materials, including semiconductor and metallic crystals.

  17. Center for space microelectronics technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1992 Technical Report of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Space Microelectronics Technology summarizes the technical accomplishments, publications, presentations, and patents of the center during the past year. The report lists 187 publications, 253 presentations, and 111 new technology reports and patents in the areas of solid-state devices, photonics, advanced computing, and custom microcircuits.

  18. Geckoprinting: assembly of microelectronic devices on unconventional surfaces by transfer printing with isolated gecko setal arrays

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jaeyoung; Kim, Juho; Song, Kwangsun; Autumn, Kellar; Lee, Jongho

    2014-01-01

    Developing electronics in unconventional forms provides opportunities to expand the use of electronics in diverse applications including bio-integrated or implanted electronics. One of the key challenges lies in integrating semiconductor microdevices onto unconventional substrates without glue, high pressure or temperature that may cause damage to microdevices, substrates or interfaces. This paper describes a solution based on natural gecko setal arrays that switch adhesion mechanically on and off, enabling pick and place manipulation of thin microscale semiconductor materials onto diverse surfaces including plants and insects whose surfaces are usually rough and irregular. A demonstration of functional ‘geckoprinted’ microelectronic devices provides a proof of concept of our results in practical applications. PMID:25056216

  19. Silicon carbide: The premier paradigm for structural and microelectronic device applications in severe environments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.

    1996-12-31

    The extreme thermal, mechanical, corrosion resistant and electronic properties of SiC provide multiplicative combinations of attributes which allow a variety of products for very different applications. The emphasis herein will be the consideration of both the constant stress creep properties of several types of polycrystalline SiC materials and the characteristics of different SiC-based devices having high power, high frequency and switching applications and which are operational at {ge} 573 K. The controlling mechanism in reaction-bonded SiC within the ranges of temperature and stress of 1,848 K--1,923 K and 110--220 MPa, respectively, is glide/climb controlled by climb. The controlling creep mechanism in CVD material at T < 1,873 K is dislocation glide controlled by the Peierls stress; above this temperature, the evidence suggests that dislocation glide/climb controlled by climb becomes an increasingly important mechanism. For sintered {alpha}-SiC within the respective temperature and stress ranges of 1,670 K--2,073 K and 138--414 MPa, the controlling creep mechanism are grain boundary sliding accommodated by grain boundary diffusion at T < 1,800 K and lattice diffusion at T > 1,920 K. By contrast, the continual development of SiC thin film deposition and the device related technologies of doping, contacts and dry etching have culminated in a host of microelectronic devices operable at high temperatures, namely, MOSFET high power devices, MESFET high frequency devices, and switches including p-n junctions and thyristors. The properties of selected devices and circuits made from them are described with an emphasis on their operation at high temperature. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Innovative metal thermo-compression wafer bonding for microelectronics and MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebhan, B.; Dragoi, V.

    2017-06-01

    With the continuously increasing level of integration for microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, such as gyroscopes, accelerometers and bolometers, metal wafer bonding becomes progressively more importance. In the present work common metal wafer bonding techniques were categorized, described and compared. While devices produced with metal thermo-compression wafer bonding ensure high bonding quality and a high degree of reliability, the required bonding temperatures are very often close to the maximum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process temperature (400-450°C). Based on a thermodynamic model of increasing the Gibbs free energy prior wafer bonding, in-situ ComBond(R) surface activation was applied to enable low-temperature Au-Au, Al-Al and Cu-Cu wafer bonding. Different aspects, such as bonding quality, dicing yield, bond strength, grain growth and elemental analysis across the initial bonding interface, were investigated. Based on these parameters successful wafer bonding was demonstrated at room temperature for Au-Au and Cu-Cu, and at 100°C for Al-Al wafer bonding.

  1. Evaluation of advanced microelectronic fluxless solder-bump contacts for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandal, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    Technology for interconnecting monolithic integrated circuit chips with other components is investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the current flip-chip approach as compared to other interconnection methods are outlined. A fluxless solder-bump contact technology is evaluated. Multiple solder-bump contacts were formed on silicon integrated circuit chips. The solder-bumps, comprised of a rigid nickel under layer and a compliant solder overlayer, were electroformed onto gold device pads with the aid of thick dry film photomasks. Different solder alloys and the use of conductive epoxy for bonding were explored. Fluxless solder-bump bond quality and reliability were evaluated by measuring the effects of centrifuge, thermal cycling, and high temperature storage on bond visual characteristics, bond electrical continuity, and bond shear tests. The applicability and suitability of this technology for hybrid microelectronic packaging is discussed.

  2. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World—Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices

    PubMed Central

    Nurmikko, Arto V.; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Patterson, William R.; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W.; Borton, David A.; Laiwalla, Farah; Park, Sunmee; Ming, Yin; Aceros, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring neural signals at high spatial and temporal resolution directly from brain microcircuits and decoding their activity to interpret commands and/or prior planning activity, such as motion of an arm or a leg, is a prime goal of modern neurotechnology. Its practical aims include assistive devices for subjects whose normal neural information pathways are not functioning due to physical damage or disease. On the fundamental side, researchers are striving to decipher the code of multiple neural microcircuits which collectively make up nature’s amazing computing machine, the brain. By implanting biocompatible neural sensor probes directly into the brain, in the form of microelectrode arrays, it is now possible to extract information from interacting populations of neural cells with spatial and temporal resolution at the single cell level. With parallel advances in application of statistical and mathematical techniques tools for deciphering the neural code, extracted populations or correlated neurons, significant understanding has been achieved of those brain commands that control, e.g., the motion of an arm in a primate (monkey or a human subject). These developments are accelerating the work on neural prosthetics where brain derived signals may be employed to bypass, e.g., an injured spinal cord. One key element in achieving the goals for practical and versatile neural prostheses is the development of fully implantable wireless microelectronic “brain-interfaces” within the body, a point of special emphasis of this paper. PMID:21654935

  3. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  4. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  5. Investigation of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in advanced microelectronics and optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.; Booth, T.; Gray, M.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The next generation of electronic microchips will utilize components with sub-micron feature size and optoelectronic devices with picosecond response time. Fundamental understanding of the device performance can only be obtained through first principles physics modeling of charge transport and electromagnetic effects in realistic geometries with material interfaces and dispersive properties. We have developed a general model incorporating important physics such as charge transport processes in materials with multilevel band structures and electromagnetic effects to simulate device characteristics. Accurate treatment of material interfaces and boundaries is included. The Monte Carlo charge transport is coupled self-consistently to Maxwell`s equations to accurately model scattering processes in the presence of an externally biased potential. This detailed multidimensional simulation capability is compared with and verified by experimental data, and could become an industrial standard for benchmarking and improving the {open_quotes}reduced model{close_quotes} codes used for semiconductor design. Specific tasks are the extension of existing capabilities in particle-in-cell plasma simulation technique and Monte Carlo charge transport to study the physics of charged particle dynamics in realistic microelectronic devices, such as bipolar semiconductors, heterojunction transistors, and optoelectronic switches. Our approach has been based on the coupled particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo technique, which can simultaneously treat both electromagnetic wave propagation and charged-particle transport.

  6. A novel monolithic piezoelectric actuated flexure-mechanism based wire clamp for microelectronic device packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Cunman; Wang, Fujun; Tian, Yanling; Zhao, Xingyu; Zhang, Hongjie; Cui, Liangyu; Zhang, Dawei; Ferreira, Placid

    2015-04-01

    A novel monolithic piezoelectric actuated wire clamp is presented in this paper to achieve fast, accurate, and robust microelectronic device packaging. The wire clamp has compact, flexure-based mechanical structure and light weight. To obtain large and robust jaw displacements and ensure parallel jaw grasping, a two-stage amplification composed of a homothetic bridge type mechanism and a parallelogram leverage mechanism was designed. Pseudo-rigid-body model and Lagrange approaches were employed to conduct the kinematic, static, and dynamic modeling of the wire clamp and optimization design was carried out. The displacement amplification ratio, maximum allowable stress, and natural frequency were calculated. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the wire clamp and wire electro discharge machining technique was utilized to fabricate the monolithic structure. Experimental tests were carried out to investigate the performance and the experimental results match well with the theoretical calculation and FEA. The amplification ratio of the clamp is 20.96 and the working mode frequency is 895 Hz. Step response test shows that the wire clamp has fast response and high accuracy and the motion resolution is 0.2 μm. High speed precision grasping operations of gold and copper wires were realized using the wire clamper.

  7. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  8. 1/f noise measurements for faster evaluation of electromigration in advanced microelectronics interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Beyne, Sofie De Wolf, Ingrid; Croes, Kristof; Tőkei, Zsolt

    2016-05-14

    The use of 1/f noise measurements is explored for the purpose of finding faster techniques for electromigration (EM) characterization in advanced microelectronic interconnects, which also enable a better understanding of its underlying physical mechanisms. Three different applications of 1/f noise for EM characterization are explored. First, whether 1/f noise measurements during EM stress can serve as an early indicator of EM damage. Second, whether the current dependence of the noise power spectral density (PSD) can be used for a qualitative comparison of the defect concentration of different interconnects and consequently also their EM lifetime t50. Third, whether the activation energies obtained from the temperature dependence of the 1/f noise PSD correspond to the activation energies found by means of classic EM tests. In this paper, the 1/f noise technique has been used to assess and compare the EM properties of various advanced integration schemes and different materials, as they are being explored by the industry to enable advanced interconnect scaling. More concrete, different types of copper interconnects and one type of tungsten interconnect are compared. The 1/f noise measurements confirm the excellent electromigration properties of tungsten and demonstrate a dependence of the EM failure mechanism on copper grain size and distribution, where grain boundary diffusion is found to be a dominant failure mechanism.

  9. Impact of junction temperature on microelectronic device reliability and considerations for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; Chen, Yuan; Cooper, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of an industry survey on junction temperature derating from key microelectronics suppliers, and offers recommendations to users for temperature derating for reliable operation over time. Background information on established derating factors, and reccommendations for safe operating junction temperatures for newer technologies are also presented.

  10. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  11. Investigations on MGy ionizing dose effects in thin oxides of micro-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Raine, M.; Martinez, M.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Richard, N.; Leray, J.L.; Goiffon, V.; Corbiere, F.; Rolando, S.; Molina, R.; Magnan, P.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.

    2015-07-01

    Total ionizing dose (TID) effects have been studied for a long time in micro-electronic components designed to operate in natural and artificial environments. In most cases, TID induces both charge trapping in the bulk of irradiated oxides and the buildup of interface traps located at semiconductor/dielectric interfaces. Such effects result from basic mechanisms driven by both the shape of the electric field which stands into the oxide and by fabrication process parameters inducing pre-existing traps in the oxide's bulk. From the pioneering studies based on 'thick' oxide technologies to the most recent ones dedicated to innovative technologies, most studies concluded that the impact of total ionizing dose effects reduces with the oxide thinning. This is specifically the case for the gate-oxide of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) for which it is generally considered that TID is not a major issue anymore at kGy dose ranges. TID effects are now mainly due to charge trapping in the field oxides such as Shallow Trench Isolation. This creates either parasitic conduction paths or Radiation-Induced Narrow Channel Effects (RINCE). Static current-voltage (I-V) electrical characteristics are then modified through a significant increase of the off-current of NMOS transistors or by shifting the whole I-V curves (of both NMOS and PMOS transistors). Based on these assumptions, no significant shift of I-V curves should be observed in modern bulk CMOS technologies. However, such phenomenon may not be directly extrapolated to higher TID ranges, typically of several MGy for which only few data are available in the literature. This paper presents evidences of large threshold voltage shifts measured at MGy dose levels despite the fact that transistors are designed in a submicron bulk technology which features a 7-nm thin gate-oxide on GO2 transistors dedicated to mixed analog/digital integrated circuits. Such electrical shifts are encountered on PMOS

  12. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  13. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  14. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  15. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  16. Developments in microelectronics: Past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhijian, L.

    1985-04-01

    The evolution of microelectronics in China is reviewed. Current developments and fracture trends seen as characteristic of the technology are discussed and some suggestions are offered as to the advancement of microelectronics in China.

  17. Laser-assisted ultrathin bare die packaging: a route to a new class of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Val R.; Swenson, Orven; Atanasov, Yuriy; Schneck, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Ultrathin flip-chip semiconductor die packaging on paper substrates is an enabling technology for a variety of extremely low-cost electronic devices with huge market potential such as RFID smart forms, smart labels, smart tickets, banknotes, security documents, etc. Highly flexible and imperceptible dice are possible only at a thickness of less than 50 μm, preferably down to 10-20 μm or less. Several cents per die cost is achievable only if the die size is <= 500 μm/side. Such ultrathin, ultra-small dice provide the flexibility and low cost required, but no conventional technology today can package such die onto a flexible substrate at low cost and high rate. The laser-enabled advanced packaging (LEAP) technology has been developed at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota, to accomplish this objective. Presented are results using LEAP to assemble dice with various thicknesses, including 350 μm/side dice as thin as 20 μm and less. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a laser to package conventional silicon dice with such small size and thickness. LEAP-packaged RFID-enabled paper for financial and security applications is also demonstrated. The cost of packaging using LEAP is lower compared to the conventional pick-and-place methods while the rate of packaging is much higher and independent of the die size.

  18. Space Radiation Environment Prediction for VLSI microelectronics devices onboard a LEO Satellite using OMERE-Trad Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.

  19. Scanning Auger microscopy study of electromigration induced failure in submicrometric microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santucci, S.; Lozzi, L.; Pacifico, D.; Alfonsetti, R.; Moccia, G.

    1999-04-01

    Scanning Auger microscopy is a powerful tool to investigate elemental and chemical composition of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Thanks to its high lateral resolution (better than 10 nm at 20 keV using the last generation of Schottky field emission tip) and to the surface sensitivity of the Auger electrons (between 5 and 30 Å, depending on the investigated element), it is very useful in microelectronics laboratories, where the size of the components is often less than 200 nm. In this work we shall present the analysis performed by means of a scanning Auger microscope on the elemental and chemical distribution on a defective submicrometric via contact (about 200×500 nm) connecting two metal lines of a 64 Mb DRAM chip before and after an extreme electric test, in order to study the effect of a huge current passing through the contact. The analysis has been performed with very high spatial resolution (better than 20 nm) onto samples that showed different electrical behaviour after the test. Our measurements have allowed us to describe the bad behaviour of the circuit due to a migration of some metal atoms induced by electron flow.

  20. Advanced Modeling of Micromirror Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalicek, M. Adrian; Sene, Darren E.; Bright, Victor M.

    1995-01-01

    The flexure-beam micromirror device (FBMD) is a phase only piston style spatial light modulator demonstrating properties which can be used for phase adaptive corrective optics. This paper presents a complete study of a square FBMD, from advanced model development through final device testing and model verification. The model relates the electrical and mechanical properties of the device by equating the electrostatic force of a parallel-plate capacitor with the counter-acting spring force of the device's support flexures. The capacitor solution is derived via the Schwartz-Christoffel transformation such that the final solution accounts for non-ideal electric fields. The complete model describes the behavior of any piston-style device, given its design geometry and material properties. It includes operational parameters such as drive frequency and temperature, as well as fringing effects, mirror surface deformations, and cross-talk from neighboring devices. The steps taken to develop this model can be applied to other micromirrors, such as the cantilever and torsion-beam designs, to produce an advanced model for any given device. The micromirror devices studied in this paper were commercially fabricated in a surface micromachining process. A microscope-based laser interferometer is used to test the device in which a beam reflected from the device modulates a fixed reference beam. The mirror displacement is determined from the relative phase which generates a continuous set of data for each selected position on the mirror surface. Plots of this data describe the localized deflection as a function of drive voltage.

  1. Modeling Single Event Transients in Advanced Devices and ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artola, L.; Gaillardin, M.; Hubert, G.; Raine, M.; Paillet, P.

    2015-08-01

    The ability for Single Event Transients (SETs) to induce soft errors in Integrated Circuits (ICs) was predicted for the first time by Wallmark and Marcus in the early 60's and was confirmed to be a serious issue thirty years later. In the 90's microelectronic technologies reached the “deep submicron” era, allowing high density ICs working at frequencies faster than hundreds of MHz. This new paradigm changed the status of SETs to become a major source of reliability losses. Huge efforts have thus been made to characterize SETs in microelectronics, either using experiments or by simulation, in order to reveal key factors leading to SET occurrence, propagation and capture in modern ICs. In this context, modeling and simulation are of primary importance to get accurate SET predictions. This paper focuses on modeling SETs in innovative electronic devices which involves modeling steps at different scales, from ionizing particle to circuit response. After a brief review of the state-of-the art of modeling at each scale, this paper will discuss current capabilities and intrinsic limitations of SET modeling, the incoming challenges in advanced devices and ICs, and finally the methodologies to improve SET simulation and prediction for future technologies.

  2. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At an earlier conference we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art CMOS technologies. In this presentation, we extend this discussion focusing on the following areas: (1) Device packaging, (2) Evolving physical single even upset mechanisms, (3) Device complexity, and (4) the goal of understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  3. A figure-of-merit for design of high performance inductive power transmission links for implantable microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer through inductive coupling is used in many applications such as high performance implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs). Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two conventional inductive link design merits that determine the energy source and driver specifications, heat dissipation, power transmission range, and risk of interference with other devices. Unfortunately designing the inductive link to achieve a high PTE will drastically reduce the PDL and vice versa. Therefore, we are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which includes both PTE and PDL with proper weights, to help designers of inductive power transfer links to strike a balance between high PTE and PDL at the same time. Three design examples based on the PTE, PDL, and the new FoM have been presented for IMDs to demonstrate the usage and efficacy of the FoM. Our measurement results show that the inductive link optimized based on the FoM can achieved 1.65 times higher PTE than the one optimized for the PDL (72.5% vs. 44%) and at the same time provide 20.8 times larger PDL compared to the one optimized for the PTE (177 mW vs. 8.5 mW for 1 V driving voltage). The inductive links optimized for the PTE and PDL provide 24% higher PTE and PDL compared to the one optimized based on the FoM, respectively.

  4. Boron atomic-scale mapping in advanced microelectronics by atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estivill, Robert; Juhel, Marc; Servanton, Germain; Gregoire, Magali; Lorut, Fréderic; Clement, Laurent; Chevalier, Pascal; Grenier, Adeline; Blavette, Didier

    2017-06-01

    Two types of industrial transistor technologies have been studied using atom probe tomography (APT). Both 14 nm node high-K metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on ultrathin body and buried oxide and 320 GHz Ft Si/SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBT) embedded in a 55-nm BiCMOS chip have been analysed and their atomic distribution has been mapped. Due to the limitations of routine characterisation techniques, boron can remain invisible in such nanometric sized structures. Also, size effects can induce differences between the actual device and larger test zones used for monitoring these technologies. This paper presents results obtained by APT from two advanced nodes, in contrast to complementary techniques. Using different methodologies, including specific APT-friendly test structures and multiple-impact data filtering, the dopant behaviour in these structures can be better understood. An unexpected boron distribution in both the MOSFET source/drain and HBT base regions has been highlighted.

  5. Radiation Testing, Characterization and Qualification Challenges for Modern Microelectronics and Photonics Devices and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    At GOMAC 2007, we discussed a selection of the challenges for radiation testing of modern semiconductor devices focusing on state-of-the-art memory technologies. This included FLASH non-volatile memories (NVMs) and synchronous dynamic random access memories (SDRAMs). In this presentation, we extend this discussion in device packaging and complexity as well as single event upset (SEU) mechanisms using several technology areas as examples including: system-on-a-chip (SOC) devices and photonic or fiber optic systems. The underlying goal is intended to provoke thought for understanding the limitations and interpretation of radiation testing results.

  6. Microelectronics in Scottish Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ian

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Scottish Microelectronics Development Programme (SMDP), which was undertaken to advance the use of microcomputers in instruction at all educational levels in Scotland. The development of the microprocessor and its effect on educational technology are briefly considered, as well as initial problems and prospects for the future of…

  7. The Influence of Temperature on Microelectronic Device Failure Mechanisms. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-04

    201 5.9 Derating for Failure Mechanisms in First-level Interconnects 207 5.10 Derating for Failure Mechanisms in the Package Case 222 5.11 Derating for...semiconductor device; first- level interconnects that may be wirebonds, flip-chip, or tape automated bonds; die attach; substrate; substrate attach; case ; lid...1990] 5.5. Due to the non-linear dependence of life under TDDB on temperature, worst case manufacturing defect magnitude, or electric field, derating

  8. Overview of micro- and nano-technology tools for stem cell applications: micropatterned and microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Cagnin, Stefano; Cimetta, Elisa; Guiducci, Carlotta; Martini, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2012-11-19

    In the past few decades the scientific community has been recognizing the paramount role of the cell microenvironment in determining cell behavior. In parallel, the study of human stem cells for their potential therapeutic applications has been progressing constantly. The use of advanced technologies, enabling one to mimic the in vivo stem cell microenviroment and to study stem cell physiology and physio-pathology, in settings that better predict human cell biology, is becoming the object of much research effort. In this review we will detail the most relevant and recent advances in the field of biosensors and micro- and nano-technologies in general, highlighting advantages and disadvantages. Particular attention will be devoted to those applications employing stem cells as a sensing element.

  9. Overview of Micro- and Nano-Technology Tools for Stem Cell Applications: Micropatterned and Microelectronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Cagnin, Stefano; Cimetta, Elisa; Guiducci, Carlotta; Martini, Paolo; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades the scientific community has been recognizing the paramount role of the cell microenvironment in determining cell behavior. In parallel, the study of human stem cells for their potential therapeutic applications has been progressing constantly. The use of advanced technologies, enabling one to mimic the in vivo stem cell microenviroment and to study stem cell physiology and physio-pathology, in settings that better predict human cell biology, is becoming the object of much research effort. In this review we will detail the most relevant and recent advances in the field of biosensors and micro- and nano-technologies in general, highlighting advantages and disadvantages. Particular attention will be devoted to those applications employing stem cells as a sensing element. PMID:23202240

  10. Superconducting Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  11. Superconducting Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses superconducting microelectronics based on the Josephson effect and its advantages over conventional integrated circuits in speed and sensitivity. Considers present uses in standards laboratories (voltage) and in measuring weak magnetic fields. Also considers future applications in superfast computer circuitry using Superconducting…

  12. New Materials, Methods, and Molecules for Microelectronic and Molecular Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael Stephen

    This dissertation reports a variety of new methods and materials for the fabrication of electronic devices. Particular emphasis is placed on low-cost, solution based methods for flexible electronic device fabrication, and new substrates and molecules for molecular electronic tunnel junctions. Chapter 2 reports a low-cost, solution based method for depositing patterned metal circuitry onto a variety of flexible polymer substrates. Microcontact printing an aluminum (III) porphyrin complex activates selected areas of an oxidized polymer substrate to electroless copper metallization. Chapter 3 reports a new transparent conductive electrode for use in optoelectronic devices. A highly conductive, transparent silver nanowire network is embedded at the surface of an optical adhesive, which can be applied to a variety of rigid and flexible polymer substrates. Chapter 4 describes a new approach to the self-assembly of mesoscale components into two-dimensional arrays. Unlike most previously reported self-assembly motifs, this method is completely dry; eliminating solvent makes this method compatible with the assembly of electronic components. Chapter 5 describes a new class of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold formed from dihexadecyldithiophosphinic acid ((C16) 2DTPA) adsorbate molecules. The binding and structure (C16) 2DTPA SAMs is dependent upon the roughness and morphology of the underlying gold substrate. Chapter 6 investigates the influence of chain length on the binding and structure of dialkyl-DTPA SAMs on smooth, template-stripped (TS) gold. Binding of the DTPA head group is independent of the length of the alkyl chain, while the structure of the organic layer has a counter-intuitive dependence: As the length of the alkyl chain increases, these SAMs become more disordered and liquid-like. Chapter 7 describes the fabrication of ultra smooth gold substrates using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). These substrates are smooth, uniform, and prove to be ideal

  13. Development of a chipscale integrated microelectrode/microelectronic device for brain implantable neuroengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoon-Kyu; Patterson, William R; Bull, Christopher W; Beals, Joseph; Hwang, Naejye; Deangelis, Andrew P; Lay, Christopher; McKay, J Lucas; Nurmikko, Arto V; Fellows, Matthew R; Simeral, John D; Donoghue, John P; Connors, Barry W

    2005-06-01

    An ultralow power analog CMOS chip and a silicon based microelectrode array have been fully integrated to a microminiaturized "neuroport" for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. The CMOS integrated circuit (IC) includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, and a hybrid flip-chip bonding technique was developed to fabricate a functional, encapsulated microminiaturized neuroprobe device. Our neuroport has been evaluated using various methods, including pseudospike detection and local excitation measurement, and showed suitable characteristics for recording neural activities. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we have measured local field potentials from thalamocortical brain slices of rats, suggesting that the new neuroport can form a prime platform for the development of a microminiaturized neural interface to the brain in a single implantable unit. An alternative power delivery scheme using photovoltaic power converter, and an encapsulation strategy for chronic implantation are also discussed.

  14. A microelectrode/microelectronic hybrid device for brain implantable neuroprosthesis applications.

    PubMed

    Patterson, William R; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W; Ozden, Ilker; Deangellis, Andrew P; Lay, Christopher; McKay, J Lucas; Nurmikko, Arto V; Donoghue, John D; Connors, Barry W

    2004-10-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a microminiaturized "neuroport" for brain implantable neuroprosthesis applications, using an analog CMOS integrated circuit and a silicon based microelectrode array. An ultra-low power, low-noise CMOS preamplifier array with integral multiplexing was designed to accommodate stringent thermal and electrophysiological requirements for implantation in the brain, and a hybrid integration approach was developed to fabricate a functional microminiaturized neuroprobe device. Measurements showed that our fully scalable 16-channel CMOS amplifier chip had an average gain of 44 dB, bandwidth from 10 Hz to 7.3 kHz, and an equivalent input noise of approximately 9 microVrms with an average power consumption per preamplifier of 52 microW, which is consistent with simulation results. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we have measured local field potentials from thalamocortical brain slices of rats, showing oscillatory behavior with an amplitude about 0.5 mV and a period ranging 80-120 ms. The results suggest that the hybrid integrated neuroport can form a prime platform for the development of a next level microminiaturized neural interface to the brain in a single implantable unit.

  15. A Methodology to Teach Advanced A/D Converters, Combining Digital Signal Processing and Microelectronics Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintans, C.; Colmenar, A.; Castro, M.; Moure, M. J.; Mandado, E.

    2010-01-01

    ADCs (analog-to-digital converters), especially Pipeline and Sigma-Delta converters, are designed using complex architectures in order to increase their sampling rate and/or resolution. Consequently, the learning of ADC devices also encompasses complex concepts such as multistage synchronization, latency, oversampling, modulation, noise shaping,…

  16. A Methodology to Teach Advanced A/D Converters, Combining Digital Signal Processing and Microelectronics Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintans, C.; Colmenar, A.; Castro, M.; Moure, M. J.; Mandado, E.

    2010-01-01

    ADCs (analog-to-digital converters), especially Pipeline and Sigma-Delta converters, are designed using complex architectures in order to increase their sampling rate and/or resolution. Consequently, the learning of ADC devices also encompasses complex concepts such as multistage synchronization, latency, oversampling, modulation, noise shaping,…

  17. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-12-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  18. Ceramic materials of low-temperature synthesis for dielectric coating applied by 3D aerosol printing used in nano- and microelectronics, lighting engineering, and spacecraft control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Tuev, V. I.; Nisan, A. V.; Potapov, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    A synthesis technique of low-temperature ceramic material based on aluminosilicates of dendrimer morphology capable to contain up to 80 wt % of nitrides and oxides of high-melting compounds as filler has been developed. The synthesis is based on a sol-gel method followed by mechanochemical treatment and ultrasonic dispersing. Dielectric ceramic layers with the layer thickness in the nanometer range and high thermal conductivity have been obtained for the first time by 3D aerosol printing of the synthesized material. The study of the obtained ceramic coating on the metal surface (Al) has proved its use prospects in microelectronics, light engineering, and devices for special purposes.

  19. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-06

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  20. A Review of Failure Analysis Methods for Advanced 3D Microelectronic Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Srinath, Purushotham Kaushik Muthur; Goyal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Advanced three dimensional (3D) packaging is a key enabler in driving form factor reduction, performance benefits, and package cost reduction, especially in the fast paced mobility and ultraportable consumer electronics segments. The high level of functional integration and the complex package architecture pose a significant challenge for conventional fault isolation (FI) and failure analysis (FA) methods. Innovative FI/FA tools and techniques are required to tackle the technical and throughput challenges. In this paper, the applications of FI and FA techniques such as Electro Optic Terahertz Pulse Reflectometry, 3D x-ray computed tomography, lock-in thermography, and novel physical sample preparation methods to 3D packages with package on package and stacked die with through silicon via configurations are reviewed, along with the key FI and FA challenges.

  1. Ultra sensitive magnetic sensors integrating the giant magnetoelectric effect with advanced microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhao

    This dissertation investigates approaches to enhance the performance, especially the sensitivity and signal to noise ratio of magnetoelectric sensors, which exploits the magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composites. A magnetic sensor is a system or device that can measure the magnitude of a magnetic field or each of its vector components. Usually the techniques encompass many aspects of physics and electronics. The common technologies used for magnetic field sensing include induction coil sensors, fluxgate, SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), Hall effect, giant magnetoresistance, magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites, and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems)-based magnetic sensors. Magnetic sensors have found a broad range of applications for many decades. For example, ultra sensitive magnetic sensors are able to detect tiny magnetic fields produced outside the brain by the neuronal currents which can be used for diagnostic application. Measuring the brain's magnetic field is extremely challenging because they are so weak, have strengths of 0.1--1 pT and thus requiring magnetic sensors with sub-picotesla sensitivity. In fact, to date, these measurements can only performed with the most sensitive magnetic sensors, i.e., SQUID. However, such detectors need expensive and cumbersome cryogenics to operate. Additionally, the thermal insulation of the sensors prevents them from being placed very closed to the tissues under study, thereby preventing high-resolution measurement capability. All of these severely limit their broad usage and proliferation for biomedical imaging, diagnosis, and research. A novel ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor capable of operating at room temperature is investigated in this thesis. Magnetoelectric effect is a material phenomenon featuring the interchange between the magnetic and electric energies or signals. The large ME effect observed in ME composites, especially the ME laminates

  2. Microelectronics plastic molded packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Peterson, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics for nuclear weapon applications will soon be reality rather than hearsay. The use of COTS for new technologies for uniquely military applications is being driven by the so-called Perry Initiative that requires the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to accept and utilize commercial standards for procurement of military systems. Based on this philosophy, coupled with several practical considerations, new weapons systems as well as future upgrades will contain plastic encapsulated microelectronics. However, a conservative Department of Energy (DOE) approach requires lifetime predictive models. Thus, the focus of the current project is on accelerated testing to advance current aging models as well as on the development of the methodology to be used during WR qualification of plastic encapsulated microelectronics. An additional focal point involves achieving awareness of commercial capabilities, materials, and processes. One of the major outcomes of the project has been the definition of proper techniques for handling and evaluation of modern surface mount parts which might be used in future systems. This program is also raising the familiarity level of plastic within the weapons complex, allowing subsystem design rules accommodating COTS to evolve. A two year program plan is presented along with test results and commercial interactions during this first year.

  3. Biomimetic Microelectronics for Regenerative Neuronal Cuff Implants.

    PubMed

    Karnaushenko, Daniil; Münzenrieder, Niko; Karnaushenko, Dmitriy D; Koch, Britta; Meyer, Anne K; Baunack, Stefan; Petti, Luisa; Tröster, Gerhard; Makarov, Denys; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2015-11-18

    Smart biomimetics, a unique class of devices combining the mechanical adaptivity of soft actuators with the imperceptibility of microelectronics, is introduced. Due to their inherent ability to self-assemble, biomimetic microelectronics can firmly yet gently attach to an inorganic or biological tissue enabling enclosure of, for example, nervous fibers, or guide the growth of neuronal cells during regeneration.

  4. Quantum functional devices for advanced electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, N.; Muto, S.; Imamura, K.; Takatsu, M.; Mori, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sakuma, Y.; Nakao, H.; Adachihara, T.

    Recent research in semiconductor device technology seems to be focused on reducing the cost and power dissipation of traditional Si CMOS integrated circuits, rather than developing new and advanced semiconductor devices. We believe however, that devices enter the nanometer-scale regime in the next century, where quantum mechanical effects play an important role in the device's function; therefore, it is important to continue basic research into the physics and technology of nanometer scale structures and device applications in order to cultivate "nanoelectronics". This paper reviews our research activities on quantum functional devices and discusses our future research direction.

  5. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  6. Microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, A. J., Jr.

    1983-07-01

    Microelectronic packaging design problems for high-speed digital computers are discussed. The dense packing requirements of the task necessitate account be taken of proper cooling for the chips, minimization of distortion of signals, and efficient placement of the chips and terminals. The increase in the numbers of circuits in a chip has permitted manufacturing of multichip boards and elimination of some previously needed cards in the mainframe hierarchy. Electrical signals travel at about 15 cm/nsec through conductors on a board, a speed affected by the inductance and capacitance of the line, as well as its geometry. Signals in one line need to be prevented from jumping into another line passing close by. Any discontinuities can cause signal reflection, i.e., noise. Array formatting reduces the space necessary for chip connections and mounting. Interconnections between vertically stacked boards, vias, can be made into the grids. Air and water cooling systems are used for cooling the boards to temperatures which allow continued high-speed operation.

  7. Center for advanced microstructures and devices (CAMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, B. C.; Feldman, M.; Morikawa, E.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Saile, V.; Scott, J. D.; Stockbauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The new synchrotron-radiation facility, Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, at Louisiana State University is described with regard to the status of installation of the storage ring, implementation of the various programs, and construction of the first beamlines.

  8. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

  9. NDE applications in microelectronic industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyendorf, N.; Oppermann, M.; Krueger, P.; Roellig, M.; Wolter, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    New concepts in assembly technology boost our daily life in an unknown way. High end semiconductor industry today deals with functional structures down to a few nanometers. ITRS roadmap predicts an ongoing decrease of the "DRAM half pitch" over the next decade. Packaging of course is not intended to realize pitches at the nanometer scale, but has to face the challenges of integrating such semiconductor devices with smallest pitch and high pin counts into systems. Advanced techniques of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with resolutions in volume better than 1 micrometer vixen size are urgently needed for the safety and reliability of electronic systems, especially those that are used in long living applications. The development speed of integrated circuits is still very high and is not expected to decrease in the next future. The integration density of microelectronic devices is increasing, the dimensions become smaller and the number of I/O's is getting higher. The development of new types of packages must be done with respect to reliability issues. Potential damage sources must be identified and finally avoided in the new packages. In power electronics production the condition monitoring receives a lot of interest to avoid electrical shortcuts, dead solder joints and interface cracking. It is also desired to detect and characterize very small defects like transportation phenomenon or Kirkendall voids. For this purpose, imaging technologies with resolutions in the sub-micron range are required.

  10. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  11. Nanocharacterization Challenges in a Changing Microelectronics Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilloüt, Michel

    2011-11-01

    As the microelectronics industry enters the "nano"-era new challenges emerge. Traditional scaling of the MOS transistor faces major obstacles in fulfilling "Moore's law". New features like strain and new materials (e.g. high k—metal gate stack) are introduced in order to sustain performance increases. For a better electrostatic control, devices will use the third dimension, e.g., in gate-all-around nanowire structures. Due to the escalating cost and complexity of sub-28 nm technologies fewer industrial players can afford the development and production of advanced CMOS processes and many companies acknowledge the fact that the value in products can also be obtained in using more diversified non-digital technologies (the so-called "More-than-Moore" domain). This evolving landscape brings new requirements—discussed in this paper—in terms of physical characterization of technologies and devices.

  12. Microelectronics Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-17

    APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Space Vehicles Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. //SIGNED// //SIGNED// CLAY MAYBERRY DAVID CARDIMONA Program Manager Technical Advisor, Space Based Advanced...Sensing and Protection //SIGNED// JOHN BEAUCHEMIN Chief Engineer, Spacecraft Technology Division Space Vehicles Directorate This report

  13. Spine-shaped gold protrusions improve the adherence and electrical coupling of neurons with the surface of micro-electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Hai, Aviad; Dormann, Ada; Shappir, Joseph; Yitzchaik, Shlomo; Bartic, Carmen; Borghs, Gustaaf; Langedijk, J P M; Spira, Micha E

    2009-12-06

    Interfacing neurons with micro- and nano-electronic devices has been a subject of intense study over the last decade. One of the major problems in assembling efficient neuro-electronic hybrid systems is the weak electrical coupling between the components. This is mainly attributed to the fundamental property of living cells to form and maintain an extracellular cleft between the plasma membrane and any substrate to which they adhere. This cleft shunts the current generated by propagating action potentials and thus reduces the signal-to-noise ratio. Reducing the cleft thickness, and thereby increasing the seal resistance formed between the neurons and the sensing surface, is thus a challenge and could improve the electrical coupling coefficient. Using electron microscopic analysis and field potential recordings, we examined here the use of gold micro-structures that mimic dendritic spines in their shape and dimensions to improve the adhesion and electrical coupling between neurons and micro-electronic devices. We found that neurons cultured on a gold-spine matrix, functionalized by a cysteine-terminated peptide with a number of RGD repeats, readily engulf the spines, forming tight apposition. The recorded field potentials of cultured Aplysia neurons are significantly larger using gold-spine electrodes in comparison with flat electrodes.

  14. [Advances in controllable artificial anus device].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Cui, Long

    2014-12-01

    Artificial anus is the important surgical treatment for low colorectal cancer. However, fecal incontinence caused by artificial anus has significant influence on quality of life of patients. A series of novel therapy devices have been invented to solve the problem. According to the different applying methods, these devices can be divided into artificial sphincter and occluder. Artificial sphincter is implanted surgically and more automatic but its complicated design increased risk of complications such as infection and gastrointestinal symptoms. By comparison, occluder is less automatic and needs daily cleaning or replacement, but more comfortable, concealed and safer. For most of occluder are disposable or replaced frequently, advanced devices will greatly increase the economic burden on patients. With the progress of science and technology, artificial anal devices will become more intelligent, automatic and miniaturization.

