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Sample records for advanced microwave precipitation

  1. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  2. Advances in Satellite Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Algorithms Over Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N. Y.; You, Y.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation plays a key role in the earth's climate system, particularly in the aspect of its water and energy balance. Satellite microwave (MW) observations of precipitation provide a viable mean to achieve global measurement of precipitation with sufficient sampling density and accuracy. However, accurate precipitation information over land from satellite MW is a challenging problem. The Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) algorithm for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is built around the Bayesian formulation (Evans et al., 1995; Kummerow et al., 1996). GPROF uses the likelihood function and the prior probability distribution function to calculate the expected value of precipitation rate, given the observed brightness temperatures. It is particularly convenient to draw samples from a prior PDF from a predefined database of observations or models. GPROF algorithm does not search all database entries but only the subset thought to correspond to the actual observation. The GPM GPROF V1 database focuses on stratification by surface emissivity class, land surface temperature and total precipitable water. However, there is much uncertainty as to what is the optimal information needed to subset the database for different conditions. To this end, we conduct a database stratification study of using National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation, Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and reanalysis data from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). Our database study (You et al., 2015) shows that environmental factors such as surface elevation, relative humidity, and storm vertical structure and height, and ice thickness can help in stratifying a single large database to smaller and more homogeneous subsets, in which the surface condition and precipitation vertical profiles are similar. It is found that the probability of detection (POD) increases

  3. The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer: A new aircraft radiometer for passive precipitation remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Spencer, Roy W.; James, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    Past studies of passive microwave measurements of precipitating systems have yielded broad empirical relationships between hydrometeors and microwave transmission. In general, these relationships fall into two categories of passive microwave precipitation retrievals rely upon the observed effect of liquid precipitation to increase the brightness temperature of a radiometrically cold background such as an ocean surface. A scattering-based method is based upon the effect that frozen hydrometeors tend to decrease the brightness temperature of a radiometrically warm background such as land. One step toward developing quantitative brightness temperature-rain rate relationships is the recent construction of a new aircraft instrument sponsored by National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). This instrument is the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) designed and built by Georgia Tech Research Institute to fly aboard high altitude research aircraft such as the NASA ER-2. The AMPR and its accompanying data acquisition system are mounted in the Q-bay compartment of the NASA ER-2.

  4. High altitude airborne remote sensing mission using the advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J.; Platt, R. H.; Spencer, Roy; Hood, Robbie

    1991-01-01

    The advanced microwave precipitation radiometer (AMPR) is an airborne multichannel imaging radiometer used to better understand how the earth's climate structure works. Airborne data results from the October 1990 Florida thunderstorm mission in Jacksonville, FL, are described. AMPR data on atmospheric precipitation in mesoscale storms were retrieved at 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz onboard the ER-2 aircraft at an altitude of 20 km. AMPR's three higher-frequency data channels were selected to operate at the same frequencies as the spaceborne special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) presently in orbit. AMPR uses two antennas to receive the four frequencies: the lowest frequency channel uses a 9.7-in aperture lens antennas, while the three higher-frequency channels share a separate 5.3-in aperture lens antenna. The radiometer's temperature resolution performance is summarized.

  5. Biases in Total Precipitable Water Vapor Climatologies from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2006-01-01

    We examine differences in total precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) experiments sharing the Aqua spacecraft platform. Both systems provide estimates of PWV over water surfaces. We compare AIRS and AMSR-E PWV to constrain AIRS retrieval uncertainties as functions of AIRS retrieved infrared cloud fraction. PWV differences between the two instruments vary only weakly with infrared cloud fraction up to about 70%. Maps of AIRS-AMSR-E PWV differences vary with location and season. Observational biases, when both instruments observe identical scenes, are generally less than 5%. Exceptions are in cold air outbreaks where AIRS is biased moist by 10-20% or 10-60% (depending on retrieval processing) and at high latitudes in winter where AIRS is dry by 5-10%. Sampling biases, from different sampling characteristics of AIRS and AMSR-E, vary in sign and magnitude. AIRS sampling is dry by up to 30% in most high-latitude regions but moist by 5-15% in subtropical stratus cloud belts. Over the northwest Pacific, AIRS samples conditions more moist than AMSR-E by a much as 60%. We hypothesize that both wet and dry sampling biases are due to the effects of clouds on the AIRS retrieval methodology. The sign and magnitude of these biases depend upon the types of cloud present and on the relationship between clouds and PWV. These results for PWV imply that climatologies of height-resolved water vapor from AIRS must take into consideration local meteorological processes affecting AIRS sampling.

  6. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  7. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  8. Design of a geostationary microwave precipitation radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, William J.; Eldred, Daniel B.

    1993-11-01

    The Geostationary Microwave Precipitation Radiometer will be a passive microwave radiometer system to be flown on the NASA Geostationary Earth Observatory. This instrument will provide microwave images for meteorology. It will measure radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere in seven frequency bands from 37 to 220 GHz. The instrument will have a 4 m Cassegrain antenna which will be mechanically scanned to provide images of the Earth in approximately equals 2 hours.

  9. Passive Microwave Precipitation Detection Biases: Relationship to Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viramontez, A.; Rapp, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate satellite precipitation estimates are essential for understanding the long-term variability in the global hydrologic cycle and for constraining global climate models. Spaceborne precipitation estimates depend heavily on passive microwave remote sensors due to the large spatial coverage and long record of observations available from such sensors; however, light precipitation is frequently undetected or underestimated by passive microwave rainfall retrievals. Observations from the CloudSat Profiling Radar (CPR) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) provide a unique opportunity for long-term collocated precipitation measurements from passive microwave sensors and an active radar with sensitivity to very light precipitation that can be used to assess the precipitation detection biases. For this study, collocated measurements from AMSR-E and CloudSat during 2008 will be used to identify environments where AMSR-E underestimates precipitation. Environmental variables from the ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) will be used to understand the characteristics of the large-scale and thermodynamic environments associated with AMSR-E precipitation biases. A preliminary comparison of CPR rain rates and AMSR-E Level-2B rain rates show a large fraction of rain missed by AMSR-E, with nearly 80% of missed light rain in regions with SSTs below 25°C. This is consistent with prior studies showing large detection biases in regions of large-scale subsidence. The relationship between precipitation biases and other factors such as 2 m air temperature, column water vapor, lower tropospheric stability, and vertical velocity will be explored.

  10. Passive microwave precipitation detection biases: Relationship to cloud morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marter, R. E.; Rapp, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurement of the Earth's hydrologic cycle requires a more precise understanding of precipitation accumulation and intensity on a global scale. While there is a long record of passive microwave satellite measurements, passive microwave rainfall retrievals often fail to detect light precipitation or have light rain intensity biases because they cannot differentiate between emission from cloud and rain water. Previous studies have shown that AMSR-E significantly underestimates rainfall occurrence and volume compared to CloudSat. This underestimation totals just below 0.6 mm/day quasi-globally (60S-60N), but there are larger regional variations related to the dominant cloud regime. This study aims to use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the 94-GHz CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which has a high sensitivity to light rain, with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations, to help better characterize the properties of clouds that lead to passive microwave rainfall detection biases. CPR cloud and precipitation retrievals. AMSR-E Level-2B Goddard Profiling 2010 Algorithm (GPROF 2010) rainfall retrievals, and MODIS cloud properties were collocated and analyzed for 2008. Results are consistent with past studies and show large passive microwave precipitation detection biases compared to CloudSat in stratocumulus and shallow cumulus regimes. A preliminary examination of cases where AMSR-E failed to detect precipitation detected by CloudSat shows that over 50% of missed warm precipitation occurs in clouds with top heights below 2 km. MODIS cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties, such as optical thickness, particle effective radius, and liquid water path will be analyzed when precipitation is detected by CloudSat and missed by AMSR-E. The overall goal is to understand how cloud morphology relates to detection biases.

  11. A Bayesian approach to microwave precipitation profile retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin; Turk, Joseph; Wong, Takmeng; Stephens, Graeme L.

    1995-01-01

    A multichannel passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm is developed. Bayes theorem is used to combine statistical information from numerical cloud models with forward radiative transfer modeling. A multivariate lognormal prior probability distribution contains the covariance information about hydrometeor distribution that resolves the nonuniqueness inherent in the inversion process. Hydrometeor profiles are retrieved by maximizing the posterior probability density for each vector of observations. The hydrometeor profile retrieval method is tested with data from the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz) of convection over ocean and land in Florida. The CP-2 multiparameter radar data are used to verify the retrieved profiles. The results show that the method can retrieve approximate hydrometeor profiles, with larger errors over land than water. There is considerably greater accuracy in the retrieval of integrated hydrometeor contents than of profiles. Many of the retrieval errors are traced to problems with the cloud model microphysical information, and future improvements to the algorithm are suggested.

  12. A microwave backscattering model for precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, Seda

    A geophysical microwave backscattering model for space borne and ground-based remote sensing of precipitation is developed and used to analyze backscattering measurements from rain and snow type precipitation. Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) equations for a multilayered inhomogeneous medium are applied to the precipitation region for calculation of backscattered intensity. Numerical solution of the VRT equation for multiple layers is provided by the matrix doubling method to take into account close range interactions between particles. In previous studies, the VRT model was used to calculate backscattering from a rain column on a sea surface. In the model, Mie scattering theory for closely spaced scatterers was used to determine the phase matrix for each sublayer characterized by a set of parameters. The scatterers i.e. rain drops within the sublayers were modelled as spheres with complex permittivities. The rain layer was bounded by rough boundaries; the interface between the cloud and the rain column as well as the interface between the sea surface and the rain were all analyzed by using the integral equation model (IEM). Therefore, the phase matrix for the entire rain column was generated by the combination of surface and volume scattering. Besides Mie scattering, in this study, we use T-matrix approach to examine the effect of the shape to the backscattered intensities since larger raindrops are most likely oblique in shape. Analyses show that the effect of obliquity of raindrops to the backscattered wave is related with size of the scatterers and operated frequency. For the ground-based measurement system, the VRT model is applied to simulate the precipitation column on horizontal direction. Therefore, the backscattered reflectivities for each unit range of volume are calculated from the backscattering radar cross sections by considering radar range and effective illuminated area of the radar beam. The volume scattering phase matrices for each range interval

  13. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation Using High Altitude Aircraft Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Hood, Robbie E.; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    A physically intuitive and computationally simple precipitation mapping algorithm has been developed for use with the airborne Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR). The algorithm is based on microwave emission and scattering properties of precipitation. Specifically, emission by liquid water allows increasing brightness temperatures at low frequencies to be interpreted as increasing rain rates. Scattering by large hydrometeors (particularly graupel and hail) causes relative minima in the brightness temperatures, with progressively larger hydrometeors scattering progressively longer wavelengths. The vigor of convection is therefore ascertained according to which wavelengths are being significantly scattered. The combination of emission and scattering information from four microwave channels is used to assign a precipitation category, which is related to the liquid rain rate, the vertical extent of precipitation, and the vigor of convection. The qualitative precipitation categories output by the passive microwave algorithm have been verified using coincident radar (ER-2 Doppler Radar - EDOP) and electric field measurements (Lightning Instrument Package - LIP). These coincident measurements can subsequently be used to quantify rain rates, hydrometeor contents, and vertical profiles that are typical for each precipitation category. This algorithm has been developed using an airborne platform. Comparisons are being made with other airborne, satellite, and ground-based radar and radiometer data. This technique shows promise both as a research tool and potentially as a real-time analysis tool, which could be applied to either traditional or uninhabited aerial vehicles.

  14. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  15. Passive Microwave Studies of Atmospheric Precipitation and State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Rosenkranz, Philip W.; Shiue, James C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The principal contributions of this research on novel passive microwave spectral techniques are in the areas of: (1) global precipitation mapping using the opaque spectral bands on research and operational weather satellites, (2) development and analysis of extensive aircraft observational imaging data sets obtained using the MIT instrument NAST-M near 54 and 118 GHz over hurricanes and weather ranging from tropical to polar; simultaneous data from the 8500-channel infrared spectrometer NAST-I was obtained and analyzed separately, (3) estimation of hydrometeor diameters in cell tops using data from aircraft and spacecraft, (4) continued improvement of expressions for atmospheric transmittance at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths, (5) development and airborne use of spectrometers operating near 183- and 425-GHz bands, appropriate to practical systems in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) preliminary studies of the design and performance of future geosynchronous microwave sounders for temperature and humidity profiles and for continuous monitoring of regional precipitation through most clouds. This work was a natural extension of work under NASA Grant NAG5-2545 and its predecessors. This earlier work had developed improved airborne imaging microwave spectrometers and had shown their sensitivity to precipitation altitude and character. They also had prepared the foundations for precipitation estimation using the opaque microwave bands. The field demonstration and improvement of these capabilities was then a central part of the present research reported here, during which period the first AMSU data became available and several hurricanes were overflown by NAST-M, yielding unique data about their microwave signatures. This present work has in turn helped lay the foundation for future progress in incorporating the opaque microwave channels in systems for climatologically precise global precipitation mapping from current and future operational satellites. Extension of

  16. Tropical oceanic precipitation frequency from Nimbus 5 microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, S. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperature data from the Nimbus 5 satellite are analyzed, using threshold brightness temperatures, to yield tropical oceanic precipitation frequencies for several classes of rainfall rates during the season December 1972 through February 1973. Data taken near local noon and near local midnight are analyzed. The overall results are consistent with both climatological precipitation frequency and with concurrent satellite-derived frequency of highly reflective clouds. The difference between the local noon and local midnight frequencies is small, but the heavier rainfall rates tend to occur more frequently near local noon. The ratios of the frequencies of light, moderate, and heavy rain were observed to be relatively constant over the tropical oceans. Passive microwave measurements from space seem to be an important step toward accurate measurement of oceanic precipitation.

  17. On the microwave measurement of precipitation in tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weng, Fuzhong; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    The difference between the brightness temperature structure over a typical tropical rain system and that of the midlatitude thunderstorms is examined. It is also determined how the brightness temperature and the rain rate relationship at the microwave frequencies deviates from that in the thunderstorms. It is shown, in particular, that the theoretical brightness temperature and rain rate relationship at 19.35 GHz provides good estimates of the surface rain rates for either convective or stratiform precipitation, but the relationship at 37 and 85.5 GHz may result in a significant overestimation of surface rain rate, especially for stratiform precipitation.

  18. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  19. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI): Instrument Overview and Early On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, David W.; Newell, David A.; Wentz, Frank J.; Krimchansky, Sergey; Jackson, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission that uses measurements from an advanced radar/radiometer system on a core observatory as reference standards to unify and advance precipitation estimates made by a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM core observatory was launched on February 27, 2014 at 18:37 UT in a 65? inclination nonsun-synchronous orbit. GPM focuses on precipitation as a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle, and has the capability to provide near-real-time observations for tracking severe weather events, monitoring freshwater resources, and other societal applications. The GPM microwave imager (GMI) on the core observatory provides the direct link to the constellation radiometer sensors, which fly mainly in polar orbits. The GMI sensitivity, accuracy, and stability play a crucial role in unifying the measurements from the GPM constellation of satellites. The instrument has exhibited highly stable operations through the duration of the calibration/validation period. This paper provides an overview of the GMI instrument and a report of early on-orbit commissioning activities. It discusses the on-orbit radiometric sensitivity, absolute calibration accuracy, and stability for each radiometric channel. Index Terms-Calibration accuracy, passive microwave remote sensing, radiometric sensitivity.

  20. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  1. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation using High-Altitude Aircraft Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Cecil, Daniel J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas m.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Marks, Frank D., Jr.; Zipser, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 2001 hurricane seasons of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes, tropical storms, and other precipitation systems were sampled during these experiments. An oceanic rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these systems collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35, 37.1, and 85.5 GHz. This technique combines the information content of the four AMPR frequencies regarding the gross vertical structure of hydrometeors into an intuitive and easily executable precipitation mapping format. The results have been verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower-altitude horizontal reflectivity scans collected by the NOAA WP3D Orion radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electric field information collected by the LIP readily identifies convective rain regions within the precipitation fields. This technique shows promise as a real-time research and analysis tool for monitoring vertical updraft strength and convective intensity from airborne platforms such as remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicles. The technique is analyzed and discussed for a wide variety of precipitation types using the 26 August 1998 observations of Hurricane Bonnie near landfall.

  2. Classification of Tropical Oceanic Precipitation using High Altitude Aircraft: Microwave and Electric Field Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Cecil, Daniel; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Gerald; Marks, Frank, Jr.; Zipser, Edward

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 2001 hurricane seasons of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes, tropical storms, and other precipitation systems were sampled during these experiments. An oceanic rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these systems collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35,37.1, and 85.5 GHz. This technique combines the information content of the four AMPR frequencies regarding the gross vertical structure of hydrometeors into an intuitive and easily executable precipitation mapping format. The results have been verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower altitude horizontal reflectivity scans collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D Orion radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electric field information collected by the LIP readily identifies convective rain regions within the precipitation fields. This technique shows promise as a real-time research and analysis tool for monitoring vertical updraft strength and convective intensity from airborne platforms such as remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicles. The technique is analyzed and discussed for a wide variety of precipitation types using the 26 August 1998 observations of Hurricane Bonnie near landfall.