  15. Microelectronics, radiation, and superconductivity.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1990-01-01

    Among the costs of technology are health hazards that face employees and consumers. New advances in the highly competitive field of microelectronics involve exposure to a variety of hazards such as gallium arsenide. Small high-technology industries appear unprepared to invest in health and safety. Although stray electromagnetic fields are not a new development, researchers are beginning to assemble data indicating that such fields pose a significant cancer risk under certain circumstances. Data have been obtained on fields associated with power lines on the one hand and consumer products on the other. Although not conclusive, the data are sufficient to warrant carefully designed research into the risks posed by electromagnetic fields. Because the scientific issues require research, there is a need to make basic social value decisions that will determine which technologies will be developed and which ones may be set aside because of their danger at the present time. PMID:2401267

  16. Microelectronics, radiation, and superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M

    1990-06-01

    Among the costs of technology are health hazards that face employees and consumers. New advances in the highly competitive field of microelectronics involve exposure to a variety of hazards such as gallium arsenide. Small high-technology industries appear unprepared to invest in health and safety. Although stray electromagnetic fields are not a new development, researchers are beginning to assemble data indicating that such fields pose a significant cancer risk under certain circumstances. Data have been obtained on fields associated with power lines on the one hand and consumer products on the other. Although not conclusive, the data are sufficient to warrant carefully designed research into the risks posed by electromagnetic fields. Because the scientific issues require research, there is a need to make basic social value decisions that will determine which technologies will be developed and which ones may be set aside because of their danger at the present time.

  17. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World-Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices: Experimental systems are described for electrical recording in the brain using multiple microelectrodes and short range implantable or wearable broadcasting units.

    PubMed

    Nurmikko, Arto V; Donoghue, John P; Hochberg, Leigh R; Patterson, William R; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W; Borton, David A; Laiwalla, Farah; Park, Sunmee; Ming, Yin; Aceros, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring neural signals at high spatial and temporal resolution directly from brain microcircuits and decoding their activity to interpret commands and/or prior planning activity, such as motion of an arm or a leg, is a prime goal of modern neurotechnology. Its practical aims include assistive devices for subjects whose normal neural information pathways are not functioning due to physical damage or disease. On the fundamental side, researchers are striving to decipher the code of multiple neural microcircuits which collectively make up nature's amazing computing machine, the brain. By implanting biocompatible neural sensor probes directly into the brain, in the form of microelectrode arrays, it is now possible to extract information from interacting populations of neural cells with spatial and temporal resolution at the single cell level. With parallel advances in application of statistical and mathematical techniques tools for deciphering the neural code, extracted populations or correlated neurons, significant understanding has been achieved of those brain commands that control, e.g., the motion of an arm in a primate (monkey or a human subject). These developments are accelerating the work on neural prosthetics where brain derived signals may be employed to bypass, e.g., an injured spinal cord. One key element in achieving the goals for practical and versatile neural prostheses is the development of fully implantable wireless microelectronic "brain-interfaces" within the body, a point of special emphasis of this paper.

  18. CRRES Microelectronics Test Package (MEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. G.; Ray, K. P.

    1993-04-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package.

  19. CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package.

  20. Health issues in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J

    1986-01-01

    Since 1948, when microelectronics entered the American industrial scene, the rapid growth and advancing technology of the industry has caused production facilities to be spread throughout most industrialized areas in the United States. It is now speculated that microelectronics production will be the fourth largest industry in the United States by the end of the century. This article addresses the questions raised about the safety of this industry both for its workers and for the communities in which production facilities are located.

  1. Advanced Electro-Optic Surety Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Watterson, C.E.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Electro-Optic Surety Devices project was initiated in march 1991 to support design laboratory guidance on electro-optic device packaging and evaluation. Sandia National Laboratory requested AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), to prepare for future packaging efforts in electro-optic integrated circuits. Los Alamos National Laboratory requested the evaluation of electro-optic waveguide devices for nuclear surety applications. New packaging techniques involving multiple fiber optic alignment and attachment, binary lens array development, silicon V-groove etching, and flip chip bonding were requested. Hermetic sealing of the electro-optic hybrid and submicron alignment of optical components present new challenges to be resolved. A 10-channel electro-optic modulator and laser amplifier were evaluated for potential surety applications.

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  3. Microelectronics in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Richard J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The history and meaning of the term "microelectronics" is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the key inventions of the Intel microprocessor in 1971 and the Texas Instruments electronic pocket calculator in 1975. The six characteristic features of microelectronic components are then defined. The UK prime minister Jim Callaghan's…

  4. Microelectronics in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Richard J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The history and meaning of the term "microelectronics" is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the key inventions of the Intel microprocessor in 1971 and the Texas Instruments electronic pocket calculator in 1975. The six characteristic features of microelectronic components are then defined. The UK prime minister Jim Callaghan's…

  5. Microelectronics bioinstrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Microelectronic bioinstrumentation systems to be employed in the Cardiovascular Deconditioning Program were developed. Implantable telemetry systems for long-term monitoring of animals on earth were designed to collect physiological data necessary for the understanding of the mechanisms of cardiovascular deconditioning. In-flight instrumentation systems, microelectronic instruments, and RF powering techniques for other life science experiments in the NASA program were studied.

  6. Microelectronics and Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    1979-01-01

    This look at the impact of microelectronics on computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in music notes trends toward new applications and lower costs. Included are: a rationale for CAI in music, a list of sample programs, comparison of five microelectronic music systems, PLATO cost projections, and sources of further information. (SJL)

  7. From Microelectronics to Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    We highlight key events in over 100 years of electronic amplifiers and their incorporation in computers and communication in order to appreciate the electron as man's most powerful token of information. We recognize that it has taken about 25 years or almost a generation for inventions to make it into new products, and that, within these periods, it still took major campaigns, like the Sputnik effect or what we shall call 10× programs, to achieve major technology steps. From Lilienfeld's invention 1926 of the solid-state field-effect triode to its realization 1959 in Kahng's MOS field-effect transistor, it took 33 years, and this pivotal year also saw the first planar integrated silicon circuit as patented by Noyce. This birth of the integrated microchip launched the unparalleled exponential growth of microelectronics with many great milestones. Among these, we point out the 3D integration of CMOS transistors by Gibbons in 1979 and the related Japanese program on Future Electron Devices (FED). The 3D domain has finally arrived as a broad development since 2005. Consecutively, we mark the neural networks on-chip of 1989 by Mead and others, now, 20 years later, a major project by DARPA. We highlight cooperatives like SRC and SEMATECH, their impact on progress and more recent nanoelectronic milestones until 2010.

  8. Surface analysis in microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Pignataro, S

    1995-10-01

    The contribution given by surface analysis to solve some problems encountered in the production of electronic power devices have been discussed. Mainly two types of problems have been faced. One of these deal with interfacial chemistry. Three examples have been investigated. The first applies to the improvement of the quality and the reliability of plastic packages through the optimization of the resin/metal and resin/die adhesion. The second relies to the adhesion between polyimide and silicon nitride used in the multilevel technology. The third example refers to the so called die-attach process and related problems. Another area of interest in microelectronics is that of the erosion of various types of surfaces and the possibility of wrong etching. A few examples of the application of surface analytical techniques for these problems will be presented. XPS and SIMS working in imaging and multipoint analysis mode, scanning acoustic microscopy, contact angle measurements as well as peeling and tensile strength measurements are the main tools used to obtain useful data.

  9. Monolithic integration of microelectronics and photonics using molecularly engineered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Ronald M.

    2005-03-01

    The monolithic integration of CMOS microelectronics with photonics is inevitable and benefits both technologies. Photonic integration to microelectronics provides such solutions as overcoming microprocessor communication roadblocks through the use of optical interconnection. Microelectronic integration can provide benefits to photonic structures by optimizing electronic signals generated by photonic biosensors for example. Photonic integration must complement, build on, and enhance the existing state of CMOS microelectronic technology. Photonic approaches that ignore the realities of CMOS architectures (such as power and thermal limitations), provide little benefit to the CMOS device performance, are incompatible with CMOS silicon manufacturing processes, or are incapable of achieving levels of long term reliability already well demonstrated by microelectronic devices, give little reason for photonic/microelectronic integration. Practical implementation of photonics on chip, monolithically with CMOS type microelectronic devices, remains in the laboratory. This work presents architectures to integrate photonics and microelectronics that address CMOS fabrication realities, increase performance of both the electronic and optical functions, and retain current levels of reliability. Fabricating these structures with the limited CMOS material set and/or typical photonic materials requires materials to be molecularly engineered to provide required properties. Materials have been investigated that enable economic fabrication of photonic structures for monolithic integration. Low loss self assembled silicon nanocomposite VIPIR waveguide structures are combined with long term stable non-linear poled polymers for fabrication of electro-optic active devices. Materials are fabricated using low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).

  10. Plasma etching for advanced polymer optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitting, Donald S.

    Plasma etching is a common microfabrication technique which can be applied to polymers as well as glasses, metals, and semiconductors. The fabrication of low loss and reliable polymer optical devices commonly makes use of advanced microfabrication processing techniques similar in nature to those utilized in standard semiconductor fabrication technology. Among these techniques, plasma/reactive ion etching is commonly used in the formation of waveguiding core structures. Plasma etching is a powerful processing technique with many potential applications in the emerging field of polymer optical device fabrication. One such promising application explored in this study is in the area of thin film-substrate adhesion enhancement. Two approaches involving plasma processing were evaluated to improve substrate-thin film adhesion in the production of polymer waveguide optical devices. Plasma treatment of polymer substrates such as polycarbonate has been studied to promote the adhesion of fluoropolymer thin film coatings for waveguide device fabrication. The effects of blanket oxygen plasma etchback on substrate, microstructural substrate feature formation, and the long term performance and reliability of these methods were investigated. Use of a blanket oxygen plasma to alter the polycarbonate surface prior to fluoropolymer casting was found to have positive but limited capability to improve the adhesive strength between these polymers. Experiments show a strong correlation between surface roughness and adhesion strength. The formation of small scale surface features using microlithography and plasma etching on the polycarbonate surface proved to provide outstanding adhesion strength when compared to any other known treatment methods. Long term environmental performance testing of these surface treatment methods provided validating data. Test results showed these process approaches to be effective solutions to the problem of adhesion between hydrocarbon based polymer

  11. Fluoropolymer metallization for microelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacher, E.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most important requirements for the fastest microelectronic devices in present use, and for the even faster devices for future use, is the reduction of the signal interconnection delay time to a small fraction of all the switching delay times. The interconnection delay time is the product of the resistance of the metal interconnection and the capacitance of the associated dielectric. One method of lowering this delay time is the use of multilayer devices incorporating low resistivity metals (e.g., Cu) and low capacitance dielectrics (e.g. fluoropolymers). Among the many problems faced in the construction of multilayer devices from these materials is the lack of metal adhesion to flouropolymers. This article attempts to put into perspective the problem of metal adhesion to fluoropolymers by addressing the reason for its necessity. Reviewing the critical properties and techniques and discussing the presently available results.

  12. Microelectronics in the Curriculum--The Science Teacher's Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    Rapid advances in microelectronics over the past few years have generally been beneficial, but they have also created some problems, and questions must be asked about the philosophy for including aspects of the new technology in the school curriculum. This statement, prepared by the Microelectronics and Science Education Subcommittee of the…

  13. Analogy among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Shian; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-10-07

    We wish to illuminate the analogous link between microfluidic-based devices, and the already established pairing of micromechanics and microelectronics to create a triangular/three-way scientific relationship as a means of interlinking familial disciplines and accomplishing two primary goals: (1) to facilitate the modeling of multidisciplinary domains; and, (2) to enable us to co-simulate the entire system within a compact circuit simulator (e.g., Cadence or SPICE). A microfluidic channel-like structure embedded in a micro-electro-mechanical resonator via our proposed CMOS-MEMS technology is used to illustrate the connections among microfluidics, micromechanics, and microelectronics.

  14. The Unilab Blue Chip Range for Introducing Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses various topics in microelectronics to aid those teaching modern electronics for the first time, including, among others, the slang name "micro," attitudes of examining boards, rapid obsolescence of electronic devices, costs, analog systems, and digital systems. (SK)

  15. The Unilab Blue Chip Range for Introducing Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses various topics in microelectronics to aid those teaching modern electronics for the first time, including, among others, the slang name "micro," attitudes of examining boards, rapid obsolescence of electronic devices, costs, analog systems, and digital systems. (SK)

  16. Microelectronics and computers in medicine.

    PubMed

    Meindl, J D

    1982-02-12

    Microelectronics and computers are in use in virtually every aspect of modern medicine. Computers are used widely in medical research, where an important need is for better microelectronic sensors for data acquisition. In medical practice, data collection from patients as well as subsequent storage, retrieval, and manipulation of data are enhanced by the computer. In medical decision-making computers improve accuracy, increase cost-efficiency, and advance understanding of the structure of medical knowledge and of the decision-making process itself. Powerful new noninvasive diagnostic instruments including x-ray tomographic scanners and ultrasonic imaging systems are based on computers. The efficiency and scope of clinical laboratory procedures and advanced analytical instruments are greatly increased by computerization, and careful application of computers has improved the interpretation of diagnostic tests, such as the electrocardiogram, and monitoring of critically ill patients. The powerful sensory, computational, memory, and display capabilities of microcomputer systems and their compact size offer new opportunities to relieve functional deficiencies associated with loss of limbs, paralysis, speech impediments, deafness, and blindness.

  17. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-11-01

    An overview of the surface micromachining program at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of surface micromachined sensors and actuators for both defense and commercial applications. A technology that embeds micromechanical devices below the surface of the wafer prior to microelectronics fabrication has been developed for integrating microelectronics with surface-micromachined micromechanical devices. The application of chemical-mechanical polishing to increase the manufacturability of micromechanical devices is also presented.

  18. Sandia microelectronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.T.

    1997-02-01

    An overview of the operations of Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Lab (MDL) is to develop radiation hardened IC, but techniques used for IC processing have been applied to a variety of related technologies such as micromechanics, smart sensors, and packaging.

  19. Carbon nanotubes for microelectronics?

    PubMed

    Graham, Andrew P; Duesberg, Georg S; Seidel, Robert V; Liebau, Maik; Unger, Eugen; Pamler, Werner; Kreupl, Franz; Hoenlein, Wolfgang

    2005-04-01

    Despite all prophecies of its end, silicon-based microelectronics still follows Moore's Law and continues to develop rapidly. However, the inherent physical limits will eventually be reached. Carbon nanotubes offer the potential for further miniaturization as long as it is possible to selectively deposit them with defined properties.

  20. Advanced Microelectronics and Materials Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    grain size have been fabricated using sol-gel processing. The process has also been used to produce composite fibers containing tetragonal zirconia ... tetragonal zirconia have also been produced. Microwave energy has been demonstrated as a viable method for ignition of self- propagating synthesis. A...have been produced on several Isubstrate materials. Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia with dispersed alpha-alumina has been produced in short

  1. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, Alexandra; Hinzey, Shawn Adrian; Frigo, Janette Rose; Proicou, Michael Chris; Borges, Louis

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  2. ARED (Advanced-Resistive Exercise Device) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes ARED which is a new hardware exercise device for use on the International Space Station. Astronaut physiological adaptations, muscle parameters, and cardiovascular parameters are also reviewed.

  3. Eye vision system using programmable micro-optics and micro-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Mehdi N.

    2014-02-01

    Proposed is a novel eye vision system that combines the use of advanced micro-optic and microelectronic technologies that includes programmable micro-optic devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF) and optical wireless communication and control links, energy harvesting and storage devices and remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. This portable light weight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under test, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. Described is the basic design of the proposed system and its first stage system experimental results for vision spherical lens refractive error correction.

  4. Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research.

    PubMed

    Muthaiyan Shanmugam, Muniesh; Subhra Santra, Tuhin

    2016-08-02

    The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study of different types of parasitic worms that infect other living organisms. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C. elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc. Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology.

  5. Microelectronic bioinstrumentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. H.; Yon, E. T.; Rodriguez, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The progess made from April 1973 to June 1974 on a microelectronics bioinstrumentation system is reported and includes data for the following three individual projects: (1) a radio frequency powered implant telemetry system; (2) an ingestible temperature telemeter; and (3) development of pO2 and pH sensors. Proposed activities for continuation of the research for the period September 1, 1974 to August 31, 1975 are also discussed.

  6. Microelectronic Stimulator Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-09

    number of researchers and is an active area of medical research. In a normal eye, in a basic concept 10, 20 Figures la and lb shows a ray trace of two...containing an embedded array of microwires . The glass has a curved surface that conforms to the inner radius of the retina 21. The microelectronic imaging...very small channels perpendicular to the plane of the wafer. The channels are filled with a good electrical conductor forming microwires with one

  7. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  8. Vision Based Instrumentation For Microelectronic Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Donald W.

    1990-02-01

    Proper instrumentation, documentation, and analysis are crucial to the continued advance of micro-electronic materials science. Many important phenomenon are visible. Many of those are progressive events that need observation throughout their transitory period. Microelectronics scientists and engineers have long required optical systems tools which properly handle visible phenomena. An optical based system, called a high-resolution Still/Video system, to fulfill crucial microelec-tronic needs is available. Microelectronic dimensions require the highest possible resolution to resolve the small details. The system provides 1134 by 486 pixel video frames. The transient nature of many events requires video and the associated capability of video recording. The system stores over 14,000 high-resolution video frames on a single standard commercial VHS tape. The widespread use of microscopy requires the ability to operate with a variety of optical microscopes. The system is directly compatible with most microscopes. In addition, analysis requires the ability to produce film and computer processed results of all crucial images. The system has both a companion film printer and a direct computer interface.

  9. Guidewire-Controlled Advancement of the Amplatz Thrombectomy Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Heller, Martin

    1998-01-15

    The Amplatz Thrombectomy Device (ATD) is a percutaneous rotational catheter proven to homogenize thrombus. The catheter design allows neither application over a coaxial running guidewire nor the use of the device as a monorail system. We report a technical modification that provides guided advancement of the catheter over a wire in order to prevent failure of application and to facilitate the interventional procedure.

  10. Microelectronic Array for Stimulation of Retinal Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    from diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are the leading causes of blindness in the developing world...53featured research 2005 NRL Review Microelectronic Array for Stimulation of Retinal Tissue D. Scribner,1 L. Johnson,4 P. Skeath,4 R. Klein,4...GOALS The development of a high-resolution retinal prosthesis device at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) was first discussed in the late 1990s

  11. Femtosecond Optics: Advanced Devices and Ultrafast Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-31

    periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), which already represents a significant advance . Gain is given by G=0.25(1+ exp(gl)), where for 7 t2 PPLN, g...H. Sotobayashi, J.T. Gopinath, and E.P. Ippen, ൟ cm long Bi20 3-based EDFA for picosecond pulse amplification with 80 nm gain bandwidth," IEEE...will be minimized by keeping the data in the optical domain. Such all- optical networks require advanced photonic technologies for a variety of

  12. Probing Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolutions at the Small Scales: Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction for Advanced Applications in 3D IC (Integrated Circuits) and Solar PV (Photovoltaic) Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, I.; Tippabhotla, S. K.; Tamura, N.; Budiman, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction (μ {XRD}) allows characterization of a crystalline material in small, localized volumes. Phase composition, crystal orientation and strain can all be probed in few-second time scales. Crystalline changes over a large areas can be also probed in a reasonable amount of time with submicron spatial resolution. However, despite all the listed capabilities, μ {XRD} is mostly used to study pure materials but its application in actual device characterization is rather limited. This article will explore the recent developments of the μ {XRD} technique illustrated with its advanced applications in microelectronic devices and solar photovoltaic systems. Application of μ {XRD} in microelectronics will be illustrated by studying stress and microstructure evolution in Cu TSV (through silicon via) during and after annealing. The approach allowing study of the microstructural evolution in the solder joint of crystalline Si solar cells due to thermal cycling will be also demonstrated.

  13. Probing Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolutions at the Small Scales: Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction for Advanced Applications in [Phase 3 Memory,] 3D IC (Integrated Circuits) and Solar PV (Photovoltaic) Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, I.; Tippabhotla, S. K.; Tamura, N.; Budiman, A. S.

    2016-10-21

    Synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction (μXRD) allows characterization of a crystalline material in small, localized volumes. Phase composition, crystal orientation and strain can all be probed in few-second time scales. Crystalline changes over a large areas can be also probed in a reasonable amount of time with submicron spatial resolution. However, despite all the listed capabilities, μXRD is mostly used to study pure materials but its application in actual device characterization is rather limited. This article will explore the recent developments of the μXRD technique illustrated with its advanced applications in microelectronic devices and solar photovoltaic systems. Application of μXRD in microelectronics will be illustrated by studying stress and microstructure evolution in Cu TSV (through silicon via) during and after annealing. Here, the approach allowing study of the microstructural evolution in the solder joint of crystalline Si solar cells due to thermal cycling will be also demonstrated.

  14. Microelectronics Availability for the Army’s Missiles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-15

    necoea, and identidi by block number) Microelectronics Military electronics Semiconductor technology Emergency mobilization Integrated circuit market...AUrRACr (Cm00tO s tWVr Ot N I nam" md identify by block mmbe,) Our modern Army is critically dependent on high technology and in particular...sophisticated electronics. Microcircuit technology is the "brain- trust" of our advanced weapon systems. Because of the central role that microelectronics plays

  15. A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandau, Rainer (Editor); Alkalaj, Leon

    1996-01-01

    In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

  16. A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandau, Rainer (Editor); Alkalaj, Leon

    1996-01-01

    In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

  17. Advanced silicon device technologies for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinski, Lech; Wang, Zhechao; Lou, Fei; Dai, Daoxin; Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Thylen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Silicon photonics is an emerging technology offering novel solutions in different areas requiring highly integrated communication systems for optical networking, sensing, bio-applications and computer interconnects. Silicon photonicsbased communication has many advantages over electric wires for multiprocessor and multicore macro-chip architectures including high bandwidth data transmission, high speed and low power consumption. Following the INTEL's concept to "siliconize" photonics, silicon device technologies should be able to solve the fabrication problems for six main building blocks for realization of optical interconnects: light generation, guiding of light including wavelength selectivity, light modulation for signal encoding, detection, low cost assembly including optical connecting of the devices to the real world and finally the electronic control systems.

  18. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazibegovic, Sasa; Car, Diana; Zhang, Hao; Balk, Stijn C.; Logan, John A.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Schmits, Rudi; Xu, Di; Wang, Guanzhong; Krogstrup, Peter; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; Zuo, Kun; Vos, Yoram; Shen, Jie; Bouman, Daniël; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Pennachio, Daniel; Lee, Joon Sue; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor. To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons—which are key elements of topological quantum computing—fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire ‘hashtags’ reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase-coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap (with vanishing sub-gap conductance) is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.

  19. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices.

    PubMed

    Gazibegovic, Sasa; Car, Diana; Zhang, Hao; Balk, Stijn C; Logan, John A; de Moor, Michiel W A; Cassidy, Maja C; Schmits, Rudi; Xu, Di; Wang, Guanzhong; Krogstrup, Peter; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; Zuo, Kun; Vos, Yoram; Shen, Jie; Bouman, Daniël; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Pennachio, Daniel; Lee, Joon Sue; van Veldhoven, Petrus J; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Palmstrøm, Chris J; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor. To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons-which are key elements of topological quantum computing-fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire 'hashtags' reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase-coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap (with vanishing sub-gap conductance) is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.

  20. Advanced Interconnect and Device-Field Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-15

    Essaaidi NATO Advanced Research Workshop : Bianisotropics 2002, 99th Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media 8-11May, 2002, Marrakech , Morocco...Bianisotropics 2002, 99th Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media 8-11May, 2002, Marrakech , Morocco. Study of Substrates Bi-anisotropy Effects on...Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media 8-11May, 2002, Marrakech , Morocco. Dielectric Substrates Anisotropic Effects on The Characteristics of

  1. Thin film microelectronics materials production in the vacuum of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, A.; Sterling, M.; Horton, C.; Freundlich, A.; Pei, S.; Hill, R.

    1997-01-01

    The international Space Station era will open up a new dimension in the use of one of the unique attributes of space, vacuum, for the production of advanced semiconductor materials and devices for microelectronics applications. Ultra-vacuum is required for the fabrication in thin film form of high quality semiconductors. This can be accomplished behind a free flying platform similar to the current Wake Shield Facility which is specifically designed to support in-space production. The platform will require apparatus for thin film growth, a robotics interface to allow for the change out of raw materials and the harvesting of finished product, and a servicing plant incorporating Space Station that will support long-term utilization of the platform.

  2. Self-healable electrically conducting wires for wearable microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; You, Xiao; Jiang, Yishu; Guan, Guozhen; Fang, Xin; Deng, Jue; Chen, Peining; Luo, Yongfeng; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-09-01

    Electrically conducting wires play a critical role in the advancement of modern electronics and in particular are an important key to the development of next-generation wearable microelectronics. However, the thin conducting wires can easily break during use, and the whole device fails to function as a result. Herein, a new family of high-performance conducting wires that can self-heal after breaking has been developed by wrapping sheets of aligned carbon nanotubes around polymer fibers. The aligned carbon nanotubes offer an effective strategy for the self-healing of the electric conductivity, whereas the polymer fiber recovers its mechanical strength. A self-healable wire-shaped supercapacitor fabricated from a wire electrode of this type maintained a high capacitance after breaking and self-healing.

  3. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  4. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-10-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  5. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2016-11-22

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  6. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2017-04-25

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  7. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Kunal; Burns, Laurie; El Gamal, Abbas; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Cocker, Eric; Ho, Tatt Wei

    2015-11-24

    Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0.5 mm.sup.2 and to direct epi-fluorescence emission caused by the excitation light to the array of optical sensors. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.5 .mu.m resolution for an image of the field of view.

  8. Future technologies. I - Microelectronics, micrometrology, and micromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H.

    1986-04-01

    Recent developments in microelectronics design and manufacturing are reviewed, with an emphasis on the activity of West German research institutes and industry. The history of semiconductor development since 1948 is summarized; current efforts to produce submicron VHSICs with throughput 10 to the 13th Hz/sq cm at clock frequency 50 MHz are described; and consideration is given to emitter-coupled-logic gate arrays and GaAs devices. The use of optical measurement techniques or digital analysis of SEM images in fabricating or customizing microelectronic structure is examined, and Si-based sensors for a number of micromechanical applications (pressure sensors, CCD cameras, gas chromatographs, and temperature sensors) are discussed along with the anisotropic etching processes used to fabricate them.

  9. Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano "ink" composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.

  10. Future Opportunities for Advancing Glucose Test Device Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brian R; Young, Teresa L; Joyce, Margaret K; Kennedy, Spencer I; Atashbar, Massood Z

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices, including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices, displays, and sensors, are presented. Low-cost, thin, and lightweight materials containing printed circuits with energy storage or harvest capability and reactive/display centers, made using new printing/imaging technologies, are ideal for incorporation into personal-use medical devices such as glucose test meters. Semicontinuous rotogravure printing, which utilizes flexible substrates and polymeric, metallic, and/or nano “ink” composite materials to effect rapidly produced, lower-cost printed electronics, is showing promise. Continuing research advancing substrate, “ink,” and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers. PMID:22027300

  11. Advanced devices and systems for radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.; He, Z.; Barrett, C.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-06-01

    The authors` most recent work continues their long-standing efforts to develop semiconductor detectors based on the collection of only a single type of charge carrier. Their best results are an extension of the principle of coplanar electrodes first described by Paul Luke of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 18 months ago. This technique, described in past progress reports, has the effect of deriving an output signal from detectors that depends only on the motion of carriers close to one surface. Since nearly all of these carriers are of one type (electrons) that are attracted to that electrode, the net effect is to nearly eliminate the influence of hole motion on the properties of the output signal. The result is that the much better mobility of electrons in compound semiconductors materials such as CZT can now be exploited without the concurrent penalty of poor hole collection. They have also developed new techniques in conjunction with the coplanar electrode principle that extends the technique into a new dimension. By proper processing of signals from the opposite electrode (the cathode) from the coplanar surface, they are able to derive a signal that is a good indication of the depth of interaction at which the charge carriers were initially formed. They have been the first group to demonstrate this technique, and examples of separate pulse height spectra recorded at a variety of different depths of interaction are shown in several of the figures that follow. Obtaining depth information is one step in the direction of obtaining volumetric point-of-interaction information from the detector. If one could known the coordinates of each specific interaction, then corrections could be applied to account for the inhomogeneities that currently plague many room-temperature devices.

  12. Microelectronics packaging technique: A Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Plug-in flat packs and flat conductor cable (FCC) can be used to make compact, lightweight, external monitoring system requiring minimum of hard wiring. Microelectronic monitoring panel includes replaceable integrated or hybrid circuit flat packs and FCC.

  13. Porous Dielectrics in Microelectronic Wiring Applications

    PubMed Central

    McGahay, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Porous insulators are utilized in the wiring structure of microelectronic devices as a means of reducing, through low dielectric permittivity, power consumption and signal delay in integrated circuits. They are typically based on low density modifications of amorphous SiO2 known as SiCOH or carbon-doped oxides, in which free volume is created through the removal of labile organic phases. Porous dielectrics pose a number of technological challenges related to chemical and mechanical stability, particularly in regard to semiconductor processing methods. This review discusses porous dielectric film preparation techniques, key issues encountered, and mitigation strategies.

  14. Porous low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Baklanov, Mikhail R; Maex, Karen

    2006-01-15

    Materials with a low dielectric constant are required as interlayer dielectrics for the on-chip interconnection of ultra-large-scale integration devices to provide high speed, low dynamic power dissipation and low cross-talk noise. The selection of chemical compounds with low polarizability and the introduction of porosity result in a reduced dielectric constant. Integration of such materials into microelectronic circuits, however, poses a number of challenges, as the materials must meet strict requirements in terms of properties and reliability. These issues are the subject of the present paper.

  15. Are bioresorbable polylactate devices comparable to titanium devices for stabilizing Le Fort I advancement?

    PubMed

    Blakey, G H; Rossouw, E; Turvey, T A; Phillips, C; Proffit, W R; White, R P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether skeletal and dental outcomes following Le Fort I surgery differed when stabilization was performed with polylactate bioresorbable devices or titanium devices. Fifty-seven patients with preoperative records and at least 1 year postoperative records were identified and grouped according to the stabilization method. All cephalometric X-rays were traced and digitized by a single operator. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the postsurgical change between the two stabilization methods. Twenty-seven patients received bioresorbable devices (group R), while 30 received titanium devices (group M). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to gender, race/ethnicity, age, or dental and skeletal movements during surgery. Subtle postsurgical differences were noted, but were not statistically significant. Stabilization of Le Fort I advancement with polylactate bioresorbable and titanium devices produced similar clinical outcomes at 1 year following surgery.

  16. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  17. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, P.D.; Grimmer, J.; Xu, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Wiemerslage, G.

    1997-08-01

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured.

  18. Advances in closed-loop deep brain stimulation devices.

    PubMed

    Parastarfeizabadi, Mahboubeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z

    2017-08-11

    Millions of patients around the world are affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a device-based therapy that could have fewer side-effects and higher efficiencies in drug-resistant patients compared to other therapeutic options such as pharmacological approaches. Thus far, several efforts have been made to incorporate a feedback loop into DBS devices to make them operate in a closed-loop manner. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the existing research-based and commercial closed-loop DBS devices. It describes a brief history of closed-loop DBS techniques, biomarkers and algorithms used for closing the feedback loop, components of the current research-based and commercial closed-loop DBS devices, and advancements and challenges in this field of research. This review also includes a comparison of the closed-loop DBS devices and provides the future directions of this area of research. Although we are in the early stages of the closed-loop DBS approach, there have been fruitful efforts in design and development of closed-loop DBS devices. To date, only one commercial closed-loop DBS device has been manufactured. However, this system does not have an intelligent and patient dependent control algorithm. A closed-loop DBS device requires a control algorithm to learn and optimize the stimulation parameters according to the brain clinical state. The promising clinical effects of open-loop DBS have been demonstrated, indicating DBS as a pioneer technology and treatment option to serve neurological patients. However, like other commercial devices, DBS needs to be automated and modernized.

  19. Dopant materials used in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D R

    1986-01-01

    Advances in microelectronics have transformed the occupational environment of the electronics industry. Large quantities of potentially hazardous materials are now in routine use as integrated circuit manufacturing becomes more complex and specialized. While the acute hazards associated with these dopant materials are clear, the subacute and chronic effects are less evident. Many of these elements are trace elements in humans and may play roles in health and disease in minute concentrations. Early detection and prevention of adverse health effects requires both astute medical surveillance, industrial hygiene, and safety engineering efforts to eliminate the sources of exposure to workers.

  20. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface reactions in microelectronics process technology.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Galit; Hess, Dennis W

    2011-01-01

    Current integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing consists of more than 800 process steps, nearly all of which involve reactions at surfaces that significantly impact device yield and performance. From initial surface preparation through film deposition, patterning, etching, residue removal, and metallization, an understanding of surface reactions and interactions is critical to the successful continuous scaling, yield, and reliability of electronic devices. In this review, some of the most important surface reactions that drive the development of microelectronic device fabrication are described. The reactions discussed do not constitute comprehensive coverage of this topic in IC manufacture but have been selected to demonstrate the importance of surface/interface reactions and interactions in the development of new materials, processing sequences, and process integration challenges. Specifically, the review focuses on surface reactions related to surface cleaning/preparation, semiconductor film growth, dielectric film growth, metallization, and etching (dry and wet).

  3. Managing the Manpower Aspects of Applying Micro-Electronics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, P.; Routledge, C.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines major effects that the application of micro-electronics devices in products/processes and in office systems will have on future manpower and skill requirements in manufacturing organizations. Identifies the type of problems these changes will pose for manpower managers. Provides general guidelines for the successful management of these…

  4. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  5. Integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-04-15

    The integration of nucleic acids detection assays in microfluidic devices represents a highly promising approach for the development of convenient, cheap and efficient diagnostic tools for clinical, food safety and environmental monitoring applications. Such tools are expected to operate at the point-of-care and in resource-limited settings. The amplification of the target nucleic acid sequence represents a key step for the development of sensitive detection protocols. The integration in microfluidic devices of the most popular technology for nucleic acids amplifications, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is significantly limited by the thermal cycling needed to obtain the target sequence amplification. This review provides an overview of recent advances in integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices. Isothermal methods, that operate at constant temperature, have emerged as promising alternative to PCR and greatly simplify the implementation of amplification methods in point-of-care diagnostic devices and devices to be used in resource-limited settings. Possibilities offered by isothermal methods for digital droplet amplification are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Animal experiments with the microelectronics neural bridge IC.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyuan; Pei, Fei; Wang, Zhigong; Lü, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    The combination of the neural science and the microelectronics science offers a new way to restore the function of central nervous system. A neural regeneration module is used to be implanted into body to bridge the damaged nerve. A microelectronics neural bridge IC designed in CSMC 0.5□m CMOS process which can detect the neural signal and stimulate the nerve is presented. The neural regeneration module is composed of the microelectronics neural bridge IC and some discrete devices. An animal experiment has been done to check whether the neural signal can be transmitted with the chip normally or not. The animal experiment results suggest that the neural regeneration module can make the neural signal transmit normally.

  7. Magnetic resonance tracking of catheters and mechatronic devices operating in the vascular network with an embedded photovoltaic-based microelectronic circuit.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Azadeh; Martel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Tracking of a catheter through the arterial system is critical in several medical interventions. To avoid excessive dose of x-ray irradiation, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been proposed. In such a case, a simple ferromagnetic sphere placed at the tip of the catheter could be used. However, due to the artifact created by the ferromagnetic core, it becomes impossible to gather an image of the tissues surrounding such a marker. Hence, in this paper we propose replacing the ferromagnetic marker with a microchip containing a coil and a photovoltaic cell. By radiating light to the photovoltaic cell, the coil generates a magnetic field which is detected as an artifact in MR images. By turning off the light, the effect of the coil is eliminated allowing images of tissues next to the marker to be taken. In this paper, simulated results based on experimental data from the preliminary designs suggest that this approach could be viable not only for catheters but also, it could potentially be used in various tools as well as mechatronic devices being moved inside the body.

  8. MICROELECTRONICS: Flip the Chip.

    PubMed

    Wong, C P; Luo, S; Zhang, Z

    2000-12-22

    As integrated circuit fabrication advances rapidly and the market for faster, lighter, smaller, yet less expensive electronic products accelerates, electronic packaging faces its own challenges. In this Perspective, Wong, Luo, and Zhang describe recent advances in flip chip packaging. This technology has many advantages over the conventional wire bonding technology and offers the possibility of low-cost electronic assembly for modern electronic products.

  9. Microelectronics: Their Implications for Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audiovisual Instruction, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This two-part article indicates some probable characteristics of the microelectronics in the future and assesses implications of the microelectronics revolution for the methods and systems currently used in teaching and training. (CMV)

  10. Flux flow microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, J. S.; Hietala, V. M.; Plut, T. A.; Ginley, D. S.; Vawter, G. A.; Tigges, C. P.; Siegal, M. P.; Phillips, J. M.; Hou, S. Y.

    Flux-flow based devices such as the superconducting flux flow transistor and magnetically controlled long junctions have been made from thin films of TlCaBaCuO and YBaCuO. The devices are based on the magnetic control of flux flow in their respective structures: a long junction or an array of weak links. The equivalent circuits of the two devices are similar: a low impedance input control line, an output impedance of 3 - 20 ohm and an active current-controlled element. The long junctions have tended to be slower, have lower gain and be somewhat less noisy than their counterparts. The performance of circuits such as narrowband and distributed amplifiers (50 GHz bandwidths, noise figures less than 3 dB), phase shifters (continuous with less than 2 dB loss 4 - 40 GHz), logic gates (2 - 3 ps gate delays) and memories made using these devices will be compared and analyzed.

  11. TID Simulation of Advanced CMOS Devices for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects caused by accumulation of charges at silicon dioxide, substrate/silicon dioxide interface, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) for scaled CMOS bulk devices as well as at Buried Oxide (BOX) layer in devices based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology to be operated in space radiation environment. The radiation induced leakage current and corresponding density/concentration electrons in leakage current path was presented/depicted for 180nm, 130nm and 65nm NMOS, PMOS transistors based on CMOS bulk as well as SOI process technologies on-board LEO and GEO satellites. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to 500 Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.