  3. Limits of Precipitation Detection from Microwave Radiometers and Sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, S. J.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Johnson, B. T.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will unify and draw from numerous microwave conical scanning imaging radiometers and cross-track sounders, many of which already in operation, to provide near real-time precipitation estimates worldwide at 3-hour intervals. Some of these instruments were designed for primary purposes unrelated to precipitation remote sensing. Therefore it is worthwhile to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each set of channels with respect to precipitation detection to fully understand their role in the GPM constellation. The GPM radiometer algorithm will use an observationally-based Bayesian retrieval with common databases of precipitation profiles for all sensors. Since these databases are still under development and will not be truly complete until the GPM core satellite has completed at least one year of dual-frequency radar observations, a screening method based upon retrieval of non-precipitation parameters related to the surface and atmospheric state is used in this study. A cost function representing the departure of modeled radiances from their observed values plus the departure of surface and atmospheric parameters from the TELSEM emissivity atlas and MERRA reanalysis is used as an indicator of precipitation. Using this method, two datasets are used to evaluate precipitation detection: One year of matched AMSR-E and AMSU-B/MHS overpasses with CloudSat used as validation globally; and SSMIS overpasses over the United States using the National Mosaic and QPE (NMQ) as validation. The Heidke Skill Score (HSS) is used as a metric to evaluate detection skill over different surfaces, seasons, and across different sensors. Non-frozen oceans give the highest HSS for all sensors, followed by bare land and coasts, then snow-covered land and sea ice. Negligible skill is present over ice sheets. Sounders tend to have higher skill than imagers over complex surfaces (coast, snow, and sea ice), whereas imagers have higher skill

  4. Advances in Plasma-Filled Microwave Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    1998-11-01

    Significant improvements in the performance of high power microwave tubes have been achieved in recent years by the introduction of plasma into the beam- coupling structures of the devices. Plasma has been credited with increasing the maximum electron beam current, frequency bandwidth, electrical efficiency and reducing or eliminating the need for guiding magnetic fields in microwave sources. These advances are critically important for the development of high power, frequency agile microwave systems where size and weight are important. Conversely, plasma has been blamed for causing noise, instabilities, power variations and pulse-length limitations in microwave tubes for many years. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that introducing the right amount of plasma in a controlled manner can be beneficial in the areas described above. Enhanced beam propagation at lower magnetic fields and higher beam current levels due to the space-charge neutralization by plasma can be realized provided that the neutralization fraction is fairly stable and maintained near a value of one for the duration of the desired pulse length. The generation of hybrid waves in plasma-filled slow-wave structures (SWS) operating near cutoff has resulted in an increased electric field on axis and improved coupling to solid beams in both helix and coupled-cavity SWS, and wider coupling-aperture pass-bands and frequency bandwidth in coupled-cavity devices. In the event of excess plasma generation in these TWTs or BWOs, the device structures rapidly approach cutoff or breakdown and the beam forms instabilities, which degrades the output power level and pulse length. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in this field including plasma implementation techniques in the gun and circuit will be presented, and the benefits and limitations of plasma filling of microwave sources will be shown and discussed.

  5. Neural network microwave precipitation retrievals and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, R. Vincent; Blackwell, William J.; Bickmeier, Laura J.; Jairam, Laura G.

    2008-12-01

    We describe a simulation methodology used to develop and validate precipitation retrieval algorithms for current and future passive microwave sounders with emphasis on the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) sensors. Precipitation algorithms are currently being developed for ATMS, MIS, and NAST-M. ATMS, like AMSU, will have channels near the oxygen bands throughout 50-60 GHz, the water vapor resonance band at 183.31 GHz, as well as several window channels. ATMS will offer improvements in radiometric and spatial resolution over the AMSU-A/B and MHS sensors currently flying on NASA (Aqua), NOAA (POES) and EUMETSAT (MetOp) satellites. The similarity of ATMS to AMSU-A/B will allow the AMSU-A/B precipitation algorithm developed by Chen and Staelin to be adapted for ATMS, and the improvements of ATMS over AMSU-A/B suggest that a superior precipitation retrieval algorithm can be developed for ATMS. Like the Chen and Staelin algorithm for AMSU-A/B, the algorithm for ATMS to be presented will also be based a statisticsbased approach involving extensive signal processing and neural network estimation in contrast to traditional physics-based approaches. One potential advantage of a neural-network-based algorithm is computational speed. The main difference in applying the Chen-Staelin method to ATMS will consist of using the output of the most up-to-date simulation methodology instead of the ground-based weather radar and earlier versions of the simulation methodology. We also present recent progress on the millimeter-wave radiance simulation methodology that is used to derive simulated global ground-truth data sets for the development of precipitation retrieval algorithms suitable for use on a global scale by spaceborne millimeter-wave spectrometers. The methodology utilizes the MM5 Cloud Resolving Model (CRM), at 1-km resolution, to generate atmospheric thermodynamic quantities (for example, humidity and hydrometeor profiles). These

  6. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Guez, Oded; Messer, Hagit; David, Noam; Harel, Oz; Eshel, Adam; Cohen, Ori

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links Pinhas Alpert, H. Messer, N. David, O. Guez, O. Cohen, O. Harel, A. Eshel Tel Aviv University, Israel The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert in Israel with comparison to hydrological measurements in the Dead Sea area. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, fog, dew, atmospheric moisture. References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure-the future of fog monitoring?" BAMS (Oct. issue), 1687-1698, 2015. O. Harel, David, N., Alpert, P. and Messer, H., "The potential of microwave communication networks to detect dew using the GLRT- experimental study", IEEE Journal of Selected

  7. Precipitation from the GPM Microwave Imager and Constellation Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Randel, David; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kulie, Mark; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors are fundamentally underconstrained requiring either implicit or explicit a-priori information to constrain solutions. The radiometer algorithm designed for the GPM core and constellation satellites makes this a-priori information explicit in the form of a database of possible rain structures from the GPM core satellite and a Bayesian retrieval scheme. The a-priori database will eventually come from the GPM core satellite's combined radar/radiometer retrieval algorithm. That product is physically constrained to ensure radiometric consistency between the radars and radiometers and is thus ideally suited to create the a-priori databases for all radiometers in the GPM constellation. Until a robust product exists, however, the a-priori databases are being generated from the combination of existing sources over land and oceans. Over oceans, the Day-1 GPM radiometer algorithm uses the TRMM PR/TMI physically derived hydrometer profiles that are available from the tropics through sea surface temperatures of approximately 285K. For colder sea surface temperatures, the existing profiles are used with lower hydrometeor layers removed to correspond to colder conditions. While not ideal, the results appear to be reasonable placeholders until the full GPM database can be constructed. It is more difficult to construct physically consistent profiles over land due to ambiguities in surface emissivities as well as details of the ice scattering that dominates brightness temperature signatures over land. Over land, the a-priori databases have therefore been constructed by matching satellite overpasses to surface radar data derived from the WSR-88 network over the continental United States through the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ) initiative. Databases are generated as a function of land type (4 categories of increasing vegetation cover as well as 4 categories of increasing snow depth), land surface temperature and

  8. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Spaceborne microwave cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for temperature and humidity sounding, have shown great capabilities to provide a significant contribution in precipitation monitoring both in terms of measurement quality and spatial/temporal coverage. The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Microwave Humidity Sounder (AMSU-A/MHS) radiometers (on board the European MetOp and U.S. NOAA satellites), was recently newly designed to exploit the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi-NPP satellite and the future JPSS satellites. The PNPR algorithm is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. The main PNPR-ATMS algorithm changes with respect to PNPR-AMSU/MHS are the design and implementation of a new ANN able to manage the information derived from the additional ATMS channels (respect to the AMSU-A/MHS radiometer) and a new screening procedure for not-precipitating pixels. In order to achieve maximum consistency of the retrieved surface precipitation, both PNPR algorithms are based on the same physical foundation. The PNPR is optimized for the European and the African area. The neural network was trained using a cloud-radiation database built upon 94 cloud-resolving simulations over Europe and the Mediterranean and over the African area and radiative transfer model simulations of TB vectors consistent with the AMSU-A/MHS and ATMS channel frequencies, viewing angles, and view-angle dependent IFOV sizes along the scan projections. As opposed to other ANN precipitation retrieval algorithms, PNPR uses a unique ANN that retrieves the surface precipitation rate for all types of surface backgrounds represented in the training database, i.e., land (vegetated or arid), ocean, snow/ice or coast. This approach prevents different precipitation estimates from being inconsistent with one

  9. The microwave instruments onboard FY-3 and their application in tropical cyclone precipitation retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Naimeng; Gu, Songyan; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Miao

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing awareness of the importance of meteorological satellite, China initialed FENGYUN satellite program in 1971 and the first polar orbiting meteorological satellite FY-1A was launched in 1988. Up to now, totally 6 FENGYUN polar orbiting meteorological satellites were launched, of which FY-A/B/C/D belongs to the first generation with only one instrument on board and their applications mainly focused on image analyses. The second generation of Chinese polar orbit meteorological satellite, FY-3A /B /C were launched in 2008,,2010 and 2012 respectively. there were 11 instruments onboard FYA/B/C with both sounding and imaging capability, covering the spectrum from ultraviolet, visible, infrared to microwave. There are three microwave instruments onboard FY-3 series, including Microwave Humidity Sounder (MWHS), Microwave Temperature Sounder (MWTS) and Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI). This paper first introduces these three instruments, their channel characteristics and their global O-B results. Their observations are also compared with NOAA equivalent channels. The second part of this paper introduces the tropical cyclone precipitation retrieval technique developed by NSMC, which include: 1) Precipitation concept model introduction 2) Precipitation sensitivity analysis 3) Satellite microwave imagery analysis 4) "Overlap lookup table" technique introduction 5) Results analysis The FY-3 precipitation retrieval products are operationally used in weather analysis and forecast. Due to China's vast territory and complex climate, the satellite data are irreplaceable and have been intensively applied to monitoring the severe weather such as typhoon, heavy precipitation etc. over China.

  10. Field-of-view effects in estimating precipitation from satellite microwave radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Mack, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional cloud model for predicting precipitation is examined. The relation between the averaged brightness temperature and the rainfall rate for various microwave frequencies and field-of-view (FOVs) is studied. The model is utilized to simulate the rainfall rate and brightness temperature data for 19 GHz, a 30 km FOV, 37 GHz, and a combination of IR and microwave data. The data produced by the simulations are described and analyzed.

  11. Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-08-17

    The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement: GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) Algorithm Development Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the approach to the development of the Global Precipitation Measurement algorithm. This presentation includes information about the responsibilities for the development of the algorithm, and the calibration. Also included is information about the orbit, and the sun angle. The test of the algorithm code will be done with synthetic data generated from the Precipitation Processing System (PPS).

  13. Comparison of rain fractions over tropical and sub-tropical ocean obtained from precipitation retrieval algorithms for microwave sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Satoshi; Shige, Shoichi; Manabe, Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    We compare the fractional occurrence of precipitation (rain fraction) over ocean derived using the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation algorithm for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (GSMaP_AMSU) and the Microwave Surface and Precipitation Products System Day 2 rainfall algorithm (NOAA_AMSU) for the Kwajalein radar site and over tropical and subtropical ocean. The rain fractions of GSMaP_AMSU and NOAA_AMSU are lower than that of Kwajalein radar estimates because of failure to detect areas of light rain. Over tropical and subtropical ocean, the rain fraction of GSMaP_AMSU is closer to that obtained using a microwave imager (MWI) and little different from that of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (PR) data, whilethe rain fraction of NOAA_AMSU is much smaller than that obtained using MWI or PR data. In the case of the edge of the South Pacific Convergence Zone where the PR observes scattered shallow rain, while NOAA_AMSU fails to detect the scattered rain, GSMaP_AMSU detects the scattered rain through consideration of the scattering index, which is the difference in brightness temperature (Tb) between 89 and 150 GHz. Although the scattering index is designed on the basis that Tb decreases in response to scattering by precipitation at these frequencies and increases rapidly with frequency, there are emission and scattering regimes. Furthermore, the scattering index also responds to emission in light rain with a low concentration of cloud liquid water. As a result, the light rain pixel can be detected using the scattering index to take advantage of the emission signature from raindrops.

  14. Bone-like hydroxyapatite precipitated from 10×SBF-like solution by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tolga Demirtaş, T; Kaynak, Gökçe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-assisted methods have been frequently used in many processes owing to their numerous advantages such as performing fast, efficient and homogenous processes and reducing side reactions. In view of these benefits, in this study it was purposed to produce bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) by inducing biomimetic process with microwave-irradiation. This is why, concentrated body fluid (SBF) i.e. 10×SBF-like solution was used and it was precipitated in different microwave powers i.e. 90W, 360W, 600W, and 1200W and in different exposure times. For comparison, precipitation process was also carried out at room temperature for 6h and at 80°C for 1h. The obtained HA structures were characterized by appropriate instrumental techniques. As a result, microwave-induced precipitation at 600W for 9 times 30s was determined as the optimum condition for the production of HA which has similar properties to the cortical bone. At this condition, B-type HA with 9.22% (wt.) carbonate content, 1.61 Ca/P molar ratio and amorphous structure was obtained easily, rapidly and efficiently. So, this is the first time microwave technology has been used to precipitate HA from SBF solution.

  15. The development of a model to infer precipitation from microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, M. G.; Hardy, K. R.; Sze, N. D.

    1976-01-01

    To permit the inference of precipitation amounts from radiometric measurements, a radiative interaction model was developed. This model uses a simple computational scheme to determine the effects of rain upon brightness temperatures and can be used with a statistical inversion procedure to invert for rain rate. Precipitating cloud models was also developed and used with the microwave model for frequencies of 19.35 and 37 GHz to determine the variability of the microwave-rain rate relationship on a global and seasonal basis.

  16. Passive-Microwave Precipitation Estimation over Land using a Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, M.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2006-05-01

    The precipitation estimates from ground radars are more accurate than those from space-borne passive observations. However, there are various instances when passive-microwave precipitation estimates over land are extremely valuable. These include: precipitation estimation in areas not covered by ground radars, and precipitation estimation over complex terrain. Statistical procedures to estimate precipitation over land from passive-microwave have been developed and applied in the past. These procedures were derived from coincident satellite passive-microwave observations and ground (or space) active-microwave observations and were proven to be reliable. Given the limited amount of information existent in passive-microwave observations, it is not likely that physical-based approaches (which are more laborious) are necessarily more accurate in terms of precipitation estimation. However, physical-based retrievals have the advantage that they provide more information, physically-consistent, information that can be used in short term precipitation (and consequently hydrologic) forecasting. In this study, a priori cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations over land (filtered by the TRMM PR observations) are used to create a database of vertical profiles of hydrometeors, cloud, vertical velocities and latent heating, and their associated brightness temperatures. In the retrieval phase, cloud structures are selected from the database such that their brightness temperatures match the observed brightness temperatures. A Poisson equation is solved to make the velocity field kinematically consistent. An ensemble of perturbations of these initial estimates are run forward using a CRM, and, based on these runs, a dynamically consistent solution is derived, using a Kalman ensemble formulation.

  17. Advanced Passive Microwave Radiometer Technology for GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Principe, Caleb; Ruf, Christoper; Wilheit, Thomas; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An interferometer-type passive microwave radiometer based on MMIC receiver technology and a thinned array antenna design is being developed under the Instrument Incubator Program (TIP) on a project entitled the Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer (LRR). The prototype single channel aircraft instrument will be ready for first testing in 2nd quarter 2003, for deployment on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and in a ground configuration manner; this version measures at 10.7 GHz in a crosstrack imaging mode. The design for a two (2) frequency preliminary space flight model at 19 and 35 GHz (also in crosstrack imaging mode) has also been completed, in which the design features would enable it to fly in a bore-sighted configuration with a new dual-frequency space radar (DPR) under development at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) in Tokyo, Japan. The DPR will be flown as one of two primary instruments on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's core satellite in the 2007 time frame. The dual frequency space flight design of the ERR matches the APR frequencies and will be proposed as an ancillary instrument on the GPM core satellite to advance space-based precipitation measurement by enabling better microphysical characterization and coincident volume data gathering for exercising combined algorithm techniques which make use of both radar backscatter and radiometer attenuation information to constrain rainrate solutions within a physical algorithm context. This talk will discuss the design features, performance capabilities, applications plans, and conical/polarametric imaging possibilities for the LRR, as well as a brief summary of the project status and schedule.

  18. An Update on Oceanic Precipitation Rate and its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrangi, Ali; Stephens, Graeme; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn; Lebstock, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the estimation of the global mean and zonal distribution of oceanic precipitation rate using complementary information from advanced precipitation measuring sensors and provides an independent reference to assess current precipitation products. Precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) and CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) were merged, as the two complementary sensors yield an unprecedented range of sensitivity to quantify rainfall from drizzle through the most intense rates. At higher latitudes, where TRMM PR does not exist, precipitation estimates from Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) complemented CloudSat CPR to capture intense precipitation rates. The high sensitivity of CPR allows estimation of snow rate, an important type of precipitation at high latitudes, not directly observed in current merged precipitation products. Using the merged precipitation estimate from the CloudSat, TRMM, and Aqua platforms (this estimate is abbreviated to MCTA), the authors' estimate for 3-yr (2007-09) nearglobal (80degS-80degN) oceanic mean precipitation rate is approx. 2.94mm/day. This new estimate of mean global ocean precipitation is about 9% higher than that of the corresponding Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) value (2.68mm/day) and about 4% higher than that of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; 2.82mm/day). Furthermore, MCTA suggests distinct differences in the zonal distribution of precipitation rate from that depicted in GPCPand CMAP, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Ground validation of TRMM and AMSU microwave precipitation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.; Stoker, E.