  12. Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic Levitation Facility EML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillo, Jurgen; Fritze, Holger; Lohofer, Georg; Schulz, Michal; Stenzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two advanced measurement devices for the microgravity electromagnetic levitation facility (EML), which is currently under construction for the use onboard the "International Space Station (ISS)": the "Sample Coupling Electronics (SCE)" and the "Oxygen Sensing and Control Unit (OSC)". The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented.

  13. CRRES microelectronics package flight data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Stauffer, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed in-depth analysis was performed on the data from some of the CRRES MEP (Microelectronics Package) devices. These space flight measurements covered a period of about fourteen months of mission lifetime. Several types of invalid data were identified and corrections were made. Other problems were noted and adjustments applied, as necessary. Particularly important and surprising were observations of abnormal device behavior in many parts that could neither be explained nor correlated to causative events. Also, contrary to prevailing theory, proton effects appeared to be far more significant and numerous than cosmic ray effects. Another unexpected result was the realization that only nine out of thirty-two p-MOS dosimeters on the MEP indicated a valid operation. Comments, conclusions, and recommendations are given.

  14. The Advanced Space Plant Culture Device with Live Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weibo; Zhang, Tao; Tong, Guanghui

    The live imaging techniques, including the color and fluorescent imags, are very important and useful for space life science. The advanced space plant culture Device (ASPCD) with live imaging Technique, developed for Chinese Spacecraft, would be introduced in this paper. The ASPCD had two plant experimental chambers. Three cameras (two color cameras and one fluorescent camera) were installed in the two chambers. The fluorescent camera could observe flowering genes, which were labeled by GFP. The lighting, nutrient, temperature controling and water recycling were all independent in each chamber. The ASPCD would beed applied to investigate for the growth and development of the high plant under microgravity conditions on board the Chinese Spacecraft.

  15. Microelectronics in Education--A Changing Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Describes major program activities of Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP) for England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, which is designed to help schools prepare children for society with microelectronics. The core elements and potential consequences of the Microelectronics Support Unit, a follow-up to MEP which will conclude activities in…

  16. Center for Space Microelectronics Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 technical report of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Space Microelectronics Technology summarizes the technical accomplishments, publications, presentations, and patents of the center during 1990. The report lists 130 publications, 226 presentations, and 87 new technology reports and patents.

  17. Center for Space Microelectronics Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Technical Report of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Space Microelectronics Technology summarizes the technical accomplishments, publications, presentations, and patents of the Center during the past year. The report lists 193 publications, 211 presentations, and 125 new technology reports and patents.

  18. Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandeau, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

  19. Microelectronics and Computers in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of microelectronics and computers in medicine is reviewed, focusing on medical research; medical data collection, storage, retrieval, and manipulation; medical decision making; computed tomography; ultrasonic imaging; role in clinical laboratories; and use as adjuncts for diagnostic tests, monitors of critically-ill patients, and with the…

  20. Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoudis, Christos G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a 15-week course in the fundamentals of microelectronics processing in chemical engineering, which emphasizes the use of very large scale integration (VLSI). Provides a listing of the topics covered in the course outline, along with a sample of some of the final projects done by students. (TW)

  1. Microelectronics and Computers in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of microelectronics and computers in medicine is reviewed, focusing on medical research; medical data collection, storage, retrieval, and manipulation; medical decision making; computed tomography; ultrasonic imaging; role in clinical laboratories; and use as adjuncts for diagnostic tests, monitors of critically-ill patients, and with the…

  2. Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takoudis, Christos G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a 15-week course in the fundamentals of microelectronics processing in chemical engineering, which emphasizes the use of very large scale integration (VLSI). Provides a listing of the topics covered in the course outline, along with a sample of some of the final projects done by students. (TW)

  3. Launching a Programme on Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the priorities and problems in the development by the United Kingdom Department of Education and Science of a program to introduce microelectronic technology to elementary and secondary level students. The basic needs for program implementation, information support required for the program, inservice teacher training, and curriculum…

  4. Micromechanical structures and microelectronics for acceleration sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Brady R.; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Lemkin, Mark

    1997-09-01

    MEMS is an enabling technology that may provide low-cost devices capable of sensing motion in a reliable and accurate manner. This paper describes work in MEMS accelerometer development at Sandia National Laboratories. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. The design and test results of an integrated MEMS high-g accelerometer will be detailed. Additionally a design for a high-g fuse component (low-G or approximately equals 25 G accelerometer) will be discussed in the paper (where 1 G approximately equals 9.81 m/s). In particular, a design team at Sandia was assembled to develop a new micromachined silicon accelerometer which would be capable of surviving and measuring high-g shocks. Such a sensor is designed to be cheaper and more reliable than currently available sensors. A promising design for a suspended plate mass sensor was developed and the details of that design along with test data will be documented in the paper. Future development in this area at Sandia will focus on implementing accelerometers capable of measuring 200 kilo-g accelerations. Accelerometer development at Sandia will also focus on multi-axis acceleration measurement with integrated microelectronics.

  5. Microelectronics effects as seen on CRRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, E. G.; Ray, K. P.

    1994-10-01

    A MicroElectronics Test Package (MEP) measured total dose degradation and Single Event Upsets (SEUs) on 60 device types on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) in a 19 deg inclination orbit between 350 km and 36000 km from July 1990 to October 1991. Simultaneous measurements of the high energy particle environment were used to make a direct cause and effect comparison of the energetic particle background and microelectronic performance characteristics. The galactic cosmic ray background for the period of the CRRES mission was at a minimum. The SEUs experiences from the cosmic ray background were correspondingly few in number, but surprisingly produced an equal probability of upset over an L-shell range of 8.5 Earth radii R(sub E) down to less than 3.0 R(sub E). Cosmic ray induced upset frequencies in proton sensitive chips were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those produced by protons in the heart of the inner proton radiation belts. Multiple upsets, those produced when a single particle upsets more than one memory location, were just as common from protons as from cosmic rays.

  6. Microelectronics effects as seen on CRRES.

    PubMed

    Mullen, E G; Ray, K P

    1994-10-01

    A MicroElectronics Test Package (MEP) measured total dose degradation and single event upsets (SEUs) on 60 device types on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) in an 18 degrees inclination orbit between 350 km and 36000 km from July 1990 to October 1991. Simultaneous measurements of the high energy particle environment were used to make a direct cause and effect comparison of the energetic particle backgrounds and microelectronic performance characteristics. The galactic cosmic ray background for the period of the CRRES mission was at a minimum. The SEUs experienced from the cosmic ray background were correspondingly few in number, but surprisingly produced an equal probability of upset over an L-shell range of 8.5 Earth radii (RE) down to less than 3.0 RE. Cosmic ray induced upset frequencies in proton sensitive chips were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those produced by protons in the heart of the inner proton radiation belts. Multiple upsets, those produced when a single particle upsets more than one memory location, were just as common from protons as from cosmic rays.

  7. [Device-aided therapies in advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a consequence of the severe neurodegenerative process and are characterized by the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, aggravation of non-motor symptoms. Treatment with peroral and transdermal drugs can't provide an adequate control of PD symptoms and quality-of-life of the patients at this stage of disease. Currently, three device-aided therapies: deep brain stimulation (DBS), intrajejunal infusion of duodopa, subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine can be used in treatment of patients with advanced stages of PD. Timely administration of device-aided therapies and right choice of the method determine, to a large extent, the efficacy and safety of their use. Despite the high efficacy of all three methods with respect to the fluctuation of separate symptoms, each method has its own peculiarities. The authors reviewed the data on the expediency of using each method according to the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms, patient's age, PD duration, concomitant pathology and social support of the patients.

  8. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    PubMed Central

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PMID:21673938

  9. Recent advances in conjugated polymers for light emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review.

  10. Device-Aided Treatment Strategies in Advanced Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Jonathan; Nitu, Bianca; Datieva, Veronika; Odin, Per; Antonini, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    With peroral levodopa treatment, a majority of patients develop motor fluctuations and dyskinesia already within a few years of therapy. Device-aided Parkinson (PD) therapies refer to deep brain stimulation (DBS), levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG), and subcutaneous infusion of the dopamine agonist apomorphine and represent effective strategies counteracting motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. These three therapy options seem to be similarly effective in reducing "time with PD symptoms (off time)" by at least 60%-65%. The use of advanced therapy also leads to a significant reduction of dyskinesia. Recent studies also indicate that these therapies can improve a number of nonmotor symptoms in advanced PD. Altogether this results in an improved health-related quality of life in most treated patients. The side effects and complications are quite different between the three; for DBS, serious adverse events include intracranial bleeding and infection, LCIG complications relate to the infusion equipment and the establishment of the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, while for apomorphine infusion the most common side effect is a formation of noduli (local inflammation) at the point of infusion. The device-aided therapies are all indicated for the treatment of motor fluctuations and/or dyskinesia when peroral/transdermal PD medications cannot be further optimized. However, the choice of device-aided therapy is made on basis of indications/contraindications, but also the patients' symptom profile and his/her personal preferences. Therefore, it is important these treatments are discussed early, well before motor and nonmotor symptoms have deteriorated excessively. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Silicon Solar Cell Device Physics and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceglie, Michael Gardner

    A fundamental challenge in the development and deployment of solar photovoltaic technology is a reduction in cost enabling direct competition with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. A key driver in this cost reduction is optimized device efficiency, because increased energy output leverages all photovoltaic system costs, from raw materials and module manufacturing to installation and maintenance. To continue progress toward higher conversion efficiencies, solar cells are being fabricated with increasingly complex designs, including engineered nanostructures, heterojunctions, and novel contacting and passivation schemes. Such advanced designs require a comprehensive and unified understanding of the optical and electrical device physics at the microscopic scale. This thesis focuses on a microscopic understanding of solar cell optoelectronic performance and its impact on cell optimization. We consider this in three solar cell platforms: thin-film crystalline silicon, amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunctions, and thin-film cells with nanophotonic light trapping. The work described in this thesis represents a powerful design paradigm, based on a detailed physical understanding of the mechanisms governing solar cell performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of understanding not just the individual mechanisms, but also their interactions. Such an approach to device optimization is critical for the efficiency and competitiveness of future generations of solar cells.

  12. Applications of laser direct-write for embedding microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Kim, Heungsoo; Auyeung, Ray C. Y.; Mathews, Scott A.

    2007-03-01

    The use of direct-write techniques might revolutionize the way microelectronic devices such as interconnects, passives, IC's, antennas, sensors and power sources are designed and fabricated. The Naval Research Laboratory has developed a laser-based microfabrication process for direct-writing the materials and components required for the assembly and interconnection of the above devices. This laser direct-write (LDW) technique is capable of operating in subtractive, additive, and transfer mode. In subtractive mode, the system operates as a laser micromachining workstation capable of achieving precise depth and surface roughness control. In additive mode, the system utilizes a laser-forward transfer process for the deposition of metals, oxides, polymers and composites under ambient conditions onto virtually any type of surface, thus functioning as a laser printer for patterns of electronic materials. Furthermore, in transfer mode, the system is capable of transferring individual devices, such as semiconductor bare die or surface mount devices, inside a trench or recess in a substrate, thus performing the same function of the pick-and-place machines used in circuit board manufacture. The use of this technique is ideally suited for the rapid prototyping of embedded microelectronic components and systems while allowing the overall circuit design and layout to be easily modified or adapted to any specific application or form factor. This paper describes the laser direct-write process as applied to the forward transfer of microelectronic devices.

  13. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  14. Microelectronic fabrication of superconducting devices and circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschman, R. K.; Mercereau, J. E.; Notarys, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is expected that thin-film superconductors can be used as detectors or sources of infrared and microwave radiation, as magnetometers, as voltage standards, and for voltage and current measurements, for electronic signal processing, and in digital circuitry.

  15. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

  16. PREFACE: The Second Conference on Microelectronics, Microsystems and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiopoulou, Androula G.; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Tsamis, Christos

    2005-01-01

    The Second Conference on Microelectronics, Microsystems and Nanotechnology took place at the National Centre for Scientific Research `Demokritos', in Athens, Greece, between 14 and 17 November 2004. The conference was organized by the Institute of Microelectronics (IMEL) with the aim to bring together scientists and engineers working in the above exciting fields in an interactive forum. The conference included 45 oral presentations with 9 invited papers and was attended by 146 participants from 16 countries. The topics covered were nanotechnologies, quantum devices, sensors, micro- and nano-systems, semiconductor devices, C-MOS fabrication and characterization techniques, new materials, and IC design. Quantum devices and nanostructured materials attracted considerable attention. Both theoretical and experimental studies of metallic and semiconducting quantum systems were presented, with emphasis on their applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and nanocrystal memory devices. Another exciting topic was the recent developments in biocompatible lithographic processes for applications in biosensors. In particular novel processes for bio-friendly lithography, together with innovations in Si sensors for applications in medicine and food industry were presented. Recent developments and perspectives in CMOS technology towards the ultimate limit were also discussed. The conference covered issues and concepts of IC design with two invited talks on RF design and cryptography.The conference included presentations from several companies active in the field of microelectronics and systems in Greece.

  17. Towards manufacturing of advanced logic devices by double-patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Chiew-seng; Halle, Scott; Holmes, Steven; Petrillo, Karen; Colburn, Matthew; van Dommelen, Youri; Jiang, Aiqin; Crouse, Michael; Dunn, Shannon; Hetzer, David; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Cantone, Jason; Huli, Lior; Rodgers, Martin; Martinick, Brian

    2011-04-01

    As reported previously, the IBM Alliance has established a DETO (Double-Expose-Track-Optimized) baseline, in collaboration with ASML, TEL, and CNSE, to evaluate commercially available DETO photoresist system for the manufacturing of advanced logic devices. Although EUV lithography is the baseline strategy for <2x nm logic nodes, alternative techniques are still being pursued. The DETO technique produces pitch-split patterns capable of supporting 16 nm and 11 nm node semiconductor devices. We present the long-term monitoring performances of CD uniformity (CDU), overlay, and defectivity of our DETO process. CDU and overlay performances for controlled experiments are also presented. Two alignment schemes in DETO are compared experimentally for their effects on inter-level & intralevel overlays, and space CDU. We also experimented with methods for improving CDU, in which the CD-OptimizerTMand DoseMapperTM were evaluated separately and in tandem. Overlay improvements using the Correction Per Exposure (CPE) and the intra-field High-Order Process Correction (i-HOPC) were compared against the usual linear correction method. The effects of the exposure field size are also compared between a small field and the full field. Included in all the above, we also compare the performances derived from stack-integrated wafers and bare-Si wafers.

  18. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation, SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd... Advanced Micro Devices China Inc.'s (AMD China) current list of eligible destinations. BIS also amends the...-User Authorizations in the PRC Revisions to the List of Eligible Destinations for Advanced...

  19. Factors Associated With Electronic Cigarette Users' Device Preferences and Transition From First Generation to Advanced Generation Devices.

    PubMed

    Yingst, Jessica M; Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Nichols, Travis T; Wilson, Stephen J; Foulds, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are becoming increasingly popular but little is known about how e-cig users' transition between the different device types and what device characteristics and preferences may influence the transition. Four thousand four hundred twenty-one experienced e-cig users completed an online survey about their e-cig use, devices, and preferences. Participants included in analysis were ever cigarette smokers who used an e-cig at least 30 days in their lifetime and who reported the type of their first and current e-cig device and the nicotine concentration of their liquid. Analyses focused on transitions between "first generation" devices (same size as a cigarette with no button) and "advanced generation" devices (larger than a cigarette with a manual button) and differences between current users of each device type. Most e-cig users (n = 2603, 58.9%) began use with a first generation device, and of these users, 63.7% subsequently transitioned to current use of an advanced generation device. Among users who began use with an advanced generation device (n = 1818, 41.1%), only 5.7% transitioned to a first generation device. Seventy-seven percent of current advanced generation e-cig users switched to their current device in order to obtain a "more satisfying hit." Battery capabilities and liquid flavor choices also influenced device choice. E-cig users commonly begin use with a device shaped like a cigarette and transition to a larger device with a more powerful battery, a button for manual activation and a wider choice of liquid flavors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Factors Associated With Electronic Cigarette Users’ Device Preferences and Transition From First Generation to Advanced Generation Devices

    PubMed Central

    Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Nichols, Travis T.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Foulds, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are becoming increasingly popular but little is known about how e-cig users’ transition between the different device types and what device characteristics and preferences may influence the transition. Methods: Four thousand four hundred twenty-one experienced e-cig users completed an online survey about their e-cig use, devices, and preferences. Participants included in analysis were ever cigarette smokers who used an e-cig at least 30 days in their lifetime and who reported the type of their first and current e-cig device and the nicotine concentration of their liquid. Analyses focused on transitions between “first generation” devices (same size as a cigarette with no button) and “advanced generation” devices (larger than a cigarette with a manual button) and differences between current users of each device type. Results: Most e-cig users (n = 2603, 58.9%) began use with a first generation device, and of these users, 63.7% subsequently transitioned to current use of an advanced generation device. Among users who began use with an advanced generation device (n = 1818, 41.1%), only 5.7% transitioned to a first generation device. Seventy-seven percent of current advanced generation e-cig users switched to their current device in order to obtain a “more satisfying hit.” Battery capabilities and liquid flavor choices also influenced device choice. Conclusion: E-cig users commonly begin use with a device shaped like a cigarette and transition to a larger device with a more powerful battery, a button for manual activation and a wider choice of liquid flavors. PMID:25744966

  1. PREFACE: E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, Symposium M: More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Christian; Fompeyrine, Jean; Vallée, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    More than Moore explores a new area of Silicon based microelectronics, which reaches beyond the boundaries of conventional semiconductor applications. Creating new functionality to semiconductor circuits, More than Moore focuses on motivating new technological possibilities. In the past decades, the main stream of microelectronics progresses was mainly powered by Moore's law, with two focused development arenas, namely, IC miniaturization down to nano scale, and SoC based system integration. While the microelectronics community continues to invent new solutions around the world to keep Moore's law alive, there is increasing momentum for the development of 'More than Moore' technologies which are based on silicon technologies but do not simply scale with Moore's law. Typical examples are RF, Power/HV, Passives, Sensor/Actuator/MEMS or Bio-chips. The More than Moore strategy is driven by the increasing social needs for high level heterogeneous system integration including non-digital functions, the necessity to speed up innovative product creation and to broaden the product portfolio of wafer fabs, and the limiting cost and time factors of advanced SoC development. It is believed that More than Moore will add value to society on top of and beyond advanced CMOS with fast increasing marketing potentials. Important key challenges for the realization of the 'More than Moore' strategy are: perspective materials for future THz devices materials systems for embedded sensors and actuators perspective materials for epitaxial approaches material systems for embedded innovative memory technologies development of new materials with customized characteristics The Hot topics covered by the symposium M (More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics) at E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14-18 May 2012 have been: development of functional ceramics thin films New dielectric materials for advanced microelectronics bio- and CMOS compatible

  2. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  3. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public health...

  4. Lithography for enabling advances in integrated circuits and devices.

    PubMed

    Garner, C Michael

    2012-08-28

    Because the transistor was fabricated in volume, lithography has enabled the increase in density of devices and integrated circuits. With the invention of the integrated circuit, lithography enabled the integration of higher densities of field-effect transistors through evolutionary applications of optical lithography. In 1994, the semiconductor industry determined that continuing the increase in density transistors was increasingly difficult and required coordinated development of lithography and process capabilities. It established the US National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors and this was expanded in 1999 to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to align multiple industries to provide the complex capabilities to continue increasing the density of integrated circuits to nanometre scales. Since the 1960s, lithography has become increasingly complex with the evolution from contact printers, to steppers, pattern reduction technology at i-line, 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths, which required dramatic improvements of mask-making technology, photolithography printing and alignment capabilities and photoresist capabilities. At the same time, pattern transfer has evolved from wet etching of features, to plasma etch and more complex etching capabilities to fabricate features that are currently 32 nm in high-volume production. To continue increasing the density of devices and interconnects, new pattern transfer technologies will be needed with options for the future including extreme ultraviolet lithography, imprint technology and directed self-assembly. While complementary metal oxide semiconductors will continue to be extended for many years, these advanced pattern transfer technologies may enable development of novel memory and logic technologies based on different physical phenomena in the future to enhance and extend information processing.

  5. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    Global economic, environmental and market developments caused major impact in the microelectronics industry. Astronomical rise of gold metal prices over the last decade shifted the use of copper and silver alloys as bonding wires. Environmental legislation on the restriction of the use of Pb launched worldwide search for lead-free solders and platings. Finally, electrical and digital uses demanded smaller, faster and cheaper devices. Ultra-fine pitch bonding, decreasing bond wire sizes and hard to bond substrates have put the once-robust stitch bond in the center of reliability issues due to stitch bond lift or open wires .Unlike the ball bond, stitch bonding does not lead to intermetallic compound formation but adhesion is dependent on mechanical deformation, interdiffusion, solid solution formation, void formation and mechanical interlocking depending on the wire material, bond configuration, substrate type , thickness and surface condition. Using Au standoff stitch bonds on NiPdAu plated substrates eliminated stitch bond lift even when the Au and Pd layers are reduced. Using the Matano-Boltzmann analysis on a STEM (Scanning Transmission Analysis) concentration profile the interdiffusion coefficient is measured to be 10-16 cm 2/s. Wire pull strength data showed that the wire pull strength is 0.062N and increases upon stress testing. Meanwhile, coating the Cu wire with Pd, not only increases oxidation resistance but also improved adhesion due to the formation of a unique interfacial adhesion layers. Adhesion strength as measured by pull showed the Cu wire bonded to Ag plated Cu substrate (0.132N) to be stronger than the Au wire bonded on the same substrate (0.124N). Ag stitch bonded to Au is predicted to be strong but surface modification made the adhesion stronger. However, on the Ag ball bonded to Al showed multiple IMC formation with unique morphology exposed by ion milling and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Adding alloying elements in the Ag wire

  6. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  7. Near net shape forming of advanced structural ceramic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Chih

    This research applied a combination of rapid prototyping techniques and ceramic gelcasting processes in the design and manufacturing of advanced structural ceramic components that cannot be fabricated by other shape-forming processes. An Assembly Mold SDM process, a derivative process of Shape Deposition Manufacturing, was adopted along with modified gelcasting with great success. The fabricated gas turbine rotors, inlet nozzles, and mesoscale burner arrays have demonstrated superior shape accuracy, mechanical strength, and surface smoothness with a feature size of 200 mum. The design concepts and functionalities of the ceramic devices were verified with performance tests. The shape complexity and surface quality of ceramic parts have been further improved by the use of a mold assembly made of a low melting temperature metal alloy. The introduction of metal alloy required modifications in the mold design, machining procedure, and ceramic processing. A complete shape forming process (from slurry to final parts) was developed for the low melting temperature metal alloy. In addition, the choice of ceramic material now includes SiC, which is critical to the development of micro heat exchangers. Forty-channel, high-aspect-ratio structured SiC heat exchangers were fabricated, and the thermal conductivity value of SiC was found to be comparable to that of steel. The catalyst deposition and ceramic precursor impregnation processes were proposed to enable use of the SiC heat exchangers as micro reactors. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-related techniques such as SU-8 deep photolithography and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography were combined with gelcasting to make micro patterns on structural ceramics. A feature size of 125 mum and aspect ratio of 8 have been achieved in the preliminary experiments. Based on the fabricated ceramic devices, a graphical method to characterize the shape attributes of complex-shaped components was proposed and used to compare

  8. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  9. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, Frederick C.; Kingston, John J.; Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T.sub.c superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO.sub.3 ; and a third high T.sub.c superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions.

  10. Electrochemical planarization for microelectronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1993-03-25

    The need for flatter and smoother surfaces (planarization) in microelectronic circuits increases as the number of metal levels in ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits increases. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors have developed an electrochemical planarization process that fills vias and trenches with metal (without voids) and subsequently planarizes the surface. Use is made of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO{sub 2} for the dielectric layers and electroplated copper for the metalization. This report describes the advantages of this process over existing techniques, possibilities for collaboration, and previous technology transfer.

  11. Electrochemical planarization for microelectronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1993-03-25

    The need for flatter and smoother surfaces (planarization) in microelectronic circuits increases as the number of metal levels in ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuits increases. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors have developed an electrochemical planarization process that fills vias and trenches with metal (without voids) and subsequently planarizes the surface. Use is made of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO[sub 2] for the dielectric layers and electroplated copper for the metalization. This report describes the advantages of this process over existing techniques, possibilities for collaboration, and previous technology transfer.

  12. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.

    1994-03-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3]; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions. 13 figures.

  13. Relevance of microelectronic education to industrial needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance of microelectronic education to industrial needs was evaluated, and four categories were surveyed: (1) facts and rules; (2) skills; (3) personality; and (4) deductive-inductive reasoning. Examples of specific items in each category are given to illustrate their meaning and it was indicated as to which items in each category are strongly impacted by microelectronics courses and laboratories.

  14. Relevance of microelectronic education to industrial needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance of microelectronic education to industrial needs was evaluated, and four categories were surveyed: (1) facts and rules; (2) skills; (3) personality; and (4) deductive-inductive reasoning. Examples of specific items in each category are given to illustrate their meaning and it was indicated as to which items in each category are strongly impacted by microelectronics courses and laboratories.

  15. Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, N. D. C., Ed.

    This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

  16. The Legacy of the Microelectronics Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP), a plan developed to help British secondary school students learn about microcomputers and the role of technology in society, and its successor, the Microelectronics Support Unit (MESU). Highlights include curriculum development, teacher training, computer assisted instruction and the…

  17. Development of the Microelectronic Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of the Microelectronics Education Programme for England, Northern Ireland and Wales, including funding, aims, and relationships of the national program with local organizations. The program focuses on incorporating uses/effects of microelectronic technology into the total school curriculum and ways of using this…

  18. Using advanced mobile devices in nursing practice--the views of nurses and nursing students.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Pauline; Petersson, Göran; Saveman, Britt-Inger; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2014-09-01

    Advanced mobile devices allow registered nurses and nursing students to keep up-to-date with expanding health-related knowledge but are rarely used in nursing in Sweden. This study aims at describing registered nurses' and nursing students' views regarding the use of advanced mobile devices in nursing practice. A cross-sectional study was completed in 2012; a total of 398 participants replied to a questionnaire, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that the majority of the participants regarded an advanced mobile device to be useful, giving access to necessary information and also being useful in making notes, planning their work and saving time. Furthermore, the advanced mobile device was regarded to improve patient safety and the quality of care and to increase confidence. In order to continuously improve the safety and quality of health care, advanced mobile devices adjusted for nursing practice should be further developed, implemented and evaluated in research. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath; Polagye, Brian; Fabien, Brian; Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Marnagh, Cian; Donegan, James

    2016-03-31

    The Advanced Energy Harvesting Control Schemes for Marine Renewable Energy Devices (Project) investigated, analyzed and modeled advanced turbine control schemes with the objective of increasing the energy harvested by hydrokinetic turbines in turbulent flow. Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) implemented and validated a feedforward controller to increase power capture; and applied and tested the controls on ORPC’s RivGen® Power Systems in Igiugig, Alaska. Assessments of performance improvements were made for the RivGen® in the Igiugig environment and for ORPC’s TidGen® Power System in a reference tidal environment. Annualized Energy Production (AEP) and Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) improvements associated with implementation of the recommended control methodology were made for the TidGen® Power System in the DOE reference tidal environment. System Performance Advancement (SPA) goals were selected for the project. SPA targets were to improve Power to Weight Ratio (PWR) and system Availability, with the intention of reducing Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). This project focused primarily reducing in PWR. Reductions in PWR of 25.5% were achieved. Reductions of 20.3% in LCOE were achieved. This project evaluated four types of controllers which were tested in simulation, emulation, a laboratory flume, and the field. The adaptive Kω2 controller performs similarly to the non-adaptive version of the same controller and may be useful in tidal channels where the mean velocity is continually evolving. Trends in simulation were largely verified through experiments, which also provided the opportunity to test assumptions about turbine responsiveness and control resilience to varying scales of turbulence. Laboratory experiments provided an essential stepping stone between simulation and implementation on a field-scale turbine. Experiments also demonstrated that using “energy loss” as a metric to differentiate between well-designed controllers operating at

  20. Advanced fiber lasers and related all-fiber devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Balaji

    2000-11-01

    :ZBLAN. The demonstration of substantial second order nonlinearities (~1 pm/V) at UNM using thermal- assisted poling in normally symmetry forbidden silica glass has inspired worldwide research efforts aimed at achieving similar nonlinearities in fibers. All-fiber electro-optic devices based on such poled fibers are anticipated to enhance the performance of various lasers, including modelocked and tunable fiber lasers. This dissertation presents the first demonstration of stable, electro-optically tunable fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with a tuning range of 20 pm (2.5 GHz), which should enable applications such as reconfigurable add/drop filters and actively modelocked all-fiber lasers. Two key steps in the fabrication of the tunable FBGs viz. the fabrication of thermally stable FBGs, and a novel method for in-situ monitoring of fiber polishing are also demonstrated. Finally, this dissertation discusses issues related to the demonstration of all-fiber electro- optically tunable polarization rotators and their possible impact on future advanced fiber lasers.

  1. Point-of-Care (POC) Devices by Means of Advanced MEMS

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Stanislav L.; Tarhan, Mehmet C.; Kudo, Lili C.; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have become an invaluable technology to advance the development of point-of-care (POC) devices for diagnostics and sample analyses. MEMS can transform sophisticated methods into compact and cost-effective microdevices that offer numerous advantages at many levels. Such devices include microchannels, microsensors, etc., that have been applied to various miniaturized POC products. Here we discuss some of the recent advances made in the use of MEMS devices for POC applications. PMID:26459443

  2. Durable left ventricular assist device therapy in advanced heart failure: Patient selection and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sachin P.; Mehra, Mandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) into clinical practice is related to a combination of engineering advances in pump technology and improvements in understanding the appropriate clinical use of these devices in the management of patients with advanced heart failure. This review intends to assist the clinician in identifying candidates for LVAD implantation, to examine long-term outcomes and provide an overview of the common complications related to use of these devices. PMID:27056652

  3. Semiconductor materials and microelectronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesar, Edward S.

    Microminiaturization developments in IC systems have dramatically increased the reliability and performance of electronic components while reducing their physical size and power requirements; these advancements have pervasively affected weapons systems design efforts. Built-in self-test circuitry has greatly reduced maintenance problems and improved overall systems reliability. Increasing circuit complexity has also led to a major expansion of key military operational capabilities for reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition. It is expected that Si-based ICs will continue to dominate high power solid-state switches in hypervelocity projectiles and beam weapons, while GaAs will remain the most commonly employed material in microwave and mm-wave devices for EW, radars, smart weapons, and communications.

  4. Advancing teaching opportunities through pre-commercial photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusarczuk, Marko M. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Photonics Technology Access Program [PTAP] provides academic researchers with pre-commercial photonic devices. Since one of the goals of PTAP is to promote teaching, the program has developed several approaches to expand teaching opportunities with the processes used to provide the devices.

  5. Radiation Hardening of CMOS Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, A.; Sigmon, T.W.

    2000-02-20

    A unique methodology, silicon transfer to arbitrary substrates, has been developed under this program and is being investigated as a technique for significantly increasing the radiation insensitivity of limited quantities of conventional silicon microelectronic circuits. In this approach, removal of the that part of the silicon substrate not required for circuit operation is carried out, following completion of the circuit fabrication process. This post-processing technique is therefore applicable to state-of-the-art ICs, effectively bypassing the 3-generation technology/performance gap presently separating today's electronics from available radiation-hard electronics. Also, of prime concern are the cost savings that result by eliminating the requirement for costly redesign of commercial circuits for Rad-hard applications. Successful deployment of this technology will result in a major impact on the radiation hard electronics community in circuit functionality, design and software availability and fabrication costs.

  6. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Philip R.

    2011-09-27

    This presentation from the Water Peer Review highlights one of the program's marine and hyrokinetics device design projects to scale up the current Ocean Power Technology PowerBuoy from 150kW to 500kW.

  7. Advanced integrated safeguards using front-end-triggering devices

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Whitty, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses potential uses of front-end-triggering devices for enhanced safeguards. Such systems incorporate video surveillance as well as radiation and other sensors. Also covered in the report are integration issues and analysis techniques.

  8. Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A. A.; Bonner, J. K.; Ogunseitan, D.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly moving to completely Pb-free assembly strategies within the next decade. This trend is being driven by existing and proposed legislation in Europe and in Japan. The microelectronics industry has become truly global, as indicated by major U .S. firms who already adopted Pb-free implementation programs. Among these forward-looking firms are AT&T, IBM, Motorola, HP and Intel to name a few.Following Moore's law, advances in microelectronics are happening very rapidly. In many cases, commercial industry is ahead of the aerospace sector in technology. Progress by commercial industry, along with cost, drives the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts for military and space applications. We can thus anticipate that the aerospace industry will, at some point, be forced to use Pb-free components and subsystems as part of their standard business practices. In this paper we attempt to provide a snapshot of the commercial industry trends and how they may impact electronics in the aerospace environment. In addition, we also look at different strategies for implementation. Finally we present data collected on a recent NASA project to focus on finding suitable alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solders and solder pastes. The world is moving toward implementation of environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques. The aerospace industry will be forced to deal with issues related with Pb free assembly, either by availability or legislation. This paper provides some insight into some of the tradeoffs that should be considered.

  9. Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A. A.; Bonner, J. K.; Ogunseitan, D.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly moving to completely Pb-free assembly strategies within the next decade. This trend is being driven by existing and proposed legislation in Europe and in Japan. The microelectronics industry has become truly global, as indicated by major U .S. firms who already adopted Pb-free implementation programs. Among these forward-looking firms are AT&T, IBM, Motorola, HP and Intel to name a few.Following Moore's law, advances in microelectronics are happening very rapidly. In many cases, commercial industry is ahead of the aerospace sector in technology. Progress by commercial industry, along with cost, drives the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts for military and space applications. We can thus anticipate that the aerospace industry will, at some point, be forced to use Pb-free components and subsystems as part of their standard business practices. In this paper we attempt to provide a snapshot of the commercial industry trends and how they may impact electronics in the aerospace environment. In addition, we also look at different strategies for implementation. Finally we present data collected on a recent NASA project to focus on finding suitable alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solders and solder pastes. The world is moving toward implementation of environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques. The aerospace industry will be forced to deal with issues related with Pb free assembly, either by availability or legislation. This paper provides some insight into some of the tradeoffs that should be considered.

  10. Micromechanical structures and microelectronics for acceleration sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Montague, S.; Smith, J.H.; Lemkin, M.

    1997-08-01

    MEMS is an enabling technology that may provide low-cost devices capable of sensing motion in a reliable and accurate manner. This paper describes work in MEMS accelerometer development at Sandia National Laboratories. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronis circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. The design and test results of an integrated MEMS high-g accelerometer will be detailed. Additionally a design for a high-g fuse component (low-G or {approx} 25 G accelerometer) will be discussed in the paper (where 1 G {approx} 9.81 m/s). In particular, a design team at Sandia was assembled to develop a new micromachined silicon accelerometer which would be capable of surviving and measuring high-g shocks. Such a sensor is designed to be cheaper and more reliable than currently available sensors. A promising design for a suspended plate mass sensor was developed and the details of that design along with test data will be documented in the paper. Future development in this area at Sandia will focus on implementing accelerometers capable of measuring 200 kilo-g accelerations. Accelerometer development at Sandia will also focus on multi-axis acceleration measurement with integrated microelectronics.

  11. Carbon-ionogel supercapacitors for integrated microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Greg; Smith, Leland; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Chui, Chi On

    2016-01-01

    To exceed the performance limits of dielectric capacitors in microelectronic circuit applications, we design and demonstrate on-chip coplanar electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), or supercapacitors, employing carbon-coated gold electrodes with ionogel electrolyte. The formation of carbon-coated microelectrodes is accomplished by solution processing and results in a ten-fold increase in EDLC capacitance compared to bare gold electrodes without carbon. At frequencies up to 10 Hz, an areal capacitance of 2.1 pF μm-2 is achieved for coplanar carbon-ionogel EDLCs with 10 μm electrode gaps and 0.14 mm2 electrode area. Our smallest devices, comprised of 5 μm electrode gaps and 80 μm2 of active electrode area, reach areal capacitance values of ˜0.3 pF μm-2 at frequencies up to 1 kHz, even without carbon. To our knowledge, these are the highest reported values to date for on-chip EDLCs with sub-mm2 areas. A physical EDLC model is developed through the use of computer-aided simulations for design exploration and optimization of coplanar EDLCs. Through modeling and comparison with experimental data, we highlight the importance of reducing the electrode gap and electrolyte resistance to achieve maximum performance from on-chip EDLCs.

  12. Carbon-ionogel supercapacitors for integrated microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Leung, Greg; Smith, Leland; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Chui, Chi On

    2016-01-22

    To exceed the performance limits of dielectric capacitors in microelectronic circuit applications, we design and demonstrate on-chip coplanar electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), or supercapacitors, employing carbon-coated gold electrodes with ionogel electrolyte. The formation of carbon-coated microelectrodes is accomplished by solution processing and results in a ten-fold increase in EDLC capacitance compared to bare gold electrodes without carbon. At frequencies up to 10 Hz, an areal capacitance of 2.1 pF μm(-2) is achieved for coplanar carbon-ionogel EDLCs with 10 μm electrode gaps and 0.14 mm(2) electrode area. Our smallest devices, comprised of 5 μm electrode gaps and 80 μm(2) of active electrode area, reach areal capacitance values of ∼0.3 pF μm(-2) at frequencies up to 1 kHz, even without carbon. To our knowledge, these are the highest reported values to date for on-chip EDLCs with sub-mm(2) areas. A physical EDLC model is developed through the use of computer-aided simulations for design exploration and optimization of coplanar EDLCs. Through modeling and comparison with experimental data, we highlight the importance of reducing the electrode gap and electrolyte resistance to achieve maximum performance from on-chip EDLCs.

  13. Advances in mechanical assist devices and artificial hearts for children.

    PubMed

    Kirklin, James K

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has rapidly evolved toward continuous flow technology in adults. In the pediatric population, the Berlin EXCOR, a paracorporeal pulsatile pump, is the only MCS device specifically approved for pediatric use. The current era of pediatric MCS includes an increasing application of adult continuous flow pumps to pediatric patients. The Berlin EXCOR pulsatile pump has been studied in over 200 patients. The major limitations of this device are neurologic dysfunction (which occurs in about 30% of supported patients) and the requirement for in-hospital care until transplant. Two continuous flow pumps (HVAD and HeartMate II) have been successfully applied in children and adolescents, and the SynCardia total artificial heart has been used in adolescents. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - sponsored Pediatric Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support registry has collected pediatric MCS data since 2012 and will provide valuable outcomes data to help refine this field. Survival with these durable devices has been generally good (except for small infants and patients with complex congenital heart disease), with nearly 50% receiving a heart transplant within 6 months. Patients with single ventricle physiology continue to pose major challenges. Two clinical trials for miniaturized adult continuous flow devices and one trial for a new pediatric pump will begin within the next year. New continuous flow devices are entering or poised to enter clinical trials. If approved, these devices will enhance the safety and variety of options for longer-term pediatric support.

  14. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, J. E.; Gwyn, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan's government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  15. Using federal technology policy to strength the US microelectronics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.E.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    A review of US and Japanese experiences with using microelectronics consortia as a tool for strengthening their respective industries reveals major differences. Japan has established catch-up consortia with focused goals. These consortia have a finite life targeted from the beginning, and emphasis is on work that supports or leads to product and process-improvement-driven commercialization. Japan`s government has played a key role in facilitating the development of consortia and has used consortia promote domestic competition. US consortia, on the other hand, have often emphasized long-range research with considerably less focus than those in Japan. The US consortia have searched for and often made revolutionary technology advancements. However, technology transfer to their members has been difficult. Only SEMATECH has assisted its members with continuous improvements, compressing product cycles, establishing relationships, and strengthening core competencies. The US government has not been a catalyst nor provided leadership in consortia creation and operation. We propose that in order to regain world leadership in areas where US companies lag foreign competition, the US should create industry-wide, horizontal-vertical, catch-up consortia or continue existing consortia in the six areas where the US lags behind Japan -- optoelectronics, displays, memories, materials, packaging, and manufacturing equipment. In addition, we recommend that consortia be established for special government microelectronics and microelectronics research integration and application. We advocate that these consortia be managed by an industry-led Microelectronics Alliance, whose establishment would be coordinated by the Department of Commerce. We further recommend that the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, and relevant elements of other federal programs be integrated into this consortia complex.

  16. Sandia programs relevant to microelectronics fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, S.T.; Vook, F.L.; Gregory, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report was prepared for the Semiconductor Industry and the National Laboratories Workshop held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, February 24, 1987. It details the current Sandia program activities relevant to microelectronics fabrication.

  17. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  18. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  19. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  20. Advanced Materials for Use in Soft Self-Healing Devices.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Sonar, Prashant; Haick, Hossam

    2017-05-01

    Devices integrated with self-healing ability can benefit from long-term use as well as enhanced reliability, maintenance and durability. This progress report reviews the developments in the field of self-healing polymers/composites and wearable devices thereof. One part of the progress report presents and discusses several aspects of the self-healing materials chemistry (from non-covalent to reversible covalent-based mechanisms), as well as the required main approaches used for functionalizing the composites to enhance their electrical conductivity, magnetic, dielectric, electroactive and/or photoactive properties. The second and complementary part of the progress report links the self-healing materials with partially or fully self-healing device technologies, including wearable sensors, supercapacitors, solar cells and fabrics. Some of the strong and weak points in the development of each self-healing device are clearly highlighted and criticized, respectively. Several ideas regarding further improvement of soft self-healing devices are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Devices in the management of advanced, chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, William T.; Smith, Sakima A.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a global phenomenon, and the overall incidence and prevalence of the condition are steadily increasing. Medical therapies have proven efficacious, but only a small number of pharmacological options are in development. When patients cease to respond adequately to optimal medical therapy, cardiac resynchronization therapy has been shown to improve symptoms, reduce hospitalizations, promote reverse remodelling, and decrease mortality. However, challenges remain in identifying the ideal recipients for this therapy. The field of mechanical circulatory support has seen immense growth since the early 2000s, and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have transitioned over the past decade from large, pulsatile devices to smaller, more-compact, continuous-flow devices. Infections and haematological issues are still important areas that need to be addressed. Whereas LVADs were once approved only for ‘bridge to transplantation’, these devices are now used as destination therapy for critically ill patients with HF, allowing these individuals to return to the community. A host of novel strategies, including cardiac contractility modulation, implantable haemodynamic-monitoring devices, and phrenic and vagus nerve stimulation, are under investigation and might have an impact on the future care of patients with chronic HF. PMID:23229137

  2. Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Mark S; Rogers, Joseph G; Milano, Carmelo A; Russell, Stuart D; Conte, John V; Feldman, David; Sun, Benjamin; Tatooles, Antone J; Delgado, Reynolds M; Long, James W; Wozniak, Thomas C; Ghumman, Waqas; Farrar, David J; Frazier, O Howard

    2009-12-03

    Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may be more durable than the pulsatile-flow devices. In this randomized trial, we enrolled patients with advanced heart failure who were ineligible for transplantation, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo implantation of a continuous-flow device (134 patients) or the currently approved pulsatile-flow device (66 patients). The primary composite end point was, at 2 years, survival free from disabling stroke and reoperation to repair or replace the device. Secondary end points included survival, frequency of adverse events, the quality of life, and functional capacity. Preoperative characteristics were similar in the two treatment groups, with a median age of 64 years (range, 26 to 81), a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 17%, and nearly 80% of patients receiving intravenous inotropic agents. The primary composite end point was achieved in more patients with continuous-flow devices than with pulsatile-flow devices (62 of 134 [46%] vs. 7 of 66 [11%]; P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.54; P<0.001), and patients with continuous-flow devices had superior actuarial survival rates at 2 years (58% vs. 24%, P=0.008). Adverse events and device replacements were less frequent in patients with the continuous-flow device. The quality of life and functional capacity improved significantly in both groups. Treatment with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device in patients with advanced heart failure significantly improved the probability of survival free from stroke and device failure at 2 years as compared with a pulsatile device. Both devices significantly improved the quality of life and functional capacity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121485.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  3. To ventricular assist devices or not: When is implantation of a ventricular assist device appropriate in advanced ambulatory heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Cerier, Emily; Lampert, Brent C; Kilic, Arman; McDavid, Asia; Deo, Salil V; Kilic, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Advanced heart failure has been traditionally treated via either heart transplantation, continuous inotropes, consideration for hospice and more recently via left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). Heart transplantation has been limited by organ availability and the futility of other options has thrust LVAD therapy into the mainstream of therapy for end stage heart failure. Improvements in technology and survival combined with improvements in the quality of life have made LVADs a viable option for many patients suffering from heart failure. The question of when to implant these devices in those patients with advanced, yet still ambulatory heart failure remains a controversial topic. We discuss the current state of LVAD therapy and the risk vs benefit of these devices in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:28070237

  4. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase 4. Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the automated instructional system on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams AF8, Arizona (Faconti & Epps, 1975; Faconti...Nortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980; Knoop, 1973). The ASPT is a sophisticated research device that incorporates advanced visual and...potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found that SIs tended to use the device in a fairly conventional manner. with few

  5. Ferrite-superconductor devices for advanced microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, G.F.; Oates, D.E.; Temme, D.H.; Weiss, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    Microwave devices comprising magnetized ferrite in contact with superconductor circuits designed to eliminate magnetic field penetration of the superconductor have demonstrated phase shift without significant conduction losses. The device structures are adaptable to low- or high-{Tc} superconductors. A nonoptimized design of a ferrite phase shifter that employs niobium or YBCO meanderlines has produced over 1,000 degrees of differential phase shift with a figure of merit exceeding 1,000 degrees/dB at X band. By combining superconductor meanderline sections with alternating T junctions on a ferrite substrate in a configuration with three-fold symmetry, a low-loss three-port switching circulator has been demonstrated.

  6. Neuropsychological impairment among former microelectronics workers.

    PubMed

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Huel, G; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although chemicals posing potential neurotoxic hazards are commonly used in the microelectronics industry, there has been no systematic study of possible chronic nervous system effects in microelectronics workers. The objective of the present study was to assess neuropsychological functions of a group of former microelectronics plant assembly workers and a group of referents, using a matched pair design. During employment, the former microelectronics workers had been exposed to multiple organic solvents, including trichloroethylene, xylene, chlorofluorocarbons and trichloroethane. Referents were recruited from the same geographic region. From a pool of 180 former workers and 157 referents, 67 pairs were matched on the basis of age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, sex and number of children. Comparison of results on the subtests of the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Revised (CNS-R) revealed significantly lower performance by the former microelectronics workers on tests of attention/concentration, verbal ability, memory functions, visuospatial functions, visuomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor speed, and reaction time (t-test for pairs or Wilcoxon Signed Rank p less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed for performance on tests assessing mental status, visual recall, tactile function and learning. This overall pattern of impairment is consistent with organic solvent-related chronic toxic encephalopathy, and possible early stages of dementia. These findings underline the need for more studies among workers currently or previously employed in microelectronics industries.

  7. Development of a micropump for microelectronic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.C.; Adkins, D.R.; Chu, Dahwey

    1996-10-01

    To demonstrate a system integration process for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), we are building an active cooling MEMS unit for microelectronics applications. This integrated unit will incorporate a micropump, temperature sensors, microchannels, and heat exchange devices into a single unit. The first phase of this research project is to develop and test a micropump capable of moving the working fluid within the integrated device. This paper will discuss the design, development, testing, and evaluation of a micropump concept. The micropump which was developed is an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) injection pump. Fabrication of the pump was accomplished using laser micromachining technology, and two initial designs were examined for full fabrication. The first design has two silicon parts stacked vertically on top of each other. Gold is deposited on one side of each stacked plate to serve as electrodes for the electrohydrodynamic pump. A Nd:YAG laser is used to drill an array of circular holes in the {open_quotes}well{close_quotes} region of both silicon parts, leaving an open pathway for fluid movement. Next the silicon parts are aligned and bonded together, thus becoming a EHD pump. Fluid flow has been observed when an electric voltage is applied across the electrodes. The second design has the silicon parts which contain the flow grid oriented {open_quotes}back-to-back{close_quotes} and bonded together. This {open_quotes}back-to-back{close_quotes} design has a shorter grid distance between the anode and cathode plates so that a smaller voltage is required for pumping. Preliminary results from laboratory experiments have demonstrated that this EHD micropump design can achieve a pressure head of about 287 Pa with an applied voltage of 120 V.

  8. Large-Area Laser-Lift-Off Processing in Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, R.; Brune, J.

    Laser lift-off is an enabling technology for microelectronics growth markets such as light emitting diodes, densely packaged semiconductor devices, and flexible displays. For example, thin film transistor structures fabricated on top of polymer layers spun on glass carriers must be delaminated from rigid substrates to create lightweight and rugged flexible displays on polymers. Low-thermal-budget processes are generically required to protect adjacent functional films. Excimer lasers provide short UV wavelength and short pulse duration required for highly-localized energy coupling. The high output power of excimer lasers enables a large processing footprint and the high-throughput rates needed in mass manufacturing.

  9. Experimental investigation of single-phase microjet cooling of microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusowicz, Artur; Leszczyński, Maciej; Grzebielec, Andrzej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Development of electronics, which aims to improve the functionality of electronic devices, aims at increasing the packing of transistors in a chip and boosting clock speed (the number of elementary operations per second). While pursuing this objective, one encounters the growing problem of thermal nature. Each switching of the logic state at the elementary level of an integrated circuit is associated with the generation of heat. Due to a large number of transistors and high clock speeds, higher heat flux is emitted by the microprocessor to a level where the component needs to be intensively cooled, or otherwise it will become overheated. This paper presents the cooling of microelectronic components using microjets.

  10. Microelectronic components and metallic oxide studies and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The project involved work in two basic areas: (1) Evaluation of commercial screen printable thick film conductors, resistors, thermistors and dielectrics as well as alumina substrates used in hybird microelectronics industries. Results of tests made on materials produced by seven companies are presented. (2) Experimental studies on metallic oxides of copper and vanadium, in an effort to determine their electrochemical properties in crystalline, powder mixtures and as screen printable thick films constituted the second phase of the research effort. Oxide investigations were aimed at finding possible applications of these materials as switching devices memory elements and sensors.

  11. Mandibular Advancing Positive Pressure Apnea Remediation Device (MAPPARD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    23  B.  MAPPARD PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES ........................................ 27  C.  HAPTIC PROTOTYPE...30  Figure 18.  Early haptic MAPPARD prototype set into dental stone model. ......... 31  Figure 19.  Early haptic MAPPARD device, side view...32  Figure 20.  Early haptic MAPPARD, rear view. ..................................................... 32  Figure

  12. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  13. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  14. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: Review of profile and roughening simulation in microelectronics plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2009-10-01

    Plasma etching of thin films is essential for microelectronics manufacturing. With current feature sizes of 35 nm in production and processes for smaller devices being developed, the sidewall roughness is within the order of magnitude of the gate length of the device, and therefore significantly impacts the devices' performance. In this paper we review the modelling of the surface profile evolution in plasma etching. Both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models have been developed using a number of representations and solution algorithms. String algorithms and the method of characteristics use a segmented string which is incrementally advanced. Level-set representations describe the profile evolution as a moving interface in response to a velocity field. Cellular representations in which the area or volume domain is divided into discrete cells have been used with flux and surface kinetics based on Monte Carlo calculations. We discuss our work in the modelling of profile evolution with surface roughening using a 3D cellular Monte Carlo simulation. The formation of perpendicular and parallel ripple formation on planar surfaces as a function of ion bombardment incidence angle and the transformation from perpendicular to parallel as etching progresses has been modelled. The smoothing and/or roughening of resist masks has been demonstrated along with the pattern transfer of roughness into the underlying layers being etched.

  16. Integrated microelectronics for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Christl; Glaser, Rupert; Savio, Domnic; Schnell, Markus; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The combination of textile fabrics with microelectronics will lead to completely new applications, thus achieving elements of ambient intelligence. The integration of sensor or actuator networks, using fabrics with conductive fibres as a textile motherboard enable the fabrication of large active areas. In this paper we describe an integration technology for the fabrication of a "smart textile" based on a wired peer-to-peer network of microcontrollers with integrated sensors or actuators. A self-organizing and fault-tolerant architecture is accomplished which detects the physical shape of the network. Routing paths are formed for data transmission, automatically circumventing defective or missing areas. The network architecture allows the smart textiles to be produced by reel-to-reel processes, cut into arbitrary shapes subsequently and implemented in systems at low installation costs. The possible applications are manifold, ranging from alarm systems to intelligent guidance systems, passenger recognition in car seats, air conditioning control in interior lining and smart wallpaper with software-defined light switches.

  17. Development of Improved Microwave Dielectric Materials and Devices using Advanced Experimental and Theoretical Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-17

    REPORT Development of improved microwave dielectric materials and devices using advanced experimental and theoretical methods 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY... methods Report Title ABSTRACT Our work has made important progress towards developing a fundamental understanding of the microscopic mechanism that causes...electromagnetic Band Gap Filters using advanced ceramic injection molding methods ”, Semiconductor Research Corporation Packaging and Interconnect Summer

  18. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  19. Advanced investigation of two-phase charge-coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosonocky, W. F.; Carnes, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of experimental two phase, charge-coupled shift registers constructed using polysilicon gates overlapped by aluminum gates was studied. Shift registers with 64, 128, and 500 stages were built and operated. Devices were operated at the maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz. Loss per transfer of less than .0001 was demonstrated for fat zero operation. The effect upon transfer efficiency of various structural and materials parameters was investigated including substrate orientation, resistivity, and conductivity type; channel width and channel length; and method of channel confinement. Operation of the devices with and without fat zero was studied as well as operation in the complete charge transfer mode and the bias charge, or bucket brigade mode.

  20. Gain saturation model of microchannel plate devices: recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicotti, Leonardo; Bassan, Michele; Pasqualotto, Roberto; Sardella, Andrea

    1997-12-01

    A previous model of microchannel plate (MCP) devices operating in conditions of gain saturation has been extended to include charge diffusion along the microchannel during the gain recovery process. To this purpose the set of independent recharging circuits previously associated to each MCP dynode has been replaced by a distributed parameter electrical network that represents the entire microchannel consistently with the structure of the microchannel wall as described in the literature. The model obtained in this way, unlike the previous one, takes into account the interaction between dynodes during the gain recovery and is also consistent with the operation of MCP devices in conditions of very fast gating. As for the previous model the gain and voltage along the channel are described by a pair of coupled, nonlinear differential equations whose numerical solutions are computed in conditions of a steady-state input current. Simplified analytical solutions for short pulse operations are also derived and discussed.

  1. Space Radiation Effects in Advanced Solar Cell Materials and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    after irradiation to high fluence levels, these results also highlight the influence that the solar cell structure can have on the device radiation...response. This will be important in the discussion of multijunction solar cell response below. BASIC MULTIJUNCTION SOLAR CELL STRUCTURE A multijunction...MJ) solar cell is a structure , which consists of a monolithic stack of several semiconductor materials with different bandgaps. The layers are

  2. Point-of-care (POC) devices by means of advanced MEMS.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Stanislav L; Tarhan, Mehmet C; Kudo, Lili C; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have become an invaluable technology to advance the development of point-of-care (POC) devices for diagnostics and sample analyses. MEMS can transform sophisticated methods into compact and cost-effective microdevices that offer numerous advantages at many levels. Such devices include microchannels, microsensors, etc., that have been applied to various miniaturized POC products. Here we discuss some of the recent advances made in the use of MEMS devices for POC applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A band-modulation device in advanced FDSOI technology: Sharp switching characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Dirani, Hassan; Solaro, Yohann; Fonteneau, Pascal; Legrand, Charles-Alex; Marin-Cudraz, David; Golanski, Dominique; Ferrari, Philippe; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2016-11-01

    A band-modulation device is demonstrated experimentally in advanced FDSOI (Fully Depleted SOI). The Z2-FET (Zero Impact Ionization and Zero Subthreshold Slope FET) is a very recent sharp switching device which achieves remarkable performance in terms of leakage current and triggering control. The device is fabricated with Ultra-Thin Body and Buried Oxide (UTBB) Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology, features an extremely sharp on-switch, low leakage and an adjustable triggering voltage (VON). The Z2-FET operation relies on the modulation of electrons and holes injection barriers. In this paper, we show, for the first time, experimental data obtained with the most advanced FDSOI node.

  4. The Microelectronics Education Programme--Dissemination and Diffusion of Microelectronics Technology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, J. A.; Anderson, J. S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Microelectronics Education Programme, a development program which embodies the building of a springboard for the dissemination of microelectronic innovations that will benefit education. Springboard activities discussed in detail include information dissemination through regional information centers, inservice teacher training, and…

  5. Micromachined sensor and actuator research at the Microelectronics Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Smith, B.K.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    An overview of the major sensor and actuator projects using the micromachining capabilities of the Microelectronics Development Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Development efforts are underway for a variety of micromechanical devices and control electronics for those devices. Surface micromachining is the predominant technology under development. Pressure sensors based on silicon nitride diaphragms have been developed. Hot polysilicon filaments for calorimetric gas sensing have been developed. Accelerometers based upon high-aspect ratio surface micromachining are under development. Actuation mechanisms employing either electrostatic or steam power are being combined with a three-level active (plus an additional passive level) polysilicon surface micromachining process to couple these actuators to external devices. Results of efforts toward integration of micromechanics with the driving electronics for actuators or the amplification/signal processing electronics for sensors is also described. This effort includes a tungsten metallization process to allow the CMOS electronics to withstand high-temperature micromechanical processing.

  6. Integrated Optics And Microelectronics : Toward An Integration On A Single Silicon Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, S.; Jadot, J. P.; Gidon, P.; Kevorkian, A.

    1988-06-01

    In this paper we present the capabilities of the silicon based integrated optics technology to be associated with microelectronics. Through the first device already achieved, we analyse what kind of poblems remains to solve and in what field of applications this association seems the more attractive.

  7. Advances in nanoimprint lithography and applications in nanofluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaogan

    The research work presented in this thesis focuses on three topics: (1) studies of several critical aspects of nanoimprint lithography (NIL), including methods of mold pressing, air bubble defects, and dynamic behaviors of liquid resist flow; (2) applications of NIL to the fabrication of novel nanofluidic devices, which can be used for real-time DNA detection; and (3) additional applications of structured stamps or templates in the direct engineering of functional materials. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into three parts. The first part describes recent studies of critical techniques of NIL. First, a novel imprint approach using electrostatic force was developed to pattern spin-on resists in ambient environment. Using this Electrostatic Force-Assisted NIL (EFAN) approach, highly uniform imprints over a 4" diameter wafer area and sub-0.5 mum overlay precision were obtained using very simple equipment. Second, another important method for performing step-and-repeat imprint in the atmosphere, dispensing-based NIL, still suffers from air bubble defects formed by feature pinning and the circling of residual air by the merge of multiple resist droplets. However, it was found that the tiny bubbles can be completely absorbed by the liquid resist. The effects of several key parameters, such as bubble size, imprinting pressure, resist viscosity and solubility, and residual layer thickness, on the air dissolution rate were studied experimentally and theoretically. Their impact to the yield and throughput of NIL was also analyzed. Third, a novel method was developed for filling liquid resists into the air gap between the structured mold and the substrate. The method is assisted by dielectrophoresis, caused by electrohydrodynamic force. The second part describes the applications of NIL to making nanofluidic channel devices and device integration. First, a novel imprint-based method was developed to fabricate precisely positioned single nanofluidic channels of

  8. Advanced semiconductor quantum well devices for infrared applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.

    High performance mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are needed for chemical sensing, analysis and medical imaging. Efficient long wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors are highly desirable for remote sensing and space exploration. The goal of this work is to investigate new mid-infrared LEDs and to optimize existing LWIR quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). Type-II "W" InAs/InGaSb/AlGaAsSb quantum wells were incorporated as optically active layers in MWIR LEDs. Influence of MBE crystal growth conditions on the density of Shockley-Read-Hall centers in the "W" quantum wells was studied and the optimal growth conditions were identified. A qualitative physical model was developed to describe relative importance of the radiative and non-radiative processes for various temperature ranges. MWIR LED structures lattice-matched to InAs and GaSb substrates were grown. Devices on InAs substrates were found to be at least twice as efficient as devices grown on GaSb. LEDs on InAs had 4.5 mum emission wavelength and 26.5 muW/A external efficiency. Possibility to operate GaAs/AIGaAs QWIP under normal-to-surface light incidence was studied. Metal nano-particle surface coating was developed and processes responsible for, light coupling into the QWIP were investigated. QWIP structure itself was optimized to eliminate Si-diffusion-assisted dark current enhancement by employing a new doping profile in the quantum wells. Devices with the new doping profile had an order of magnitude lower dark current and 20% higher photoresponse than commercially available QWIPs.

  9. Advances in semiconductor device design for radiation detection in medical and industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, A. Muti

    In recent years, the use of radioactive material in industry and medical fields has rapidly increased. The need for an accurate, durable, reliable, small size, energy efficient and absolute dosimeter has become important, especially in radiotherapy-oncology where the general consensus is that the overall standard deviation in the absorbed dose should be about 3.5% at the dose specification point, and 5% elsewhere in the target area. Techniques using semiconductor devices for radiation detection and dose-rate measurements have become increasingly important for they have a fast response and superior physical and electrical properties in radiation detection as compared with other existing detectors. They show promise as an excellent method of detecting and measuring radiation despite their apparent deficiencies. They also offer good prospects of simulating the response of the cellular DNA. They have the potential to become important for radiation detection and dose-rate measurement in photon, electron, and proton radiation fields as well as in clinical situations for assessment of relative dose distributions. These factors are among those which have made them desirable for clinical, industrial and aerospace applications as well as for personal protection where radiation is expected. During this research, a method was developed to overcome some of the limitations of semiconductor radiation detectors, where a novel solid state microelectronic device described above which detects radiation, measures dose-rate, monitors the surrounding environment, withstands either uni- or mixed-radiation fields with ease. Error less than +/- 2% has been achieved. Also a method has been developed to ensure that the signal can be accurately reproduced in successive measurements. The detector output response is also temperature independent and does not depend on the orientation angle. It is of a miniature size (of the order of 1.0 mm2 when it is of an array form), enabling it to be placed

  10. River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials (River DREAM)

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Daniel P.

    2013-07-03

    The purpose of this project is to develop a generator called a Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED). It uses a galloping prism to convert water flow into linear motion. This motion is converted into electricity via a dielectric elastomer generator (DEG). The galloping mechanism and the DEG are combined to create a system to effectively generate electricity. This project has three research objectives: 1. Oscillator development and design a. Characterize galloping behavior, evaluate control surface shape change on oscillator performance and demonstrate shape change with water flow change. 2. Dielectric Energy Generator (DEG) characterization and modeling a. Characterize and model the performance of the DEG based on oscillator design 3. Galloping Hydroelectric Energy Extraction Device (GHEED) system modeling and integration a. Create numerical models for construction of a system performance model and define operating capabilities for this approach Accomplishing these three objectives will result in the creation of a model that can be used to fully define the operating parameters and performance capabilities of a generator based on the GHEED design. This information will be used in the next phase of product development, the creation of an integrated laboratory scale generator to confirm model predictions.

  11. Recent Advances in Electrospun Nanofiber Interfaces for Biosensing Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sapountzi, Eleni; Braiek, Mohamed; Chateaux, Jean-François; Lagarde, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as a very powerful method combining efficiency, versatility and low cost to elaborate scalable ordered and complex nanofibrous assemblies from a rich variety of polymers. Electrospun nanofibers have demonstrated high potential for a wide spectrum of applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, energy conversion and storage, or physical and chemical sensors. The number of works related to biosensing devices integrating electrospun nanofibers has also increased substantially over the last decade. This review provides an overview of the current research activities and new trends in the field. Retaining the bioreceptor functionality is one of the main challenges associated with the production of nanofiber-based biosensing interfaces. The bioreceptors can be immobilized using various strategies, depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of both bioreceptors and nanofiber scaffolds, and on their interfacial interactions. The production of nanobiocomposites constituted by carbon, metal oxide or polymer electrospun nanofibers integrating bioreceptors and conductive nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles) has been one of the major trends in the last few years. The use of electrospun nanofibers in ELISA-type bioassays, lab-on-a-chip and paper-based point-of-care devices is also highly promising. After a short and general description of electrospinning process, the different strategies to produce electrospun nanofiber biosensing interfaces are discussed. PMID:28813013

  12. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-02-06

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as {approx} 16 We/kg and {approx} 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is {approx} 640 m2 and {approx} 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is {approx} 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is {approx} 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems.

  13. Advances in graphene-related technologies: synthesis, devices and outlook.

    PubMed

    Frazier, R M; Hough, W L; Chopra, N; Hathcock, K W

    2012-06-01

    Graphene has been the subject of many scientific investigations since exfoliation methods facilitated isolation of the two-dimensional material. During this time, new synthesis methods have been developed which have opened technological opportunities previously hindered by synthetic constraints. An update on the recent advances in graphene-based technologies, including synthesis and applications into electrical, mechanical and thermal uses will be covered. A special focus on the patent space and commercial landscape will be given in an effort to identify current trends and future commercialization of graphene-related technologies.

  14. Advanced Silicon Photonic Device Architectures for Optical Communications: Proposals and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacher, Wesley David

    Photonic integrated circuits implemented on silicon (Si) hold the potential for densely integrated electro-optic and passive devices manufactured by the high-volume fabrication and sophisticated assembly processes used for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. However, high index contrast Si photonics has a number of functional limitations. In this thesis, several devices are proposed, designed, and experimentally demonstrated to overcome challenges in the areas of resonant modulation, waveguide loss, fiber-to-chip coupling, and polarization control. The devices were fabricated using foundry services at IBM and A*STAR Institute of Microelectronics (IME). First, we describe coupling modulated microrings, in which the coupler between a microring and the bus waveguide is modulated. The device circumvents the modulation bandwidth vs. resonator linewidth trade-off of conventional intracavity modulated microrings. We demonstrate a Si coupling modulated microring with a small-signal modulation response free of the parasitic resonator linewidth limitations at frequencies up to about 6x the linewidth. Comparisons of eye diagrams show that coupling modulation achieved data rates > 2x the rate attainable with intracavity modulation. Second, we demonstrate a silicon nitride (Si3N4)-on-Si photonic platform with independent Si3N4 and Si waveguides and taper transitions to couple light between the layers. The platform combines the excellent passive waveguide properties of Si3N4 and the compatibility of Si waveguides with electro-optic devices. Within the platform, we propose and demonstrate dual-level, Si3N 4-on-Si, fiber-to-chip grating couplers that simultaneously have wide bandwidths and high coupling efficiencies. Conventional Si and Si3N 4 grating couplers suffer from a trade-off between bandwidth and coupling efficiency. The dual-level grating coupler achieved a peak coupling efficiency of -1.3 dB and a 1-dB bandwidth of 80 nm, a record for the

  15. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  16. Monitoring critical facilities by using advanced RF devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y.; Shuler, James

    2013-07-01

    The ability to monitor critical environment parameters of nuclear plants at all times, particularly during and after a disruptive accident, is vital for the safety of plant personnel, rescue and recovery crews, and the surrounding communities. Conventional hard-wired assets that depend on supplied power may be decimated as a result of such events, as witnessed in the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011. Self-powered monitoring devices operating on a wireless platform, on the other hand, may survive such calamity and remain functional. The devices would be pre-positioned at strategic locations, particularly where the dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance. Equipped with sensors for β-γ radiation, neutrons, hydrogen gas, temperature, humidity, pressure, and water level, as well as with criticality alarms and imaging equipment for heat, video, and other capabilities, these devices can provide vital surveillance information for assessing the extent of plant damage, mandating responses (e.g., evacuation before impending hydrogen explosion), and enabling overall safe and efficient recovery in a disaster. A radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system - called ARG-US - may be modified and adapted for this task. Developed by Argonne for DOE, ARG-US (meaning 'watchful guardian') has been used successfully to monitor and track sensitive nuclear materials packages at DOE sites. It utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users when any of the preset sensor thresholds is violated. By adding plant-specific monitoring sensors to the already strong sensor suite and adopting modular hardware, firmware, and software subsystems that are tailored for specific subsystems of a plant, a Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) system, built on a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform, is being developed

  17. Advanced neutral gas diagnostics for magnetic confinement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, U.; Kremeyer, T.; Schlisio, G.; Marquardt, M.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schmitz, O.; Mackie, B.; Maisano-Brown, J.; the W7-X team

    2017-09-01

    For the study of particle exhaust in nuclear fusion devices the neutral pressure must be measured in strong magnetic fields. We describe as an example the neutral pressure gauges in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Two types are used: hot cathode ionization gauges (or ASDEX pressure gauges) and Penning gauges. We show some results from the first experimental campaign. The main problems were runtime effects and the failure of some ASDEX pressure gauges. To improve the reliability we integrated a new LaB6 electron emitter into the ASDEX pressure gauges. In addition, a special Penning gauge without permanent magnets was developed in order to operate Penning gauges near the plasma edge. These new pressure gauges will be used in the upcoming campaign of Wendelstein 7-X.

  18. Case studies in advanced monitoring with the Chronicle device.

    PubMed

    Bourge, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate the utility of advanced implantable hemodynamic monitors (IHMs). The cases include a 70-year-old with ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic kidney disease, and recurrent volume overload; a 53-year-old with ischemic heart disease, mild effort-related angina, and New York Heart Association class III chronic heart failure; and a 21-year-old with severe dilated cardiomyopathy, all 3 patients having an IHM. The outcomes in these cases illustrate the capability of the IHM system for monitoring and detecting early changes in hemodynamic data and the use of these data to adjust medical therapies and reduce morbidity and risk of hospitalization. When pathologic hemodynamic changes are observed, this alerts the cardiologist to search for underlying causes, even when a patient on initial questioning denies any change in compliance or symptoms.

  19. Organ-on-a-chip devices advance to market.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boyang; Radisic, Milica

    2017-07-11

    To curb the high cost of drug development, there is an urgent need to develop more predictive tissue models using human cells to determine drug efficacy and safety in advance of clinical testing. Recent insights gained through fundamental biological studies have validated the importance of dynamic cell environments and cellular communication to the expression of high fidelity organ function. Building on this knowledge, emerging organ-on-a-chip technology is poised to fill the gaps in drug screening by offering predictive human tissue models with methods of sophisticated tissue assembly. Organ-on-a-chip start-ups have begun to spawn from academic research to fill this commercial space and are attracting investment to transform the drug discovery industry. This review traces the history, examines the scientific foundation and envisages the prospect of these renowned organ-on-a-chip technologies. It serves as a guide for new members of this dynamic field to navigate the existing scientific and market space.

  20. Advanced Materials for Health Monitoring with Skin-Based Wearable Devices.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han; Abu-Raya, Yasmin Shibli; Haick, Hossam

    2017-06-01

    Skin-based wearable devices have a great potential that could result in a revolutionary approach to health monitoring and diagnosing disease. With continued innovation and intensive attention to the materials and fabrication technologies, development of these healthcare devices is progressively encouraged. This article gives a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to recent advances and developments in the scope of skin-based wearable devices (e.g. temperature, strain, biomarker-analysis werable devices, etc.), with an emphasis on emerging materials and fabrication techniques in the relevant fields. To give a comprehensive statement, part of the review presents and discusses different aspects of these advanced materials, such as the sensitivity, biocompatibility and durability as well as the major approaches proposed for enhancing their chemical and physical properties. A complementary section of the review linking these advanced materials with wearable device technologies is particularly specified. Some of the strong and weak points in development of each wearable material/device are highlighted and criticized. Several ideas regarding further improvement of skin-based wearable devices are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited; exceptions. 381.131 Section... Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited... otherwise make any marking device containing any official mark or simulation thereof, or any label...

  2. Microelectronics and nanotechnology, and the fractal-like structure of information, knowledge, and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutu, Catalin Silviu; Axinte, Tiberiu

    2016-12-01

    The article is centralizing and is concentrating the information from a considerable amount of papers related to the field of microelectronics and nanotechnology and also provides an approach to science and to the future evolution of science, based on the theory of the fractals. The new science of microelectronics and nanotechnology is one of the best examples of how the science of future will look like, namely at the confluence of increasingly more other sciences, where increasingly more sciences are to be added in the structure of the new science and the role of the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary is becoming more and more important. Although not giving explicit details (e.g. specific formulas) the theory of fractals is used in the paper to explain the way of generation of new science for the specific case of microelectronics and nanotechnology, but is also used in the paper to outline a different way to approach new science and eventually to approach new sciences to come. There are mainly two motivations for the present article, namely: on the one hand, the position of the microelectronics and nanotechnologies in the fractal-like structure of science, and, on the other hand, that much of the communication, information, knowledge and science transfer, dissemination and advancement in sciences are taking place using the new technologies related to microelectronics and nanotechnologies.

  3. Advanced numerical methods and software approaches for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    CAREY,GRAHAM F.; PARDHANANI,A.L.; BOVA,STEVEN W.

    2000-03-23

    In this article the authors concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to drift-dominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the drift-diffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of upwind and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter-Gummel approach, Petrov-Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), entropy variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of the methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. They have included numerical examples from the recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and they emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, they briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.

  4. Advanced Numerical Methods and Software Approaches for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Carey, Graham F.; Pardhanani, A. L.; Bova, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we concisely present several modern strategies that are applicable to driftdominated carrier transport in higher-order deterministic models such as the driftdiffusion, hydrodynamic, and quantum hydrodynamic systems. The approaches include extensions of “upwind” and artificial dissipation schemes, generalization of the traditional Scharfetter – Gummel approach, Petrov – Galerkin and streamline-upwind Petrov Galerkin (SUPG), “entropy” variables, transformations, least-squares mixed methods and other stabilized Galerkin schemes such as Galerkin least squares and discontinuous Galerkin schemes. The treatment is representative rather than an exhaustive review and several schemes are mentioned only briefly with appropriate reference to the literature. Some of themore » methods have been applied to the semiconductor device problem while others are still in the early stages of development for this class of applications. We have included numerical examples from our recent research tests with some of the methods. A second aspect of the work deals with algorithms that employ unstructured grids in conjunction with adaptive refinement strategies. The full benefits of such approaches have not yet been developed in this application area and we emphasize the need for further work on analysis, data structures and software to support adaptivity. Finally, we briefly consider some aspects of software frameworks. These include dial-an-operator approaches such as that used in the industrial simulator PROPHET, and object-oriented software support such as those in the SANDIA National Laboratory framework SIERRA.« less

  5. Advance in novel boron nitride nanosheets to nanoelectronic device applications.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Morell, Gerardo; Feng, Peter

    2013-06-12

    We report low-temperature synthesis of large-scale boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and their applications for high-performance Schottky diode and gas sensor. Ten minutes of synthesis with a short-pulse-laser-produced plasma deposition technique yields a large amount of highly flat, transparent BNNSs. A basic reason for using short-pulse plasma beams is to avoid nanosheet thermal ablation or have low heat generated. Consequently, it greatly reduces the stress and yield large, flat BNNSs. The average size of obtained BNNS is around 10 μm and thickness is around 1.7 nm. Carbon element has been used for doping BNNSs and achieving BNNSs-based Schottky diode and gas sensing device. Typical current versus voltage characteristics of diode are examined. The breakdown reverse voltage is around -70 V. This probably indicates that the breakdown electric field of BNNSs-based diode is up to 1 × 10(8) V/cm. Sensing behavior of BNNSs-based gas sensor toward methane diluted with dry air is also characterized. The response time and recovery time are around 3 and 5 s at the operating temperature of 150 °C. Relatively, the sensor has poor sensitivity to oxygen gas.

  6. Advanced Controls for the Multi-pod Centipod WEC device

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Alan; Fleming, Alex

    2016-02-15

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) has developed a Wave Energy Converter (WEC), Centipod, which is a multiple point absorber, extracting wave energy primarily in the heave direction through a plurality of point absorber floats sharing a common stable reference structure. The objective of this project was to develop advanced control algorithms that will be used to reduce Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). This project investigated the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to improve the power capture of the WEC. The MPC controller developed in this work is a state-space, “look ahead” controller approach using knowledge of past and current states to predict future states to take action with the PTO to maximize power capture while still respecting system constraints. In order to maximize power, which is the product of force and velocity, the controller must aim to create phase alignment between excitation force and velocity. This project showed a 161% improvement in the Annual Energy Production (AEP) for the Centipod WEC when utilizing MPC, compared to a baseline, fixed passive damping control strategy. This improvement in AEP was shown to provide a substantial benefit to the WEC’s overall Cost of Energy, reducing LCOE by 50% from baseline. The results of this work proved great potential for the adoption of Model Predictive Controls in Wave Energy Converters.