    2003-04-01

    Global rain gauge data were used to validate the instantaneous and 3-hourly TRMM TMI and AMSU microwave rainfall products for a two-year period from January 2001 to December 2002. In the comparison of instantaneous rainfall products, all satellite data were aggregated to a 0.1 X 0.1 degree grid with gauge location at the grid center and compared to the 60-minute gauge rain. The biases against gauge rain are +18% and -20% for TMI and AMSU land/coastal rain estimates, respectively. The gauge data from ocean area in this study were only from Kwajalein, The biases as compared to the Kwajalein gauge data are +12% and +65% for TMI and AMSU ocean rain estimates respectively. The correction is about 0.56 between TMI and gauge and about 0.50 between AMSU and gauge data. In order to perform routine validation of TRMM 3-hourly 0.25 X 0.25 degree resolution gridded rain product, the global 1-minute gauge data were aggregated to 3-hourly mean and transformed to the same satellite grid system. The correlation between satellite and gauge data is degraded from about 0.5 in instantaneous comparison to about 0.3 in this case. The root mean square error in this case is also larger than that in the instantaneous comparison. The biases against gauge data over land and coastal area are +20% and -23% for TMI and AMSU products respectively. Over ocean, the biases for TMI and AMSU data are +15% and +73%, respectively. The magnitude of biases in this comparison is similar to that from instantaneous comparisons.

  20. Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR) for SWOT mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the SWOT (Surface Water & Ocean Topography) satellite mission is to measure wide-swath, high resolution ocean topography and terrestrial surface waters. Since main payload radar will use interferometric SAR technology, conventional microwave radiometer system which has single nadir look antenna beam (i.e., OSTM/Jason-2 AMR) is not ideally applicable for the mission for wet tropospheric delay correction. Therefore, SWOT AMR incorporates two antenna beams along cross track direction. In addition to the cross track design of the AMR radiometer, wet tropospheric error requirement is expressed in space frequency domain (in the sense of cy/km), in other words, power spectral density (PSD). Thus, instrument error allocation and design are being done in PSD which are not conventional approaches for microwave radiometer requirement allocation and design. A few of novel analyses include: 1. The effects of antenna beam size to PSD error and land/ocean contamination, 2. Receiver error allocation and the contributions of radiometric count averaging, NEDT, Gain variation, etc. 3. Effect of thermal design in the frequency domain. In the presentation, detailed AMR design and analyses results will be discussed.

  1. Application of Nimbus-6 microwave data to problems in precipitation prediction for the Pacific west coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viezee, W.; Shigeishi, H.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary results of a research study that emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of data related to total precipitable water and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water obtained from NIMBUS-6 SCAMS are reported. Sixteen cyclonic storm situations in the northeastern Pacific Ocean that resulted in significant rainfall along the west coast of the United States during the winter season October 1975 through February 1976 are analyzed in terms of their distributions and amounts of total water vapor and liquid water, as obtained from SCAMS data. The water-substance analyses for each storm case are related to the distribution and amount of coastal precipitation observed during the subsequent time period when the storm system crosses the coastline. Concomitant precipitation predictions from the LFM are also incorporated. Techniques by which satellite microwave data over the ocean can be used to improve precipitation prediction for the Pacific West Coast are emphasized.

  2. Microwave radiances from horizontally finite precipitating clouds containing ice and liquid hydrometeors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, C.; Weinman, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Microwave radiances that would be measured from satellite borne radiometers were computed as a function of rainfall rates from horizontally finite precipitating clouds containing ice and liquid hydrometeors capped by a layer of nonprecipitating ice that covers the remainder of the footprint. Ice at the top of the precipitating clouds depresses the brightness temperatures which depend on rainfall rates because the ice hydrometeor concentrations are assumed to be related to the rainfall rates at the cloud base. It is also found that the brightness temperatures of footprints partially covered by precipitation cells are a nonlinear function of the rainfall rate averaged over the footprint. Thus the average brightness temperatures depend on the peak rainfall rates and the size of the precipitating cloud.

  3. Microwave vitrification of Rocky Flats hydroxide precipitation sludge, Building 774. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Eschen, V.G.; Sprenger, G.S.; Fenner, G.S.; Corbin, I.E.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the first set of experiments performed on transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge produced in Building 774, to determine the operating parameters for the microwave vitrification process. Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) results of the raw sludge showed concentrations of lead, silver and cadmium which were in excess of land disposal restrictions (LDR). Crushed, borosilicate glass was used as a frit source to produce a highly desirable, vitrified, product that required less energy to produce. TCLP testing, of microwaved samples, showed favorable results for 40 and 50% waste loading. The results of this study are encouraging and support the development of microwave vitrification technology for the treatment of various mixed waste streams at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. However, additional experiments are required to fully define the operating parameters for a production-scale system.

  4. Artificial neural network based microwave precipitation estimation using scattering index and polarization corrected temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, C.; Prakash, Satya; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Gairola, R. M.

    2011-11-01

    An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based technique is proposed for estimating precipitation over Indian land and oceanic regions [30° S - 40° N and 30° E - 120° E] using Scattering Index (SI) and Polarization Corrected Temperature (PCT) derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements. This rainfall retrieval algorithm is designed to estimate rainfall using a combination of SSM/I and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) measurements. For training the ANN, SI and PCT (which signify rain signatures in a better way) calculated from SSM/I brightness temperature are considered as inputs and Precipitation Radar (PR) rain rate as output. SI is computed using 19.35 GHz, 22.235 GHz and 85.5 GHz Vertical channels and PCT is computed using 85.5 GHz Vertical and Horizontal channels. Once the training is completed, the independent data sets (which were not included in the training) were used to test the performance of the network. Instantaneous precipitation estimates with independent test data sets are validated with PR surface rain rate measurements. The results are compared with precipitation estimated using power law based (i) global algorithm and (ii) regional algorithm. Overall results show that ANN based present algorithm shows better agreement with PR rain rate. This study is aimed at developing a more accurate operational rainfall retrieval algorithm for Indo-French Megha-Tropiques Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures (MADRAS) radiometer.

  5. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  6. Improving the instantaneous vertical profiling of precipitation for passive-microwave retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimi, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Turk, J.

    2013-12-01

    Current passive-microwave retrieval approaches that are based on the a-priori knowledge provided by a representative database of columns of atmospheric variables and their corresponding microwave signatures, depend crucially on the realism of the representation of the cloud and precipitation in the column. Most approaches rely on columns produced by cloud-permitting model simulations, which suffer from oversimplifications of the very variables to which the microwave brightness temperatures are most sensitive, namely the type, concentration and relative sizes of the hydrometeors. Others rely on retrieved descriptions obtained from imperfect remotely-sensed measurements. The TRMM radar being a single-channel instrument cannot, by itself identify the phase of the condensation. The GPM radar that offers an additional Ka-band frequency should be slightly better. This presentation will summarize our approach of using higher-sensitivity ground-based measurements to address these shortcomings. During the CINDY-DYNAMO experiment (2011-2012), the dual-wavelength polarimetric radar SPolKa was deployed, providing a unique set of observations. This allows insight into rainfall characteristics for different species. Using a Bayesian approach with Mie-scattering calculations, the rainfall rate, cloud liquid water, mean diameter and other parameters can be retrieved from SPolKa data. Different assumptions (on hydrometeor habit and size distributions) for those simulations were used, and their impact on the retrievals evaluated. This preliminary study will eventually enable the elaboration of a passive-microwave retrievals' database, accounting for the quantitative vertical distribution of precipitation.

  7. The microwave properties of simulated melting precipitation particles: sensitivity to initial melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2015-06-01

    A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically-shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM): a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size. SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass; and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, 94.0 GHz for radar applications; and 89, 165.0 and 183.31 GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle-size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.

  8. The microwave properties of simulated melting precipitation particles: sensitivity to initial melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2016-01-01

    A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM), a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size (SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass), and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties of these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0 GHz for radar applications and 89, 165.0, and 183.31 GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote-sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.

  9. Advanced Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Lu; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Domier, C. W.; Ito, N.; Kogi, Y.; Liang, Y.; Mase, A.; Park, H.; Sakata, E.; Tsai, W.; Xia, Z. G.; Zhang, P.

    Millimeter wave technology advances have made possible active and passive millimeter wave imaging for a variety of applications including advanced plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, atmospheric radiometry, concealed weapon detection, all-weather aircraft landing, contraband goods detection, harbor navigation/surveillance in fog, highway traffic monitoring in fog, helicopter and automotive collision avoidance in fog, and environmental remote sensing data associated with weather, pollution, soil moisture, oil spill detection, and monitoring of forest fires, to name but a few. The primary focus of this paper is on technology advances which have made possible advanced imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations and microturbulence in fusion plasmas. Topics of particular emphasis include frequency selective surfaces, planar Schottky diode mixer arrays, electronically controlled beam shaping/steering arrays, and high power millimeter wave local oscillator and probe sources.

  10. Bayesian Estimation of Precipitation from Satellite Passive Microwave Observations Using Combined Radar-Radiometer Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation estimation from satellite passive microwave radiometer observations is a problem that does not have a unique solution that is insensitive to errors in the input data. Traditionally, to make this problem well posed, a priori information derived from physical models or independent, high-quality observations is incorporated into the solution. In the present study, a database of precipitation profiles and associated brightness temperatures is constructed to serve as a priori information in a passive microwave radiometer algorithm. The precipitation profiles are derived from a Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) combined radar radiometer algorithm, and the brightness temperatures are TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observed. Because the observed brightness temperatures are consistent with those derived from a radiative transfer model embedded in the combined algorithm, the precipitation brightness temperature database is considered to be physically consistent. The database examined here is derived from the analysis of a month-long record of TRMM data that yields more than a million profiles of precipitation and associated brightness temperatures. These profiles are clustered into a tractable number of classes based on the local sea surface temperature, a radiometer-based estimate of the echo-top height (the height beyond which the reflectivity drops below 17 dBZ), and brightness temperature principal components. For each class, the mean precipitation profile, brightness temperature principal components, and probability of occurrence are determined. The precipitation brightness temperature database supports a radiometer-only algorithm that incorporates a Bayesian estimation methodology. In the Bayesian framework, precipitation estimates are weighted averages of the mean precipitation values corresponding to the classes in the database, with the weights being determined according to the similarity between the observed brightness temperature principal

  11. Evaluation of Precipitation Detection over Various Surfaces from Passive Microwave Imagers and Sounders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, S. Joseph; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    During the middle part of this decade a wide variety of passive microwave imagers and sounders will be unified in the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission to provide a common basis for frequent (3 hr), global precipitation monitoring. The ability of these sensors to detect precipitation by discerning it from non-precipitating background depends upon the channels available and characteristics of the surface and atmosphere. This study quantifies the minimum detectable precipitation rate and fraction of precipitation detected for four representative instruments (TMI, GMI, AMSU-A, and AMSU-B) that will be part of the GPM constellation. Observations for these instruments were constructed from equivalent channels on the SSMIS instrument on DMSP satellites F16 and F17 and matched to precipitation data from NOAA's National Mosaic and QPE (NMQ) during 2009 over the continuous United States. A variational optimal estimation retrieval of non-precipitation surface and atmosphere parameters was used to determine the consistency between the observed brightness temperatures and these parameters, with high cost function values shown to be related to precipitation. The minimum detectable precipitation rate, defined as the lowest rate for which probability of detection exceeds 50%, and the detected fraction of precipitation, are reported for each sensor, surface type (ocean, coast, bare land, snow cover) and precipitation type (rain, mix, snow). The best sensors over ocean and bare land were GMI (0.22 mm/hr minimum threshold and 90% of precipitation detected) and AMSU (0.26 mm/hr minimum threshold and 81% of precipitation detected), respectively. Over coasts (0.74 mm/hr threshold and 12% detected) and snow-covered surfaces (0.44 mm/hr threshold and 23% detected), AMSU again performed best but with much lower detection skill, whereas TMI had no skill over these surfaces. The sounders (particularly over water) benefited from the use of re-analysis data (vs. climatology) to

  12. Temperature-dependent daily variability of precipitable water in special sensor microwave/imager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutowski, William J.; Lindemulder, Elizabeth A.; Jovaag, Kari

    1995-01-01

    We use retrievals of atmospheric precipitable water from satellite microwave observations and analyses of near-surface temperature to examine the relationship between these two fields on daily and longer time scales. The retrieval technique producing the data used here is most effective over the open ocean, so the analysis focuses on the southern hemisphere's extratropics, which have an extensive ocean surface. For both the total and the eddy precipitable water fields, there is a close correspondence between local variations in the precipitable water and near-surface temperature. The correspondence appears particularly strong for synoptic and planetary scale transient eddies. More specifically, the results support a typical modeling assumption that transient eddy moisture fields are proportional to transient eddy temperature fields under the assumption f constant relative humidity.

  13. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the rain drop-size-distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop-size-distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation but affect the retrievals is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5 deg to deg N latitude and 166 deg to 172 deg E longitude from July to September 1999, and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, i.e. the rain rate, the precipitation water content, the drop-size-distribution intercept, and the mass weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are in general higher than the official TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates

  14. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency Active and Passive Microwave Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the raindrop size distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop size distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation, but affect the retrievals, is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5° to 12°N latitude and from 166° to 172°E longitude from July to September 1999 and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, that is, the rain rate, precipitation water content, drop size distribution intercept, and the mass- weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are, in general, higher than the official TRMM precipitation radar (PR)-only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates, derived

  15. Short term prediction of dynamic hydra precipitation activity using a microwave radiometer over Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.

    2015-12-01

    First ever study of the feasibility of ground based radiometric study to predict a very short term based rain precipitation study has been conducted in eastern Himalaya, Darjeeling (27.01°N, 88.15°E, 2200 masl). Short term prediction or nowcasting relates to forecasting convective precipitation for time periods less than a few hours to avoid its effect on agriculture, aviation and lifestyle. Theoretical models involving radiometric predictions are not well understood and lack in temporal and spatial resolution. In this study specific utilization of a microwave Radiometer (Radiometrics Corporation, USA) for online monitoring of precipitable rainfall activity has been observed repeatability of data has been established. Previous few studies have shown the increase of water vapour and corresponding Brightness Temperature, but in mountain climatic conditions over Darjeeling, due to presence of fog 90 % of the year, water vapour monitoring related predictions can lead to false alarms. The measurement of blackbody emission noise in the bands of 23.8 GHz and 31.4 GHz, using a quadratic regression retrieval algorithm is converted to atmospheric parameters like integrated water vapour and liquid water content. It has been found in our study that the liquid water shows significant activity prior to precipitation events even for mild and stratiform rainfall. The alarm can be generated well 20 mins before the commencement of actual rain events even in the upper atmosphere of 6 Kms, measured by a rain radar also operating in 24 Ghz microwave band. Although few rain events were found and reported which do not respond in the microwave liquid water channel. Efforts to identify such rain events and their possible explanation is going on and shall be reported in near future. Such studies are important to predict flash flooding in the Himalayas. Darjeeling owing to its geographical conditions experiences mild to very heavy rain. Such studies help improve aspects of Himalayas as

  16. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.

  17. A Prototype Physical Database for Passive Microwave Retrievals of Precipitation over the US Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringerud, S.; Kummerow, C. D.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    An accurate understanding of the instantaneous, dynamic land surface emissivity is necessary for a physically based, multi-channel passive microwave precipitation retrieval scheme over land. In an effort to assess the feasibility of the physical approach for land surfaces, a semi-empirical emissivity model is applied for calculation of the surface component in a test area of the US Southern Great Plains. A physical emissivity model, using land surface model data as input, is used to calculate emissivity at the 10GHz frequency, combining contributions from the underlying soil and vegetation layers, including the dielectric and roughness effects of each medium. An empirical technique is then applied, based upon a robust set of observed channel covariances, extending the emissivity calculations to all channels. For calculation of the hydrometeor contribution, reflectivity profiles from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) are utilized along with coincident brightness temperatures (Tbs) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and cloud-resolving model profiles. Ice profiles are modified to be consistent with the higher frequency microwave Tbs. Resulting modeled top of the atmosphere Tbs show correlations to observations of 0.9, biases of 1K or less, root-mean-square errors on the order of 5K, and improved agreement over the use of climatological emissivity values. The synthesis of these models and data sets leads to the creation of a simple prototype Tb database that includes both dynamic surface and atmospheric information physically consistent with the land surface model, emissivity model, and atmospheric information.

  18. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  19. Assimilation of Precipitation Measurement Missions Microwave Radiance Observations With GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jianjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; McCarty, Will; Akella, Santha; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory satellite was launched in February, 2014. The GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is a conically scanning radiometer measuring 13 channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz and sampling between 65 S 65 N. This instrument is a successor to the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), which has observed 9 channels at frequencies ranging 10 to 85 GHz between 40 S 40 N since 1997. This presentation outlines the base procedures developed to assimilate GMI and TMI radiances in clear-sky conditions, including quality control methods, thinning decisions, and the estimation of, observation errors. This presentation also shows the impact of these observations when they are incorporated into the GEOS-5 atmospheric data assimilation system.

  20. Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Barnes, A.; Glass, M.; Kakar, R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1993-01-01

    The retrieval of rainfall intensity over the oceans from passive microwave observations is based on a radiative transfer model. Direct rainfall observations of oceanic rainfall are virtually nonexistent making validation of the retrievals extremely difficult. Observations of the model assumptions provide an alternative approach for improving and developing confidence in the rainfall retrievals. In the winter of 1983, the NASA CV-990 aircraft was equipped with a payload suitable for examining several of the model assumptions. The payload included microwave and infrared radiometers, mirror hygrometers, temperature probes, and PMS probes. On two occasions the aircraft ascended on a spiral track through stratiform precipitation providing an opportunity to study the atmospheric parameters. The assumptions concerning liquid hydrometeors, water vapor, lapse rate, and nonprecipitating clouds were studied. Model assumptions seem to be supported by these observations.

  1. Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.T.C. ); Barnes, A.; Glass, M. ); Kakar, R. ); Wilheit, T.T. )

    1993-06-01

    The retrieval of rainfall intensity over the oceans from passive microwave observations is based on a radiative transfer model. direct rainfall observations of oceanic rainfall are virtually nonexistent making validation of the retrievals extremely difficult. Observations of the model assumptions provide an alternative approach for improving and developing confidence in the rainfall retrievals. In the winter of 1983, the NASA CV-990 aircraft was equipped with a payload suitable for examining several of the model assumptions. The payload included microwave and infrared radiometers, mirror hygrometers, temperature probes, and PMS probes. On two occasions the aircraft ascended on a spiral track through stratiform precipitation providing an opportunity to study the atmospheric parameters. The assumptions concerning liquid hydrometeors, water vapor, lapse rate, and nonprecipitating clouds were studied. Model assumptions seem to be supported by these observations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  2. CDRD and PNPR satellite passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms: EuroTRMM/EURAINSAT origins and H-SAF operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Smith, E. A.; Tripoli, G. J.; Bizzarri, B.; Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Di Paola, F.; Panegrossi, G.; Sanò, P.

    2013-04-01

    Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) is a EUMETSAT (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) program, designed to deliver satellite products of hydrological interest (precipitation, soil moisture and snow parameters) over the European and Mediterranean region to research and operations users worldwide. Six satellite precipitation algorithms and concomitant precipitation products are the responsibility of various agencies in Italy. Two of these algorithms have been designed for maximum accuracy by restricting their inputs to measurements from conical and cross-track scanning passive microwave (PMW) radiometers mounted on various low Earth orbiting satellites. They have been developed at the Italian National Research Council/Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate in Rome (CNR/ISAC-Rome), and are providing operational retrievals of surface rain rate and its phase properties. Each of these algorithms is physically based, however, the first of these, referred to as the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) algorithm, uses a Bayesian-based solution solver, while the second, referred to as the PMW Neural-net Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm, uses a neural network-based solution solver. Herein we first provide an overview of the two initial EU research and applications programs that motivated their initial development, EuroTRMM and EURAINSAT (European Satellite Rainfall Analysis and Monitoring at the Geostationary Scale), and the current H-SAF program that provides the framework for their operational use and continued development. We stress the relevance of the CDRD and PNPR algorithms and their precipitation products in helping secure the goals of H-SAF's scientific and operations agenda, the former helpful as a secondary calibration reference to other algorithms in H-SAF's complete mix of algorithms. Descriptions of the algorithms' designs are provided

  3. A combined microwave/infrared algorithm for estimating rainfall during the GPCP. [Global Precipitation Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents results of a satellite algorithm intercomparison of monthly precipitation, which was organized by the World Climate Research Program's Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Special attention is given to the techniques used in the projects and the type of data provided in the study (mainly by Japan's GMS visible and IR sensors and the USA's Special Sensor Microwave/Imager). The results of rainfall estimates obtained by Negri et al. (1994) and Adler and Negri (1988) techniques are compared with estimates made with the threshold technique of Arkin (1979, 1983). Results obtained by various techniques are presented for both the instantaneous estimates and for total rain accumulations over an area including Japan for a 24-hr period on June 22, 1989.

  4. Determining microwave brightness temperatures from precipitating horizontally finite and vertically structured clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, C.; Weinman, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Microwave radiances that may be measured from satellite-borne radiometers operating at 37 GHz have been computed as a function of rainfall rates from horizontally finite precipitating clouds that contain both ice and liquid hydrometeors. It is found that precipitating ice at the top of the cloud depresses brightness temperatures significantly. Detailed comparison between finite clouds and the equivalent sections of plane-parallel clouds are made. Footprint averaged brightness temperatures from finite clouds are found to deviate considerably from the sectioned plane-parallel approximation, especially for large rain rates. Better agreement is achieved if a plane-parallel source function is used in the finite cloud model. The effect of shape and orientation of the precipitating cells with respect to the satellite has also been considered. It is found that the largest errors introduced by plane-parallel theory besides the footprint-filling errors are encountered when precipitating cells have large fractions of their surface below the freezing level or contain large amounts of ice.

  5. Effect of Combined Spaceborne Microwave and Continuous Lightning Measurements on Precipitation Forecasts of the 1998 Ground-Hog Day Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinman, James A.; Chang, Dong-Eon; Morales, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of several newly available sources of meteorological data on mesoscale model forecasts of precipitation produced by the extra-tropical cyclone that struck Florida on February 2, 1998. Precipitation distributions of convective rainfall events were derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Multi-Channel Passive Microwave Sensor (TMI) microwave radiometric data by means of the Goddard PROFiling (GPROF) algorithm. Continuous lightning distributions were obtained from sferics measurements obtained from a network of VLF radio receivers. Histograms of coincident sferics frequency distributions were matched to those of precipitation to derive bogus convective rainfall rates from the continuously available sferics measurements. SSM/I and TMI microwave data were used to derive Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) distributions. The TMI also provided sea surface temperatures (SSTS) of the Loop Current and Gulf Stream with improved structural detail. A series of experiments assimilated IPW and latent heating from the bogus convective rainfall for six-hours in the MM5 mesoscale forecast model to produce nine-hour forecasts of all rainfall as well as other weather parameters. Although continuously assimilating latent heating only slightly improved the surface pressure distribution forecast, it significantly improved the precipitation forecasts. Correctly locating convective rainfall was found critical for assimilating latent heating in the forecast model, but measurement of the rainfall intensity proved to be less important. The improved SSTs also had a positive impact on rainfall forecasts for this case. Assimilating bogus rainfall in the model produced nine-hour forecasts of radar reflectivity distributions that agreed well with coincident observations from the TRMM spaceborne precipitation radar, ground based radar and spaceborne microwave measurements.

  6. Recent Advances in Spaceborne Precipitation Radar Measurement Techniques and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone

    2006-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced instrument concepts and technologies for future spaceborne atmospheric radars, with an over-arching objective of making such instruments more capable in supporting future science needs and more cost effective. Two such examples are the Second-Generation Precipitation Radar (PR-2) and the Nexrad-In-Space (NIS). PR-2 is a 14/35-GHz dual-frequency rain radar with a deployable 5-meter, wide-swath scanned membrane antenna, a dual-polarized/dual-frequency receiver, and a realtime digital signal processor. It is intended for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operations to provide greatly enhanced rainfall profile retrieval accuracy while consuming only a fraction of the mass of the current TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). NIS is designed to be a 35-GHz Geostationary Earth Orbiting (GEO) radar for providing hourly monitoring of the life cycle of hurricanes and tropical storms. It uses a 35-m, spherical, lightweight membrane antenna and Doppler processing to acquire 3-dimensional information on the intensity and vertical motion of hurricane rainfall.

  7. A TRMM-GPM cloud radiation database for satellite microwave precipitation retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripoli, G. J.; Dietrich, S.; Kuo, K.-S.; Mugnai, A.; Panegrossi, G.; Smith, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    A Cloud Radiation Database (CRDB) is being developed to improve satellite microwave rain retrieval algorithms being with TRMM measurements and intended for future GPM applications. The CRDB consists of simulation results from a detailed cloud resolving model (CRM) combined with results from a detailed passive microwave radiative transfer model (PMRM) generated by using CRM model output as input to the PMRM. The simulations consist of a variety of precipitating weather system structures that space-borne microwave sensors encounter over the globe. These include both convective and stratiform systems, deep and shallow clouds, and warm and cold rain processes. The CRM used to create entries into the CRDB is tested for its ability to simulate microphysical processes as validated by in situ measurements available from special field programs and through comparison of simulated brightness temperatures to direct brightness temperature observations from space. This 3-way intercomparison procedure performed in cloud-radiation model verification studies is leading to the improvement of prognostic-based microphysical parameterization schemes that are used in all weather models featuring explicitly predicted microphysics. Plane-parallel, 3-dimensional reverse Monte Carlo, and 3-dimensional analytic RTE schemes are being used in the PMRM calculation of brightness temperatures. Development is also underway to test a new fully 3-dimensional analytic radiative transfer model vis-à-vis its capability in improving simulations of space-based brightness measurements. Techniques to retrieve optimal data base entries for particular observations are being explored. Possible metrics needed to make these choices include geographic location, cloud top height, stratiform or convective phase, season, and other possible stratifications. Another possible methodology under study is using global or large basin-scale or even global scale CRM simulations of a typical mix of seasonal weather systems

  8. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  9. Artificial Intelligent Control for a Novel Advanced Microwave Biodiesel Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, W. A.; Hassan, K. H.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.; Wylie, S. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from a renewable source, is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or fat with methanol or ethanol. In order to control and monitor the progress of this chemical reaction with complex and highly nonlinear dynamics, the controller must be able to overcome the challenges due to the difficulty in obtaining a mathematical model, as there are many uncertain factors and disturbances during the actual operation of biodiesel reactors. Classical controllers show significant difficulties when trying to control the system automatically. In this paper we propose a comparison of artificial intelligent controllers, Fuzzy logic and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) for real time control of a novel advanced biodiesel microwave reactor for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Fuzzy logic can incorporate expert human judgment to define the system variables and their relationships which cannot be defined by mathematical relationships. The Neuro-fuzzy system consists of components of a fuzzy system except that computations at each stage are performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network's learning capability is provided to enhance the system knowledge. The controllers are used to automatically and continuously adjust the applied power supplied to the microwave reactor under different perturbations. A Labview based software tool will be presented that is used for measurement and control of the full system, with real time monitoring.

  10. MARG - A Low Cost Solid State Microwave Areal Precipitation Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulitsch, Helmut; Dombai, Ferenc; Cremonini, Roberto; Bechini, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Water is an essential resource for us so the measurements of its movement throughout the whole cycle is very important. The rainfall is discontinuous in space and in time having large natural variability unlike many other meteorological parameters. The widely used method for getting relatively accurate precipitation data over land is the combination of radar rainfall estimations and rain gauge data. The typically used radar data is coming from long-range weather radars operating in C or S band, or from mini radars operating in X band which is attenuating heavily in strong precipitation. Using such radar data we are facing several constraints: operating costs and limitations of long range radars, X band radars can be blocked totally in heavy thunderstorms even in short range, dual polarization solutions are expensive, etc. Recognizing that an important gap exists in instrumental precipitation measurements over land a consortium has been organized and a project has been established to develop a new measurement device, the so called Microwave Areal Rain Gauge (MARG). MARG is based on FMCW radar principle using solid state transmitter and digital signal processing and operating in C band. The MARG project aims to provide an innovative, real-time, low-cost, user friendly and accurate sensor technology to monitor and to measure continuously the rainfall intensity distribution over an area around some thousand square km. The MARG project proposal has been granted by the EU in FP7-SME-2012 funding scheme. The developed instrument is able to monitor in real-time intensity and spatial distribution of rainfall in rural and urban environments and can be operated by commercial weather data and value-added forecast product suppliers. To achieve sufficient isolation between the transmitter and receiver modules, and to avoid using complex and expensive microwave components, two parabolic antennae are used to transmit and receive the FMCW signal. The radar frontend operates in the

  11. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): A New Operational Sensor Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-H Joseph; Leslie, R. Vince; Baker, Neal; Mo, Tsan; Sun, Ninghai; Bi, Li; Anderson, Mike; Landrum, Mike; DeAmici, Giovanni; Gu, Degui; Foo, Alex; Ibrahim, Wael; Robinson, Kris; Chidester, Lynn; Shiue, James

    2012-01-01

    ATMS is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. ATMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; and ATMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet NWP sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface

  12. Observations of precipitable water vapor fluctuations in convective boundary layer via microwave interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.; Kao, C.J.; Jacobson, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    At microwave frequencies, each centimeter of precipitable water vapor (PWV) causes about 6.45 cm of extra electrical path length relative to the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} air. The fluctuations of the water vapor dominate the changes of the effective path length through the atmosphere in a relatively short time period of a few hours. In this paper we describe a microwave interferometer developed for water vapor investigations and present the observation results. The interferometer consists of 10 antennas along two orthogonal 400-m arms that form many baselines (antenna pairs) ranging from 100 to 400 m. All the antennas receive a common CW signal (11.7 GHz) from a geostationary television satellite, and phase differences between pairs of antennas are measured. The phase differences reflect the column-integrated water vapor differences from the top of the atmosphere to the spatially separated antennas at the ground. The interferometric, baseline-differential measurements allow us to study the statistical properties of the PWV fluctuations, as well as the turbulent activity of the convective boundary layer (CBL). Structure function analysis of the interferometer measurements shows good agreement with results obtained from the Very Large Array (VLA) and with a theoretical model developed for radio astronomical very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), reported previously by other investigators. The diurnally varying structure constant correlates remarkably well with the combination of the latent and sensible heat fluxes measured simultaneously from a 10-m meteorological tower. The average drift velocity of the PWV over the interferometer was also derived from the measurements. The derived velocity agrees well during the morning hours with the wind measured by an anemometer at the center of the interferometer. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  13. Monitoring Precipitation Contents and Extinction By Using A Ground-based Passive Microwave Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzano, F. S.; Fionda, E.; Ciotti, P.; Consalvi, F.

    In the last decades microwave radiometry has proved to be a valuable tool for retriev- ing atmospheric parameters both from ground-based and from satellite-borne plat- forms. Ground-based microwave radiometry has been mainly investigated for esti- mating temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid profiles in the absence of precip- itation. However, the increasing use of multifrequency radiometers in ground-based stations, especially for communication purposes, rises the question of their potential for retrieving also rainfall rate from ground. This capability might be also useful when weather radars are also present, since radiometric estimates might be used as a further constraint within the radar inversion procedure. One of the main problems of ground- based radiometry for rainfall retrieval is the possible impact of water layers on the receiving antenna whose measurements can be heavily contaminated. The estimate of atmospheric parameters by microwave radiometry may be approached by using both experimental and simulated data. The use of experimental measurements is limited by their scarcity or even their lack. The modeling approach is generally more versatile, even though it requests a thorough insight into the e.m. interaction between the mi- crowave radiation and the scattering medium. The radiative transfer theory has been so far the most used approach to take into account multiple scattering and vertical inho- mogeneity of the atmosphere in the presence of hydrometeor scattering. Following a previous work, the objective of this paper is to investigate about radiometric frequency sets and system configurations best suited for observing both stratiform and convective precipitation. We develop inversion algorithms for ground-based retrieval of surface rainrate, adopting a model-based approach. For both stratiform and convective precip- itation, we use a radiative transfer model (RTM), including spherical liquid, melt and ice hydrometeors. From the solution of

  14. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager Falling Snow Retrieval Algorithm Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick Jackson, Gail; Munchak, Stephen J.; Johnson, Benjamin T.

    2015-04-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new and retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges and uncertainties remaining. This work reports on the development and post-launch testing of retrieval algorithms for the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Observatory satellite launched in February 2014. In particular, we will report on GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) radiometer instrument algorithm performance with respect to falling snow detection and estimation. Since GPM's launch, the at-launch GMI precipitation algorithms, based on a Bayesian framework, have been used with the new GPM data. The at-launch database is generated using proxy satellite data merged with surface measurements (instead of models). One year after launch, the Bayesian database will begin to be replaced with the more realistic observational data from the GPM spacecraft radar retrievals and GMI data. It is expected that the observational database will be much more accurate for falling snow retrievals because that database will take full advantage of the 166 and 183 GHz snow-sensitive channels. Furthermore, much retrieval algorithm work has been done to improve GPM retrievals over land. The Bayesian framework for GMI retrievals is dependent on the a priori database used in the algorithm and how profiles are selected from that database. Thus, a land classification sorts land surfaces into ~15 different categories for surface-specific databases (radiometer brightness temperatures are quite dependent on surface characteristics). In addition, our work has shown that knowing if the land surface is snow-covered, or not, can improve the performance of the algorithm. Improvements were made to the algorithm that allow for daily inputs of ancillary snow cover

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nano ZnO rods via microwave assisted chemical precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Uma Sangari, N.; Chitra Devi, S.

    2013-01-15

    A microwave assisted chemical precipitation method has been employed for the synthesis of nano zinc oxide rods by reacting zinc nitrate and potassium hydroxide. The amount of potassium hydroxide was adjusted for three different pHs to achieve ZnO nano rods with varying aspect ratio. The mechanism of growth of nano rods is explained briefly. The average crystallite size of the as synthesized samples was analyzed by means of powder XRD pattern and estimated to vary from 25.6 nm to 43.1 nm. The existence of rods was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The samples were also analyzed using FT-IR. The optical properties of the samples were also studied by means of UV-visible spectra and Room Temperature Photo Luminescence studies. The band gap of the samples was determined from the DRS spectrum. A strong near band emission peaks due to surface defects are observed in the PL spectrum. - Graphical abstract: At the solution pH of 11 and 9, tetrapod-like and flower-like ZnO nano rods were formed along with separated rods respectively due to the formation of activated nuclei of different sizes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in alkalinity of the precursor solution results in longer rods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beyond a saturation limit, the excess of added OH{sup -} ions inhibited the growth of rods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Keeping all parameters the same, the alkalinity can only modify the aspect ratio of the rods and not their morphology.

  16. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Olson, William S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated using both simulated and airborne data. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite multi-frequency active and passive observations. These observations are characterized by various spatial and sampling resolutions. This makes the retrieval problem mathematically more difficult and ill-determined because the quality of information decreases with decreasing resolution. A model that, given reflectivity profiles and a small set of parameters (including the cloud water content, the intercept drop size distribution, and a variable describing the frozen hydrometeor properties), simulates high-resolution brightness temperatures is used. The high-resolution simulated brightness temperatures are convolved at the real sensor resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is used to minimize the differences between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. The retrieval technique is investigated using cloud model synthetic and airborne data from the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment. Simulated high-resolution brightness temperatures and reflectivities and airborne observation strong are convolved at the resolution of the TRMM instruments and retrievals are performed and analyzed relative to the reference data used in observations synthesis. An illustration of the possible use of the technique in satellite rainfall estimation is presented through an application to TRMM data. The study suggests improvements in combined active and passive retrievals even when the instruments resolutions are significantly different. Future work needs to better quantify the retrievals performance, especially in connection with satellite applications, and the uncertainty of the models used in retrieval.