  7. Efficient detection of leukemia-related fusion transcripts by multiplex PCR applied on a microelectronic platform.

    PubMed

    Corradi, B; Fazio, G; Palmi, C; Rossi, V; Biondi, A; Cazzaniga, G

    2008-02-01

    The identification of prognostically relevant fusion genes is required in the routine diagnostic process of most advanced clinical protocols for leukemia patients, either for risk stratification, target-specific treatments, and/or as markers for monitoring Minimal Residual Disease during treatment. However, there is emerging need to implement diagnostics and patient classification based on other biological features, such as expression levels of specific genes or genomic polymorphisms and/or mutations. This advancement would ideally be pursued in a diagnostic laboratory by an unique platform capable of different diagnostic purposes. We developed a rapid, accurate and reproducible assay to screen for the most common fusion gene transcripts in human leukemia, which combines a multiplex RT-PCR approach with the electronic hybridization and fluorescent detection on the Nanogen NanoChip Molecular Biology Workstation. This study demonstrates, as a proof-of-principle, that this microelectronic device, highly effective in detecting single base mutations, is also efficient in the analysis of gene expression, thus providing as a multi-purpose platform for relevant comprehensive diagnostics of hemato-oncology patients.

  8. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  9. Current state-of-the-art of device therapy for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lawrence S.; Shekar, Prem S.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The advent of mechanical circulatory support devices has allowed significant improvements in patient survival and quality of life for those with advanced or end-stage heart failure. We provide a general overview of past and current mechanical circulatory support devices encompassing options for both short- and long-term ventricular support. PMID:25559828

  10. Active Microelectronic Neurosensor Arrays for Implantable Brain Communication Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Song, Y.-K.; Borton, D. A.; Park, S.; Patterson, W. R.; Bull, C. W.; Laiwalla, F.; Mislow, J.; Simeral, J. D.; Donoghue, J. P.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    We have built a wireless implantable microelectronic device for transmitting cortical signals transcutaneously. The device is aimed at interfacing a microelectrode array cortical to an external computer for neural control applications. Our implantable microsystem enables presently 16-channel broadband neural recording in a non-human primate brain by converting these signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses for transmission through the skin. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate onto which we have integrated ultra-low power amplification with analog multiplexing, an analog-to-digital converter, a low power digital controller chip, and infrared telemetry. The scalable 16-channel microsystem can employ any of several modalities of power supply, including via radio frequency by induction, or infrared light via a photovoltaic converter. As of today, the implant has been tested as a sub-chronic unit in non-human primates (~ 1 month), yielding robust spike and broadband neural data on all available channels. PMID:19502132

  11. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  12. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  13. jsc2017m000677_SpeedyTime2–Advanced_ Resistive_Exercise_ Device

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-20

    SpeedyTime #2 – Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Astronauts on the International Space Station have to exercise for two hours every day, but they can show off the hardware in a lot less time than that. In this “SpeedyTime” segment Expedition 52 flight engineer Peggy Whitson gives us a rapid-fire display of exercises that can be done with just one piece of equipment, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device in the Tranquility module. _______________________________________ FOLLOW THE SPACE STATION! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Space_Station Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ISS Instagram: https://instagram.com/iss/

  14. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  15. Co-Extrusion: Advanced Manufacturing for Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Corie Lynn

    2016-11-18

    The development of mass markets for large-format batteries, including electric vehicles (EVs) and grid support, depends on both cost reductions and performance enhancements to improve their economic viability. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) has developed a multi-material, advanced manufacturing process called co-extrusion (CoEx) to remove multiple steps in a conventional battery coating process with the potential to simultaneously increase battery energy and power density. CoEx can revolutionize battery manufacturing across most chemistries, significantly lowering end-product cost and shifting the underlying economics to make EVs and other battery applications a reality. PARC’s scale-up of CoEx for electric vehicle (EV) batteries builds on a solid base of experience in applying CoEx to solar cell manufacturing, deposition of viscous ceramic pastes, and Li-ion battery chemistries. In the solar application, CoEx has been deployed commercially at production scale where multi-channel CoEx printheads are used to print viscous silver gridline pastes at full production speeds (>40 ft/min). This operational scale-up provided invaluable experience with the nuances of speed, yield, and maintenance inherent in taking a new technology to the factory floor. PARC has leveraged this experience, adapting the CoEx process for Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery manufacturing. To date, PARC has worked with Li-ion battery materials and structured cathodes with high-density Li-ion regions and low-density conduction regions, documenting both energy and power performance. Modeling results for a CoEx cathode show a path towards a 10-20% improvement in capacity for an EV pouch cell. Experimentally, we have realized a co-extruded battery structure with a Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) cathode at print speeds equivalent to conventional roll coating processes. The heterogeneous CoEx cathode enables improved capacity in thick electrodes at higher C-rates. The proof-of-principle coin cells

  16. Trusted Defense Microelectronics: Future Access and Capabilities Are Uncertain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-28

    TRUSTED DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS Future Access and Capabilities Are Uncertain Statement of Marie A. Mak...1. REPORT DATE OCT 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Trusted Defense Microelectronics ...House of Representatives October 2015 TRUSTED DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS Future Access and Capabilities Are Uncertain Why GAO Did This Study DOD’s

  17. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  18. Evaluation of advanced cooling therapy's esophageal cooling device for core temperature control.

    PubMed

    Naiman, Melissa; Shanley, Patrick; Garrett, Frank; Kulstad, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Managing core temperature is critical to patient outcomes in a wide range of clinical scenarios. Previous devices designed to perform temperature management required a trade-off between invasiveness and temperature modulation efficiency. The Esophageal Cooling Device, made by Advanced Cooling Therapy (Chicago, IL), was developed to optimize warming and cooling efficiency through an easy and low risk procedure that leverages heat transfer through convection and conduction. Clinical data from cardiac arrest, fever, and critical burn patients indicate that the Esophageal Cooling Device performs very well both in terms of temperature modulation (cooling rates of approximately 1.3°C/hour, warming of up to 0.5°C/hour) and maintaining temperature stability (variation around goal temperature ± 0.3°C). Physicians have reported that device performance is comparable to the performance of intravascular temperature management techniques and superior to the performance of surface devices, while avoiding the downsides associated with both.

  19. Uses of ceramics in microelectronics: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratschun, W. R.; Mountvala, A. J.; Pincus, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The properties and behavior of ceramic materials used in components for electronic circuitry are examined to appraise the present and future directions for microelectronics, and to suggest further product development, and how innovations may be useful in other technologies. Ceramic and glass insulators, resistors, capacitors, and the use of ceramics and glasses in microcircuitry are discussed along with technology transfer to nonaerospace uses.

  20. Teaching and Learning in a Microelectronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G.

    General background information on microtechnologies with implications for educators provides an introduction to this review of past and current developments in microelectronics and specific ways in which the microchip is permeating society, creating problems and opportunities both in the workplace and the home. Topics discussed in the first of two…

  1. CEMA cooperation in microelectronics research, production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    The assignments resulting from an agreement concerning multilateral specialization and cooperation among European socialist countries in the development and production of microelectronic components for computer technology are enumerated. Several areas which impact directly on the manufacture of large scale and very large scale integrated components are identified.

  2. Problems in CEMA microelectronic cooperation noted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, J.; Kusinski, J.

    1983-10-01

    The development and market trends of products, which use large scale integrated circuits are discussed. Products such as pocket calculators, electronic wrist watches, telephones, and automobiles are used to illustrate the economic results of market saturation with specialized integrated circuits. The status of microelectronics in socialist countries in Europe is addressed.

  3. Visual dysfunction among former microelectronics assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Huel, G; Bowler, R; Frenette, B; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although known neurotoxins with potential ophthalmotoxic properties are commonly used in microelectronics assembly, there has been no systematic study of visual disturbances among past or present workers in this industry. The objective of the present study was to compare visual functions, using a matched-pair design, between former workers from a microelectronics plant and a local reference population. From an initial population of 180 former workers and 157 potential referents, 54 pairs were matched for age (+/- 3 y), education (+/- 2 y), sex, ethnic origin, and number of children. Near and far visual acuity, chromatic discrimination, and near contrast sensitivity were assessed monocularly. Paired comparisons (Signed-rank Wilcoxon test) revealed that the former microelectronics workers had significantly lower contrast sensitivity, particularly in the intermediate frequencies, independently of near visual acuity loss. There were no differences for far visual acuity in both eyes. Even though near visual acuity and color vision were compromised among the former workers, the differences were only significant for one eye, as was the prevalence of acquired dyschromatopsia (chi-square for matched pairs, p less than .001). These findings suggest a pattern of contrast sensitivity deficits consistent with impairment to foveal and/or neuro-optic pathways among these former microelectronics workers. Exposure to ophthalmotoxic chemicals is proposed as the most probable risk factor.

  4. Education, Computers and Micro-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, R.

    1981-01-01

    Traces general educational changes over the last 20 years, summarizes past and present uses of computers in education, and identifies the impact microelectronics will have on present and future education. Discusses vocational training, availability of inexpensive educational resources, teaching methods, and teacher education. (DC)

  5. Leveraging Microelectronics Research to Enable A Smarter Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Timothy J.

    2009-10-01

    Over the course of the last fifty years, the microelectronics industry has made tremendous strides in the development and manufacturing of ever more complex integrated circuits (IC). These circuits have typically been applied to the information technology (IT) industry and have driven improvements in the computational power per dollar of many orders of magnitude. Part of the ``toolbox'' of skills acquired to produce integrated circuits is the ability to form desired patterns at ever decreasing sizes. The minimum controllable feature size has been reduced by six orders of magnitude (from millimeters to nanometers) during the last fifty years. With feature sizes rapidly approaching 10nm, the conventional silicon IC industry is nearing a threshold with the end of conventional silicon scaling approaching. Research today focuses on new device structure to replace the CMOS FET as the engine of the IT industry. A very exciting research area today is the concept of taking the skill-set acquired from IC research, development, and manufacturing, and applying those skills into new domains where they can enable a ``smarter planet''. These new domains include areas such as energy, water, and health care / life sciences. All of these are outside of the traditional IT focus for microelectronics research, yet, the new ``smarter planet'' domains may form the basis for future industries. This presentation will look at the evolution of IBM's research model and focus, shifting from one solely focused on IT, to one that compliments IT research with Smarter Planet domains.

  6. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2016-07-12

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  7. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase IV--Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; And Others

    Modern aircrew training devices (ATDs) are equipped with sophisticated hardware and software capabilities, known as advanced instructional features (AIFs), that permit a simulator instructor to prepare briefings, manage training, vary task difficulty/fidelity, monitor performance, and provide feedback for flight simulation training missions. The…

  8. Non-CPAP therapies in obstructive sleep apnoea: mandibular advancement device therapy.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Marie; Verbraecken, Johan; Randerath, Winfried

    2012-05-01

    Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) represent the main non-continuous positive airway pressure (non-CPAP) therapy for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The aim of the European Respiratory Society Task Force was to review the evidence in favour of MAD therapy. Effects of tongue-retaining devices are not included in this report. Custom-made MADs reduce apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and daytime sleepiness compared with placebo devices. CPAP more effectively diminishes AHI, while increasing data suggest fairly similar outcomes in relation to symptoms and cardiovascular health from these treatments. Patients often prefer MADs to CPAP. Milder cases and patients with a proven increase in upper airway size as a result of mandibular advancement are most likely to experience treatment success with MADs. A custom-made device titrated from an initial 50% of maximum mandibular advancement has been recommended. More research is needed to define the patients who will benefit from MAD treatment compared with CPAP, in terms of the effects on sleep-disordered breathing and on other diseases related to OSA. In conclusion, MADs are recommended for patients with mild to moderate OSA (Recommendation Level A) and for those who do not tolerate CPAP. The treatment must be followed up and the device adjusted or exchanged in relation to the outcome.

  9. Overview and future prospects of the use of lasers for packaging by the microelectronics and photonics industry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washio, Kunihiko; Kouta, Hikaru

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an overview and future prospects of the use of lasers for packaging by the microelectronics and photonics industry in Japan. Various kinds of lasers and material processing technologies have been developed and applied for manufacturing electronic and photonic devices to meet the strong demands for high-performance, lightweight, low energy-consumption mobile digital consumer electronics, broadband optical fiber communications, low-emission and fuel-efficient, easy-to-steer smart cars, etc. This paper emphasizes solid-state lasers as convenient and versatile light sources for packaging advanced compact devices with sensitive passive or active components having small feature sizes. Some of the representative material processing applications using solid-state lasers for electronic and photonic devices are, opaque and clear defects repairing of LCDs, trimming of functional modules, fine-tuning of optical characteristics of photonic devices, forming of various micro-vias for high-density interconnection circuits, laser patterning of amorphous solar-cells, and high-precision laser welding of electronic components such as optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. The recent progress in high-power ultra-short pulse solid-state lasers seems to be rapidly increasing their processing capabilities such as for fine adjustment of optical filters, etc.

  10. Recent Advances in Organic Photovoltaics: Device Structure and Optical Engineering Optimization on the Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guoping; Ren, Xingang; Zhang, Su; Wu, Hongbin; Choy, Wallace C H; He, Zhicai; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-23

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, which can directly convert absorbed sunlight to electricity, are stacked thin films of tens to hundreds of nanometers. They have emerged as a promising candidate for affordable, clean, and renewable energy. In the past few years, a rapid increase has been seen in the power conversion efficiency of OPV devices toward 10% and above, through comprehensive optimizations via novel photoactive donor and acceptor materials, control of thin-film morphology on the nanoscale, device structure developments, and interfacial and optical engineering. The intrinsic problems of short exciton diffusion length and low carrier mobility in organic semiconductors creates a challenge for OPV designs for achieving optically thick and electrically thin device structures to achieve sufficient light absorption and efficient electron/hole extraction. Recent advances in the field of OPV devices are reviewed, with a focus on the progress in device architecture and optical engineering approaches that lead to improved electrical and optical characteristics in OPV devices. Successful strategies are highlighted for light wave distribution, modulation, and absorption promotion inside the active layer of OPV devices by incorporating periodic nanopatterns/nanostructures or incorporating metallic nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  11. A Four-Motor Insertion Device Control System at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, M.; Smith, M.; Grimmer, J.; Merritt, M.

    2004-05-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a third-generation synchrotron with major emphasis on insertion device (ID) sources. In the storage ring there are 35 straight sections, each about five meters in length, for possible insertion devices. Most of the insertion devices at the APS are 2.4 meters long. Currently there are 27 undulators installed in 25 straight sections. Twenty-two of the undulators are the original design fabricated by STI Optronics, which used two motors, one for each end of the device. A synchronizing mechanism between the upper and lower magnetic arrays was also used at each end. Recently, the APS has designed a new gap-separation mechanism for all new undulators. The new design is based on four independent motors, one driving each end of each magnetic array of the device. The control system of choice at the APS is EPICS. The control system is designed to be transparent to the user of the beamline who routinely operates the device. The differences between the two-motor and the four-motor versions of the ID control system are performed at low levels and are transparent. All devices have feedback and safeguard redundancy in the form of linear and rotary encoders and multiple-stage limit switches. This paper will discuss in detail the design philosophy and the implementation of the four-motor insertion device control system. This control system has been in operation for about three years.

  12. Retrievable IVC Filters: Comprehensive Review of Device-related Complications and Advanced Retrieval Techniques.

    PubMed

    Desai, Kush R; Pandhi, Mithil B; Seedial, Stephen M; Errea, Martin F; Salem, Riad; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Use of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (RIVCFs) has grown exponentially since their introduction into clinical practice, but many of these devices are not retrieved. Some are not retrieved due to poor clinical follow-up, but other devices remain in situ for extended periods because they present significant technical challenges during retrieval. Because of these and other factors, many of these devices were thus left in place permanently. However, recent data have placed a renewed emphasis on device retrieval due to increased risk of RIVCF-related complications, which are positively correlated with filter dwell time. Development of advanced filter retrieval techniques has had a significant impact on the removal of embedded RIVCFs, permitting retrieval of the majority of devices. The purpose of this article is to present an imaging and data review of the dominant device-related factors that complicate RIVCF retrieval and to describe the relevant advanced retrieval techniques to manage these factors. RIVCF imaging is frequently encountered in daily clinical practice via various imaging modalities. Therefore, diagnostic radiologists can play a vital role in identifying filter-related issues. Familiarity with the context for managing these issues in the interventional suite is essential for improving triage and care of patients with RIVCFs. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  13. Genetically Engineered Microelectronic Infrared Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Klimeck, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    A genetic algorithm is used for design of infrared filters and in the understanding of the material structure of a resonant tunneling diode. These two components are examples of microdevices and nanodevices that can be numerically simulated using fundamental mathematical and physical models. Because the number of parameters that can be used in the design of one of these devices is large, and because experimental exploration of the design space is unfeasible, reliable software models integrated with global optimization methods are examined The genetic algorithm and engineering design codes have been implemented on massively parallel computers to exploit their high performance. Design results are presented for the infrared filter showing new and optimized device design. Results for nanodevices are presented in a companion paper at this workshop.

  14. Recent advances in amorphous and microcrystalline silicon basis devices for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamakawa, Yoshihiro

    1999-04-01

    The current state of the art in recent advances hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (a-Si and μc-Si) technologies and their applications to optoelectronic devices are reviewed. With the recent progress in material preparation and characterization technologies, we now have an age that considerably high quality thin films having valency electron controllability can be produced. In this paper, recent progress in thin film solar cell fabrication with a-Si and μc-Si technologies for active materials for optoelectronic devices are reviewed first, and their significance are pointed out, then some typical newly developed devices such as integrated amorphous solar cells, flexible solar cells etc., are demonstrated. Secondly, new kinds of thin film light-emitting devices, including solid-state flat panel displays are introduced. In the final part of this paper, the remarkable industrial progress in the field of optoelectronics and the prospects of market expansion toward the 21st century are briefly discussed.

  15. Vapor phase deposition of functional polymers onto paper-based microfluidic devices for advanced unit operations.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Philip; Gupta, Malancha

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have recently received significant attention as a potential platform for low-cost diagnostic assays. However, the number of advanced unit operations, such as separation of analytes and fluid manipulation, that can be applied to these devices has been limited. Here, we use a vapor phase polymerization process to sequentially deposit functional polymer coatings onto paper-based microfluidic devices to integrate multiple advanced unit operations while retaining the fibrous morphology necessary to generate capillary-driven flow. A hybrid grafting process was used to apply hydrophilic polymer coatings with a high surface concentration of ionizable groups onto the surface of the paper fibers in order to passively separate analytes, which allowed a multicomponent mixture to be separated into its anionic and cationic components. Additionally, a UV-responsive polymer was sequentially deposited to act as a responsive switch to control the path of fluid within the devices. This work extends the advanced unit operations available for paper-based microfluidics and allows for more complex diagnostics. In addition, the vapor phase polymerization process is substrate independent, and therefore, these functional coatings can be applied to other textured materials such as membranes, filters, and fabrics.

  16. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  17. Micropatterning proteins and synthetic peptides on solid supports: a novel application for microelectronics fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Britland, S; Perez-Arnaud, E; Clark, P; McGinn, B; Connolly, P; Moores, G

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method for immobilizing proteins and synthesizing peptides in micrometer-dimension patterns on solid supports. Microelectronics fabrication technology was adapted and used to lithographically direct the location of immobilization of proteins on appropriately derivatized surfaces. As examples, we micropatterned the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The catalytic activity of HRP was shown to be retained after being cross-linked to the support. When coupled with solid-phase peptide synthesis, the technique allowed synthetic peptides to be constructed in patterns again having micrometer dimensions. Synthetic polypeptides, polylysine, were constructed in patterns with dimensions that approached the practical limit of resolution for optical lithography at 1-2 microns. The patterns of immobilized molecules and synthetic peptides were visualized using histochemical methods together with light and fluorescence microscopy. The protein and peptide patterning technique described here is an advance in the field of bioelectronics. In particular, it should now be possible to devise novel methods for interfacing with biological systems and constructing new devices for incorporation into miniaturized biosensors.

  18. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  19. Applications of Synchrotron X-Rays in Microelectronics Industry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan-Sweet, J.

    2005-01-10

    The high flux and density of x-rays produced at synchrotrons provide the microelectronics industry with a powerful probe of the structure and behavior of a wide array of solid materials that are being developed for use in devices of the future. They also are of great use in determining why currently-used materials and processes sometimes fail. This paper describes the X20 x-ray beamline facility operated by IBM at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and presents a series of three industry challenges and results that illustrate the variety of techniques used and problems addressed. The value of this research ranges from solving short-term, technically-specific problems to increasing our academic understanding of materials in general. Techniques discussed include high-resolution diffraction, time-resolved diffraction, texture measurements, and grazing-incidence diffraction.

  20. [Application of microelectronics CAD tools to synthetic biology].

    PubMed

    Madec, Morgan; Haiech, Jacques; Rosati, Élise; Rezgui, Abir; Gendrault, Yves; Lallement, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging science that aims to create new biological functions that do not exist in nature, based on the knowledge acquired in life science over the last century. Since the beginning of this century, several projects in synthetic biology have emerged. The complexity of the developed artificial bio-functions is relatively low so that empirical design methods could be used for the design process. Nevertheless, with the increasing complexity of biological circuits, this is no longer the case and a large number of computer aided design softwares have been developed in the past few years. These tools include languages for the behavioral description and the mathematical modelling of biological systems, simulators at different levels of abstraction, libraries of biological devices and circuit design automation algorithms. All of these tools already exist in other fields of engineering sciences, particularly in microelectronics. This is the approach that is put forward in this paper.

  1. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  2. Micro-Electronic Nose System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, Frank C.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to "smell" various gas vapors and complex odors is important for many applications such as environmental monitoring for detecting toxic gases as well as quality control in the processing of food, cosmetics, and other chemical products for commercial industries. Mimicking the architecture of the biological nose, a miniature electronic nose system was designed and developed consisting of an array of sensor devices, signal-processing circuits, and software pattern-recognition algorithms. The array of sensors used polymer/carbon-black composite thin-films, which would swell or expand reversibly and reproducibly and cause a resistance change upon exposure to a wide variety of gases. Two types of sensor devices were fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques to form "wells" that confined the polymer/carbon-black to a small and specific area. The first type of sensor device formed the "well" by etching into the silicon substrate using bulk micromachining. The second type built a high-aspect-ratio "well" on the surface of a silicon wafer using SU-8 photoresist. Two sizes of "wells" were fabricated: 500 x 600 mum² and 250 x 250 mum². Custom signal-processing circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board and as an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) chip. The circuits were not only able to measure and amplify the small resistance changes, which corresponded to small ppm (parts-per-million) changes in gas concentrations, but were also adaptable to accommodate the various characteristics of the different thin-films. Since the thin-films were not specific to any one particular gas vapor, an array of sensors each containing a different thin-film was used to produce a distributed response pattern when exposed to a gas vapor. Pattern recognition, including a clustering algorithm and two artificial neural network algorithms, was used to classify the response pattern and identify the gas vapor or odor. Two gas experiments were performed, one

  3. Advanced Technology for Improved Quantum Device Properties Using Highly Strained Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Improved Quantum PE 61153N Device Properties Using Highly Strained Materials PE 1401N~R&T 414s 001-02 IN G. AUTHOR(S) (William J. Schaff , S.D. Offsey and...DECEMBER 15, 1989 CORNELL UNIVERSITY.......................... ITHACA, NY 14853-5401 PREPARED BY: WJ. Schaff ........ S.D. Offsey I - L.F. Eastman D ’’. i...Mandeville, R. Saito, P.J. Tasker, W.J. Schaff and L.F. Eastman, 12th IEEE/Comell Conference on’Advanced Concepts in High Speed Semiconductor Devices

  4. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  5. Laser processing of ceramics for microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sposili, Robert S.; Bovatsek, James; Patel, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Ceramic materials are used extensively in the microelectronics, semiconductor, and LED lighting industries because of their electrically insulating and thermally conductive properties, as well as for their high-temperature-service capabilities. However, their brittleness presents significant challenges for conventional machining processes. In this paper we report on a series of experiments that demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of pulsed nanosecond UV and green lasers in machining ceramics commonly used in microelectronics manufacturing, such as aluminum oxide (alumina) and aluminum nitride. With a series of laser pocket milling experiments, fundamental volume ablation rate and ablation efficiency data were generated. In addition, techniques for various industrial machining processes, such as shallow scribing and deep scribing, were developed and demonstrated. We demonstrate that lasers with higher average powers offer higher processing rates with the one exception of deep scribes in aluminum nitride, where a lower average power but higher pulse energy source outperformed a higher average power laser.

  6. Thin-film microelectronic wearable body sensors.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This review of various applications of well-established thin-film processing techniques to wearable body sensors gives examples of work done in the author's laboratory over many years. Sensors for the vital signs of body temperature, electrocardiogram, heart rate, breathing pattern and breathing rate are presented along with other applications. Thin-film based sensors have the advantage of small size, high surface area to mass ratio, flexibility, capability for batch production, and compatibility with other microelectronic technologies.

  7. Environmental health aspects of the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J S; Levy, B S

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews examples of contamination to the surface or groundwater, the ambient air, and soil resulting from the microelectronics industry. The potential effects on human health arising from such environmental contamination are discussed, as well as aspects of their diagnosis, treatment, and related public health implications. Given the high costs of pollution control, the emphasis must be on prevention, which can be facilitated by a high level of suspicion and by the design of safety and pollution control into manufacturing processes.

  8. Technique for rapid inspection of hermetic seals of microelectronic packages using shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Y. (Michael) Y.; Shi, Dahuan

    1998-05-01

    One possible failure of microelectronic devices is due to leakage resulting from an imperfect hermetical seal in microelectronic packages such as microchips. This malfunction is often experienced in automobiles in which the electronic devices are exposed to hostile environments. Traditional leak-testing methods are very time consuming. A shearographic technique for rapid evaluation of hermetic seals is presented. The package under test is stressed by an external pressure change. With the pressure change maintained, the lid of a perfectly sealed package will remain deformed while a leaky package will not hold the deformation, which can be monitored by shearography. This leak testing is fast and practical and can be extended to testing pharmaceutical packages, food packages, etc.

  9. Advanced heat transfer devices based on mass forces in coiled flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovich, Evgeny D.; Tarasevich, Sergei S.; Repnikova, Elena A.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced heat transfer devices in the form of different channels where artificial mass forces influence on hydrodynamics stability in low gravity area and argumentation of heat transfer is considered. Experiments are fulfilled with large variety of geometrical forms of channels (inserts in straight tubes, fluted tubes, annular channels with rotation of flow, spiral coils, twisted tubes etc.) and different heat transfer media and their vapor (liquid metals, water, cryogenic liquids). .

  10. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase III. Electronic Warfare Trainers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features (Phase III- Electronic Warfare Trainers) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Polzella . Donald J...Features, addressed a portion of this subthrust. Dr. Wayne Waag (AFHRL/OTU) was the Contract Monitor and Dr. Donald J. Polzella and Dr. David C. Hubbard...training is practicable (see Polzella , 1983, p.8). However, instructional features are expensive to implement, especially those features that require the

  11. Effect of Mandibular Advancement Device Therapy on the Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raunio, Antti; Sipilä, Kirsi; Raustia, Aune

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Mandibular advancement device therapy is effectively used in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, but also several side effects in the masticatory system have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective symptoms and clinical signs of temporomandibular disorders connected to mandibular advancement device therapy. Material and Methods The material consisted of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women, mean age 51.1 years, range 21 to 70 years) diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Subjective symptoms and clinical temporomandibular disorders (TMD) signs were recorded at the beginning of the treatment (baseline) and at 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 24-month follow-ups. The degree of TMD was assessed using the anamnestic (Ai) and the clinical dysfunction index (Di) of Helkimo. For assessing the effect of TMD the patients were divided in discontinuing and continuing groups. Results According to Ai and Di, the severity of TMD remained unchanged during the follow-up in most of the patients. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) crepitation was found more frequently in discontinuing patients at all follow-ups. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) at the six-month follow-up. Masticatory muscle pain during palpation was a frequent clinical sign at the baseline and during the follow-up period but the difference between discontinuing and continuing patients was not significant. Conclusions It seems that signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders do not necessarily increase during long-term mandibular advancement device therapy. However, it seems that patients with clinically assessed temporomandibular joint crepitation may discontinue their mandibular advancement device therapy due to temporomandibular disorders. PMID:24422023

  12. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 2: advanced airway devices: supraglottic airways.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M B; Phero, J C; Becker, D E

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Part 1 in this series on emergency airway management focused on basic and fundamental considerations for supplying supplemental oxygen to the spontaneously breathing patient and utilizing a bag-valve-mask system including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways to deliver oxygen under positive pressure to the apneic patient. This article will review the evolution and use of advanced airway devices, specifically supraglottic airways, with the emphasis on the laryngeal mask airway, as the next intervention in difficult airway and ventilation management. The final part of the series (part 3) will address airway evaluation, equipment and devices for tracheal intubation, and invasive airway procedures.

  13. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Part 2: Advanced Airway Devices: Supraglottic Airways

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M. B; Phero, J. C; Becker, D. E

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Part 1 in this series on emergency airway management focused on basic and fundamental considerations for supplying supplemental oxygen to the spontaneously breathing patient and utilizing a bag-valve-mask system including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways to deliver oxygen under positive pressure to the apneic patient. This article will review the evolution and use of advanced airway devices, specifically supraglottic airways, with the emphasis on the laryngeal mask airway, as the next intervention in difficult airway and ventilation management. The final part of the series (part 3) will address airway evaluation, equipment and devices for tracheal intubation, and invasive airway procedures. PMID:25191986

  14. Gate-Level Commercial Microelectronics Verification with Standard Cell Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    GATE- LEVEL COMMERCIAL MICROELECTRONICS VERIFICATION WITH STANDARD CELL RECOGNITION THESIS Leleia A. Hsia, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M...Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-069 GATE- LEVEL COMMERCIAL MICROELECTRONICS VERIFICATION WITH...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-069 GATE- LEVEL COMMERCIAL MICROELECTRONICS VERIFICATION WITH STANDARD CELL RECOGNITION THESIS Leleia A

  15. Tribochemical investigation of microelectronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Milind Sudhakar

    To achieve efficient planarization with reduced device dimensions in integrated circuits, a better understanding of the physics, chemistry, and the complex interplay involved in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is needed. The CMP process takes place at the interface of the pad and wafer in the presence of the fluid slurry medium. The hardness of Cu is significantly less than the slurry abrasive particles which are usually alumina or silica. It has been accepted that a surface layer can protect the Cu surface from scratching during CMP. Four competing mechanisms in materials removal have been reported: the chemical dissolution of Cu, the mechanical removal through slurry abrasives, the formation of thin layer of Cu oxide and the sweeping surface material by slurry flow. Despite the previous investigation of Cu removal, the electrochemical properties of Cu surface layer is yet to be understood. The motivation of this research was to understand the fundamental aspects of removal mechanisms in terms of electrochemical interactions, chemical dissolution, mechanical wear, and factors affecting planarization. Since one of the major requirements in CMP is to have a high surface finish, i.e., low surface roughness, optimization of the surface finish in reference to various parameters was emphasized. Three approaches were used in this research: in situ measurement of material removal, exploration of the electropotential activation and passivation at the copper surface and modeling of the synergistic electrochemical-mechanical interactions on the copper surface. In this research, copper polishing experiments were conducted using a table top tribometer. A potentiostat was coupled with this tribometer. This combination enabled the evaluation of important variables such as applied pressure, polishing speed, slurry chemistry, pH, materials, and applied DC potential. Experiments were designed to understand the combined and individual effect of electrochemical interactions

  16. Devices and systems-on-chip for photonic communication links in a microprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.

    For the first time, high-performance photonic devices and electronic-photonic systems-on-chip are monolithically integrated in an advanced CMOS microelectronics fabrication process. This includes a silicon optical resonator termed the "spoked-ring" cavity that meets the constraints of thin-SOI microelectronics CMOS processes and enables energy efficient modulators and thermally tunable filters. For low-loss fiber-to-chip optical coupling, a phased-array antenna concept is demonstrated, and the 45 nm CMOS microelectronics process is shown to support a near ideal implementation of the device using the crystalline silicon and polysilicon material layers that comprise the active region and gate, respectively, of the native MOSFET transistors. The active devices and vertical grating couplers are implemented in large-scale electronic-photonic systems-on-chip to demonstrate a wavelength stabilized, microring-based chip-to-chip communications link and an 11-channel wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmitter. The link is shown to be robust against thermal environmental variations which is critical for operation in realistic systems. The chip-to-chip link is then used to demonstrate a CPU-to-memory communication link, the first demonstration of its kind. The first microprocessor with photonic I/O is demonstrated as part of this work, with substantial implications for computer architecture. Advanced photonic device technology demonstrations, including photonic crystals, a quantum-correlated photon-pair source, an active photonic device platform in a 32 nm SOI node, and a 180 nm bulk silicon process, are presented to show the wide range of applications that monolithic integration could support in the future of photonics. These results taken together show that monolithic integration directly into CMOS microelectronics processes does allow high performance photonics, and is a viable approach to build large-scale electronic-photonic systems with a realistic path to

  17. Selected area chemical vapor deposition of thin films for conductometric microelectronic chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majoo, Sanjeev

    Recent advances in microelectronics and silicon processing have been exploited to fabricate miniaturized chemical sensors. Although the capability of chemical sensing technology has grown steadily, it has been outpaced by the increasing demands for more reliable, inexpensive, and selective sensors. The diversity of applications requires the deployment of different sensing materials that have rich interfacial chemistry. However, several promising sensor materials are often incompatible with silicon micromachining and their deposition requires complicated masking steps. The new approach described here is to first micromachine a generic, instrumented, conductometric, microelectronic sensor platform that is fully functional except for the front-end sensing element. This generic platform contains a thin dielectric membrane, an integrated boron-doped silicon heater, and conductance electrodes. The membrane has low thermal mass and excellent thermal isolation. A proprietary selected-area chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) process in a cold-wall reactor at low pressures was then used to achieve maskless, self-lithographic deposition of thin films. The temperature-programmable integrated microheater initiates localized thermal decomposition/reaction of suitable CVD precursors confined to a small heated area (500 mum in diameter), and this creates the active sensing element. Platinum and titania (TiOsb2) films were deposited from pyrolysis of organometallic precursors, tetrakistrifluorophosphine platinum Pt(PFsb3)sb4 and titanium tetraisopropoxide Ti(OCH(CHsb3)sb2rbrack sb4, respectively. Deposition of gold metal films from chlorotriethylphosphine gold (Csb2Hsb5)sb3PAuCl precursor was also attempted but without success. The conductance electrodes permit in situ monitoring of film growth. The as-deposited films were characterized in situ by conductance measurements and optical microscopy and ex situ by electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods. Devices equipped with

  18. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  19. Sub-Shot Noise Power Source for Microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Mansour, Kamjou

    2011-01-01

    Low-current, high-impedance microelectronic devices can be affected by electric current shot noise more than they are affected by Nyquist noise, even at room temperature. An approach to implementing a sub-shot noise current source for powering such devices is based on direct conversion of amplitude-squeezed light to photocurrent. The phenomenon of optical squeezing allows for the optical measurements below the fundamental shot noise limit, which would be impossible in the domain of classical optics. This becomes possible by affecting the statistical properties of photons in an optical mode, which can be considered as a case of information encoding. Once encoded, the information describing the photon (or any other elementary excitations) statistics can be also transmitted. In fact, it is such information transduction from optics to an electronics circuit, via photoelectric effect, that has allowed the observation of the optical squeezing. It is very difficult, if not technically impossible, to directly measure the statistical distribution of optical photons except at extremely low light level. The photoelectric current, on the other hand, can be easily analyzed using RF spectrum analyzers. Once it was observed that the photocurrent noise generated by a tested light source in question is below the shot noise limit (e.g. produced by a coherent light beam), it was concluded that the light source in question possess the property of amplitude squeezing. The main novelty of this technology is to turn this well-known information transduction approach around. Instead of studying the statistical property of an optical mode by measuring the photoelectron statistics, an amplitude-squeezed light source and a high-efficiency linear photodiode are used to generate photocurrent with sub-Poissonian electron statistics. By powering microelectronic devices with this current source, their performance can be improved, especially their noise parameters. Therefore, a room-temperature sub

  20. Porous Diblock Copolymer Thin Films in High-Performance Semiconductor Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Black, C.T.

    2011-02-01

    The engine fueling more than 40 years of performance improvements in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs) has been industry's ability to pattern circuit elements at ever-higher resolution and with ever-greater precision. Steady advances in photolithography - the process wherein ultraviolet light chemically changes a photosensitive polymer resist material in order to create a latent image - have resulted in scaling of minimum printed feature sizes from tens of microns during the 1980s to sub-50 nanometer transistor gate lengths in today's state-of-the-art ICs. The history of semiconductor technology scaling as well as future technology requirements is documented in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The progression of the semiconductor industry to the realm of nanometer-scale sizes has brought enormous challenges to device and circuit fabrication, rendering performance improvements by conventional scaling alone increasingly difficult. Most often this discussion is couched in terms of field effect transistor (FET) feature sizes such as the gate length or gate oxide thickness, however these challenges extend to many other aspects of the IC, including interconnect dimensions and pitch, device packing density, power consumption, and heat dissipation. The ITRS Technology Roadmap forecasts a difficult set of scientific and engineering challenges with no presently-known solutions. The primary focus of this chapter is the research performed at IBM on diblock copolymer films composed of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) (PS-b-PMMA) with total molecular weights M{sub n} in the range of {approx}60K (g/mol) and polydispersities (PD) of {approx}1.1. These materials self assemble to form patterns having feature sizes in the range of 15-20nm. PS-b-PMMA was selected as a self-assembling patterning material due to its compatibility with the semiconductor microelectronics manufacturing infrastructure, as well as the significant body

  1. Radiation Effects and Hardening Techniques for Spacecraft Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Maki, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural radiation from the Van Allen belts, solar flares, and cosmic rays found outside of the protection of the earth's atmosphere can produce deleterious effects on microelectronics used in space systems. Historically civil space agencies and the commercial satellite industry have been able to utilize components produced in special radiation hardened fabrication process foundries that were developed during the 1970s and 1980s under sponsorship of the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DoE). In the post--cold war world the DoD and DoE push to advance the rad--hard processes has waned. Today the available rad--hard components lag two-plus technology node generations behind state- of-the-art commercial technologies. As a result space craft designers face a large performance gap when trying to utilize available rad--hard components. Compounding the performance gap problems, rad--hard components are becoming increasingly harder to get. Faced with the economic pitfalls associated with low demand versus the ever increasing investment required for integrated circuit manufacturing equipment most sources of rad--hard parts have simply exited this market in recent years, leaving only two domestic US suppliers of digital rad--hard components. This paper summarizes the radiation induced mechanisms that can cause digital microelectronics to fail in space, techniques that can be applied to mitigate these failure mechanisms, and ground based testing used to validate radiation hardness/tolerance. The radiation hardening techniques can be broken down into two classes, Hardness By Process (HBP) and Hardness By Design (HBD). Fortunately many HBD techniques can be applied to commercial fabrication processes providing space craft designer with radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) that can bridge the performance gap between the special HBP foundries and the commercial state-of-the-art performance.