  17. A Texture-Polarization Method for Estimating Convective/Stratiform Precipitation Area Coverage from Passive Microwave Radiometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Hong, Ye; Kummerow, Christian D.; Turk, Joseph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Observational and modeling studies have described the relationships between convective/stratiform rain proportion and the vertical distributions of vertical motion, latent heating, and moistening in mesoscale convective systems. Therefore, remote sensing techniques which can quantify the relative areal proportion of convective and stratiform, rainfall can provide useful information regarding the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in these systems. In the present study, two methods for deducing the convective/stratiform areal extent of precipitation from satellite passive microwave radiometer measurements are combined to yield an improved method. If sufficient microwave scattering by ice-phase precipitating hydrometeors is detected, the method relies mainly on the degree of polarization in oblique-view, 85.5 GHz radiances to estimate the area fraction of convective rain within the radiometer footprint. In situations where ice scattering is minimal, the method draws mostly on texture information in radiometer imagery at lower microwave frequencies to estimate the convective area fraction. Based upon observations of ten convective systems over ocean and nine systems over land, instantaneous 0.5 degree resolution estimates of convective area fraction from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TRMM TMI) are compared to nearly coincident estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR). The TMI convective area fraction estimates are slightly low-biased with respect to the PR, with TMI-PR correlations of 0.78 and 0.84 over ocean and land backgrounds, respectively. TMI monthly-average convective area percentages in the tropics and subtropics from February 1998 exhibit the greatest values along the ITCZ and in continental regions of the summer (southern) hemisphere. Although convective area percentages. from the TMI are systematically lower than those from the PR, monthly rain patterns derived from the TMI and PR rain algorithms are very similar

  18. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  19. Advanced microscopy techniques resolving complex precipitates in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikaly, W.; Soto, R.; Bano, X.; Issartel, C.; Rigaut, G.; Charaï, A.

    1999-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy as well as analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques such as high resolution, electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) and elemental mapping via a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF) have been used to study complex precipitation in commercial dual phase steels microalloyed with titanium. Titanium nitrides, titanium carbosulfides, titanium carbonitrides and titanium carbides were characterized in this study. Both carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were used as sample preparation techniques. On both the microscopic and nanometric scales, it was found that a large amount of precipitation occurred heterogeneously on already existing inclusions/precipitates. CaS inclusions (1 to 2 μm), already present in liquid steel, acted as nucleation sites for TiN precipitating upon the steel's solidification. In addition, TiC nucleated on existing smaller TiN (around 30 to 50 nm). Despite the complexity of such alloys, the statistical analysis conducted on the non-equilibrium samples were found to be in rather good agreement with the theoretical equilibrium calculations. Heterogeneous precipitation must have played a role in bringing these results closer together.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Pre-gpm Microwave Precipitation Observations in the Goddard WRF Ensemble Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambon, Philippe; Zhang, Sara Q.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zupanski, Milija; Cheung, Samson

    2013-01-01

    The forthcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will provide next generation precipitation observations from a constellation of satellites. Since precipitation by nature has large variability and low predictability at cloud-resolving scales, the impact of precipitation data on the skills of mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) is largely affected by the characterization of background and observation errors and the representation of nonlinear cloud/precipitation physics in an NWP data assimilation system. We present a data impact study on the assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave (MW) radiances from a pre-GPM satellite constellation using the Goddard WRF Ensemble Data Assimilation System (Goddard WRF-EDAS). A series of assimilation experiments are carried out in a Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model domain of 9 km resolution in western Europe. Sensitivities to observation error specifications, background error covariance estimated from ensemble forecasts with different ensemble sizes, and MW channel selections are examined through single-observation assimilation experiments. An empirical bias correction for precipitation-affected MW radiances is developed based on the statistics of radiance innovations in rainy areas. The data impact is assessed by full data assimilation cycling experiments for a storm event that occurred in France in September 2010. Results show that the assimilation of MW precipitation observations from a satellite constellation mimicking GPM has a positive impact on the accumulated rain forecasts verified with surface radar rain estimates. The case-study on a convective storm also reveals that the accuracy of ensemble-based background error covariance is limited by sampling errors and model errors such as precipitation displacement and unresolved convective scale instability.

  1. Extreme precipitation on the island of Madeira on 20 February 2010 as seen by satellite passive microwave sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levizzani, Vincenzo; Laviola, Sante; Cattani, Elsa; João Costa, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The extreme precipitation event on the Island of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean on 20 February 2010 has triggered flash floods and mudslides in the southern slopes of the island. The frontal system moving towards the northeast and originating from a low-pressure center in the Madeira Archipelago is not unusual for the area, but its consequences on the island environment were rather extreme. Several studies demonstrated that the influence of the orography reinforced the precipitating system enhancing the transition from stratiform to convective precipitation. However, to date no studies are available in the literature on the structure of the clouds and precipitation structure as well as on its local patterns. This work is focused on the analysis of the precipitating event and its evolution using passive microwave sounding imagery from polar orbiting satellites for the retrieval of rainfall intensity and cloud property classification. The observations demonstrate that the heavy rainfall hitting the island at midday on 20 February was generated by a severe convective event whose very local character is due to orographic enhancement over the central mountain chain of the island. Precipitation was of convective type lasting for a few hours around noon and the observations confirm the numerical model results. Physically based cloud classification also reveals a powerful tool for the monitoring of these severe rainstorms. The results of the satellite observations show some potential for nowcasting in an island environment with orography perpendicular to the main flow from the ocean.

  2. Electron Precipitation at Mars: Advancing Our Understanding with MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Noori, H.; Lillis, R. J.; Fillingim, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Electrons from the solar wind enter the Martian upper atmosphere from space in a process known as electron precipitation. These electrons are confined to move along magnetic field lines and, when those field lines intersect the atmosphere, the electrons collide with atmospheric neutral particles, resulting in heating, dissociation, ionization and excitation of those neutrals. Electron precipitation is an important source of energy input to the Mars upper atmosphere, and is typically the dominant source on the nightside. Past observations from Mars Global Surveyor have characterized patterns of electron precipitation, but only at ~400 km and ~2 AM local time. The MAVEN mission and in particular the SWEA instrument, provides an opportunity to study the distribution of suprathermal electrons in near-Mars space, over a range of altitudes from 120-6000 km and at a range of local times. We will present preliminary observations of flux patterns of these electrons.

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Kummerow, Christian D.; Shepherd, James Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This chapter begins with a brief history and background of microwave precipitation sensors, with a discussion of the sensitivity of both passive and active instruments, to trace the evolution of satellite-based rainfall techniques from an era of inference to an era of physical measurement. Next, the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission will be described, followed by the goals and plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission and the status of precipitation retrieval algorithm development. The chapter concludes with a summary of the need for space-based precipitation measurement, current technological capabilities, near-term algorithm advancements and anticipated new sciences and societal benefits in the GPM era.

  4. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  5. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): The First 10 Months On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, C-H Joseph; Blackwell, Willaim; Leslie, R. Vince; Baker, Neal; Mo, Tsan; Sun, Ninghai; Bi, Li; Anderson, Kent; Landrum, Mike; DeAmici, Giovanni; Gu, Degui; Foo, Alex; Ibrahim, Wael; Robinson, Kris; Chidester, Lynn; Shiue, James

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. A TMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, especially under cloudy sky conditions. ATMS has 22 channels spanning 23-183 GHz, closely following the channel set of the MSU, AMSU-A1/2, AMSU-B, Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). All this is accomplished with approximately 1/4 the volume, 1/2 the mass, and 1/2 the power of the three AMSUs. A description of ATMS cal/val activities will be presented followed by examples of its performance after its first 10 months on orbit.

  6. Technology advances in active and passive microwave sensing through 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of a growing awareness by the remote sensing community of the unique capabilities of passive and active microwave sensors, these instruments are expected to grow in the next decade in numbers, versatility and complexity. The Nimbus-G and Seasat-A Scanning Multichannel Microwave Spectrometer (SMMR), the Seasat-A radar altimeter, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar represent the first systematic attempt at exploring a wide variety of applications utilizing microwave sensing techniques and are indicators of the directions in which the pertinent technology is likely to evolve. The trend is toward high resolution multi-frequency imagers spanning wide frequency ranges and wide swaths requiring sophisticated receivers, real-time data processors and most importantly, complex antennas.

  7. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  8. Advancing Microwave Technology for Dehydration Processing of Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Cellemme, Stephanie L.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex® syringe filter holder (Millipore™, Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  9. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    KL Gaustad; DD Turner

    2007-09-30

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) microwave radiometer (MWR) RETrievel (MWRRET) Value-Added Product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes complimentary physical and statistical retrieval methods and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  10. Microwave radiometric observations near 19.35, 92 and 183 GHz of precipitation in tropical storm Cora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, A. T.; King, J. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Nieman, R. A.; Krupp, B. M.; Milman, A. S.; Stratigos, J. S.; Siddalingaih, H.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of rain cells in the remains of a decaying tropical storm were made by Airborne Microwave Radiometers at 19.35,92 and three frequencies near 183 GHz. Extremely low brightness temperatures, as low as 140 K were noted in the 92 and 183 GHz observations. These can be accounted for by the ice often associated with raindrop formation. Further, 183 GHz observations can be interpreted in terms of the height of the ice. The brightness temperatures observed suggest the presence of precipitation sized ice as high as 9 km or more.

  11. Competitive removal of Cu-EDTA and Ni-EDTA via microwave-enhanced Fenton oxidation with hydroxide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qintie; Pan, Hanping; Yao, Kun; Pan, Yonggang; Long, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can form very stable complexes with heavy metal ions, greatly inhibiting conventional metal-removal technologies used in water treatment. Both the oxidation of EDTA and the reduction of metal ions in metal-EDTA systems via the microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction followed by hydroxide precipitation were investigated. The Cu(II)-Ni(II)-EDTA, Cu(II)-EDTA and Ni(II)-EDTA exhibited widely different decomplexation efficiencies under equivalent conditions. When the reaction reached equilibrium, the chemical oxygen demand was reduced by a microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction in different systems and the reduction order from high to low was Cu(II)-Ni(II)-EDTA ≈ Cu(II)-EDTA > Ni(II)-EDTA. The removal efficiencies of both Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) in Cu-Ni-EDTA wastewaters were much higher than those in a single heavy metal system. The degradation efficiency of EDTA in Cu-Ni-EDTA was lower than that in a single metal system. In the Cu-Ni-EDTA system, the microwave thermal degradation and the Fenton-like reaction created by Cu catalyzed H2O2 altered the EDTA degradation pathway and increased the pH of the wastewater system, conversely inhibiting residual EDTA degradation. PMID:26398034

  12. Competitive removal of Cu-EDTA and Ni-EDTA via microwave-enhanced Fenton oxidation with hydroxide precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qintie; Pan, Hanping; Yao, Kun; Pan, Yonggang; Long, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can form very stable complexes with heavy metal ions, greatly inhibiting conventional metal-removal technologies used in water treatment. Both the oxidation of EDTA and the reduction of metal ions in metal-EDTA systems via the microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction followed by hydroxide precipitation were investigated. The Cu(II)-Ni(II)-EDTA, Cu(II)-EDTA and Ni(II)-EDTA exhibited widely different decomplexation efficiencies under equivalent conditions. When the reaction reached equilibrium, the chemical oxygen demand was reduced by a microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction in different systems and the reduction order from high to low was Cu(II)-Ni(II)-EDTA ≈ Cu(II)-EDTA > Ni(II)-EDTA. The removal efficiencies of both Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) in Cu-Ni-EDTA wastewaters were much higher than those in a single heavy metal system. The degradation efficiency of EDTA in Cu-Ni-EDTA was lower than that in a single metal system. In the Cu-Ni-EDTA system, the microwave thermal degradation and the Fenton-like reaction created by Cu catalyzed H2O2 altered the EDTA degradation pathway and increased the pH of the wastewater system, conversely inhibiting residual EDTA degradation.

  13. Microwave Processing for Advance Electro-Optic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2000-06-01

    This project addressed the technical and scientific goals of developing new methods for the formation of striation-free single crystals of potassium tantalate niobate. This solid-solution system has the potential for serving as a general electro-optic material with a wide range of optical applications. The performance of the material is, however, severely limited by the effects of compositional inhomogeneity that is generally induced during the single crystal growth process due to the nature of the binary phase diagram of the mixed tantalatehiobate system. Single-crystal boules of potassium tantalate niobate (KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} or KTN) with varying tantalum-to-niobium ratios (or values of x) were grown under a variety of experimental conditions. The resulting single crystals were characterized in terms of their compositional homogeneity and optical quality. Single crystals were grown using both the most-favorable established set of growth parameters as well as in the presence of programmed oscillatory temperature variations. The purpose of these deliberately induced variations was to introduce controlled compositional variations and associated optical striations in the solid-solution single crystals. The overall objective of the effort was to utilize microwave heating and processing methods to treat the inhomogeneous single crystals for the purpose of eliminating the compositional variations that lead to striations and the associated varying changes in the refractive index of the material. In order to realize the ultimate goal of the effort, it was necessary to develop methods that would lead to the effective coupling of the microwave field to the KTN single crystals. Achieving the technical and commercial goals of this effort would have made it possible to introduce an important new electro-optic product into the market place, to improve our fundamental understanding of solid-state diffusion processes in general (and of microwave-assisted thermal

  14. Global precipitation measurement (GPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Flaming, Gilbert M.; Adams, W. James; Smith, Eric A.

    2001-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying options for future space-based missions for the EOS Follow-on Era (post 2003), building upon the measurements made by Pre-EOS and EOS First Series Missions. One mission under consideration is the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), a cooperative venture of NASA, Japan, and other international partners. GPM will capitalize on the experience of the highly successful Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). Its goal is to extend the measurement of rainfall to high latitudes with high temporal frequency, providing a global data set every three hours. A reference concept has been developed consisting of an improved TRMM-like primary satellite with precipitation radar and microwave radiometer to make detailed and accurate estimates of the precipitation structure and a constellation of small satellites flying compact microwave radiometers to provide the required temporal sampling of highly variable precipitation systems. Considering that DMSP spacecraft equipped with SSMIS microwave radiometers, successor NPOESS spacecraft equipped with CMIS microwave radiometers, and other relevant international systems are expected to be in operation during the timeframe of the reference concept, the total number of small satellites required to complete the constellation will be reduced. A nominal plan is to begin implementation in FY'03 with launches in 2007. NASA is presently engaged in advanced mission studies and advanced instrument technology development related to the mission.

  15. Advanced Precipitation Radar Antenna to Measure Rainfall From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Lin, John; Huang, John; Im, Eastwood; Lou, Michael; Lopez, Bernardo; Durden, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    To support NASA s planned 20-year mission to provide sustained global precipitation measurement (EOS-9 Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)), a deployable antenna has been explored with an inflatable thin-membrane structure. This design uses a 5.3 5.3-m inflatable parabolic reflector with the electronically scanned, dual-frequency phased array feeds to provide improved rainfall measurements at 2.0-km horizontal resolution over a cross-track scan range of up to 37 , necessary for resolving intense, isolated storm cells and for reducing the beam-filling and spatial sampling errors. The two matched radar beams at the two frequencies (Ku and Ka bands) will allow unambiguous retrieval of the parameters in raindrop size distribution. The antenna is inflatable, using rigidizable booms, deployable chain-link supports with prescribed curvatures, a smooth, thin-membrane reflecting surface, and an offset feed technique to achieve the precision surface tolerance (0.2 mm RMS) for meeting the low-sidelobe requirement. The cylindrical parabolic offset-feed reflector augmented with two linear phased array feeds achieves dual-frequency shared-aperture with wide-angle beam scanning and very low sidelobe level of -30 dB. Very long Ku and Ka band microstrip feed arrays incorporating a combination of parallel and series power divider lines with cosine-over-pedestal distribution also augment the sidelobe level and beam scan. This design reduces antenna mass and launch vehicle stowage volume. The Ku and Ka band feed arrays are needed to achieve the required cross-track beam scanning. To demonstrate the inflatable cylindrical reflector with two linear polarizations (V and H), and two beam directions (0deg and 30deg), each frequency band has four individual microstrip array designs. The Ku-band array has a total of 166x2 elements and the Ka-band has 166x4 elements with both bands having element spacing about 0.65 lambda(sub 0). The cylindrical reflector with offset linear array feeds

  16. Advanced systems requirements for ocean observations via microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Swift, C. T.; Kendall, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    A future microwave spectroradiometer operating in several frequency bands will have the capability to step or sweep frequencies on an adaptable or programmable basis. The on-board adaptable frequency shifting can make the systems immune from radio interference. Programmable frequency sweeping with on-board data inversion by high speed computers would provide for instantaneous synoptic measurements or sea surface temperature and salinity, water surface and volume pollution, ice thickness, ocean surface winds, snow depth, and soil moisture. Large structure satellites will allow an order of magnitude improvement in the present radiometric measurement spacial resolution.

  17. Earth Observing System(EOS). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Firmware Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the Firmware Test Report for the firmware to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. It describes the firmware results of the Formal Qualification Test (FQT)/Demonstrations conducted on Mar. 21, 1997, Apr. 8, 1998, and July 14, 1998, for the EOS/AMSU-A instrument.

  18. Microwave (SSM/I) Estimates of the Precipitation Rate to Improve Numerical Atmospheric Model Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, William H.; Olson, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Delay in the spin-up of precipitation early in numerical atmospheric forecasts is a deficiency correctable by diabatic initialization combined with diabatic forcing. For either to be effective requires some knowledge of the magnitude and vertical placement of the latent heating fields. Until recently the best source of cloud and rain water data was the remotely sensed vertical integrated precipitation rate or liquid water content. Vertical placement of the condensation remains unknown. Some information about the vertical distribution of the heating rates and precipitating liquid water and ice can be obtained from retrieval techniques that use a physical model of precipitating clouds to refine and improve the interpretation of the remotely sensed data. A description of this procedure and an examination of its 3-D liquid water products, along with improved modeling methods that enhance or speed-up storm development is discussed.

  19. Improvement of Cold Season Land Precipitation Retrievals Through The Use Of WRF Simulations and High Frequency Microwave Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ferraro, R. R.; Gopalan, K.; Tao, W.; Shi, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    As we move from the TRMM to GPM era, more emphasis will be placed on a larger regime of precipitation in mid- and high-latitudes, including light rain, mixed-phase precipitation and snowfall. In these areas, a large and highly variable portion of the total annual precipitation is snow. There is a wealth of observational evidence of brightness temperature depression from frozen hydrometeor scattering at the high frequency from aircraft and spacecraft microwave instruments. Research on the development of snowfall retrieval over land has become increasing important in the last few years (Chen and Staelin, 2003; Kongoli et al., 2004; Skofronick-Jackson et al., 2004, Noh et al., 2006; Aonashi et al., 2007; Liu, 2008; Grecu and Olson, 2008; Kim et al., 2008). However, there is still a considerable amount of work that needs to be done to develop global snowfall detection and retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the development and testing of snowfall models and retrieval algorithms using WRF snowfall simulations and high frequency radiative transfer models for snowfall events took place in January 2007 over Ontario, Canada.

  20. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 1; Method and Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Petty, Grant W.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Bell, Thomas L.; Braun, Scott A.; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Johnson, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A revised Bayesian algorithm for estimating surface rain rate, convective rain proportion, and latent heating/drying profiles from satellite-borne passive microwave radiometer observations over ocean backgrounds is described. The algorithm searches a large database of cloud-radiative model simulations to find cloud profiles that are radiatively consistent with a given set of microwave radiance measurements. The properties of these radiatively consistent profiles are then composited to obtain best estimates of the observed properties. The revised algorithm is supported by an expanded and more physically consistent database of cloud-radiative model simulations. The algorithm also features a better quantification of the convective and non-convective contributions to total rainfall, a new geographic database, and an improved representation of background radiances in rain-free regions. Bias and random error estimates are derived from applications of the algorithm to synthetic radiance data, based upon a subset of cloud resolving model simulations, and from the Bayesian formulation itself. Synthetic rain rate and latent heating estimates exhibit a trend of high (low) bias for low (high) retrieved values. The Bayesian estimates of random error are propagated to represent errors at coarser time and space resolutions, based upon applications of the algorithm to TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates at 0.5 deg resolution range from approximately 50% at 1 mm/h to 20% at 14 mm/h. These errors represent about 70-90% of the mean random deviation between collocated passive microwave and spaceborne radar rain rate estimates. The cumulative algorithm error in TMI estimates at monthly, 2.5 deg resolution is relatively small (less than 6% at 5 mm/day) compared to the random error due to infrequent satellite temporal sampling (8-35% at the same rain rate).

  1. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): First Year On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Lyu, C.; Blackwell, W. J.; Leslie, V.; Baker, N.; Mo, T.; Sun, N.; Bi, L.; Anderson, K.; Landrum, M.; De Amici, G.; Gu, D.; Foo, A.; Ibrahim, W.; Robinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. ATMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the Suomi-NPOESS Preparatory Project (S-NPP) satellite and has just finished its first year on orbit. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; and ATMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet NWP sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface. Designed & built by Aerojet Corporation in Azusa, California, (now Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems), ATMS has 22 channels spanning 23—183 GHz, closely following the channel set of the MSU, AMSU-A1 and A2, AMSU-B, Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). It continues their cross-track scanning geometry, but for the first time, provides Nyquist sample spacing. All this is accomplished with approximately one quarter the volume, one half the mass, and one half the power of the three AMSUs. A summary description of the ATMS design will be presented. Post-launch calibration/validation activities include geolocation determination, radiometric calibration using the on-board warm targets and cold space views, simultaneous observations by microwave sounders on other satellites, comparison vs. pre-launch thermovacuum test performance; observations vs. atmospheric model predicted radiances, and comparisons of soundings vs. radiosondes. Brief descriptions of these

  2. Simulation of TRMM Microwave Imager Brightness Temperature using Precipitation Radar Reflectivity for Convective and Stratiform Rain Areas over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rain is highly variable in space and time. In order to measure rainfall over global land with satellites, we need observations with very high spatial resolution and frequency in time. On board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, the Precipitation Radar (PR) and Microwave Imager (TMI) are flown together for the purpose of estimating rain rate. The basic method to estimate rain from PR has been developed over the past several decades. On the other hand, the TMI method of rain estimation is still in the state development, particularly over land. The objective of this technical memorandum is to develop a theoretical framework that helps relate the observations made by these two instruments. The principle result of this study is that in order to match the PR observations with the TMI observations in convective rain areas, a mixed layer of graupel and supercooled water drops above the freezing level is needed. On the other hand, to match these observations in the stratiform region, a layer of snowflakes with appropriate densities above the freezing level, and a melting layer below the freezing level, are needed. This understanding can lead to a robust rainfall estimation technique from the microwave radiometer observations.

  3. Advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide/microwave system for solubilization of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping Huang; Wong, Wayne T; Lo, Kwang Victor

    2005-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process (AOP) combining hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating was used for the solubilization of phosphate from secondary municipal sludge from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The microwave irradiation is used as a generator agent of oxidizing radicals as well as a heating source in the process. This AOP process could facilitate the release of a large amount of the sludge-bound phosphorus from the sewage sludge. More than 84% of the total phosphorous could be released at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. This innovative process has the potential of being applied to simple sludge treatment processes in domestic wastewater treatment and to the recovery of phosphorus from the wastewater.

  4. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): First Year On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. A TMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first flight unit was launched a year ago in October, 2011 aboard the Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, part of the new Joint Polar-Orbiting Satellite System (JPSS). Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction models; and A TMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface. ATMS was designed & built by Aerojet Corporation in Azusa, California, (now Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems). It has 22 channels spanning 23-183 GHz, closely following the channel set of the MSU, AMSU-AI/2, AMSU-B, Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). It continues their cross-track scanning geometry, but for the first time, provides Nyquist sample spacing. All this is accomplished with approximately V. the volume, Y, the mass, and Y, the power of the three AMSUs. A description will be given of its performance from its first year of operation as determined by post-launch calibration activities. These activities include radiometric calibration using the on-board warm targets and cold space views, and geolocation determination. Example imagery and zooms of specific weather events will be shown. The second ATMS flight model is currently under construction and planned for launch on the "Jl" satellite of the JPSS program in

  5. A rain cell model. [precipitation induced microwave interference/attenuation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.

    1977-01-01

    Summer raincells in a marine temperate climate were monitored using radar, and the probability of raincell occurrence was described as a function of altitude, rain intensity and cell size. The study aimed at defining a cell model for communications engineers concerned with precipitation-induced interference or signal attenuation.

  6. Comparison of TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager rainfall retrievals in tropical cyclone inner cores and rainbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrodnik, Joseph P.; Jiang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall retrieval algorithms are evaluated in tropical cyclone (TC) inner cores (IC), inner bands (IB), and outer rainbands (OB). In total, 1329 IC, 2149 IB, and 4627 OB storm regions are analyzed using data from a 12-year TRMM Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Feature (TCPF) database containing 1013 TCs viewed from December 1997 to December 2009. Attention is focused on the difference between the Precipitation Radar (PR) 2A25 and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 2A12 rainfall algorithms. The PR 2A25 produces larger mean rain rates than the TMI 2A12 in inner cores and inner bands, with the greatest difference occurring in hurricanes. This discrepancy is caused mostly by the TMI 2A12 significantly underestimating regions of moderate to heavy rain >15 mm hour-1 or when the PR reflectivity is greater than 30 dBZ. The TMI 2A12 rain rates are most closely related to the percentage coverage of 85 GHz polarization-corrected brightness temperature (PCT) <225 K in the IC and 85 GHz PCT <250 K in the IB and OB. These convective parameters are good predictors of the mean TMI 2A12 rain rate, but significant ice scattering is not always present in areas of heavy rain that are often widespread in TC inner regions. As a result, the TMI 2A12 algorithm may poorly measure the rain rate, particularly in the inner core of hurricanes.

  7. Improving Scatterometry Retrievals of Wind in Hurricanes Using Non-Simultaneous Passive Microwave Estimates of Precipitation and a Split-Step Advection/Convection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fore, Alex; Haddad, Ziad S.; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Rodgridez, Ernesto

    2012-03-01

    One of the current problems in the accurate estimation of over-ocean wind from scatterometry observations is the proper accounting for precipitation. Specific cases such as hurricanes are particularly difficult, because precipitation in the eye wall and rain bands can be quite heavy, and therefore, affect the scatterometer signatures so drastically that a category-4 hurricane can appear, to the scatterometer, to have category-1 winds. We have developed an approach to infer and account for the signature of the precipitation from non-simultaneous passive-microwave measurements of rain, with the help of geostationary IR measurements. In this note, we describe the basic approach, and the results of applying it to the data taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager measurements several hours before and after the QuikSCAT observation of Hurricane Rita in September 2005. We also describe how we are enhancing the approach with more realism in the assimilation of the IR information.

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2010-10-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will provide enhanced space-based precipitation measurements with sufficient coverage, spatial resolution, temporal sampling, retrieval accuracy, and microphysical information to advance the understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle and to improve predictions of its climate, weather, and hydrometeorological processes. Such improvements will in turn improve decision support systems in broad societal applications (e.g. water resource management, agriculture, transportation, etc). GPM is a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), building upon their highly successful partnership on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The GPM architecture consists of NASA satellites operating in partnership with other earth-observing satellites and instruments to produce global precipitation science data. The current generation of multi-satellite global precipitation products based on microwave/infrared sensors from uncoordinated satellite missions has for its anchor the TRMM precipitation radar and the TRMM Microwave Imager measurements over the tropics and subtropics (+/- 35 degrees latitude), with a mean sampling time of approximately 17 hours. The GPM mission will deploy a spaceborne Core Observatory as a reference standard to unify a space constellation of research and operational microwave sensors aimed at providing uniformly calibrated precipitation measurements globally every 2-4 hours. The Core Observatory measurements will provide, for the first time, quantitative information on precipitation particle size distribution needed for improving the accuracy of precipitation estimates by microwave radiometers and radars. In addition, the GPM will also include a second microwave radiometer and a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) communications subsystem for near real time data relay for a future partner-provided constellation satellite. This second GPM Microwave Imager (GMI

  9. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  10. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, C.; Gmeiner, A.; Qiu, W.; Hipp, S.; Nienaber, D.; Siart, U.; Eibert, T.; Pohl, M.; Seltmann, J.; Fritz, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2012-08-01

    Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL) data are recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. Its performance and limitations are presented, showing that the mean detection error rates of wet and dry periods can be reduced to 10% for all five links. After, the wet/dry classification rain rates are derived from the RSL and compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.81 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.85 for the link-radar comparison.

  11. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, C.; Gmeiner, A.; Qiu, W.; Hipp, S.; Nienaber, D.; Siart, U.; Eibert, T.; Pohl, M.; Seltmann, J.; Fritz, J.; Kunstmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL) data is recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. We show the performance and limitations of the method and analyse the derived rain rates compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.80 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.84 for the link-radar comparison.

  12. Highly Sensitive Ethanol Sensor Based on Au-Decorated SnO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized Through Precipitation and Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Fang-Xian; Lian, Xiao-Xue; Zou, Yun-Ling; Wang, Qiong; Zhou, Qing-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Gold (Au)-decorated SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized through a precipitation and microwave irradiation process. The as-prepared products were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the as-prepared products consisted of nanometer-scale tetragonal crystalline SnO2 and face-centered cubic gold metal NPs. The gas sensing measurements showed that the sensor based on Au-decorated SnO2 NPs exhibited an extremely high response (239.5) toward 500-ppm ethanol at a relatively low working temperature (220°C). In addition, the response and recovery times of this sensor to ethanol were 1 s and 31 s, respectively. The excellent gas sensing performance of the synthesized NPs in terms of high response, fast response-recovery, superior selectivity, and good stability was attributed to the small nanometer size of the particles, Schottky barrier, and Au NP catalysis. Finally, we demonstrated that our Au-decorated SnO2 NPs could be a potential candidate for use in highly sensitive and selective gas sensors for ethanol.

  13. TRMM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager Observations of Convective and Stratiform Rain Over Land and Their Theoretical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Weinman, J. A.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of brightness temperature, Tb made over land regions by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer have been analyzed along with the nearly simultaneous measurements of the vertical profiles of reflectivity factor, Z, made by the Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard the TRMM satellite. This analysis is performed to explore the interrelationship between the TMI and PR data in areas that are covered predominantly by convective or stratiform rain. In particular, we have compared on a scale of 20 km, average vertical profiles of Z with the averages of Tbs in the 19, 37 and 85 GHz channels. Generally, we find from these data that as Z increases, Tbs in the three channels decrease due to extinction. In order to explain physically the relationship between the Tb and Z observations, we have performed radiative transfer simulations utilizing vertical profiles of hydrometeors applicable to convective and stratiform rain regions. These profiles are constructed taking guidance from the Z observations of PR and recent LDR and ZDR measurements made by land-based polarimetric radars.

  14. Comparison of precipitable water observations in the near tropics by GPS, microwave radiometer and radiosondes.

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, Y. A.; Teng, Y. T.; VanHove, T.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; National Central Univ.; UCAR

    2001-01-01

    The sensing of precipitable water (PW) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the near Tropics is investigated. GPS data acquired from the Central Weather Bureau's Taipei weather station in Banchao (Taipei), Taiwan, and each of nine International GPS Service (IGS) stations were utilized to determine independently the PW at the Taipei site from 18 to 24 March 1998. Baselines between Taipei and the other nine stations range from 676 to 3009 km. The PW determined from GPS observations for the nine baseline cases are compared with measurements by a dual-channel water vapor radiometer (WVR) and radiosondes at the Taipei site. Although previous results from other locations show that the variability in the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-observed PW ranges from 1 to 2 mm, a variability of 2.2 mm is found. The increase is consistent with scaling of the variability with the total water vapor burden (PW). In addition, accurate absolute PW estimates from GPS data for baseline lengths between 1500 and 3000 km were obtained. Previously, 500 and 2000 km have been recommended in the literature as the minimum baseline length needed for accurate absolute PW estimation. An exception occurs when GPS data acquired in Guam, one of the nine IGS stations, were utilized. This result is a possible further indication that the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-measured PW is dependent on the total water vapor burden, because both Taipei and Guam are located in more humid regions than the other stations.

  15. Advances in Global Water Cycle Science Made Possible by Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally sponsored Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams from very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and on to blends of the former datastreams with other less-high caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of NASA's role in global water cycle science and its own Global Water & Energy Cycle (GWEC) program, GPM is the centerpiece mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a space-based measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in global temperature. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination, This paper presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Mission and how its datasets can be used in a set of quantitative tests within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine comprehensively whether substantive rate changes do accompany perturbations in global temperatures and how such rate changes manifest themselves in both water storage and water flux transport processes.

  16. Advances in Understanding Global Water Cycle with Advent of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Within this decade the internationally organized Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will take an important step in creating a global precipitation observing system from space. One perspective for understanding the nature of GPM is that it will be a hierarchical system of datastreams beginning with very high caliber combined dual frequency radar/passive microwave (PMW) rain-radiometer retrievals, to high caliber PMW rain-radiometer only retrievals, and then on to blends of the former datastreams with additional lower-caliber PMW-based and IR-based rain retrievals. Within the context of the now emerging global water & energy cycle (GWEC) programs of a number of research agencies throughout the world, GPM serves as a centerpiece space mission for improving our understanding of the global water cycle from a global measurement perspective. One of the salient problems within our current understanding of the global water and energy cycle is determining whether a change in the rate of the water cycle is accompanying changes in climate, e.g., climate warming. As there are a number of ways in which to define a rate-change of the global water cycle, it is not entirely clear as to what constitutes such a determination. This paper presents an overview of the GPM Mission and how its observations can be used within the framework of the oceanic and continental water budget equations to determine whether a given perturbation in precipitation is indicative of an actual rate change in the global water cycle, consistent with required responses in water storage and/or water flux transport processes, or whether it is the natural variability of a fixed rate cycle.

  17. World-wide association of timberline forest advance with microsite type along a precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    Timberline forest advance associated with global climate change is occurring worldwide and is often associated with microsites. Microsites, controlled by topography, substrates, and plant cover, are localized regions dictating temperature, moisture, and solar radiation. These abiotic factors are integral to seedling survival. From a compilation of world-wide information on seedling regeneration on microsites at timberline, including our on-going research in the Pacific Northwest, we classified available literature into four microsite categories, related microsite category to annual precipitation, and used analysis of variance to detect statistical differences in microsite type and associated precipitation. We found statistical differences (p = 0.022) indicating the usefulness of understanding microsite/precipitation associations in detecting world-wide trends in timberline expansion. For example, wetter timberlines with downed wood, had regeneration associated with nurse logs, whereas on windy, drier landscapes, regeneration was typically associated with either leeward sides of tree clumps or on microsites protected from frost by overstory canopy. In our study of timberline expansion in the Pacific Northwest, we expect that such knowledge of microsite types associated with forest expansion will reveal a better understanding of mechanisms and rates of timberline forest advance during global warming.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: DEVELOPMENT OF GAS CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR TECHNOLOGY (INDIA ESP TRAINING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brief discusses a demonstration of advanced electrostatic precipitator (ESP) diagnostics and technologies in India. Six Indian ESP specialists were selected by Southern Research Institute and their consultants, with the concurrence of EPA's project officer, to attend a course...