  2. A Retinal Prosthesis Technology Based on CMOS Microelectronics and Microwire Glass Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Scribner, D; Johnson, L; Skeath, P; Klein, R; Ilg, D; Wasserman, L; Fernandez, N; Freeman, W; Peele, J; Perkins, F K; Friebele, E J; Bassett, W E; Howard, J G; Krebs, W

    2007-03-01

    A very large format neural stimulator device, to be used in future retinal prosthesis experiments, has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was designed to be positioned against a human retina for short periods in an operating room environment. Demonstrating a very large format, parallel interface between a 2-D microelectronic stimulator array and neural tissue would be an important step in proving the feasibility of high resolution retinal prosthesis for the blind. The architecture of the test device combines several novel components, including microwire glass, a microelectronic multiplexer, and a microcable connector. The array format is 80 times 40 array pixels with approximately 20 microwire electrodes per pixel. The custom assembly techniques involve indium bump bonding, ribbon bonding, and encapsulation. The design, fabrication, and testing of the device has resolved several important issues regarding the feasibility of high-resolution retinal prosthesis, namely, that the combination of conventional CMOS electronics and microwire glass provides a viable approach for a high resolution retinal prosthesis device. Temperature change from power dissipation within the device and maximum electrical output current levels suggest that the device is acceptable for acute human tests.

  3. Delidding and resealing hybrid microelectronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, W. F.

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this single phase MM and T contract was to develop the manufacturing technology necessary for the precision removal (delidding) and replacement (resealing) of covers on hermetically sealed hybrid microelectronic packages. The equipment and processes developed provide a rework technique which does not degrade the reliability of the package of the enclosed circuitry. A qualification test was conducted on 88 functional hybrid packages, with excellent results. A petition will be filed, accompanied by this report, requesting Mil-M-38510 be amended to allow this rework method.

  4. [Research progress on the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome with mandibular advancement device].

    PubMed

    Li, De-hong; Yang, Xiang-hong; Guo, Tian-wen

    2010-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by obstruction of upper airway and respiratory disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness and tiredness.The possible causes are obesity, hypertension, and upper airway malformations,etc. The location and degree of upper airway structure narrowing in patients have been investigated in many ways, such as X-ray, multi-slices spiral computed tomography, etc. With multi-planar reconstruction technique,3-dimensional construction of upper airway can be established which shows the delicate changes of the upper airway structure. Mandibular advancement device is known as an effective treatment on mild and moderate OSAHS. By advancing the mandible forward, it can increase the space of upper airway, especially the oropharyngeal space. This paper reviewed the methods of investigating on OSAHS and the change of upper airway structure in OSAHS patients treated with mandibular advancement device. Supported by Combined Research Fund of Bureau of Health, Yunan Province and Kunming Medical College(Grant No.2009CD205).

  5. In vitro retention of a new thermoplastic titratable mandibular advancement device

    PubMed Central

    Braem, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Oral appliance (OA) therapy with a mandibular advancement device (OAm) is a non-invasive, alternative approach to maintaining upper airway patency. The main requirement for an OAm to be effective is the adequate retention on the teeth while the patient is asleep. We evaluated the retentive forces of a new low-cost, customizable, titratable, thermoplastic OAm (BluePro ®; BlueSom, France). Dental impressions and casts were made for one patient with complete upper and lower dental arches including the third molars and class II bite proportions. A setup based on Frasaco ANA-4 models was also used. Two protrusive positions of the mandible were investigated: 3 mm and 8 mm, representing respectively 25% and 65% of the maximal protrusion. The forces required to remove the BluePro ® device from the carriers were recorded continuously over 730 cycles (=365 days, twice a day) to simulate 1 year of clinical use. At 8 mm protrusion the BluePro ® device showed retentive forces of ~27N. There was a slight but non-significant decrease in retentive forces in the tests on the epoxified carriers which was not found on the ANA-4 carriers. There were no significant differences between the carriers as a function of protrusion. The BluePro ® device tested in the present study possesses sufficient retention forces to resist initial jaw opening forces and full mouth opening forces estimated to be ~20N. It could therefore broaden the indications for use of thermoplastic OAms. It could provide a temporary OAm while a custom-made OAm is being manufactured or repaired. Patients could be provided with a low-cost try-out device capable of reliable titration, providing an indication of effectiveness and of patient acceptance of an OAm, although the effect of device shape and size on therapeutic outcome is not yet known. Finally it could provide an affordable OAm solution in resource-restricted healthcare settings. PMID:25901281

  6. In vitro retention of a new thermoplastic titratable mandibular advancement device.

    PubMed

    Braem, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Oral appliance (OA) therapy with a mandibular advancement device (OAm) is a non-invasive, alternative approach to maintaining upper airway patency. The main requirement for an OAm to be effective is the adequate retention on the teeth while the patient is asleep. We evaluated the retentive forces of a new low-cost, customizable, titratable, thermoplastic OAm (BluePro (®); BlueSom, France). Dental impressions and casts were made for one patient with complete upper and lower dental arches including the third molars and class II bite proportions. A setup based on Frasaco ANA-4 models was also used. Two protrusive positions of the mandible were investigated: 3 mm and 8 mm, representing respectively 25% and 65% of the maximal protrusion. The forces required to remove the BluePro (®) device from the carriers were recorded continuously over 730 cycles (=365 days, twice a day) to simulate 1 year of clinical use. At 8 mm protrusion the BluePro (®) device showed retentive forces of ~27N. There was a slight but non-significant decrease in retentive forces in the tests on the epoxified carriers which was not found on the ANA-4 carriers. There were no significant differences between the carriers as a function of protrusion. The BluePro (®) device tested in the present study possesses sufficient retention forces to resist initial jaw opening forces and full mouth opening forces estimated to be ~20N. It could therefore broaden the indications for use of thermoplastic OAms. It could provide a temporary OAm while a custom-made OAm is being manufactured or repaired. Patients could be provided with a low-cost try-out device capable of reliable titration, providing an indication of effectiveness and of patient acceptance of an OAm, although the effect of device shape and size on therapeutic outcome is not yet known. Finally it could provide an affordable OAm solution in resource-restricted healthcare settings.

  7. Descriptions of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Lee, K D; Seo, D C; Nam, Y U; Ko, W H; Lee, J H; Choi, M C

    2009-10-01

    The research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics (RAPID) device is a newly developed linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device. It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. A 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state ECR plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). The cylindrical stainless steel vacuum chamber is 300 mm in diameter and 750 mm in length and has eight radial and ten axial ports including 6-in. and 8-in. viewing windows for heating and diagnostics. Experimental observation of ECR plasma heating has been recently carried out during the initial plasma operation. The main diagnostic systems including a 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer, a high-resolution 25 channel one-dimensional array spectrometer, a single channel survey spectrometer, and an electric probe have been also prepared. The RAPID device is a flexible simulator for the understanding of tokamak edge plasma physics and new diagnostic system development. In this work, we describe the RAPID device and initial operation results.

  8. Descriptions of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.; Lee, K. D.; Seo, D. C.; Nam, Y. U.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, M. C.

    2009-10-15

    The research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics (RAPID) device is a newly developed linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device. It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. A 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state ECR plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). The cylindrical stainless steel vacuum chamber is 300 mm in diameter and 750 mm in length and has eight radial and ten axial ports including 6-in. and 8-in. viewing windows for heating and diagnostics. Experimental observation of ECR plasma heating has been recently carried out during the initial plasma operation. The main diagnostic systems including a 94 GHz heterodyne interferometer, a high-resolution 25 channel one-dimensional array spectrometer, a single channel survey spectrometer, and an electric probe have been also prepared. The RAPID device is a flexible simulator for the understanding of tokamak edge plasma physics and new diagnostic system development. In this work, we describe the RAPID device and initial operation results.

  9. Advanced modeling and design of ion-exchanged glass waveguides and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Brian R.; Honkanen, Seppo

    2004-08-01

    Glass waveguide devices fabricated by ion exchange have evolved to the point where conventional assumptions of waveguide symmetry and mutual independence are no longer valid. The modeling of ion-exchanged waveguide devices is far more complicated compared to, e.g., silica on Si waveguide devices. For example, during field-assisted ion exchange processes, the nonhomogeneity of ionic conductivity in the vicinity of the waveguide results in a time-dependent perturbation of the electric field. Previous studies have shown that the depth and vertical symmetry of buried waveguides are affected by the field perturbation. In this work, we describe an advanced modeling tool for guided-wave devices based on ion-exchanged glass waveguides. The effect of field perturbation, due not only to the conductivity profile, but also to the proximity of adjacent waveguides or partial masking during a field-assisted burial are accounted for. A semivectorial finite difference method is then employed to determine the modal properties of the waveguide structures.

  10. Porous graphene materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Han, Sheng; Wu, Dongqing; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2014-02-12

    Combining the advantages from both porous materials and graphene, porous graphene materials have attracted vast interests due to their large surface areas, unique porous structures, diversified compositions and excellent electronic conductivity. These unordinary features enable porous graphene materials to serve as key components in high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. This progress report summarizes the typical fabrication methods for porous graphene materials with micro-, meso-, and macro-porous structures. The structure-property relationships of these materials and their application in advanced electrochemical devices are also discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Sharp-switching band-modulation back-gated devices in advanced FDSOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Dirani, Hassan; Fonteneau, Pascal; Solaro, Yohann; Legrand, Charles-Alex; Marin-Cudraz, David; Ferrari, Philippe; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    A band-modulation device with a free top surface, named Z3-FET (Zero front-gate, Zero swing slope and Zero impact ionization) and fabricated in the most advanced Fully Depleted Silicon-On-Insulator technology, is demonstrated experimentally. Since the device has no front gate, the operation mechanism is controlled by two adjacent heavily doped buried ground planes acting as back-gates. Characteristics such as sharp quasi-vertical switching, low leakage, and tunable trigger voltage are measured and discussed. We explore several variants (thin and thick silicon or SiGe body) and show promising results in terms of high current, switching performance and ESD capability with relatively low back-gate and drain bias operation.

  12. Left ventricular assist device driveline infections: recent advances and future goals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized the treatment of advanced heart failure, but infection remains a substantial risk. LVAD driveline infections (DLIs) are the most common type of LVAD-associated infection (LVADI). In the past several years we have expanded our understanding of DLI epidemiology, standardized the definition of LVADIs, improved infection rates through changes in implantation techniques, and investigated potential new modalities for DLI diagnosis. However, significant challenges remain for optimizing DLI prevention and treatment. These challenges include standardizing and improving both empiric and targeted antimicrobial therapy, expanding our understanding of effective driveline exit site dressings and topical therapies, and defining the patient population that benefits from device exchange and transplant. Additionally, in an era of expanding antibiotic resistance we need to continue investigating novel, non-antibiotic therapies for prevention and treatment of DLIs. PMID:26793335

  13. Centre for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) at Louisiana State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockbauer, Roger L.; Poliakoff, Erwin D.; Ajmera, Pratul; Craft, Ben C.; Saile, Volker

    1990-06-01

    The Centre for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) has been established by the Department of Energy at Louisiana State University for the expressed purpose of developing X-ray lithography based techniques for manufacturing microcircuits. The heart of the Center will be a synchrotron light source optimized for the soft X-ray region and will be the first commercially manufactured electron storage ring in the United States. The magnet lattice is based on a design developed by Chasman and Green and will be similar to the VUV ring at Brookhaven NSLS and will operate at 1.2 GeV with a critical wavelength of 9.5 Å. Straight sections will allow up to three insertion devices to be installed for higher energy and higher intensity radiation. In addition to the lithography effort, experimental programs are being established in physics, chemistry, and related areas.

  14. A new synchrotron light source at Louisiana State University's Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockbauer, Roger L.; Ajmera, Pratul; Poliakoff, Erwin D.; Craft, Ben C.; Saile, Volker

    1990-05-01

    A 1.2-GeV synchrotron light source is being constructed at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) at Louisiana State University. The expressed purpose of the center, which has been funded by a grant from the US Department of Energy, is to develop X-ray lithography techniques for manufacturing microcircuits, although basic science programs are also being established. The storage ring will be optimized for the soft-X-ray region and will be the first commercially manufactured electron storage ring in the United States. The magnetic lattice is based on a design developed by Chasman and Green and will allow up to three insertion devices to be installed for higher-energy and higher-intensity radiation. In addition to the lithography effort, experimental programs are being established in physics, chemistry, and related areas.

  15. Characterization of organic and inorganic optoelectronic semiconductor devices using advanced spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Raoul

    In this thesis, advanced spectroscopy methods are discussed and applied to gain understanding of the physical properties of organic conjugated molecules, II-VI thin film semiconductors, and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Experiments include single photon and two-photon excitation with lasers, with subsequent measurements of the absorption and photoluminescence, as well as photocurrent measurements using tungsten and xenon lamps, measuring the direct current and the alternating current of the devices. The materials are investigated in dissolved form (conjugated polymers), thin films (polymers, II-VI semiconductors), and complex layer structures (hybrid device, VCSEL). The experiments are analyzed and interpreted by newly developed or applied theories for two-photon saturation processes in semiconductors, bandgap shrinkage due to optically induced electron hole pairs, and the principle of detailed balance to describe the photoluminescence in thin film cadmium sulfide.

  16. Acoustic, fiber optic, and silicon microelectronic microsensors research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczer, J.J.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, an 8500+ person, multiprogram research and development facility operated for the US Department of Energy, has over 400 research, development and applications scientists and engineers working on sensor technologies. Sandia`s 20 person Microsensors Research and Development Department has invented, developed and fielded sensor systems based on acoustic, fiber optic, and silicon microelectronic technologies. These sensors have been used for diverse applications inducting the monitoring of cleaning chemical concentrations in industrial process effluent streams, detection of explosive gas concentrations in aging industrial equipment, real-time measurements of fluid viscosity in equipment lubricants, and monitoring of contaminant concentration levels in ultrapure process gases. Representative sensor technologies available for technology transfer will be described including bulk acoustic wave resonators, surface acoustic wave devices, fiber optic micromirror sensors, and silicon microelectronic sensors.

  17. Interlaced, Nanostructured Interface with Graphene Buffer Layer Reduces Thermal Boundary Resistance in Nano/Microelectronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan, Sreeprasad; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2017-01-11

    Improving heat transfer in hybrid nano/microelectronic systems is a challenge, mainly due to the high thermal boundary resistance (TBR) across the interface. Herein, we focus on gallium nitride (GaN)/diamond interface-as a model system with various high power, high temperature, and optoelectronic applications-and perform extensive reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, decoding the interplay between the pillar length, size, shape, hierarchy, density, arrangement, system size, and the interfacial heat transfer mechanisms to substantially reduce TBR in GaN-on-diamond devices. We found that changing the conventional planar interface to nanoengineered, interlaced architecture with optimal geometry results in >80% reduction in TBR. Moreover, introduction of conformal graphene buffer layer further reduces the TBR by ∼33%. Our findings demonstrate that the enhanced generation of intermediate frequency phonons activates the dominant group velocities, resulting in reduced TBR. This work has important implications on experimental studies, opening up a new space for engineering hybrid nano/microelectronics.

  18. Doping characterization for germanium-based microelectronics and photovoltaics using the differential Hall technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, N. S.; Cowern, N. E. B.

    2012-04-01

    In this coming decade, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor microelectronic devices may undergo a major change with the implementation of germanium channels. Likewise, the performance of photovoltaic cells based on elemental semiconductors will continue to be optimized. Both technologies will rely on a detailed and thorough understanding of electrical properties, and here, precise doping characterization will play a key role. The differential Hall technique combines resistivity and Hall-effect measurements with successive surface layer removal, allowing one to measure independent carrier concentration and mobility depth profiles. In this Letter, we apply the technique for both microelectronic- and photovoltaic-relevant doping structures in germanium. Controllable and uniform layer removal is achieved with tailored depth resolution (<1-20 nm) for a range of doping structures (30-600 nm).

  19. Moving Education and Its Administration into the Microelectronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…

  20. Microelectronics and Special Education. CET/MEP Information Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Educational Technology, London (England).

    Used as an additional aid by the teacher, microelectronics can assist mentally and physically handicapped children to meet educational objectives that have been specifically agreed upon for the individual child. Microelectronics can help deaf children develop speech production, communication skills, and grammar and sentence construction;…

  1. Moving Education and Its Administration into the Microelectronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…

  2. Development of the Vibration Isolation System for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niebuhr, Jason H.; Hagen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Vibration Isolation System for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device from conceptual design to lessons learned. Maintaining a micro-g environment on the International Space Station requires that experiment racks and major vibration sources be isolated. The challenge in characterizing exercise loads and testing the system in the presence of gravity led to a decision to qualify the system by analysis. Available data suggests that the system is successful in attenuating loads, yet there has been a major component failure and several procedural issues during its 3 years of operational use.

  3. Management of severe obstructive sleep apnea using mandibular advancement devices with auto continuous positive airway pressures

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations. PMID:25814802

  4. Computational Models of Exercise on the Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nate; Caldwell, Erin; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Peters,Brian; Fincke, Renita; DeWitt, John; Poutz-Snyder, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Muscle and bone loss remain a concern for crew returning from space flight. The advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) is used for on-orbit resistance exercise to help mitigate these losses. However, characterization of how the ARED loads the body in microgravity has yet to be determined. Computational models allow us to analyze ARED exercise in both 1G and 0G environments. To this end, biomechanical models of the squat, single-leg squat, and deadlift exercise on the ARED have been developed to further investigate bone and muscle forces resulting from the exercises.

  5. [Objective surgery -- advanced robotic devices and simulators used for surgical skill assessment].

    PubMed

    Suhánszki, Norbert; Haidegger, Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Robotic assistance became a leading trend in minimally invasive surgery, which is based on the global success of laparoscopic surgery. Manual laparoscopy requires advanced skills and capabilities, which is acquired through tedious learning procedure, while da Vinci type surgical systems offer intuitive control and advanced ergonomics. Nevertheless, in either case, the key issue is to be able to assess objectively the surgeons' skills and capabilities. Robotic devices offer radically new way to collect data during surgical procedures, opening the space for new ways of skill parameterization. This may be revolutionary in MIS training, given the new and objective surgical curriculum and examination methods. The article reviews currently developed skill assessment techniques for robotic surgery and simulators, thoroughly inspecting their validation procedure and utility. In the coming years, these methods will become the mainstream of Western surgical education.

  6. Measurement of the Radiation Incident on NbFeB Insertion Devices at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Gary; Holmes, Michael

    1997-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories Advanced Light Source is a third generation light source containing NdFeB permanent magnet insertion devices.The lifetime of the permanent magnets in a radiation environment is of paramount importance. Measurements of the radiation incident on the insertion device magnets under various operating conditions are presented.

  7. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-01

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict "good die" requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  8. Radiation Effects On Emerging Electronic Materials And Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-17

    and reliability,” Proc. 25th International Conf. Microelectron. ( MIEL 2006), vol. 1, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, May 14-17, 2006, pp. 89-96...Pantelides, “Effects of device aging on microelectronics radiation response and reliability,” 25th International Conf. Microelectron. ( MIEL 2006... MIEL 2006), Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, May 2006. 170. S. T. Pantelides, R. D. Schrimpf, D. M. Fleetwood, et al. “Atomic-Scale Mechanisms

  9. Glucose oxidase characterization for the fabrication of hybrid microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichera, Manuela; Libertino, Sebania; Aiello, Venera; Scandurra, Antonino; Sinatra, Fulvia; Renis, Marcella; Lombardo, Salvatore

    2007-05-01

    We studied the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization on silicon oxide surfaces. In particular, we optimized the immobilization protocol and verified that it fulfills both requirements of enzyme preservation (measured by enzymatic activity) and VLSI compatibility. The immobilization consists of four steps: oxide activation, silanization, linker molecule deposition and GOx immobilization. It is crucial to form an uniform linker layer on the sample surface in order to maximize the sites available for enzyme bonding and achieving the best enzyme deposition. In this study, utilizing glutaraldehyde as bifunctional reagent, we monitored its uniformity on the surface through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Once optimized, the same protocol was used to anchor the enzyme in a porous silicon dioxide matrix. Gold labeled GOx molecules were monitored by electron diffraction X-ray (EDX) measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzymatic activity was also monitored to confirm the goodness of the proposed immobilization method. Finally, the electrical characterization of MOS capacitors, showing a shift of about 1 V in the flat band voltage, demonstrated the possibility to use this approach for electrical detection.

  10. Properties and Adhesion of Polyimides in Microelectronic Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    where they react at room temperature to polyamic acid. Spin coating (SC) requires that the polymer precursor polyamic acid is applied in a polar ...j.Vac.Sci.Technol A7 (3) (1989) 1402 /31/ J.Russat, Surface and Interface Analyisis , Vol. 11 (1988)414 /32/ M. Grunze and R.N. Lamb, Chem. Phys.Lett. (:987) 133

  11. Evaluation of ExPress glaucoma filtration device in Indian patients with advanced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Angmo, Dewang; Sharma, Reetika; Temkar, Shreyas; Dada, Tanuj

    2015-05-01

    ExPress glaucoma filtration device (GFD) has recently become available in India as a surgical option for glaucoma patients. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of ExPress GFD in 12 eyes with advanced glaucoma with intraocular pressures (IOPs) not controlled on maximal tolerable medical therapy. The mean preoperative IOP of 29.58 ± 7.13 mmHg decreased to 17.0 ± 2.67 and 17.40 ± 0.89 mmHg at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Absolute success (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with no additional glaucoma medications) was achieved in eight cases (66.7%) and qualified success (IOP ≤ 18 mmHg, with additional glaucoma medications) in two cases (16.7%) at 1-year after surgery. Early intervention was needed in 4 patients; two underwent anterior chamber reformation while the other two required needling. Two patients required resurgery. There was no significant change in the best corrected visual acuity postoperatively (P = 0.37). ExPress GFD does not seem to offer a benefit over standard trabeculectomy in patients with advanced glaucomatous disease in terms of IOP control or complication rate. However, due to the small sample size with a heterogeneous mixture of primary and secondary glaucoma's, we await further studies with a larger sample size and long-term follow-up, to see how the device performs.

  12. Total ionizing dose radiation effects on NMOS parasitic transistors in advanced bulk CMOS technology devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoping, He; Zujun, Wang; Jiangkun, Sheng; Shaoyan, Huang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, total ionizing dose effect of NMOS transistors in advanced CMOS technology are examined. The radiation tests are performed at 60Co sources at the dose rate of 50 rad (Si)/s. The investigation's results show that the radiation-induced charge buildup in the gate oxide can be ignored, and the field oxide isolation structure is the main total dose problem. The total ionizing dose (TID) radiation effects of field oxide parasitic transistors are studied in detail. An analytical model of radiation defect charge induced by TID damage in field oxide is established. The I - V characteristics of the NMOS parasitic transistors at different doses are modeled by using a surface potential method. The modeling method is verified by the experimental I - V characteristics of 180 nm commercial NMOS device induced by TID radiation at different doses. The model results are in good agreement with the radiation experimental results, which shows the analytical model can accurately predict the radiation response characteristics of advanced bulk CMOS technology device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11305126).

  13. Advances in Resistive Pulse Sensors: Devices bridging the void between molecular and microscopic detection

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Darby; Anderson, Will; Vogel, Robert; Trau, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Since the first reported use of a biological ion channel to detect differences in single stranded genomic base pairs in 1996, a renaissance in nanoscale resistive pulse sensors has ensued. This resurgence of a technique originally outlined and commercialized over fifty years ago has largely been driven by advances in nanoscaled fabrication, and ultimately, the prospect of a rapid and inexpensive means for genomic sequencing as well as other macromolecular characterization. In this pursuit, the potential application of these devices to characterize additional properties such as the size, shape, charge, and concentration of nanoscaled materials (10 – 900 nm) has been largely overlooked. Advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology are driving the need for simple yet sensitive individual object readout devices such as resistive pulse sensors. This review will examine the recent progress in pore-based sensing in the nanoscale range. A detailed analysis of three new types of pore sensors – in-series, parallel, and size-tunable pores – has been included. These pores offer improved measurement sensitivity over a wider particle size range. The fundamental physical chemistry of these techniques, which is still evolving, will be reviewed. PMID:22034585

  14. Mechanism Development, Testing, and Lessons Learned for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Christopher D.; Landeck, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) has been developed at NASA Johnson Space Center, for the International Space Station (ISS) program. ARED is a multi-exercise, high-load resistive exercise device, designed for long duration, human space missions. ARED will enable astronauts to effectively maintain their muscle strength and bone mass in the micro-gravity environment more effectively than any other existing devices. ARED's resistance is provided via two, 20.3 cm (8 in) diameter vacuum cylinders, which provide a nearly constant resistance source. ARED also has a means to simulate the inertia that is felt during a 1-G exercise routine via the flywheel subassembly, which is directly tied to the motion of the ARED cylinders. ARED is scheduled to fly on flight ULF 2 to the ISS and will be located in Node 1. Presently, ARED is in the middle of its qualification and acceptance test program. An extensive testing program and engineering evaluation has increased the reliability of ARED by bringing potential design issues to light before flight production. Some of those design issues, resolutions, and design details will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Recent advances in computational methodology for simulation of mechanical circulatory assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Alison L.; Bazilevs, Yuri; Long, Christopher C.; Behr, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) provide mechanical circulatory support to offload the work of one or both ventricles during heart failure. They are used in the clinical setting as destination therapy, as bridge to transplant, or more recently as bridge to recovery to allow for myocardial remodeling. Recent developments in computational simulation allow for detailed assessment of VAD hemodynamics for device design and optimization for both children and adults. Here, we provide a focused review of the recent literature on finite element methods and optimization for VAD simulations. As VAD designs typically fall into two categories, pulsatile and continuous flow devices, we separately address computational challenges of both types of designs, and the interaction with the circulatory system with three representative case studies. In particular, we focus on recent advancements in finite element methodology that has increased the fidelity of VAD simulations. We outline key challenges, which extend to the incorporation of biological response such as thrombosis and hemolysis, as well as shape optimization methods and challenges in computational methodology. PMID:24449607

  16. Advanced Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Device Optimization For High Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Almost all solar cells available today for space or terrestrial applications are optimized for low temperature or "room temperature" operations, where cell performances demonstrate favourable efficiency figures. The fact is in many space applications, as well as when using solar concentrators, operating cell temperature are typically highly elevated, where cells outputs are severely depreciated. In this paper, a novel approach for the optimization of multi-junction photovoltaic devices at such high expected operating temperature is presented. The device optimization is carried out on the novel cell physical model previously developed at the Naval Postgraduate School using the SILVACO software tools [1]. Taking into account the high cost of research and experimentation involved with the development of advanced cells, this successful modelling technique was introduced and detailed results were previously presented by the author [2]. The flexibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated and example results are shown throughout the whole process. The research demonstrated the capability of developing a realistic model of any type of solar cell, as well as thermo-photovoltaic devices. Details of an example model of an InGaP/GaAs/Ge multi-junction cell was prepared and fully simulated. The major stages of the process are explained and the simulation results are compared to published experimental data. An example of cell parameters optimization for high operating temperature is also presented. Individual junction layer optimization was accomplished through the use of a genetic search algorithm implemented in Matlab.

  17. Liver enzymes among microelectronics equipment maintenance technicians.

    PubMed

    Upfal, M

    1992-04-01

    Equipment maintenance workers within the microelectronics industry have opportunities for occupational exposure to a variety of toxic agents. This pilot investigation compares liver enzymes in this population with that of other coworkers. Participants (n = 135) were randomly selected from a medical surveillance program at the manufacturing facility. Nine job categories were examined, including equipment maintenance workers and electronic technicians. Although abnormal liver enzymes were detected among equipment maintenance workers (odds ratio 16.4; P less than .008) and electronic technicians (odds ratio 27; P less than .0005), the numbers of participants were small (n = 8, 10). The data suggest that independent and/or interactive etiologic roles of occupation and alcohol should be further investigated. Early detection of subclinical occupational or recreational hepatotoxicity with appropriate employment of industrial hygiene control technology and/or the reduction of alcohol consumption may provide a means of preventing liver disease.

  18. Dimensionally Stable Poyimide Copolymers for Microelectronics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catherine C.; St.Clair, Anne K.

    1998-01-01

    Polyimides are finding increased applications in microelectronics due to their high thermal stability, good chemical resistance, good adhesion, low moisture absorption, good mechanical properties, and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Four series of random copolyimides were synthesized and characterized for potential application as encapsulants, stress-relief layers, and interlevel dielectrics. Several candidates exhibited good combinations of physical and mechanical properties with inherent viscosities from 1.21 to 1.42 dL/g, T(sub g)'s ranging from 251 to 277 C, 10% weight loss temperatures between 503 and 527 C, and CTEs ranging from 33 to 39 ppm/deg C. Mechanical properties at room temperature for the best candidates included tensile strengths of 17.8-21.3 ksi, moduli between 388 and 506 ksi, and elongations of 11-43%. Moisture absorption for these copolyimides ranged between 0.85 and 1.38 wt %.

  19. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  20. Indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride vacuum microelectronic cold cathodes: Piezoelectric surface barrier lowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Robert Douglas

    Vacuum microelectronic devices are electronic devices fabricated using microelectronic processing and using vacuum as a transport medium. The electron velocity in vacuum can be larger than in solid state, which allows higher frequency operation of vacuum devices compared to solid-state devices. The effectiveness of vacuum microelectronic devices relies on the realization of an efficient source of electrons supplied to the vacuum. Cold cathodes do not rely on thermal energy for the emission of electrons into vacuum. Cold cathodes based on field emission are the most common types of vacuum microelectronic cold cathode because they have a very high efficiency and high current density electron emission. Materials used to fabricate field emitters must have the properties of high electron concentration, low surface reactivity, resistance to sputtering by ions, high thermal conductivity, and a method of fabrication of uniform arrays of field emitters. The III--V nitride semiconductors possess these material properties and uniform arrays of GaN field emitter pyramids have been produced by selective area, self-limited metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The first GaN field emitter arrays were fabricated and measured. Emission currents as large as 82 muA at 1100 V from 245,000 pyramids have been realized using an external anode, separated by 0.25 mm, to apply voltage bias. The operation voltage was reduced by the development of an integrated anode structure. The anode-cathode separation achievable with the integrated anode was in the range of 0.5--2.4 m. The turn-on voltages of these devices were reduced to the range of 175--435 V. The operation voltage of field emitter cathodes is related to the surface energy barrier, which for n-type semiconductors is the electron affinity. A new method to reduce the effective electron affinity using a piezoelectric dipole in an InGaN/GaN heterostructure has been proposed and tested. The piezoelectric field produced in the strained In

  1. Monitoring Composite Material Pressure Vessels with a Fiber-Optic/Microelectronic Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimcak, C.; Jaduszliwer, B.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the concept of an integrated, fiber-optic/microelectronic distributed sensor system that can monitor composite material pressure vessels for Air Force space systems to provide assessments of the overall health and integrity of the vessel throughout its entire operating history from birth to end of life. The fiber optic component would include either a semiconductor light emitting diode or diode laser and a multiplexed fiber optic sensing network incorporating Bragg grating sensors capable of detecting internal temperature and strain. The microelectronic components include a power source, a pulsed laser driver, time domain data acquisition hardware, a microprocessor, a data storage device, and a communication interface. The sensing system would be incorporated within the composite during its manufacture. The microelectronic data acquisition and logging system would record the environmental conditions to which the vessel has been subjected to during its storage and transit, e.g., the history of thermal excursions, pressure loading data, the occurrence of mechanical impacts, the presence of changing internal strain due to aging, delamination, material decomposition, etc. Data would be maintained din non-volatile memory for subsequent readout through a microcomputer interface.

  2. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Gelinck, Gerwin; Heremans, Paul; Nomoto, Kazumasa; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2010-09-08

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic transistors in the fields of flexible optical displays and microelectronics. The advantages associated with the use of OTFT technology are discussed with primary emphasis on the latest developments in the area of active-matrix electrophoretic and organic light-emitting diode displays based on OTFT backplanes and on the application of organic transistors in microelectronics including digital and analog circuits.

  3. Beam shaping applications in laser micromachining for the microelectronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsky, Corey M.

    2001-10-01

    Laser micromachining has been a part of the manufacturing process for semiconductors and microelectronics devices for several decades. More recent applications such as the drilling of microvia holes in high-density electronic packages have recently entered broad industrial use for high-volume production. In such applications, process stability and throughput are key drivers of commercial success. Particularly in the UV, where solid-state laser power is growing rapidly but is still limited to less than 10 watts, innovations that permit the available laser power to be applied at the work surface more efficiently are of interest. Within the last two years, the use of beam shapers to create round laser spots with near-uniform irradiance at the work surface has been demonstrated. Shaping the irradiance profile has been shown to both increase process speed and improve the quality of the drilled holes, which range in diameter between 20 and 150 micrometers . This paper gives an historical overview of laser via drilling, presents the Gaussian-to-flattop beam shaping optics used in the microvia laser drills, and discusses the process results obtained.

  4. Cold-Cathodes for Sensors and Vacuum Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, M.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.; Simpson, R.L.; DiNardo, N.J.; Mercer, T.W.; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this laboratory-directed research and development project was to study amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films for eventual cold-cathode electron emitter applications. The development of robust, cold-cathode emitters are likely to have significant implications for modern technology and possibly launch a new industry: vacuum micro-electronics (VME). The potential impact of VME on Sandia`s National Security missions, such as defense against military threats and economic challenges, is profound. VME enables new microsensors and intrinsically radiation-hard electronics compatible with MOSFET and IMEM technologies. Furthermore, VME is expected to result in a breakthrough technology for the development of high-visibility, low-power flat-panel displays. This work covers four important research areas. First, the authors studied the nature of the C-C bonding structures within these a-C thin films. Second, they determined the changes in the film structures resulting from thermal annealing to simulate the effects of device processing on a-C properties. Third, they performed detailed electrical transport measurements as a function of annealing temperature to correlate changes in transport properties with structural changes and to propose a model for transport in these a-C materials with implications on the nature of electron emission. Finally, they used scanning atom probes to determine important aspects on the nature of emission in a-C.

  5. Analysis of insertion device magnet measurements for the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Steve; Humphries, David E.; Kincaid, Brian M.; Schlueter, Ross D.; Wang, Chunxi

    1993-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), which is currently being commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third generation light source designed to produce XUV radiation of unprecedented brightness. To meet the high brightness goal the storage ring has been designed for very small electron beam emittance and the undulators installed in the ALS are built to a high degree of precision. The allowable magnetic field errors are driven by electron beam and radiation requirements. Detailed magnetic measurements and adjustments are performed on each undulator to qualify it for installation in the ALS. The first two ALS undulators, IDA and IDB, have been installed. This paper describes the program of measurements, data analysis, and adjustments carried out for these two devices. Calculations of the radiation spectrum, based upon magnetic measurements, are included. Final field integral distributions are also shown. Good field integral uniformity has been achieved using a novel correction scheme, which is also described.

  6. Advance ultra sensitive multi-layered nano plasmonic devices for label free biosensing targeting immunodiagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Divya; Dwivedi, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    The rapid advancement in technology has envisaged and drafted the use of optical bio-sensing units into label free and multiplexed bio-sensing, exploring the surface plasmon polaritons, which has turned into a gold standard on the commercial basis, but they are bulky and find difficulty in scaling up for the throughput detection. The integration of plasmonic crystals with microfluidics on the bio-sensing frontier offers a multi-level validation of results with the ease of real-time detection and imaging and holds a great promise to develop ultra-sensitive, fast, portable device for the point-of-care diagnostics. The paper describes the fast, low cost approach of designing and simulating label free biosensor using open source MEEP and other software tools targeting Immunodiagnostics.

  7. Analysis of insertion device magnet measurements for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.M.; Schlueter, R.; Wang, C.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), which is currently being commissioned at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third generation light source designed to produce XUV radiation of unprecedented brightness. To meet the high brightness goal the storage ring has been designed for very small electron beam emittance and the undulators installed in the ALS are built to a high degree of precision. The allowable magnetic field errors are driven by electron beam and radiation requirements. Detailed magnetic measurements and adjustments are performed on each undulator to qualify it for installation in the ALS. The first two ALS undulators, IDA and IDB, have been installed. This paper describes the program of measurements, data analysis, and adjustments carried out for these two devices. Calculations of the radiation spectrum, based upon magnetic measurements, are included. Final field integral distributions are also shown. Good field integral uniformity has been achieved using a novel correction scheme, which is also described.

  8. Crosslinking of polynorbornene based dielectrics for application in microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiniwalla, Punit Paresh

    2001-07-01

    The miniaturization of microelectronic devices and the need for higher computing speeds has created a demand for low dielectric constant materials. In this study, two functionalized polynorbornene copolymers are being investigated for this purpose: butyl norbornene/triethoxysilane norbornene and decyl norbornene/epoxide norbornene. Although polynorbornenes inherently possess properties that are attractive for microelectronics packaging, films of these polymers are not solvent resistant. The work presented in this study incorporates reactive additives into the polymer matrix to promote crosslinking reactions. The results of this study have shown that solvent resistant films are attainable in for both systems studied. Two distinct reactions have been identified to occur during the cure of butyl norbornene/triethoxysilane norbornene systems with azide additives: azide crosslinking and silane crosslinking. Although both of these mechanisms result in the formation of a crosslinked polymer film, silane crosslinking was found to undesirably alter the dielectric and mechanical properties of the film. The results of a cure study indicate that cure atmosphere and temperature are critical parameters to determine which of these two reactions will control the final properties of the cured film. Two reactions were also identified during the cure reaction of decyl norbornene/epoxide norbornene with cationic initiators: epoxide crosslinking and epoxide decomposition. Epoxide decomposition occurs at temperatures greater than 160°C and results in the complete loss of crosslinkable epoxide groups. Although both of these reactions have independent mechanisms, both reactions directly affect the level of crosslinking. As such, the final mechanical properties of decyl norbornene/epoxide norbornene films were determined to be strongly dependant on the extent of both epoxide crosslinking and decomposition reactions. Finally, solvent swelling effects during the fabrication of a multilayer

  9. Advances in Ch-LCD devices using plastic substrates with conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, William J.; Wonderly, H.; Smith, Steven W.; Kim, Yoan; Chonko, Jason; Doane, J. William; Shashidhar, Ranganathan; O'Ferrall, Catherine E.; Cuttino, David S.