  19. Benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information System - San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Johnson, L. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in monitoring and prediction of precipitation and severe storms can provide significant benefits for water resource managers, allowing them to mitigate flood damage risks, capture additional water supplies and offset drought impacts, and enhance ecosystem services. A case study for the San Francisco Bay area provides the context for quantification of the benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) system. The AQPI builds off more than a decade of NOAA research and applications of advanced precipitation sensors, data assimilation, numerical models of storms and storm runoff, and systems integration for real-time operations. An AQPI would dovetail with the current National Weather Service forecast operations to provide higher resolution monitoring of rainfall events and longer lead time forecasts. A regional resource accounting approach has been developed to quantify the incremental benefits assignable to the AQPI system; these benefits total to $35 M/yr in the 9 county Bay region. Depending on the jurisdiction large benefits for flood damage avoidance may accrue for locations having dense development in flood plains. In other locations forecst=based reservoir operations can increase reservoir storage for water supplies. Ecosystem services benefits for fisheries may be obtained from increased reservoir storage and downstream releases. Benefits in the transporation sectors are associated with increased safety and avoided delays. Compared to AQPI system implementation and O&M costs over a 10 year operations period, a benefit - cost (B/C) ratio is computed which ranges between 2.8 to 4. It is important to acknowledge that many of the benefits are dependent on appropriate and adequate response by the hazards and water resources management agencies and citizens.

  20. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  1. Microwaves and their coupling to advanced oxidation processes: enhanced performance in pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ulisses M; Azevedo, Eduardo B

    2013-01-01

    This review assesses microwaves (MW) coupled to advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pollutants degradation, as well as the basic theory and mechanisms of MW dielectric heating. We addressed the following couplings: MW/H2O2, MW/UV/H2O2, MW/Fenton, MW/US, and MW/UV/TiO2, as well as few studies that tested alternative oxidants and catalysts. Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamps (MDELs) are being extensively used with great advantages over ballasts. In their degradation studies, researchers generally employed domestic ovens with minor adaptations. Non-thermal effects and synergies between UV and MW radiation play an important role in the processes. Published papers so far report degradation enhancements between 30 and 1,300%. Unfortunately, how microwaves enhance pollutants is still obscure and real wastewaters scarcely studied. Based on the results surveyed in the literature, MW/AOPs are promising alternatives for treating/remediating environmental pollutants, whenever one considers high degradation yields, short reaction times, and small costs.

  2. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Calibration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the Calibration Management Plan for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The plan defines calibration requirements, calibration equipment, and calibration methods for the AMSU-A, a 15 channel passive microwave radiometer that will be used for measuring global atmospheric temperature profiles from the EOS polar orbiting observatory. The AMSU-A system will also provide data to verify and augment that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder.

  3. Redox properties of nanostructured lanthanide-doped ceria spheres prepared by microwave assisted hydrothermal homogeneous co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, F F; Acuña, L M; Albornoz, C A; Leyva, A G; Baker, R T; Fuentes, R O

    2015-01-01

    In this work, nanostructured LnxCe(1-x)O2-δ (Ln: Gd and Pr; x = 0.1 and 0.2) spheres were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal homogeneous co-precipitation and their properties were characterized by synchrotron radiation XRD, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM). In situ XRD and XANES experiments were carried out under reducing and oxidizing conditions in order to investigate the redox behaviour of these materials. The nanostructured mixed oxide spheres were found to have a cubic crystal structure (Fm3m space group). The spheres were composed of nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm. The Ln(0.1)Ce(0.9)O2-δ compositions exhibited the highest specific surface area (∼ 60 m(2) g(-1)). In situ XRD experiments showed an increase in lattice parameters upon reduction, which was attributed to the reduction of Ce(4+) and Pr(4+) cations to Ce(3+) and Pr(3+), which have larger radii, and to the associated increase in VO concentration. This increase in lattice parameters was considerably more pronounced for PrDC than GDC, and was explained by the considerably larger change in ionic radius for Pr upon reduction. XANES absorption experiments at the Ce and Pr L3-edge showed that the changes observed upon reduction of the Pr-containing samples resulted mostly from the formation of Pr(3+) rather than Ce(3+), and supported the previously reported proposal that Pr(3+) has a stabilizing effect on Ce(4+).

  4. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Deformation of an Ultra-Fine Precipitate Strengthened Advanced Austenitic Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Carroll; L.J. Carroll

    2012-10-01

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. The low-cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 °C and a 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain as long as 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in fatigue and creep-fatigue of both alloys at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present for hold times of 60 min and longer, and substantially more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ significantly; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas in HT-UPS the microstructure takes the form of widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as it evolves with continued cycling.

  5. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Microwave dynamic large signal waveform characterization of advanced InGaP HBT for power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixin, Zhao; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2009-12-01

    In wireless mobile communications and wireless local area networks (WLAN), advanced InGaP HBT with power amplifiers are key components. In this paper, the microwave large signal dynamic waveform characteristics of an advanced InGaP HBT are investigated experimentally for 5.8 GHz power amplifier applications. The microwave large signal waveform distortions at various input power levels, especially at large signal level, are investigated and the reasons are analyzed. The output power saturation is also explained. These analyses will be useful for power amplifier designs.

  7. Airborne full polarization radiometry using the MSFC Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasiewski, Al J.; Kunkee, D. B.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures in both atmospheric and surface remote sensing have been long recognized by many investigators, particularly those studying SMMR and SSM/I data. Here, the large contrast between the first two Stokes' parameters (T(sub V) and T(sub H)) can be used for detection of sea ice, measurement of ocean surface wind speed, and measurement of cloud and water vapor opacity. High-resolution aircraft data from instruments such as the NASA/MSFC AMPR is crucial for verifying radiative transfer models and developing retrieval algorithms. Currently, the AMPR is outfitted with single-polarization channels at 10, 18, 37 and 85 GHz. To increase its utility, it is proposed that additional orthogonal linearly polarized channels be added to the AMPR. Since the AMPR's feedhorns are already configured for dual orthogonal linearly polarized modes, this would require only a duplication of the currently existing receivers. To circumvent the resulting polarization basis skew caused by the cross-track scanning mechanism, the technique of Electronic Polarization Basis Rotation is proposed to be implemented. Implementation of EPBR requires precise measurement of the third Stokes parameter and will eliminate polarization skew by allowing the feedhorn basis skew angle to be corrected in software. In addition to upgrading AMPR to dual polarization capability (without skew), the modifications will provide an opportunity to demonstrate EPBR on an airborne platform. This is a highly desirable intermediate step prior to satellite implementation.

  8. Assimilating All-Sky GPM Microwave Imager(GMI) Radiance Data in NASA GEOS-5 System for Global Cloud and Precipitation Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. J.; Jin, J.; McCarty, W.; Todling, R.; Holdaway, D. R.; Gelaro, R.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) works to maximize the impact of satellite observations in the analysis and prediction of climate and weather through integrated Earth system modeling and data assimilation. To achieve this goal, the GMAO undertakes model and assimilation development, generates products to support NASA instrument teams and the NASA Earth science program. Currently Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5(GEOS-5) system combines millions of observations and short-term forecasts to determine the best estimate, or analysis, of the instantaneous atmospheric state. However, ADAS has been geared towards utilization of observations in clear sky conditions and the majority of satellite channel data affected by clouds are discarded. Microwave imager data from satellites can be a significant source of information for clouds and precipitation but the data are presently underutilized, as only surface rain rates from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) are assimilated with small weight assigned in the analysis process. As clouds and precipitation often occur in regions with high forecast sensitivity, improvements in the temperature, moisture, wind and cloud analysis of these regions are likely to contribute to significant gains in numerical weather prediction accuracy. This presentation is intended to give an overview of GMAO's recent progress in assimilating the all-sky GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) radiance data in GEOS-5 system. This includes development of various new components to assimilate cloud and precipitation affected data in addition to data in clear sky condition. New observation operators, quality controls, moisture control variables, observation and background error models, and a methodology to incorporate the linearlized moisture physics in the assimilation system are described. In addition preliminary results showing impacts of

  9. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  10. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Datasets May 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD

    2009-05-30

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) microwave radiometer (MWR) RETrievel (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  11. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process for treating dairy manure at low pH.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Chan, Winnie W I; Yawson, Selina K; Liao, Ping H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW-AOP) at pH 2. An experimental design was developed based on a statistical program using response surface methodology to explore the effects of temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and heating time on sugar production, nutrient release and solids destruction. Temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and acid concentration were key factors affecting reducing sugar production. The highest reducing sugar yield of 7.4% was obtained at 160°C, 0 mL, 15 min heating time, and no H(2)O(2) addition. Temperature was a dominant factor for an increase of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the treated dairy manure. The important factors for volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were microwave temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Temperature was the most important parameter, and heating time, to a lesser extent affecting orthophosphate release. Heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage and temperature were significant factors for ammonia release. There was a maximum of 96% and 196% increase in orthophosphate and ammonia concentration, respectively at 160°C, 0.5 mL H(2)O(2) and 15 min heating time. The MW-AOP is an effective method in dairy manure treatment for sugar production, nutrient solubilisation, and solids disintegration.

  12. Treating solid dairy manure using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2009-08-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat separated solid dairy manure for nutrient release and solids reduction. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP was conducted at a microwave temperature of 120 degrees C for 10 minutes, and at three pH conditions of 3.5, 7.3 and 12. The hydrogen peroxide dosage at approximately 2 mL per 1% TS for a 30 mL sample was used in this study, reflecting a range of 0.53-0.75 g H(2)O(2)/g dry sludge. The results indicated that substantial quantities of nutrients could be released into the solution at pH of 3.5. However, at neutral and basic conditions only volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand could be released. The analyses on orthophosphate, soluble chemical oxygen demands and volatile fatty acids were re-examined for dairy manure. It was found that the orthophosphate concentration for untreated samples at a higher % total solids (TS) was suppressed and lesser than actual. To overcome this difficulty, the initial orthophosphate concentration had to be measured at 0.5% TS.

  13. Role of mixing on microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process in treating sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2008-10-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) was used for the release of nutrients and the disintegration of suspended solids from both anaerobic sludge and aerobic sludge. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mixing on the performance of the process, in terms of soluble ammonia, orthophosphate and soluble chemical oxygen demands. Experiments were conducted on sludge samples with various total solids concentrations (1.1-3.7%) and hydrogen peroxide dosage (1% per 1% of total solids) at 80 degrees C of microwave temperature and five minutes of heating time. The results indicated that mixing affected solids disintegration and nutrient solubilization of sewage sludge, regardless of the sludge used, anaerobic or aerobic. However, the effects of mixing on the MW/H2O2-AOP were dependent on the total solids concentration of the sludge. A paired t-test was performed on data for aerobic sludge: at 2.9% of total solids (TS), the difference for solubilization of nutrients and solids disintegration was statistically significant at a 95% confidence level between mixing and non-mixing samples. At a lower TS of 1.7% only soluble chemical oxygen demand showed significant difference between mixing and non-mixing. The results suggest that, for sludge with higher solids content, the MW/H2O2-AOP can be more effective if a mixing device is implemented.

  14. Redox properties of nanostructured lanthanide-doped ceria spheres prepared by microwave assisted hydrothermal homogeneous co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, F. F.; Acuña, L. M.; Albornoz, C. A.; Leyva, A. G.; Baker, R. T.; Fuentes, R. O.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, nanostructured LnxCe1-xO2-δ (Ln: Gd and Pr; x = 0.1 and 0.2) spheres were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal homogeneous co-precipitation and their properties were characterized by synchrotron radiation XRD, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM). In situ XRD and XANES experiments were carried out under reducing and oxidizing conditions in order to investigate the redox behaviour of these materials. The nanostructured mixed oxide spheres were found to have a cubic crystal structure (Fm3m space group). The spheres were composed of nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm. The Ln0.1Ce0.9O2-δ compositions exhibited the highest specific surface area (~60 m2 g-1). In situ XRD experiments showed an increase in lattice parameters upon reduction, which was attributed to the reduction of Ce4+ and Pr4+ cations to Ce3+ and Pr3+, which have larger radii, and to the associated increase in VO concentration. This increase in lattice parameters was considerably more pronounced for PrDC than GDC, and was explained by the considerably larger change in ionic radius for Pr upon reduction. XANES absorption experiments at the Ce and Pr L3-edge showed that the changes observed upon reduction of the Pr-containing samples resulted mostly from the formation of Pr3+ rather than Ce3+, and supported the previously reported proposal that Pr3+ has a stabilizing effect on Ce4+.In this work, nanostructured LnxCe1-xO2-δ (Ln: Gd and Pr; x = 0.1 and 0.2) spheres were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal homogeneous co-precipitation and their properties were characterized by synchrotron radiation XRD, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning and high-resolution electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM). In situ XRD and XANES experiments were carried out under reducing and oxidizing conditions in order to investigate the redox behaviour of these

  15. Ground-Based Cloud and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observations for the Project: High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction, HD(CP)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, A.; Ebell, K.; Ulrich, U.; Schween, J. H.; Bohn, B.; Görsdorf, U.; Leinweber, R.; Päschke, E.; Baars, H.; Seifert, P.; Klein Baltink, H.

    2014-12-01

    The German research initiative ''High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction, HD(CP)2'' aims for an improved representation of clouds and precipitation in climate models. Model development and its evaluation require comprehensive observational datasets. A specific work package was established to create uniform and documented observational datasets for the HD(CP)2 data base. Datasets included ground-based remote-sensing (Doppler lidars, ceilometers, microwave radiometers, and cloud radars) and in-situ (meteorological and radiation sensors) measurements. Four supersites (Jülich ObservatorY for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE), Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory - Richard Assmann Observatory (RAO), and Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) in Germany, and Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (Cesar) in the Netherlands) are finalizing the operational procedures to provide quality controlled (and calibrated if possible) remote-sensing and in-situ observations, retrievals on atmospheric boundary layer state (e.g. winds, mixing layer height, humidity and temperature), and cloud macro and micro physical properties with uncertainty estimations or at least quality flags. During the project new processing and retrieval methods were developed if no commonly agreed or satisfying methods were available. Especially, large progress was made concerning uncertainty estimation and automated quality control. Additionally, the data from JOYCE are used in a radiative closure studies under cloudy conditions to evaluate retrievals of cloud properties. The current status of work progress will be presented.

  16. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

  17. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  18. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave SoundingUnit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Acquisition activities plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This is the acquisition activities plan for the software to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) system. This document is submitted in response to Contract NAS5-323 14 as CDRL 508. The procurement activities required to acquire software for the EOS/AMSU-A program are defined.

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit: A (EOS/AMSU-A) Firmware Version Description Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisneros, A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final submittal of the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A Firmware Version Description Document. Its purpose is to provide a precise description of the particular version of the firmware being released. This description also defines the version of the requirements and design applicable to this version.

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullooly, William

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-first monthly report for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit- A (AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 July 1995 through 31 July 1995. This period is the nineteenth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. Included in this report is the Master Program Schedule (Section 2), a report from the Product Team Leaders on the status of all major program elements (Section 3), Drawing status (Section 4), Weight and Power Budgets (CDRL) 503 (Section 5), Performance Assurance (CDRL 204) (Section 6), Configuration Management Status Report (CDRL 203) (Section 7), Documentation/Data Management Status Report (Section 8), and Contract Status (Section 9).