    1999-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystal display (Ch-LCD) are lightweight, low power, sunlight readable displays. In addition, they can serve a dual function as pen-input device switch no additional hardware. Because of the unique properties of this technology, Ch-LCDs can be made with plastic substrates thus making the displayed extremely lightweight, compact and unbreakable. We discuss in this paper cent advances in merging Ch-LCD technology with conducting polymer electrodes. Conducting polymer provides potential benefits over the use of the standard display electrode materials, indium tin oxide, by improving the reliability of the display. Furthermore, the potential to print the conducting polymer electrodes could significantly increase manufacturing volume and decrease display cost. We report on scaling display size and resolution by demonstrating a 1/8 VGA Ch-LCD using polypyrrole as the conducting polymer. We fabricated these displays using either a vacuum fill or polymer wall/lamination approach and we discus subsequent failure analysis to determine the cause for the line-outs observed on these displays. We present initial results in determining the suitability for using Ch-LCD technology as a pen-input device. Finally, we discuss initial work towards printing the conducting polymer electrodes to determine the feasibility of printing electrodes on plastic substrates in a roll-to-roll, high volume, low cost process.

  10. Tunable and reconfigurable THz devices for advanced imaging and adaptive wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shams, M. I. B.; Jiang, Z.; Rahman, S.; Hesler, J. L.; Cheng, L.-J.; Fay, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report on two different approaches that have been explored to realize tunable and reconfigurable THz devices for advanced imaging and adaptive wireless communication. The first approach makes use of electronically tunable varactor diodes. Frequency tunable THz antennas based on this approach have been successfully demonstrated for the first time in G-band, enabling the development of spectroscopic THz detectors and focal-plane imaging arrays. The second approach takes advantages of optical THz spatial modulation based on photo-induced free carriers in semiconductors. Using this approach, high-performance tunable THz modulators/attenuators, reconfigurable masks for THz coded aperture imaging, and photo-induced Fresnel-zone-plate antennas for dynamic THz beam steering and forming have been successfully demonstrated. Our recent study also shows that by employing the so-called mesa array technique, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and higher than 100 dB modulation depth can be achieved, making it possible to develop tunable THz devices (e.g., tunable filters) with performance and versatility far beyond those realized by conventional approaches. On the basis of the above investigation, the prospects of high-speed near-field THz imaging, real-time ultra-sensitive heterodyne imaging and prototype adaptive THz wireless communication links will be discussed.

  11. Silicon high speed modulator for advanced modulation: device structures and exemplary modulator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milivojevic, Biljana; Wiese, Stefan; Whiteaway, James; Raabe, Christian; Shastri, Anujit; Webster, Mark; Metz, Peter; Sunder, Sanjay; Chattin, Bill; Anderson, Sean P.; Dama, Bipin; Shastri, Kal

    2014-03-01

    Fiber optics is well established today due to the high capacity and speed, unrivaled flexibility and quality of service. However, state of the art optical elements and components are hardly scalable in terms of cost and size required to achieve competitive port density and cost per bit. Next-generation high-speed coherent optical communication systems targeting a data rate of 100-Gb/s and beyond goes along with innovations in component and subsystem areas. Consequently, by leveraging the advanced silicon micro and nano-fabrication technologies, significant progress in developing CMOS platform-based silicon photonic devices has been made all over the world. These achievements include the demonstration of high-speed IQ modulators, which are important building blocks in coherent optical communication systems. In this paper, we demonstrate silicon photonic QPSK modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure, address different modulator configuration structures and report our progress and research associated with highspeed advanced optical modulation in silicon photonics

  12. Center for Space Microelectronics Technology 1988-1989 technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Peggy

    1990-01-01

    The 1988 to 1989 Technical Report of the JPL Center for Space Microelectronics Technology summarizes the technical accomplishments, publications, presentations, and patents of the center. Listed are 321 publications, 282 presentations, and 140 new technology reports and patents.

  13. Microelectronic neural bridging of toad nerves to restore leg function☆

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhigong; Lv, Xiaoying; Huang, Zonghao

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a microelectronic neural bridge comprised of electrode arrays for neural signal detection, functional electrical stimulation, and a microelectronic circuit including signal amplifying, processing, and functional electrical stimulation to bridge two separate nerves, and to restore the lost function of one nerve. The left leg of one spinal toad was subjected to external mechanical stimulation and functional electrical stimulation driving. The function of the left leg of one spinal toad was regenerated to the corresponding leg of another spinal toad using a microelectronic neural bridge. Oscilloscope tracings showed that the electromyographic signals from controlled spinal toads were generated by neural signals that controlled the spinal toad, and there was a delay between signals. This study demonstrates that microelectronic neural bridging can be used to restore neural function between different injured nerves. PMID:25206698

  14. The International Implications of the Development of Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieghart, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Synthesizes issues covered at a conference on microelectronics: production, productivity, and employment; social implications; market mechanisms v government intervention; the role of national governments; data protection laws; and cultural pollution. (SW)

  15. Developing and validating advanced divertor solutions on DIII-D for next-step fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Allen, S. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Thomas, D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Abrams, T.; Boedo, J.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Buchenauer, D.; Bykov, I.; Canik, J. M.; Chrobak, C.; Covele, B.; Ding, R.; Doerner, R.; Donovan, D.; Du, H.; Elder, D.; Eldon, D.; Lasa, A.; Groth, M.; Guterl, J.; Jarvinen, A.; Hinson, E.; Kolemen, E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lore, J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A.; Meyer, B.; Moser, A. L.; Nygren, R.; Owen, L.; Petrie, T. W.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rudakov, D.; Sang, C. F.; Samuell, C.; Si, H.; Schmitz, O.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wampler, W.; Wang, H.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a viable divertor solution with order-of-magnitude increases in power handling capability relative to present experience, while having acceptable divertor target plate erosion and being compatible with maintaining good core plasma confinement. A new initiative has been launched on DIII-D to develop the scientific basis for design, installation, and operation of an advanced divertor to evaluate boundary plasma solutions applicable to next step fusion experiments beyond ITER. Developing the scientific basis for fusion reactor divertor solutions must necessarily follow three lines of research, which we plan to pursue in DIII-D: (1) Advance scientific understanding and predictive capability through development and comparison between state-of-the art computational models and enhanced measurements using targeted parametric scans; (2) Develop and validate key divertor design concepts and codes through innovative variations in physical structure and magnetic geometry; (3) Assess candidate materials, determining the implications for core plasma operation and control, and develop mitigation techniques for any deleterious effects, incorporating development of plasma-material interaction models. These efforts will lead to design, installation, and evaluation of an advanced divertor for DIII-D to enable highly dissipative divertor operation at core density (n e/n GW), neutral fueling and impurity influx most compatible with high performance plasma scenarios and reactor relevant plasma facing components (PFCs). This paper highlights the current progress and near-term strategies of boundary/PMI research on DIII-D.

  16. Developing and validating advanced divertor solutions on DIII-D for next-step fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Allen, S. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Thomas, D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Abrams, T.; Boedo, J.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Buchenauer, D.; Bykov, I.; Canik, J. M.; Chrobak, C.; Covele, B.; Ding, R.; Doerner, R.; Donovan, D.; Du, H.; Elder, D.; Eldon, D.; Lasa, A.; Groth, M.; Guterl, J.; Jarvinen, A.; Hinson, E.; Kolemen, E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lore, J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A.; Meyer, B.; Moser, A. L.; Nygren, R.; Owen, L.; Petrie, T. W.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rudakov, D.; Sang, C. F.; Samuell, C.; Si, H.; Schmitz, O.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wampler, W.; Wang, H.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-09-14

    A major challenge facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a viable divertor solution with order-of-magnitude increases in power handling capability relative to present experience, while having acceptable divertor target plate erosion and being compatible with maintaining good core plasma confinement. A new initiative has been launched on DIII-D to develop the scientific basis for design, installation, and operation of an advanced divertor to evaluate boundary plasma solutions applicable to next step fusion experiments beyond ITER. Developing the scientific basis for fusion reactor divertor solutions must necessarily follow three lines of research, which we plan to pursue in DIII-D: (1) Advance scientific understanding and predictive capability through development and comparison between state-of-the art computational models and enhanced measurements using targeted parametric scans; (2) Develop and validate key divertor design concepts and codes through innovative variations in physical structure and magnetic geometry; (3) Assess candidate materials, determining the implications for core plasma operation and control, and develop mitigation techniques for any deleterious effects, incorporating development of plasma-material interaction models. These efforts will lead to design, installation, and evaluation of an advanced divertor for DIII-D to enable highly dissipative divertor operation at core density (n e/n GW), neutral fueling and impurity influx most compatible with high performance plasma scenarios and reactor relevant plasma facing components (PFCs). In conclusion, this paper highlights the current progress and near-term strategies of boundary/PMI research on DIII-D.

  17. Developing and validating advanced divertor solutions on DIII-D for next-step fusion devices

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D. N.; Leonard, A. W.; ...

    2016-09-14

    A major challenge facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a viable divertor solution with order-of-magnitude increases in power handling capability relative to present experience, while having acceptable divertor target plate erosion and being compatible with maintaining good core plasma confinement. A new initiative has been launched on DIII-D to develop the scientific basis for design, installation, and operation of an advanced divertor to evaluate boundary plasma solutions applicable to next step fusion experiments beyond ITER. Developing the scientific basis for fusion reactor divertor solutions must necessarily follow three lines of research, whichmore » we plan to pursue in DIII-D: (1) Advance scientific understanding and predictive capability through development and comparison between state-of-the art computational models and enhanced measurements using targeted parametric scans; (2) Develop and validate key divertor design concepts and codes through innovative variations in physical structure and magnetic geometry; (3) Assess candidate materials, determining the implications for core plasma operation and control, and develop mitigation techniques for any deleterious effects, incorporating development of plasma-material interaction models. These efforts will lead to design, installation, and evaluation of an advanced divertor for DIII-D to enable highly dissipative divertor operation at core density (n e/n GW), neutral fueling and impurity influx most compatible with high performance plasma scenarios and reactor relevant plasma facing components (PFCs). In conclusion, this paper highlights the current progress and near-term strategies of boundary/PMI research on DIII-D.« less

  18. Developing and validating advanced divertor solutions on DIII-D for next-step fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D. N.; Leonard, A. W.; Allen, S. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Thomas, D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Abrams, T.; Boedo, J.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Buchenauer, D.; Bykov, I.; Canik, J. M.; Chrobak, C.; Covele, B.; Ding, R.; Doerner, R.; Donovan, D.; Du, H.; Elder, D.; Eldon, D.; Lasa, A.; Groth, M.; Guterl, J.; Jarvinen, A.; Hinson, E.; Kolemen, E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lore, J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A.; Meyer, B.; Moser, A. L.; Nygren, R.; Owen, L.; Petrie, T. W.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rudakov, D.; Sang, C. F.; Samuell, C.; Si, H.; Schmitz, O.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wampler, W.; Wang, H.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-09-14

    A major challenge facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a viable divertor solution with order-of-magnitude increases in power handling capability relative to present experience, while having acceptable divertor target plate erosion and being compatible with maintaining good core plasma confinement. A new initiative has been launched on DIII-D to develop the scientific basis for design, installation, and operation of an advanced divertor to evaluate boundary plasma solutions applicable to next step fusion experiments beyond ITER. Developing the scientific basis for fusion reactor divertor solutions must necessarily follow three lines of research, which we plan to pursue in DIII-D: (1) Advance scientific understanding and predictive capability through development and comparison between state-of-the art computational models and enhanced measurements using targeted parametric scans; (2) Develop and validate key divertor design concepts and codes through innovative variations in physical structure and magnetic geometry; (3) Assess candidate materials, determining the implications for core plasma operation and control, and develop mitigation techniques for any deleterious effects, incorporating development of plasma-material interaction models. These efforts will lead to design, installation, and evaluation of an advanced divertor for DIII-D to enable highly dissipative divertor operation at core density (n e/n GW), neutral fueling and impurity influx most compatible with high performance plasma scenarios and reactor relevant plasma facing components (PFCs). In conclusion, this paper highlights the current progress and near-term strategies of boundary/PMI research on DIII-D.

  19. Military requirements for microelectronics: View from the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Residori, L. B.

    1977-01-01

    During the past decade, the field of military application of microelectronics has grown by leaps and bounds. Costs to develop these systems have taken on a primary role in technology as opposed to previous emphasis on innovative designs. The future of microelectronics is investigated in regard to the military developer who must insure that a system is developed which can be operated and maintained in an economical manner in a field environment.

  20. [Modern hearing-aids at the cutting edge of microelectronics. Increased possibilities for individual customization].

    PubMed

    Arlinger, S

    1999-08-25

    The development of modern hearing aids has been so great that they now represent the cutting edge of micro-electronics. Flexibility has been enhanced by computer-aided programming of the devices, and particularly by digital signal processing, developments which enable improved customization. Increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of the auditory system, fundamental processes in central auditory pathways, and cognitive function enable technological developments to be exploited, thus enhancing our ability to cope with an increasingly broad spectrum of hearing impairment, ranging from mild high-frequency loss to severe loss across the entire frequency range.

  1. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in... highly multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application...

  2. High Dielectric Constant Oxides for Advanced Micro-Electronic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-29

    having an appropriately larger dielectric constant, other physical considerations come into play: a) the material must be thermodynamically stable...substrate bias. 7 The primary activity outside the domain of deposition involved extensive characterization of the physical and electrical properties of...from Si. Interacts with Si when recrystallizing to form silicide and SiO2. LaAlO3 expected ε ~ 29 in crystalline phase but much lower in amorphous

  3. Advanced microelectronics research for space applications, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaertner, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Negative-resistance circuits with possible space flight applications are discussed. The basic design approach is to use impedance rotation, i.e., the conversion from capacitance to negative resistance, and from resistance to inductance by the phase shift of the transistor current gain at high frequencies. The subjects discussed in detail are the following: hybrid fabrication of VHF and UHF negative-resistance stages with lumped passive elements; formulation of measurement techniques to characterize transistors and to extend the frequency of negative-resistance transistor amplifiers to higher microwave frequencies; and derivation of transistor characteristics required to increase the frequency range of negative-resistance transistor stages.

  4. III-Nitride advanced technologies and equipment for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, S. I.; Alexeev, A. N.; Mamaev, V. V.; Krasovitsky, D. M.; Chaly, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Using of complex equipment SemiTEq shown in example of a closed cycle of basic technological operations for production of high-power field microwave transistors based on gallium nitride in the "Svetlana-Rost" JSC. Basic technological operations are shown: MBE growth of heterostructures, metal deposition of contacts using electron-beam evaporation system, thermal annealing of ohmic contacts, meza-isolation plasma-chemical etching and dielectric plasma deposition. The main problems during the technological route as well as ways to solve are discussed. In particular, ways to reduce the dislocation density in the active region of the transistor heterostructures grown on the mismatched substrates are described in detail. Special attention given to the homogeneity and reproducibility both after some manufacturing operations and applied to the end product.

  5. Enabling laser applications in microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Brune, Jan; Fechner, Burkhard; Senczuk, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    In this experimental study, we report on high-pulse-energy excimer laser drilling into high-performance build-up films which are pivotal in microelectronics manufacturing. Build-up materials ABF-GX13 from Ajinomoto as well as ZS-100 from Zeon Corporation are evaluated with respect to their viability for economic excimer laser-based micro-via formation. Excimer laser mask imaging projection at laser wavelengths of 193, 248 and 308 nm is employed to generate matrices of smaller micro-vias with different diameters and via pitches. High drilling quality is achievable for all excimer laser wavelengths with the fastest ablation rates measured in the case of 248 and 308 nm wavelengths. The presence of glass fillers in build-up films as in the ABF-GX13 material poses some limitations to the minimum achievable via diameter. However, surprisingly good drilling results are obtainable as long as the filler dimensions are well below the diameter of the micro-vias. Sidewall angles of vias are controllable by adjusting the laser energy density and pulse number. In this work, the structuring capabilities of excimer lasers in build-up films as to taper angle variations, attainable via diameters, edge-stop behavior and ablation rates will be elucidated.

  6. Health hazards in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Geiser, K

    1986-01-01

    The microelectronics industry is explored as a source of occupational health hazards resulting from the extensive use of toxic chemicals in the production of semiconductor chips and the assembly of electronic components. Information is provided on the range of chemicals used in the industry and their particular health implications. Case materials are drawn from Massachusetts' "Route 128" region and California's "Silicon Valley." Problems with worker exposure in the plants are compared with the risks experienced by residents of local neighborhoods from the leakage of industrial chemicals from underground storage tanks into the local groundwater used for drinking water. The recent development of the industry, its highly innovative character, the absence of unions and organizations for worker protection, and the persistence of a public perception that the industry is relatively safe and clean, are all identified as determinants of the extent of health hazards posed by chemical exposure. The paper concludes with recommendations for further studies, worker organization, and increased attention to the reduction of the volume and toxicity of chemicals in industrial production.

  7. Use of COTS microelectronics in radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, P.S.; Lum, G.K.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Hash, G.L.; Scott, L.

    1999-12-01

    This paper addresses key issues for the cost-effective use of COTS (Commercially available Off The Shelf) microelectronics in radiation environments that enable circuit or system designers to manage risks and ensure mission success. They review several factors and tradeoffs affecting the successful application of COTS parts including (1) hardness assurance and qualification issues, (2) system hardening techniques, and (3) life-cycle costs. The paper also describes several experimental studies that address trends in total-dose, transient, and single-event radiation hardness as COTS technology scales to smaller feature sizes. As an example, the level at which dose-rate upset occurs in Samsung SRAMs increases from 1.4 x 10{sup 8} rad(Si)/s for a 256K SRAM to 7.7 x 10{sup 9} rad(Si)/s for a 4M SRAM, indicating unintentional hardening improvements in the design of process of a commercial technology. Additional experiments were performed to quantify variations in radiation hardness for COTS parts. In one study, only small (10--15%) variations were found in the dose-rate upset and latchup thresholds for Samsung 4M SRAMs from three different date codes. In another study, irradiations of 4M SRAMs from Samsung, Hitachi, and Toshiba indicate large differences in total-dose radiation hardness. The paper attempts to carefully define terms and clear up misunderstandings about the definitions of COTS and radiation-hardened (RH) technology.

  8. Proceedings of the Goddard Space Flight Center Workshop on Robotics for Commercial Microelectronic Processes in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Potential applications of robots for cost effective commercial microelectronic processes in space were studied and the associated robotic requirements were defined. Potential space application areas include advanced materials processing, bulk crystal growth, and epitaxial thin film growth and related processes. All possible automation of these processes was considered, along with energy and environmental requirements. Aspects of robot capabilities considered include system intelligence, ROM requirements, kinematic and dynamic specifications, sensor design and configuration, flexibility and maintainability. Support elements discussed included facilities, logistics, ground support, launch and recovery, and management systems.

  9. Characterization of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamicsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, J.; Lee, K. D.; Seo, D. C.; Nam, Y. U.; Choi, M. C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the scope of long term research on imaging diagnostics for steady-state plasmas and understanding of edge plasma physics through diagnostics with conventional spectroscopic methods, we have constructed a linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device named Research on Advanced Plasma Imaging and Dynamics (RAPID). It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. Here, a 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state hydrogen, helium, and argon plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). In order to achieve the highest possible plasma performance within the limited input parameters, wall conditioning experiments were carried out. Chamber bake-out was achieved with heating coils that were wound covering the vessel, and long-pulse electron cyclotron heating discharge cleaning was also followed after 4 days of bake-out. A uniform bake-out temperature (150 °C) was achieved by wrapping the vessel in high temperature thermal insulation textile and by controlling the heating coil current using a digital control system. The partial pressure changes were observed using a residual gas analyzer, and a total system pressure of 5×10-8 Torr was finally reached. Diagnostic systems including a millimeter-wave interferometer, a high resolution survey spectrometer, a Langmuir probe, and an ultrasoft x-ray detector were used to provide the evidence that the plasma performance was improved as we desired. In this work, we present characterization of the RAPID device for various system conditions and configurations.

  10. Characterization of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.; Lee, K. D.; Seo, D. C.; Nam, Y. U.; Choi, M. C.

    2010-10-15

    Within the scope of long term research on imaging diagnostics for steady-state plasmas and understanding of edge plasma physics through diagnostics with conventional spectroscopic methods, we have constructed a linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device named Research on Advanced Plasma Imaging and Dynamics (RAPID). It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. Here, a 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state hydrogen, helium, and argon plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). In order to achieve the highest possible plasma performance within the limited input parameters, wall conditioning experiments were carried out. Chamber bake-out was achieved with heating coils that were wound covering the vessel, and long-pulse electron cyclotron heating discharge cleaning was also followed after 4 days of bake-out. A uniform bake-out temperature (150 deg. C) was achieved by wrapping the vessel in high temperature thermal insulation textile and by controlling the heating coil current using a digital control system. The partial pressure changes were observed using a residual gas analyzer, and a total system pressure of 5x10{sup -8} Torr was finally reached. Diagnostic systems including a millimeter-wave interferometer, a high resolution survey spectrometer, a Langmuir probe, and an ultrasoft x-ray detector were used to provide the evidence that the plasma performance was improved as we desired. In this work, we present characterization of the RAPID device for various system conditions and configurations.

  11. Characterization of a linear device developed for research on advanced plasma imaging and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Lee, K D; Seo, D C; Nam, Y U; Choi, M C

    2010-10-01

    Within the scope of long term research on imaging diagnostics for steady-state plasmas and understanding of edge plasma physics through diagnostics with conventional spectroscopic methods, we have constructed a linear electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma device named Research on Advanced Plasma Imaging and Dynamics (RAPID). It has a variety of axial magnetic field profiles provided by eight water-cooled magnetic coils and two dc power supplies. The positions of the magnetic coils are freely adjustable along the axial direction and the power supplies can be operated with many combinations of electrical wiring to the coils. Here, a 6 kW 2.45 GHz magnetron is used to produce steady-state hydrogen, helium, and argon plasmas with central magnetic fields of 875 and/or 437.5 G (second harmonic). In order to achieve the highest possible plasma performance within the limited input parameters, wall conditioning experiments were carried out. Chamber bake-out was achieved with heating coils that were wound covering the vessel, and long-pulse electron cyclotron heating discharge cleaning was also followed after 4 days of bake-out. A uniform bake-out temperature (150 °C) was achieved by wrapping the vessel in high temperature thermal insulation textile and by controlling the heating coil current using a digital control system. The partial pressure changes were observed using a residual gas analyzer, and a total system pressure of 5×10(-8) Torr was finally reached. Diagnostic systems including a millimeter-wave interferometer, a high resolution survey spectrometer, a Langmuir probe, and an ultrasoft x-ray detector were used to provide the evidence that the plasma performance was improved as we desired. In this work, we present characterization of the RAPID device for various system conditions and configurations.

  12. A microtomography beamline at the Louisiana State University Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Kyungmin; Jin, Hua; Butler, Leslie G.; Kurtz, Richard L.

    2002-03-01

    A microtomography beamline has been recently assembled and is currently operating at the Louisiana State University's Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices synchrotron (CAMD). It has been installed on a bending magnet white-light beamline at port 7A. With the storage ring operating at 1.5 GeV, this beamline has a maximum usable x-ray energy of ˜15 keV. The instrumentation consists of computer-controlled positioning stages for alignment and rotation, a CsI(Tl) phosphor screen, a reflecting mirror, a microscope objective (1:1, 1:4), and Linux/LabVIEW-controlled charge coupled device. With the 1:4 objective, the maximum spatial resolution is 2.25 μm. The positioning and image acquisition computers communicate via transfer control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP). A small G4/Linux cluster has been installed for the purpose of on-site reconstruction. Instrument, alignment and reconstruction programs are written in MATLAB, IDL, and C. The applications to date are many and we present several examples. Several biological samples have been studied as part of an effort on biological visualization and computation. Future improvements to this microtomography station include the addition of a double-multilayer monochromator, allowing one to evaluate the three-dimensional elemental composition of materials. Plans also include eventual installation at the CAMD 7 T wiggler beamline, providing x rays in excess of 50 keV to provide better penetration of higher mass-density materials.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy Device to Reduce Incisional Scar Formation

    PubMed Central

    Longaker, Michael T.; Rohrich, Rod J.; Greenberg, Lauren; Furnas, Heather; Wald, Robert; Bansal, Vivek; Seify, Hisham; Tran, Anthony; Weston, Jane; Korman, Joshua M.; Chan, Rodney; Kaufman, David; Dev, Vipul R.; Mele, Joseph A.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scarring represents a significant biomedical burden in clinical medicine. Mechanomodulation has been linked to scarring through inflammation, but until now a systematic approach to attenuate mechanical force and reduce scarring has not been possible. Methods The authors conducted a 12-month, prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter clinical trial to evaluate abdominoplasty scar appearance following postoperative treatment with the embrace Advanced Scar Therapy device to reduce mechanical forces on healing surgical incisions. Incisions from 65 healthy adult subjects were randomized to receive embrace treatment on one half of an abdominoplasty incision and control treatment (surgeon's optimal care methods) on the other half. The primary endpoint for this study was the difference between assessments of scar appearance for the treated and control sides using the visual analogue scale scar score. Results Final 12-month study photographs were obtained from 36 subjects who completed at least 5 weeks of dressing application. The mean visual analogue scale score for embrace-treated scars (2.90) was significantly improved compared with control-treated scars (3.29) at 12 months (difference, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.66; p = 0.027). Both subjects and investigators found that embrace-treated scars demonstrated significant improvements in overall appearance at 12 months using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale evaluation (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the embrace device significantly reduces scarring following abdominoplasty surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this represents the first level I evidence for postoperative scar reduction. PMID:24804638

  14. Instrumentation for synchrotron based micromachining at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigeldinger, G.; Goettert, J.; Desta, Y.; Ling, Z. L.; Rupp, L.

    2002-03-01

    The J. Bennett Johnston Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) is a synchrotron radiation facility owned by Louisiana State University and operated with financial support from the State of Louisiana (for information how to submit a project proposal go to: http://www.camd.lsu.edu). The centerpiece of CAMD is a 1.3-1.5 GeV electron storage ring. CAMD supports a strong program in x-ray lithography micromachining (XRLM) or LIGA. A total of four beamlines equipped with different scanners is available for exposures. A 2.500 sq. ft class 100 clean room provides basic processing capability for MEMS including optical lithography, thin film deposition, electroplating, and metrology. Three micromachining beamlines are connected to bending magnets. All beamlines are "white light" beamlines, terminated with a beryllium window. The typical source point to scanner distance is 10 m and the horizontal acceptance ranges from 6.5 to 10 mrad. A number of low Z filters can be inserted into the beam adapting the exposure spectrum to the resist thickness. Two beamlines are equipped with commercial scanners from Jenoptik GmbH (for details see Jenoptik's webpage at www.jo-mikrotechnik.com/) and one beamline with a "vacuum" scanner designed in house. The latest model of Jenoptik's DEX02 scanner has been installed at CAMD's XRLM1 beamline in December 2000 and allows advanced exposures using overlay as well as tilt and rotate functions. In addition to these beamlines CAMD has installed a "white light" beamline at its 7 T wiggler source. Preliminary exposure tests in ultrathick samples (1 mm and thicker) have been conducted using an "air scanner." Currently this beamline is dismantled and will be reinstalled together with a PX beamline. In the article further details of the beamlines and scanners as well as some examples of applications of LIGA microstructures fabricated at CAMD will be discussed.

  15. Return on Investment and Technology-Based Training--An Introduction and a Case Study at Advanced Micro Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masumian, Bijan

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes findings from studies comparing classroom and technology-based approaches to training and the respective Return on Investment (ROI) data. Highlights several advantages of technology-based training. Offers information and initial ROI numbers on the use of technology-based training at Advanced Micro Devices, a global manufacturer of…

  16. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  17. 9 CFR 381.131 - Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of labeling or other... Preparation of labeling or other devices bearing official inspection marks without advance approval prohibited; exceptions. (a) Except for the purposes of preparing and submitting a sample or samples of the same to the...

  18. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  19. Return on Investment and Technology-Based Training--An Introduction and a Case Study at Advanced Micro Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masumian, Bijan

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes findings from studies comparing classroom and technology-based approaches to training and the respective Return on Investment (ROI) data. Highlights several advantages of technology-based training. Offers information and initial ROI numbers on the use of technology-based training at Advanced Micro Devices, a global manufacturer of…

  20. Material and processing issues for the monolithic integration of microelectronics with surface-micromachined polysilicon sensors and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1995-08-01

    The monolithic integration of micromechanical devices with their controlling electronics offers potential increases in performance as well as decreases in cost for these devices. Analog Devices has demonstrated the commercial viability of this integration by interleaving the micromechanical fabrication steps of an accelerometer with the microelectronic fabrication steps of its controlling electronics. Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Laboratory has integrated the micromechanical and microelectronic processing sequences in a segregated fashion. In this CMOS-first, micromechanics-last approach, conventional aluminum metallization is replaced by tungsten metallization to allow CMOS to withstand subsequent high-temperature processing during the micromechanical fabrication. This approach is a further development of an approach originally developed at UC Berkeley. Specifically, the issues of yield, repeatability, and uniformity of the tungsten/CMOS approach are addressed. Also, material issues related to the development of high-temperature diffusion barriers, adhesion layers, and low-stress films are discussed. Processing and material issues associated with alternative approaches to this integration such as micromechanics- first, CMOS-last or the interleaved process are also discussed.

  1. [Treatment of advanced heart failure in women: heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices].

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Manlio; Macera, Francesca; Verde, Alessandro; Bruschi, Giuseppe; del Medico, Marta; Oliva, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Luigi; Frigerio, Maria

    2012-05-01

    Women candidates for heart transplantation are definitely less than men, just 20% of all patients transplanted; even in the INTERMACS registry they represent only 21% of all ventricular assist devices (VAD) implanted. The reasons for this big difference are discussed in this article. Why women are less frequently assessed for unconventional therapies? Are they sicker or just less regarded? Our experience and the literature show us clear epidemiological, clinical and treatment differences that could lead to a lower prevalence of end-stage disease in women of an age suitable for unconventional therapies. Once on the transplant list, women wait less than men for a heart transplant, because they present with more severe disease, have a lower body mass index and undergo less VAD implants. After transplantation women's survival is comparable to men's, although they usually complain of a lower quality of life. Females receive less often a VAD than men. The main reasons for this include presentation with advanced heart failure at an older age than men, worse outcomes related to small body surface area, and lower survival rates on VAD when implanted as bridge to heart transplantation.

  2. Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2001-05-14

    Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

  3. Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Ancona, Mario G.; Yu, Zhi-Ping

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction to the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion or quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.

  4. Profiling wrist pulse from skin surface by Advanced Vibrometer Interferometer Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hao-Xiang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2017-02-01

    With global trends in population aging, the need to decrease and prevent the onset of cardiovascular disease has drawn a great attention. The traditional cuff-based upper arm sphygmomanometer is still the standard method to retrieve blood pressure information for diagnostics. However, this method is not easy to be adapted by patients and is not comfortable enough to perform a long term monitoring process. In order to correlate the beating profile of the arterial pulse on the wrist skin, an Advanced Vibrometer Interferometer Device (AVID) is adopted in this study to measure the vibration amplitude of skin and compare it with blood pressure measured from the upper arm. The AVID system can measure vibration and remove the directional ambiguity by using circular polarization interferometer technique with two orthogonal polarized light beams. The displacement resolution of the system is nearly 1.0 nm and the accuracy is experimentally verified. Using an optical method to quantify wrist pule, it provides a means to perform cuff-less, noninvasive and continuous measurement. In this paper, the correlations between the amplitude of skin vibration and the actual blood pressure is studied. The success of this method could potentially set the foundation of blood pressure monitor system based on optical approaches.

  5. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Strittmatter, André; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  6. Neurocognitive assessments in advanced heart failure patients receiving continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Ralph J; Wright, Susan; Naka, Yoshifuma; Idrissi, Kathy A; Russell, Stuart D; Dordunoo, Dzifa; Jaski, Brian; Chillcott, Suzanne; Feldman, David; Yanssens, Tammy; Heatley, Gerald; Koundakjian, Lalig; Farrar, David J; Aaronson, Keith D

    2009-06-01

    Neurocognitive (NC) changes in heart failure patients receiving left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to document changes in the cognitive performance of patients with the continuous-flow HeartMate II LVAD as a bridge to transplant (BTT). A NC protocol was used to evaluate patient performance at 1, 3 and 6 months after LVAD implantation at 11 centers. A total of 239 test sessions were completed in 93 patients including paired evaluations in 51 to 57 patients from 1 to 3 months, and in 20 to 28 patients with results from 1, 3 and 6 months. Five NC domains were assessed, including visual spatial perception, auditory and visual memory, executive functions, language and processing speed. There were statistically significant (p < 0.05), but limited improvements between 1, 3 and 6 months in NC domain performances as seen in visual memory, executive functions, visual spatial perception and processing speed. There were no significant declines in any neurocognitive test in any domain over these time periods. The cognitive performance of advanced heart failure patients remained stable or showed slight improvements from Month 1 to Month 6 of continuous-blood-flow support with the HeartMate II LVAD.

  7. Efficient Multi-Dimensional Simulation of Quantum Confinement Effects in Advanced MOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegel, Bryan A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Rafferty, Conor S.; Yu, Zhiping

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the density-gradient (DG) transport model for efficient multi-dimensional simulation of quantum confinement effects in advanced MOS devices. The formulation of the DG model is described as a quantum correction ot the classical drift-diffusion model. Quantum confinement effects are shown to be significant in sub-100nm MOSFETs. In thin-oxide MOS capacitors, quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects may reduce gate capacitance by 25% or more. As a result, the inclusion of quantum effects in simulations dramatically improves the match between C-V simulations and measurements for oxide thickness down to 2 nm. Significant quantum corrections also occur in the I-V characteristics of short-channel (30 to 100 nm) n-MOSFETs, with current drive reduced by up to 70%. This effect is shown to result from reduced inversion charge due to quantum confinement of electrons in the channel. Also, subthreshold slope is degraded by 15 to 20 mV/decade with the inclusion of quantum effects via the density-gradient model, and short channel effects (in particular, drain-induced barrier lowering) are noticeably increased.

  8. A Cs2LiYCl6:Ce-based advanced radiation monitoring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Dallmann, N.; Baginski, M. J.; Best, D. J.; Smith, M. B.; Graham, S. A.; Dathy, C.; Frank, J. M.; McClish, M.

    2015-06-01

    Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) scintillator has gained recent interest because of its ability to perform simultaneous gamma spectroscopy and thermal neutron detection. Discrimination between the two incident particle types owes to the fundamentally unique emission waveforms, a consequence of the interaction and subsequent scintillation mechanisms within the crystal. Due to this dual-mode detector capability, CLYC was selected for the development of an Advanced Radiation Monitoring Device (ARMD), a compact handheld instrument for radioisotope identification and localization. ARMD consists of four 1 in.-right cylindrical CLYC crystals, custom readout electronics including a suitable multi-window application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), battery pack, proprietary software, and Android-based tablet for high-level analysis and display. We herein describe the motivation of the work and engineering design of the unit, and we explain the software embedded in the core module and for radioisotope analysis. We report an operational range of tens of keV to 8.5 MeV with approximately 5.3% gamma energy resolution at 662 keV, thermal neutron detection efficiency of 10%, battery lifetime of up to 10 h, manageable rates of 20 kHz; further, we describe in greater detail time to identify specific gamma source setups.

  9. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven Reitzenstein, Stephan; Strittmatter, André

    2015-07-15

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  10. Molten-Metal Droplet Deposition on a Moving Substrate in Microgravity: Aiding the Development of Novel Technologies for Microelectronic Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Bayer, I. S.; Poulikakos, D.; Nayagam, V.

    2002-01-01

    Driven by advancements in microelectronics manufacturing, this research investigates the oblique (non-axisymmetric) impact of liquid-metal droplets on flat substrates. The problem of interest is relevant to the development of the novel technology of on-demand dispension (printing) of microscopic solder deposits for the surface mounting of microelectronic devices. The technology, known as solder jetting, features on-demand deposition of miniature solder droplets (30 to 120 microns in diameter) in very fine, very accurate patterns using techniques analogous to those developed for the ink-jet printing industry. Despite its promise, severe limitations exist currently with regards to the throughput rates of the technology; some of these limitations are largely due to the lack of the capability for reliable prediction of solder bump positioning and shapes, especially under ballistic deposition conditions where the droplet impact phenomena are inherently three-dimensional. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental component. The theoretical work uses a finite element formulation to simulate numerically the non-axisymmetric (3-D) fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid solder droplet impacting at an angle alpha on a flat substrate. The work focuses on the pre-solidification regime. The modeling of the most challenging fluid mechanics part of the process has been completed successfully. It is based upon the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations employing a Lagrangian frame of reference. Due to the large droplet deformation, the surface (skin) as well as the volumetric mesh have to be regenerated during the calculations in order to maintain the high accuracy of the numerical scheme. The pressure and velocity fields are then interpolated on the newly created mesh. The numerical predictions are being tested against experiments, for cases where wetting phenomena are not important. For the impact parameters used in the example shown (We = 2.38, Fr

  11. Molten-Metal Droplet Deposition on a Moving Substrate in Microgravity: Aiding the Development of Novel Technologies for Microelectronic Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Bayer, I. S.; Poulikakos, D.; Nayagam, V.

    2002-01-01

    Driven by advancements in microelectronics manufacturing, this research investigates the oblique (non-axisymmetric) impact of liquid-metal droplets on flat substrates. The problem of interest is relevant to the development of the novel technology of on-demand dispension (printing) of microscopic solder deposits for the surface mounting of microelectronic devices. The technology, known as solder jetting, features on-demand deposition of miniature solder droplets (30 to 120 microns in diameter) in very fine, very accurate patterns using techniques analogous to those developed for the ink-jet printing industry. Despite its promise, severe limitations exist currently with regards to the throughput rates of the technology; some of these limitations are largely due to the lack of the capability for reliable prediction of solder bump positioning and shapes, especially under ballistic deposition conditions where the droplet impact phenomena are inherently three-dimensional. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental component. The theoretical work uses a finite element formulation to simulate numerically the non-axisymmetric (3-D) fluid mechanics and heat transfer phenomena of a liquid solder droplet impacting at an angle alpha on a flat substrate. The work focuses on the pre-solidification regime. The modeling of the most challenging fluid mechanics part of the process has been completed successfully. It is based upon the full laminar Navier-Stokes equations employing a Lagrangian frame of reference. Due to the large droplet deformation, the surface (skin) as well as the volumetric mesh have to be regenerated during the calculations in order to maintain the high accuracy of the numerical scheme. The pressure and velocity fields are then interpolated on the newly created mesh. The numerical predictions are being tested against experiments, for cases where wetting phenomena are not important. For the impact parameters used in the example shown (We = 2.38, Fr

  12. Isotropic copper-invar alloys for microelectronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, Rand Duprez

    The recent trend in microelectronics packaging toward surface mounted devices (SMD) has created a need for new types of materials that possess low thermal expansion and high electrical and thermal conductivity. Laminates that combine the high thermal and electrical conductivity of copper with the low thermal expansion of Invar, know as CuInvarCu or CIC, are widely use as core constraining materials in printed wire boards where SMDs are to be employed. CIC is highly anisotropic, and there are potential problems resulting from its anisotropy. An isotropic CuInvar alloy would be of great interest for a variety of applications. In suitable Cu-Fe-Ni alloys, a copper-rich solid solution equilibrates with an Invar-rich solid solution; casting such alloys invariably produces Invar-rich dendrites in a copper-rich solid solution. Casting followed by suitable heat treatments can produce two-phase alloys that combine the properties of copper and Invar. The overall composition controls the relative fractions of Invar and copper and the resulting trade-off between low thermal expansivity and electrical conductivity. Measured thermal expansivities (CTE) of CuInvar alloys follow very closely a linear rule of mixing. Electrical conductivities of as-cast specimens are quite poor due to iron and nickel contamination. Theoretical phase diagrams indicate that nearly pure copper equilibrates with an Invar-rich phase at temperatures below, roughly, 500°C. However, equilibrium compositions have been shown to take extremely, long to form, due to the very sluggish kinetics in the system. Long-term annealing was shown to improve conductivity significantly, but much greater improvements are needed to make CuInvar viable as an electrical conductive material.

  13. Experiences with integral microelectronics on smart structures for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Ted; Casteel, Scott; Navarro, Sergio A.; Kraml, Bob

    1995-05-01

    One feature of a smart structure implies that some computational and signal processing capability can be performed at a local level, perhaps integral to the controlled structure. This requires electronics with a minimal mechanical influence regarding structural stiffening, heat dissipation, weight, and electrical interface connectivity. The Advanced Controls Technology Experiment II (ACTEX II) space-flight experiments implemented such a local control electronics scheme by utilizing composite smart members with integral processing electronics. These microelectronics, tested to MIL-STD-883B levels, were fabricated with conventional thick film on ceramic multichip module techniques. Kovar housings and aluminum-kapton multilayer insulation was used to protect against harsh space radiation and thermal environments. Development and acceptance testing showed the electronics design was extremely robust, operating in vacuum and at temperature range with minimal gain variations occurring just above room temperatures. Four electronics modules, used for the flight hardware configuration, were connected by a RS-485 2 Mbit per second serial data bus. The data bus was controlled by Actel field programmable gate arrays arranged in a single master, four slave configuration. An Intel 80C196KD microprocessor was chosen as the digital compensator in each controller. It was used to apply a series of selectable biquad filters, implemented via Delta Transforms. Instability in any compensator was expected to appear as large amplitude oscillations in the deployed structure. Thus, over-vibration detection circuitry with automatic output isolation was incorporated into the design. This was not used however, since during experiment integration and test, intentionally induced compensator instabilities resulted in benign mechanical oscillation symptoms. Not too surprisingly, it was determined that instabilities were most detectable by large temperature increases in the electronics, typically

  14. Long Term Therapeutic Efficacy of a Soft Monobloc Mandibular Advancement Device in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ballanti, Fabiana; Ranieri, Salvatore; Cozza, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the long term (48 months) therapeutic efficacy of a soft monobloc mandibular advancement device in adult patients with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Methods. The study population comprised 28 patients (6 female and 22 male, mean age 52.2 ± 6.8 years) affected by obstructive sleep apnea. After a baseline medical and somnographic examination, a functional examination of the stomatognathic system, and a questionnaire focused on sleep-related qualities and a daytime somnolence, each patient received an individual device. Two follow-ups were made 6 months (T1) and 48 months (T2) after soft monobloc mandibular advancement device treatment had been initiated, and all initial examinations were repeated. Results. The statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in body mass index value between T1 and T2 (ρ = 0,012), an increase of Epworth sleepiness scale value between T1 and T2 (ρ = 0,012), and a significant improvement and decrease of apnea/hypopnea index between T0 and T1 (ρ = 0,010) and between T0 and T2 (ρ = 0,013). Conclusion. Treatment with the soft monobloc mandibular advancement device is a therapeutic solution with long term and stable effects (48 months) for patients suffering from mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:25642453

  15. Large-area nanofabrication and applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wei

    The research work presented in this dissertation includes novel large area nanofabrication techniques and their applications in advanced nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. The fabrications and applications include: 1) high performance transparent electrodes, 2) a novel plasmonic nanocavity and its applications in organic solar cells and light emitting diodes, and 3) a bipolar plasmonic nonlinear optical device to enhance and tune second harmonic generation. Based upon these topics, the thesis is divided into the following parts. First, a novel transparent electrode (TE), metallic deep subwavelength mesh electrode is developed and fabricated, showing better transmittance and conductance than previous TEs. Its performance dependence on nanostructure geometries and materials are investigated. The deep-subwavelength mesh electrode also has excellent antiglare properties. Such electrodes are fabricated on 4" wafer by nanoimprint, scalable to meter sizes. Second, a novel plasmonic nanocavity from the MESH is developed, named "plasmonic cavity with subwavelength hole-array (PlaCSH)", consisting of a thin MESH as a transparent front electrode, a thin metal back electrode, and in-between layer of active material. This structure is used to create high performance solar cells and LEDs. PlaCSH solar cell gives a solution to three central challenges in organic solar cells (light coupling into solar cell, light trapping in a sub-absorption-length-thick layer, and replacement of the indium-tin-oxide). Experimentally, the PlaCSH polymer SCs achieve high light coupling-efficiency/absorptance/power conversion efficiency, along with broad-band, Omni angle/polarization acceptance. In OLEDs, PlaCSH shows numerous benefits with both the small- molecule and polymer active materials. Enhanced light extraction, internal quantum efficiency, ambient light absorption, contrast, viewing angle, brightness, and decreased glare are all observed. The above experiments -- along with

  16. Kovar Micro Heat Pipe Substrates for Microelectronic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, David A.; Burchett, Steven N.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Robino, Charles V.; Schmidt, Carrie; Tigges, Chris P.

    1999-04-01

    We describe the development of a new technology for cooling microelectronics. This report documents the design, fabrication, and prototype testing of micro scale heat pipes embedded in a flat plate substrate or heat spreader. A thermal model tuned to the test results enables us to describe heat transfer in the prototype, as well as evaluate the use of this technology in other applications. The substrate walls are Kovar alloy, which has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of microelectronic die. The prototype designs integrating micro heat pipes with Kovar enhance thermal conductivity by more than a factor of two over that of Kovar alone, thus improving the cooling of micro-electronic die.

  17. Potential occupational health hazards in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J

    1983-02-01

    The microelectronics industry is a major user of a wide variety of chemicals and other toxic materials. In the recent past semiconductor manufacturers have located in many countries and brought a new set of challenging clinical problems to occupational physicians. California, an area with a significant history in the statistical study of health and safety in the microelectronics industry, presents some evidence of potential health hazards in the semiconductor manufacturing process. The Semiconductor Industry Study done in California in 1981 explains the application of many toxic materials in the semiconductor manufacturing process, including a variety of solvents, acids, and metals such as arsenic. The Study documents the extensive use of dopant gases, primarily arsine, phosphine and diborane. Further study is necessary to assure the health and safety of microelectronics workers, particularly in the application of dopant gases.

  18. Affective and personality disturbances among female former microelectronics workers.

    PubMed

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Rauch, S S; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    The production and manufacture of microelectronic components, carried out primarily by women workers, require extensive use of organic solvents. Affective and personality disturbances frequently have been associated with organic solvent toxicity. A group of women, former microelectronics workers (N = 70), primarily of Hispanic origin (77.1%) but raised in the United States, were evaluated for affective and personality disturbance with the MMPI. Profiles were analyzed, and diagnostic classification was performed blind. Results showed that (1) 85.7% of the profiles indicated abnormally high clinical elevations; and (2) MMPI profile classification revealed four clinical diagnostic groups: somatoform (24.3%), depression (15.7%), anxiety (28.6%), and psychotic (14.3%). These findings indicate significant psychopathology among these women, who formerly had worked in a microelectronics plant. The patterns of impairment present similarities to previous reports of organic solvent toxicity.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of oxides for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao

    Atomic layer deposition of high-kappa oxides has gained interest due to the wide applications in microelectronics. For gate dielectric application, amorphous oxides are preferred for the structural uniformity at nanometer scale. LaxM2-xO 3 (M = Sc, Lu or Y) films were deposited by ALD with metal amidinate precursors and H2O. Both LaScO3 and LaLuO3 films are amorphous and free of interfacial layers. Besides the structural benefits, both oxides have high dielectric constants (˜23 for LaScO 3 and 28 +/- 1 for LaLuO3), low leakage current density, and very few bulk traps, and are scalable to EOT < 1 nm. La1.23Y 0.77O3 films have polycrystalline structures with moderately high kappa ˜ 17 and low leakage current. The Poole-Frenkel mechanism is verified in the ternary oxide films by studying temperature dependence of the leakage current. For La1.1Al0.9O3/Si, the thermal stability was evaluated by studying the interface structure evolution under different annealing conditions. It concludes that an interfacial layer forms at the temperature above 600°C and the oxygen source resides in the film. For DRAM application, ALD deposition of rutile phase TiO2 is developed for its 70. The substrate, SnO2 and RuO2/Ru, works as both bottom electrodes and templates for rutile TiO2 nucleation. The growth rate is ˜ 0.3 A/cycle and is regardless of phases and crystallinity. The crystallinity strongly depends on the substrates. High quality ruthenium thin films were deposited by ALD with bis( N,N'-di-tert-butylacetamidinato) ruthenium(II) dicarbonyl and O2. The film crystallinity, density, and resistivity strongly depend on the O2 exposure. As EO ≈ Emax, the films have the lowest resistivity, highest density and best crystallinity (˜10 muO·cm, ˜12.3 g/cm3 and grain size comparable to film thickness). When EO > Emax, films peel off from the substrate due to the recombinative desorption of O2. The impurities are mainly O (0.27+/-0.03at.%) and C (0.30+/-0.05at.%). The C is mostly

  20. Automated hotspot analysis with aerial image CD metrology for advanced logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Trautzsch, Thomas; Kim, Min-ho; Seo, Jung-Uk; Yoon, Young-Keun; Han, Hak-Seung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Meyers, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Continuously shrinking designs by further extension of 193nm technology lead to a much higher probability of hotspots especially for the manufacturing of advanced logic devices. The CD of these potential hotspots needs to be precisely controlled and measured on the mask. On top of that, the feature complexity increases due to high OPC load in the logic mask design which is an additional challenge for CD metrology. Therefore the hotspot measurements have been performed on WLCD from ZEISS, which provides the benefit of reduced complexity by measuring the CD in the aerial image and qualifying the printing relevant CD. This is especially of advantage for complex 2D feature measurements. Additionally, the data preparation for CD measurement becomes more critical due to the larger amount of CD measurements and the increasing feature diversity. For the data preparation this means to identify these hotspots and mark them automatically with the correct marker required to make the feature specific CD measurement successful. Currently available methods can address generic pattern but cannot deal with the pattern diversity of the hotspots. The paper will explore a method how to overcome those limitations and to enhance the time-to-result in the marking process dramatically. For the marking process the Synopsys WLCD Output Module was utilized, which is an interface between the CATS mask data prep software and the WLCD metrology tool. It translates the CATS marking directly into an executable WLCD measurement job including CD analysis. The paper will describe the utilized method and flow for the hotspot measurement. Additionally, the achieved results on hotspot measurements utilizing this method will be presented.

  1. Therapeutic outcomes of mandibular advancement devices as an initial treatment modality for obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Pona; Jeon, Hyoung Won; Han, Doo Hee; Won, Tae-Bin; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), there is a need for alternative treatment options, such as sleep surgeries and mandibular advancement devices (MADs), to overcome the limitations of CPAP. This study aimed to analyze the therapeutic outcomes of OSA subjects who were treated with a MAD, and to estimate the clinical impact of MAD as a first-line treatment for OSA. Forty-seven patients diagnosed with OSA received an adjustable MAD as an initial treatment. Drug-induced sleep endoscopic findings and sleep parameters (both pre-MAD and post-MAD treatment), such as apnea index, oxygen saturation, and degree of daytime sleepiness, were assessed retrospectively. The MAD treatment resulted in a significant reduction in apnea–hypopnea index, and also a significant elevation in lowest oxygen saturation. Satisfactory results of MAD treatment as a first treatment modality were observed in 27 patients, and a successful outcome was reached in approximately 72% of patients. The OSA patients who had lower body mass index and upper airway narrowing at the level of palate and tongue base showed relatively higher rates of a satisfactory outcome even in cases of moderate or severe OSA. These results suggest that the use of a MAD may be an alternative treatment option in OSA patients with retropalatal and retroglossal area narrowing regardless of disease severity. Additionally, MADs can be recommended as an initial treatment modality, and the effectiveness of MADs in achieving success may not be inferior to CPAP. PMID:27861349

  2. ISS Squat and Deadlift Kinematics on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, N.; Caldwell, E.; Sibonga, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual assessment of exercise form on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on orbit is difficult due to the motion of the entire device on its Vibration Isolation System (VIS). The VIS allows for two degrees of device translational motion, and one degree of rotational motion. In order to minimize the forces that the VIS must damp in these planes of motion, the floor of the ARED moves as well during exercise to reduce changes in the center of mass of the system. To help trainers and other exercise personnel better assess squat and deadlift form a tool was developed that removes the VIS motion and creates a stick figure video of the exerciser. Another goal of the study was to determine whether any useful kinematic information could be obtained from just a single camera. Finally, the use of these data may aid in the interpretation of QCT hip structure data in response to ARED exercises performed in-flight. After obtaining informed consent, four International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers participated in this investigation. Exercise was videotaped using a single camera positioned to view the side of the crewmember during exercise on the ARED. One crewmember wore reflective tape on the toe, heel, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder joints. This technique was not available for the other three crewmembers, so joint locations were assessed and digitized frame-by-frame by lab personnel. A custom Matlab program was used to assign two-dimensional coordinates to the joint locations throughout exercise. A second custom Matlab program was used to scale the data, calculate joint angles, estimate the foot center of pressure (COP), approximate normal and shear loads, and to create the VIS motion-corrected stick figure videos. Kinematics for the squat and deadlift vary considerably for the four crewmembers in this investigation. Some have very shallow knee and hip angles, and others have quite large ranges of motion at these joints. Joint angle analysis showed that crewmembers

  3. Active microelectronic array system for DNA hybridization, genotyping and pharmacogenomic applications.

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Ron; Heller, Michael J; Tu, Eugene; Forster, Anita H; Radtkey, Ray

    2002-12-01

    Microelectronic arrays have been developed for DNA hybridization analysis of point mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, short tandem repeats and gene expression. In addition to a variety of molecular biology and genomic research applications, such devices will also be used for infectious disease detection, genetic and cancer diagnostics, and pharmacogenomic applications. These microelectronic array devices are able to produce defined electric fields on their surfaces that allow charged molecules and other entities to be transported to or from any test site or micro-location on the planar surface of the device. These molecules and entities include DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, antibodies and cells. Electronic-based molecule addressing and hybridization can then be carried out, where the electric field is now used to greatly accelerate the hybridization reactions that occur on the selected test sites. When reversed, the electric field can be used to provide an additional parameter for improved hybridization. Special low-conductance buffers have been developed that provide for the rapid transport of the DNA molecules and facilitate the electronic hybridization reactions under conditions that do not support hybridization. Important to the device function is the permeation layer that overcoats the underlying microelectrodes. Generally composed of a porous hydrogel material impregnated with attachment chemistry, this permeation layer prevents the destruction of analytes at the active microelectrode surface, ameliorates the adverse effects of electrolysis products on the sensitive hybridization and affinity reactions, and serves as a support structure for attaching DNA probes and other molecules to the array. The microelectronic chip or array device is incorporated into a cartridge package (NanoChip trade mark cartridge) that provides the electronic, optical, and fluidic interfacing. A complete instrument system (NanoChip trade mark Molecular Biology Workstation

  4. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays, hybrid microelectronics task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.; Rothrock, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost models previously developed for hybrid microelectronic subsystems were refined and expanded. Rework terms related to substrate fabrication, nonrecurring developmental and manufacturing operations, and prototype production are included. Sample computer programs were written to demonstrate hybrid microelectric applications of these cost models. Computer programs were generated to calculate and analyze values for the total microelectronics costs. Large scale integrated (LST) chips utilizing tape chip carrier technology were studied. The feasibility of interconnecting arrays of LSU chips utilizing tape chip carrier and semiautomatic wire bonding technology was demonstrated.

  5. Center for Space Microelectronics Technology. 1993 Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1993 Technical Report of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Space Microelectronics Technology summarizes the technical accomplishments, publications, presentations, and patents of the Center during the past year. The report lists 170 publications, 193 presentations, and 84 New Technology Reports and patents. The 1993 Technical Report of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Center for Space Microelectronics Technology summarizes the technical accomplishments, publications, presentations, and patents of the Center during the past year. The report lists 170 publications, 193 presentations, and 84 New Technology Reports and patents.

  6. Nuclear fragmentation studies for microelectronic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Duc M.; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.; Fogarty, Thomas N.

    1989-01-01

    A formalism for target fragment transport is presented with application to energy loss spectra in thin silicon devices. Predicted results are compared to experiments with the surface barrier detectors of McNulty et al. The intranuclear cascade nuclear reaction model does not predict the McNulty experimental data for the highest energy events. A semiempirical nuclear cross section gives an adequate explanation of McNulty's experiments. Application of the formalism to specific electronic devices is discussed.

  7. Development of a container for handling, testing, and storing discrete microelectronic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filip, G. L.; Caruso, S. V.

    1972-01-01

    A container has been developed for handling, testing, burning-in, and storing discrete microelectronic components without removal from the protective package. The package was designed to accommodate the leadless inverted device and other carrier-mounted active devices and chip-type discrete resistors and capacitors. Before the indicated development, components were handled and tested in various ways, some of which resulted in damage or contamination. The basic design of the container utilizes precision machined printed circuit boards and chemically milled (photoetched) contact springs. Included in this design for protection is an O-ring-sealed cover. Methods of fabrication and limitations of the current hardware are presented. Current applications of and possible extensions to the technology are discussed.

  8. Local tetrahedron modeling of microelectronics using the finite-volume hybrid-grid technique

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    The finite-volume hybrid-grid (FVHG) technique uses both structured and unstructured grid regions in obtaining a solution to the time-domain Maxwell`s equations. The method is based on explicit time differencing and utilizes rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and nonorthogonal finite-volume time-domain (FVTD). The technique directly couples structured FDTD grids with unstructured FVTD grids without the need for spatial interpolation across grid interfaces. In this paper, the FVHG method is applied to simple planar microelectronic devices. Local tetrahedron grids are used to model portions of the device under study, with the remainder of the problem space being modeled with cubical hexahedral cells. The accuracy of propagating microstrip-guided waves from a low-density hexahedron region through a high-density tetrahedron grid is investigated.

  9. Micromachined chemical sensor with integrated microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Sniegowski, J.; Koehler, D.; Ricco, T.; Martin, S.; McWhorter, P.

    With today's continued emphasis on environmental safety and health issues, a resurgence of interest has developed in the area of chemical sensors. These sensors would typically be used to monitor contamination hazards such as underground storage tanks or to assess previous contamination at waste disposal sites. Human exposure to chemical hazards can also be monitored. Additionally, these sensors can be used as part of a manufacturing process control loop. One type of sensor suitable for gas phase monitoring of chemicals is the quartz resonator or quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. In this type of sensor, a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator is coated with a film that interacts with the chemical species of interest. Changes in the mass and elasticity of this film are reflected as changes in the resonant properties of the device. Therefore, the presence of the species of interest can be detected by monitoring the frequency of an oscillator based on the resonance of the quartz. These QCM sensors compete with surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as a means for monitoring gas phase species. SAW devices are typically more sensitive to small amounts of a species, but the instrumentation associated with a SAW device is an order of magnitude more expensive than the instrumentation associated with a TSM wave resonator since the SAW devices operate in the 100's of MHz frequency regime while quartz resonators operate in the 5-25 MHz regime. We are working to improve the sensitivity of the QCM sensor by increasing the frequency of the device to 25 MHz (compared to the typical 5 MHz crystal) and by increasing the frequency stability of the system to an ultimate goal of 0.1 Hz. The 25 MHz QCM has already been achieved, and once the stability goal is achieved, the QCM will have the same sensitivity as a SAW device.

  10. Materials Characterization and Microelectronic Implementation of Metal-insulator Transition Materials and Phase Change Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND MICROELECTRONIC IMPLEMENTATION OF METAL -INSULATOR TRANSITION MATERIALS...MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND MICROELECTRONIC IMPLEMENTATION OF METAL -INSULATOR TRANSITION MATERIALS AND PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS THESIS...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-016 MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND MICROELECTRONIC IMPLEMENTATION OF METAL -INSULATOR TRANSITION

  11. Recent Advances in Photonic Devices for Optical Computing and the Role of Nonlinear Optics-Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis E.; Paley, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the era of semiconductor materials and electronic technology while this millennium is expected to be the age of photonic materials and all-optical technology. Optical technology has led to countless optical devices that have become indispensable in our daily lives in storage area networks, parallel processing, optical switches, all-optical data networks, holographic storage devices, and biometric devices at airports. This chapters intends to bring some awareness to the state-of-the-art of optical technologies, which have potential for optical computing and demonstrate the role of nonlinear optics in many of these components. Our intent, in this Chapter, is to present an overview of the current status of optical computing, and a brief evaluation of the recent advances and performance of the following key components necessary to build an optical computing system: all-optical logic gates, adders, optical processors, optical storage, holographic storage, optical interconnects, spatial light modulators and optical materials.

  12. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum

  13. Carbon nanotubes for thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei

    As the integration scale of transistors/devices in a chip/system keeps increasing, effective cooling has become more and more important in microelectronics. To address the thermal dissipation issue, one important solution is to develop thermal interface materials with higher performance. Carbon nanotubes, given their high intrinsic thermal and mechanical properties, and their high thermal and chemical stabilities, have received extensive attention from both academia and industry as a candidate for high-performance thermal interface materials. The thesis is devoted to addressing some challenges related to the potential application of carbon nanotubes as thermal interface materials in microelectronics. These challenges include: 1) controlled synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates via chemical vapor deposition and the fundamental understanding involved; 2) development of a scalable annealing process to improve the intrinsic properties of synthesized carbon nanotubes; 3) development of a state-of-art assembling process to effectively implement high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes into a flip-chip assembly; 4) a reliable thermal measurement of intrinsic thermal transport property of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films; 5) improvement of interfacial thermal transport between carbon nanotubes and other materials. The major achievements are summarized. 1. Based on the fundamental understanding of catalytic chemical vapor deposition processes and the growth mechanism of carbon nanotube, fast synthesis of high-quality vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on various bulk substrates (e.g., copper, quartz, silicon, aluminum oxide, etc.) has been successfully achieved. The synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the bulk copper substrate by the thermal chemical vapor deposition process has set a world record. In order to functionalize the synthesized carbon nanotubes while maintaining their good vertical alignment

  14. Reparable, high-density microelectronic module provides effective heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, K. J.; Maytone, F. F.

    1967-01-01

    Reparable modular system is used for packaging microelectronic flat packs and miniature discrete components. This three-dimensional compartmented structure incorporates etched phosphor bronze sheets and frames with etched wire conductors. It provides an effective heat sink for electric power dissipation in the absence of convective cooling means.

  15. Microelectronics in F. E.: Some Personal Perceptions. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, K. J.

    The recent microelectronics developments are having, and will continue to have, a sharp impact on various industries in Great Britain, and thus on the capacity of the Further Education System to produce qualified graduates. To maintain a high quality of education, instructors must learn of these new developments and teach them to their vocational…

  16. Fully integrated circuit chip of microelectronic neural bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyan, Shen; Zhigong, Wang

    2014-09-01

    Nerve tracts interruption is one of the major reasons for dysfunction after spiral cord injury. The microelectronic neural bridge is a method to restore function of interrupted neural pathways, by making use of microelectronic chips to bypass the injured nerve tracts. A low-power fully integrated microelectronic neural bridge chip is designed, using CSMC 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The structure and the key points in the circuit design will be introduced in detail. In order to meet the requirement for implantation, the circuit was modified to avoid the use of off-chip components, and fully monolithic integration is achieved. The operating voltage of the circuit is ±2.5 V, and the chip area is 1.21 × 1.18 mm2. According to the characteristic of neural signal, the time-domain method is used in testing. The pass bandwidth of the microelectronic neural bridge system covers the whole frequency range of the neural signal, power consumption is 4.33 mW, and the gain is adjustable. The design goals are achieved.

  17. Microelectronic Technology and the Hearing Impaired: The Future. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkildsen, Ron

    1985-01-01

    The potential of microelectronic technology for alleviating communication problems of hearing-impaired persons is discussed from a futuristic point of view. The need for computer literacy training is related to changing career opportunities. Computer literacy, artificial intelligence, and videodisc technology are described and related to training…

  18. Microelectronics in F. E.: Some Personal Perceptions. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, K. J.

    The recent microelectronics developments are having, and will continue to have, a sharp impact on various industries in Great Britain, and thus on the capacity of the Further Education System to produce qualified graduates. To maintain a high quality of education, instructors must learn of these new developments and teach them to their vocational…

  19. The Wales Region: Microelectronics Education to the Mid Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lionel

    1982-01-01

    Discusses developments which should occur in the Wales region by the end of the Microelectronics Education Programme (1984). Indicates that a major curriculum project has been started to enable developments in information technology to be reflected in classrooms, focusing on the production of software and resource materials. (Author/JN)

  20. Integrating Microcomputers and Microelectronics into the Physics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Douglas S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary microcomputer and microelectronics program offered jointly by the Physics and Computer Science Departments of East Texas State University. The program operates on both the graduate and undergraduate level. Content as well as structure of the program are discussed. (Author/DS)

  1. Speculations on the Social Effects of New Microelectronics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherns, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the implications of the reduced importance of employment for individuals, for enterprises (work conditions, management styles), trade unions (with a more political than industrial role), and the conservation of resources, concluding with a brief look at the possible benefits of microelectronics for the developing countries. (CT)

  2. Microelectronic Technology and the Hearing Impaired: The Future. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkildsen, Ron

    1985-01-01

    The potential of microelectronic technology for alleviating communication problems of hearing-impaired persons is discussed from a futuristic point of view. The need for computer literacy training is related to changing career opportunities. Computer literacy, artificial intelligence, and videodisc technology are described and related to training…

  3. The spatial and logical organization of devices in an advanced industrial robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the geometrical and device organization of a robot system which is based in part upon transformations of Cartesian frames and exchangeable device tree structures. It discusses coordinate frame transformations, geometrical device representation and solution degeneracy along with the data structures which support the exchangeable logical-physical device assignments. The system, which has been implemented in a minicomputer, supports vision, force, and other sensors. It allows tasks to be instantiated with logically equivalent devices and it allows tasks to be defined relative to appropriate frames. Since these frames are, in turn, defined relative other frames this organization provides a significant simplification in task specification and a high degree of system modularity.

  4. The spatial and logical organization of devices in an advanced industrial robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the geometrical and device organization of a robot system which is based in part upon transformations of Cartesian frames and exchangeable device tree structures. It discusses coordinate frame transformations, geometrical device representation and solution degeneracy along with the data structures which support the exchangeable logical-physical device assignments. The system, which has been implemented in a minicomputer, supports vision, force, and other sensors. It allows tasks to be instantiated with logically equivalent devices and it allows tasks to be defined relative to appropriate frames. Since these frames are, in turn, defined relative other frames this organization provides a significant simplification in task specification and a high degree of system modularity.

  5. Temperature-independent resistor for microelectronic circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aegerter, S.; Libby, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Heat treating insulating crystals in gaseous hydrogen atmosphere produce resistive device which is temperature-independent from 77 to 295 degrees K. Increasing the concentration of hydrogen within the crystal yields semiconductor, hybrid, and metallic conduction characteristics which are combined with a depletion layer at the surface.

  6. Automatic visual inspection system for microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micka, E. Z. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A system for automatically inspecting an integrated circuit was developed. A device for shining a scanning narrow light beam at an integrated circuit to be inspected and another light beam at an accepted integrated circuit was included. A pair of photodetectors that receive light reflected from these integrated circuits, and a comparing system compares the outputs of the photodetectors.

  7. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  8. Evidence for adverse reproductive outcomes among women microelectronic assembly workers.

    PubMed Central

    Huel, G; Mergler, D; Bowler, R

    1990-01-01

    Microelectronics assembly entails complex processes where several potentially fetotoxic chemical compounds are used extensively. This study was undertaken to assess the potential adverse reproductive outcomes among former women workers in a microelectronics assembly plant in New Mexico with respect to a comparable population from the same geographical region and to examine the relation between these outcomes and employment history in this plant. After matching a pool of 143 former microelectronic female workers and 105 referents, 90 former microelectronic female worker-referent pairs were constituted (representing 302 and 324 pregnancies in former workers and referents respectively). The odds ratio (for pair matching design) of spontaneous abortion among women workers, before beginning to assemble microelectronic components, was 0.9 (chi 2 = 0.04; NS). After the beginning of employment this odds ratio became 5.6 (chi 2 = 9.8; p less than 1%). This estimated odds ratio decreased to 4.0, taking into account the increased risk for spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies before employment (chi 2 = 5.4; p less than 5%). It was not possible to determine if this effect was reversible owing to the small number of pairs available after employment. The findings of this study corroborate the results of former studies that suggest a potential association between electronic manufacturing activity and risk of spontaneous abortion. Although the organic solvents were suspected of being the potential risk factor, this study was inconclusive from this point of view. Nevertheless, these investigations may provide some insight into reproductive outcomes among female workers exposed to solvents. PMID:2378817

  9. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    DOEpatents

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  10. Detecting Nano-Scale Vibrations in Rotating Devices by Using Advanced Computational Methods

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Raúl M.; Haber, Rodolfo E.; Schmittdiel, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computational method for detecting vibrations related to eccentricity in ultra precision rotation devices used for nano-scale manufacturing. The vibration is indirectly measured via a frequency domain analysis of the signal from a piezoelectric sensor attached to the stationary component of the rotating device. The algorithm searches for particular harmonic sequences associated with the eccentricity of the device rotation axis. The detected sequence is quantified and serves as input to a regression model that estimates the eccentricity. A case study presents the application of the computational algorithm during precision manufacturing processes. PMID:22399918

  11. Detecting nano-scale vibrations in rotating devices by using advanced computational methods.

    PubMed

    del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E; Schmittdiel, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computational method for detecting vibrations related to eccentricity in ultra precision rotation devices used for nano-scale manufacturing. The vibration is indirectly measured via a frequency domain analysis of the signal from a piezoelectric sensor attached to the stationary component of the rotating device. The algorithm searches for particular harmonic sequences associated with the eccentricity of the device rotation axis. The detected sequence is quantified and serves as input to a regression model that estimates the eccentricity. A case study presents the application of the computational algorithm during precision manufacturing processes.

  12. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  13. Technical Challenges in Reliable Microelectronics Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2000-01-01

    MEMS have shown a significant promise in the last decade for a variety of applications such as air-bag, pressure sensors, accelerometer, microgyro, chemical sensors, artificial nose, etc. Standard semiconductor microelectronics packaging needs the integrated circuits (IC) to be protected from the harsh environment, and provide electrical communication with the other parts of the circuit, facilitate thermal dissipation efficiently, and impart mechanical strength to the silicon die. Microelectronics packaging involves wafer dicing, bonding, lead attachment, encapsulation to protect from the environment, electrical integrity, and package leak tests to assure the reliable IC packaging technology. Active elements or microstructures in MEMS devices often interfaces with the hostile environment where packaging leak tests and testing of such devices using chemical and mechanical parameters will be very difficult and expensive. Packaging of MEMS is significantly complex as they serve to protect from the environment and microstructures interact with the same environment to measure or affect the desired physical or chemical parameters. The most of the silicon circuitry is sensitive to temperature, moisture, magnetic field, light, and electromagnetic interference. The package must then protect the on-board silicon circuitry while simultaneously exposing the microsensor to the effect it measures to assure the packaging technology of MEMS. MEMS technology has a major application in developing a microspacecraft for space systems provided reliability of MEMS packaging technology is sufficiently addressed. This MEMS technology would eventually miniaturize many of the components of the spacecraft to reach the NASA's goal by building faster, cheaper, better, smaller spacecraft to explore the space more effectively. This paper discusses the latest developments in the MEMS technology and challenging technical issues in the packaging of hermetically sealed and non-hermetically sealed

  14. Advanced biosensing methodologies developed for evaluating performance quality and safety of emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Walker, Bennett; Calhoun, William; Hassan, Moinuddin

    2016-03-01

    Biophotonics is an emerging field in modern biomedical technology that has opened up new horizons for transfer of state-of-the-art techniques from the areas of lasers, fiber optics and biomedical optics to the life sciences and medicine. This field continues to vastly expand with advanced developments across the entire spectrum of biomedical applications ranging from fundamental "bench" laboratory studies to clinical patient "bedside" diagnostics and therapeutics. However, in order to translate these technologies to clinical device applications, the scientific and industrial community, and FDA are facing the requirement for a thorough evaluation and review of laser radiation safety and efficacy concerns. In many cases, however, the review process is complicated due the lack of effective means and standard test methods to precisely analyze safety and effectiveness of some of the newly developed biophotonics techniques and devices. There is, therefore, an immediate public health need for new test protocols, guidance documents and standard test methods to precisely evaluate fundamental characteristics, performance quality and safety of these technologies and devices. Here, we will overview our recent developments of novel test methodologies for safety and efficacy evaluation of some emerging biophotonics technologies and medical devices. These methodologies are based on integrating the advanced features of state-of-the-art optical sensor technologies and approaches such as high-resolution fiber-optic sensing, confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging, and infrared spectroscopy. The presentation will also illustrate some methodologies developed and implemented for testing intraocular lens implants, biochemical contaminations of medical devices, ultrahigh-resolution nanoscopy, and femtosecond laser therapeutics.

  15. A Practical Decision Guide for Integrating Digital Applications and Handheld Devices into Advanced Individual Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    devices because they do not provide the necessary haptic fidelity related to trigger or firing mechanisms. Yet, a mobile device may be valuable for...users will interact with applications. Considerations included the necessity of voice interaction, haptic interaction via a touch screen, text entry...interaction, haptic interaction via a touch screen, text entry, visual interaction (e.g., viewing training multimedia), collaboration between students, or

  16. Microelectronics Failure Analysis Techniques. A Procedural Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    heating devices well be- yond the manufacturer’s specifications. o Method II. Another method of heating a device is to use the tip of a soldering iron ...Titanium 0.119 0.54 0.217 0.98 Vanadium 0.093 0.56 0.227 1.4 Chromium 0.065 0.46 0.238 1.7 Manganese 0. 107 0.79 0.250 1.8 Iron 0.141 1.1 0.265 2.1 Cobalt...To prevent ringing from the impacted sample, a heavy (cast iron , for example) weight is fixed behind the striker plate. III-K-32 0 Loo Cou zz~ III-K

  17. The Spin Torque Lego - from spin torque nano-devices to advanced computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grollier, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Spin transfer torque (STT), predicted in 1996, and first observed around 2000, brought spintronic devices to the realm of active elements. A whole class of new devices, based on the combined effects of STT for writing and Giant Magneto-Resistance or Tunnel Magneto-Resistance for reading has emerged. The second generation of MRAMs, based on spin torque writing : the STT-RAM, is under industrial development and should be out on the market in three years. But spin torque devices are not limited to binary memories. We will rapidly present how the spin torque effect also allows to implement non-linear nano-oscillators, spin-wave emitters, controlled stochastic devices and microwave nano-detectors. What is extremely interesting is that all these functionalities can be obtained using the same materials, the exact same stack, simply by changing the device geometry and its bias conditions. So these different devices can be seen as Lego bricks, each brick with its own functionality. During this talk, I will show how spin torque can be engineered to build new bricks, such as the Spintronic Memristor, an artificial magnetic nano-synapse. I will then give hints on how to assemble these bricks in order to build novel types of computing architectures, with a special focus on neuromorphic circuits. Financial support by the European Research Council Starting Grant NanoBrain (ERC 2010 Stg 259068) is acknowledged.

  18. Toxic gases used in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Wald, P H; Becker, C E

    1986-01-01

    Toxic gases are among the most dangerous materials used in manufacturing semiconductors and related devices. The storage, handling, and disposal of these gases pose a major hazard to workers and to communities located near high-technology companies. It must be anticipated that accidents, acts of terrorism, and natural calamities will result in exposure. Flammability, corrosiveness, and concentration must be considered, as well as the immediate danger to life and known human health effects of the gases used.

  19. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  20. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.