  1. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  2. Physical retrieval of precipitation water contents from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Part 1: A cloud ensemble/radiative parameterization for sensor response (report version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Raymond, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The physical retrieval of geophysical parameters based upon remotely sensed data requires a sensor response model which relates the upwelling radiances that the sensor observes to the parameters to be retrieved. In the retrieval of precipitation water contents from satellite passive microwave observations, the sensor response model has two basic components. First, a description of the radiative transfer of microwaves through a precipitating atmosphere must be considered, because it is necessary to establish the physical relationship between precipitation water content and upwelling microwave brightness temperature. Also the spatial response of the satellite microwave sensor (or antenna pattern) must be included in the description of sensor response, since precipitation and the associated brightness temperature field can vary over a typical microwave sensor resolution footprint. A 'population' of convective cells, as well as stratiform clouds, are simulated using a computationally-efficient multi-cylinder cloud model. Ensembles of clouds selected at random from the population, distributed over a 25 km x 25 km model domain, serve as the basis for radiative transfer calculations of upwelling brightness temperatures at the SSM/I frequencies. Sensor spatial response is treated explicitly by convolving the upwelling brightness temperature by the domain-integrated SSM/I antenna patterns. The sensor response model is utilized in precipitation water content retrievals.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  4. Influence of a spatial structure of precipitates on polarization characteristics of the outgoing microwave radiation of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, Ya. A.; Kutuza, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Issues of the formation and recording of the spatial and angular distributions of thermal radio radiation of rainfall in the microwave range are discussed. The thermal radio-frequency radiative transfer in a threedimensional rain cell is simulated numerically with a different rainfall rate, taking into account the nonspherical shape of falling raindrops and their size distribution. The role of the three-dimensional inhomogeneity of rainfall fields in the formation of a field of their inherent thermal radio radiation in the microwave range is revealed.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2000-11-01

    The main objective of this program was to develop an efficient and economically viable microwave processing technique to process cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with improved properties for drill-bits for advanced drilling operations for oil, gas, geothermal and excavation industries. The program was completed in three years and successfully accomplished all the states goals in the original proposal. In three years of the program, we designed and built several laboratory scale microwave sintering systems for conducting experiments on Tungsten carbide (WC) based composites in controlled atmosphere. The processing conditions were optimized and various properties were measured. The design of the system was then modified to enable it to process large commercial parts of WC/Co and in large quantities. Two high power (3-6 kW) microwave systems of 2.45 GHz were built for multi samples runs in a batch process. Once the process was optimized for best results, the technology was successfully transferred to our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. We helped them to built couple of prototype microwave sintering systems for carbide tool manufacturing. It was found that the microwave processed WC/Co tools are not only cost effective but also exhibited much better overall performance than the standard tools. The results of the field tests performed by Dennis Tool Co. showed remarkable advantage and improvement in their overall performance. For example: wear test shows an increase of 20-30%, corrosion test showed much higher resistance to the acid attack, erosion test exhibited about 15% better resistance than standard sinter-HIP parts. This proves the success of microwave technology for WC/Co based drilling tools. While we have successfully transferred the technology to our industrial partner Dennis Tool Co., they have signed an agreement with Valenite, a world leading WC producer of cutting and drilling tools and wear parts, to push aggressively the new microwave technology in

  6. Impact of advanced technology microwave sounder data in the NCMRWF 4D-VAR data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, S. Indira; Srinivas, D.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    This study demonstrates the added benefits of assimilating the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) radiances from the Suomi-NPP satellite in the NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). ATMS is a cross-track scanning microwave radiometer inherited the legacy of two very successful instrument namely, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). ATMS has 22 channels: 11 temperature sounding channels around 50-60 GHz oxygen band and 6 moisture sounding channels around the 183GHz water vapour band in addition to 5 channels sensitive to the surface in clear conditions, or to water vapour, rain, and cloud when conditions are not clear (at 23, 31, 50, 51 and 89 GHz). Before operational assimilation of any new observation by NWP centres it is standard practice to assess data quality with respect to NWP model background (short-forecast) fields. Quality of all channels is estimated against the model background and the biases are computed and compared against that from the similar observations. The impact of the ATMS data on global analyses and forecasts is tested by adding the ATMS data in the NCUM Observation Processing system (OPS) and 4D-Var variational assimilation (VAR) system. This paper also discusses the pre-operational numerical experiments conducted to assess the impact of ATMS radiances in the NCUM assimilation system. It is noted that the performance of ATMS is stable and it contributes to the performance of the model, complimenting observations from other instruments.

  7. Evaluation of microphysics and precipitation-type frequencies in long-term three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulations using passive and active microwave sensors from the TRMM satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, T.; Zeng, X.; Tao, W.; Lang, S.; Zhang, M.; Masunaga, H.

    2007-12-01

    With significant improvements in computational power over the last decades, cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations can now be conducted on larger scales for longer time periods to better understand cloud- precipitation systems. However, even after the decadal development of CRMs, there are many uncertainties in cloud microphysics processes and cloud-precipitation structures due to the lack of routine observations. Therefore, we need to establish a practical CRM evaluation framework using frequent observations from satellites. This evaluation framework consists of i) multi-satellite simulators and ii) the construction of statistical composites that can be used to effectively evaluate cloud-precipitation systems. First, simulated cloud- precipitation structures and microphysics processes are converted to satellite-consistent radar reflectivity and microwave brightness temperature using microwave and radar simulators in the Satellite Data Simulator Unit (SDSU). Second, the CRM-computed and satellite-observed radar reflectivities and microwave brightness temperatures are used to construct two statistical composites. One combines TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) PR (precipitation radar) 13.8-GHz radar echo-top heights and TRMM VIRS (visible/infrared scanner) 10.8-micron brightness temperatures. This composite categorizes precipitating clouds into shallow warm, cumulus congestus, deep stratiform, and deep convective clouds. The other composite combines multi- frequency TMI (TRMM microwave imager) brightness temperatures. The combination of low- and high-frequency channels reveals the performance of the model cloud microphysics in terms of liquid and ice precipitation amounts. In this study, long-term CRM simulations are performed using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model for three cases: ARM TWP-ICE (Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment), SCSMEX (South China Sea Monsoon Experiment), and KWAJEX (Kwajalein Experiment). Results from the proposed

  8. How accurate are precipitation retrievals from space-borne passive microwave radiometers? - Evaluation of satellite retrieval errors in rain estimates from TMI, AMSR-E, SSM/I, SSMIS, AMSU-B, and MHS over the continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tang, ling; tian, yudong; lin, xin

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation retrievals from space-borne Passive Microwave (PMW) radiometers are the major source in modern satellite-based global rainfall dataset. The error characteristics in these individual retrievals directly affect the merged end products and applications, but have not been systematically studied. In this paper, we undertake a critical investigation of the seasonal and sensor type skill and errors of both in PMW radiometers over the continental United States (CONUS). A high-resolution ground radar-based datasets - NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) Q2 radar derived precipitation estimates are used as the ground reference. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the reference data allows near-instantaneous collocation (within 5 minutes) and relatively more precise comparison with the satellite overpasses. We compare precipitation retrievals from twelve satellites, including six imagers (one TMI, AMSR-E, SSM/I and three SSMIS) and six sounders (three AMSU-B and three MHS) against the Q2 radar precipitation. Results show that precipitation retrievals from PMW radiometers exhibit fairly systematic biases depending on season and precipitation intensity, with overestimates in summer at moderate to high precipitation rates and underestimates in winter at low and moderate precipitation rates. This result is also showing in satellite-based multi-sensor precipitation products, indicating the transferring of uncertainties from single sensor input to multi-sensor precipitation estimates. Meanwhile, retrievals from the microwave imagers have notably better performance than those from the microwave sounders. The sounders have higher biases, about two times at small rain rates and two-three times at the moderate to high end rain rates, compared to the imagers. The sounders also have a narrower dynamic range, and higher random errors, which are also detailed in the paper.

  9. Microwave-assisted Maillard reactions for the preparation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).

    PubMed

    Visentin, Sonja; Medana, Claudio; Barge, Alessandro; Giancotti, Valeria; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2010-05-21

    The application of microwaves as an efficient form of volumetric heating to promote organic reactions was recognized in the mid-1980 s. It has a much longer history in the food research and industry where microwave irradiation was studied in depth to optimize food browning and the development of desirable flavours from Maillard reactions. The microwave-promoted Maillard reaction is a challenging synthetic method to generate molecular diversity in a straightforward way. In this paper we present a new rapid and efficient one-pot procedure for the preparation of pentosidine and other AGEs under microwave irradiation. PMID:20448908

  10. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Antenna Drive Subsystem METSAT AMSU-A2 (PN:1331200-2, SN:108)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haapala, C.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Antenna Drive Subassembly, Antenna Drive Subsystem, METSAT AMSU-A2 (P/N 1331200-2, SN: 108), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  11. Toric offset three-reflector antenna for an advanced microwave limb sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofield, Richard E.; Cwik, Thomas A.; Raouf, Nasrat A.

    2002-12-01

    An advanced Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), now in concept development for a potential future mission, is a space-borne heterodyne instrument to measure pressure, temperature, and atmospheric constituents from thermal emission between 120 and 2400 GHz. Previous MLS instruments used pencil-beam antennas sized to resolve ~1 vertical scale height. Current atmospheric models need better horizontal resolution than orbit spacing provides. To meet these needs, a new antenna concept combines the wide scan range of the parabolic torus with unblocked offset Cassegrain optics. The resulting system is diffraction-limited in the vertical plane but extremely astigmatic, with beamwidths 0.13×2.5°. Nadir axis symmetry ensures that this Beam Aspect Ratio (BAR) is invariant over +/-33 degrees of azimuth. The antenna can feed either an array of receivers or multiplexed low-noise receivers whose FOVs are swept by a small scanning mirror. We describe 3 stages of antenna design: First, using a paraxial-optics method, we choose conic profiles given vertical resolution orbit geometry, then develop the surfaces by nadir axis rotation, matching axisymmetric feeds to the BAR. A ray-trace program validates the design and generates alignment and deformation tolerances. Finally, a physical optics analysis verifies reflector surface currents and radiation patterns.

  12. Advanced Treatment of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater Using Fenton Reagent Enhanced by Microwave Electrodeless Ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Lin, Jing; Lu, Jian; Zhao, Xi; Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The photo-Fenton reaction is a promising method to treat organic contaminants in water. In this paper, a Fenton reagent enhanced by microwave electrodeless ultraviolet (MWEUV/Fenton) method was proposed for advanced treatment of nonbiodegradable organic substance in pesticide-containing biotreated wastewater. MWEUV lamp was found to be more effective for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal than commercial mercury lamps in the Fenton process. The pseudo-first order kinetic model can well describe COD removal from pesticide-containing wastewater by MWEUV/Fenton, and the apparent rate constant (k) was 0.0125 min(-1). The optimal conditions for MWEUV/Fenton process were determined as initial pH of 5, Fe(2+) dosage of 0.8 mmol/L, and H2O2 dosage of 100 mmol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction exhibited high mineralization degrees of organics, where COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration decreased from 183.2 mg/L to 36.9 mg/L and 43.5 mg/L to 27.8 mg/L, respectively. Three main pesticides in the wastewater, as Dimethoate, Triazophos, and Malathion, were completely removed by the MWEUV/Fenton process within 120 min. The high degree of pesticides decomposition and mineralization was proved by the detected inorganic anions. PMID:26347877

  13. Advanced Treatment of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater Using Fenton Reagent Enhanced by Microwave Electrodeless Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Lin, Jing; Lu, Jian; Zhao, Xi; Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The photo-Fenton reaction is a promising method to treat organic contaminants in water. In this paper, a Fenton reagent enhanced by microwave electrodeless ultraviolet (MWEUV/Fenton) method was proposed for advanced treatment of nonbiodegradable organic substance in pesticide-containing biotreated wastewater. MWEUV lamp was found to be more effective for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal than commercial mercury lamps in the Fenton process. The pseudo-first order kinetic model can well describe COD removal from pesticide-containing wastewater by MWEUV/Fenton, and the apparent rate constant (k) was 0.0125 min−1. The optimal conditions for MWEUV/Fenton process were determined as initial pH of 5, Fe2+ dosage of 0.8 mmol/L, and H2O2 dosage of 100 mmol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction exhibited high mineralization degrees of organics, where COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration decreased from 183.2 mg/L to 36.9 mg/L and 43.5 mg/L to 27.8 mg/L, respectively. Three main pesticides in the wastewater, as Dimethoate, Triazophos, and Malathion, were completely removed by the MWEUV/Fenton process within 120 min. The high degree of pesticides decomposition and mineralization was proved by the detected inorganic anions. PMID:26347877

  14. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the twentieth monthly report for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 August 1994 through 31 August 1994. This period is the eighth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. During this period the number one priority for the program continued to be the issuance of Requests for Quotations (RFQ) to suppliers and the procurement of the long-lead receiver components. Significant effort was also dedicated to preparation and conduct of internal design reviews and preparation for the PDR scheduled in September. An overview of the program status, including key events, action items, and documentation submittals, is provided in Section 2 of this report. The Program Manager's 'Priority Issues' are defined in Section 3. Section 4 through 7 provide detailed progress reports for the system engineering effort, each subsystem, performance assurance, and configuration/data management. Contractual matters are discussed in Section 8.

  16. Global Climate Monitoring with the EOS PM-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning 2 Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called Aqua) in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-II satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM/I and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-II AMSR). The ADEOS-II AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team 3 activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The US Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  17. Foundations for statistical-physical precipitation retrieval from passive microwave satellite measurements. I - Brightness-temperature properties of a time-dependent cloud-radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mugnai, Alberto; Cooper, Harry J.; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Xiang, Xuwu

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between emerging microwave brightness temperatures (T(B)s) and vertically distributed mixtures of liquid and frozen hydrometeors was investigated, using a cloud-radiation model, in order to establish the framework for a hybrid statistical-physical rainfall retrieval algorithm. Although strong relationships were found between the T(B) values and various rain parameters, these correlations are misleading in that the T(B)s are largely controlled by fluctuations in the ice-particle mixing ratios, which in turn are highly correlated to fluctuations in liquid-particle mixing ratios. However, the empirically based T(B)-rain-rate (T(B)-RR) algorithms can still be used as tools for estimating precipitation if the hydrometeor profiles used for T(B)-RR algorithms are not specified in an ad hoc fashion.

  18. A TRMM-Based System for Real-Time Quasi-Global Merged Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor); Huffman, G. J.; Adler, R. F.; Stocker, E. F.; Bolvin, D. T.; Nelkin, E. J.

    2002-01-01

    A new processing system has been developed to combine IR and microwave data into 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree gridded precipitation estimates in near-real time over the latitude band plus or minus 50 degrees. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) precipitation estimates are used to calibrate Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) estimates, and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) estimates, when available. The merged microwave estimates are then used to create a calibrated IR estimate in a Probability-Matched-Threshold approach for each individual hour. The microwave and IR estimates are combined for each 3-hour interval. Early results will be shown, including typical tropical and extratropical storm evolution and examples of the diurnal cycle. Major issues will be discussed, including the choice of IR algorithm, the approach for merging the IR and microwave estimates, extension to higher latitudes, retrospective processing back to 1999, and extension to the GPCP One-Degree Daily product (for which the authors are responsible). The work described here provides one approach to using data from the future NASA Global Precipitation Measurement program, which is designed to provide Jill global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours beginning around 2008.

  19. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  20. Characterization of geolocation accuracy of Suomi NPP Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yang; Weng, Fuzhong; Zou, Xiaolei; Yang, Hu; Scott, Deron

    2016-05-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite has 22 channels at frequencies ranging from 23 to 183 GHz for probing the atmospheric temperature and moisture under all weather conditions. As part of the ATMS calibration and validation activities, the geolocation accuracy of ATMS data must be well characterized and documented. In this study, the coastline crossing method (CCM) and the land-sea fraction method (LFM) are utilized to characterize and quantify the ATMS geolocation accuracy. The CCM is based on the inflection points of the ATMS window channel measurements across the coastlines, whereas the LFM collocates the ATMS window channel data with high-resolution land-sea mask data sets. Since the ATMS measurements provide five pairs of latitude and longitude data for K, Ka, V, W, and G bands, respectively, the window channels 1, 2, 3, 16, and 17 from each of these five bands are chosen for assessing the overall geolocation accuracy. ATMS geolocation errors estimated from both methods are generally consistent from 40 cases in June 2014. The ATMS along-track (cross-track) errors at nadir are within ±4.2 km (±1.2 km) for K/Ka, ±2.6 km (±2.7 km) for V bands, and ±1.2 km (±0.6 km) at W and G bands, respectively. At the W band, the geolocation errors derived from both algorithms are probably less reliable due to a reduced contrast of brightness temperatures in coastal areas. These estimated ATMS along-track and cross-track geolocation errors are well within the uncertainty requirements for all bands.

  1. Global Climate Monitoring with the Eos Pm-Platform's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) is being built by NASDA to fly on NASA's PM Platform (now called "Aqua") in December 2000. This is in addition to a copy of AMSR that will be launched on Japan's ADEOS-11 satellite in 2001. The AMSRs improve upon the window frequency radiometer heritage of the SSM[l and SMMR instruments. Major improvements over those instruments include channels spanning the 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz frequency range, and higher spatial resolution from a 1.6 m reflector (AMSR-E) and 2.0 m reflector (ADEOS-11 AMSR). The ADEOS-11 AMSR also will have 50.3 and 52.8 GHz channels, providing sensitivity to lower tropospheric temperature. NASA funds an AMSR-E Science Team to provide algorithms for the routine production of a number of standard geophysical products. These products will be generated by the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) at the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) in Huntsville, Alabama. While there is a separate NASDA-sponsored activity to develop algorithms and produce products from AMSR, as well as a Joint (NASDA-NASA) AMSR Science Team activity, here I will review only the AMSR-E Team's algorithms and how they benefit from the new capabilities that AMSR-E will provide. The U.S. Team's products will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Further information about AMSR-E can be obtained at http://www.jzhcc.msfc.nasa.Vov/AMSR.

  2. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part II: Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2006-05-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from spaceborne microwave radiometers are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science community. One of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) facility rain-rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). In Part I of this series, improvements of the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce latent heating as an additional algorithm product are described. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, 0.5°-resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean from the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r ˜0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over earlier algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly 2.5°-resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data is limited, TMI-estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain-rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem and/or (b) physically consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous 0.5°-resolution rain-rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons with collocated radar. Error

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy a Core Observatory in 2014 to serve as a reference satellite to unify precipitation measurements from the constellation of sensors. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1 satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder

  4. Status of High Latitude Precipitation Estimates: The Role of GPM in Advancing our Current Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, A.; Richardson, M.; Christensen, M.; Huffman, G. J.; Adler, R. F.; Stephens, G. L.; Lambrigtsen, B.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation reviews the current status of precipitation estimation from observation and reanalysis at high latitudes and discusses new insights gained by GPM. An intercomparison of high-latitude precipitation characteristics from observation-based and reanalysis products is performed. Precipitation products from GPM and the cloud profiling radar on the CloudSat satellite provide an independent assessment to other products which have already been widely used, these being the observationally-based GPCP, GPCC and CMAP and the reanalyses ERA-Interim, MERRA and NCEP-DOE. Seasonal and annual total precipitation in both hemispheres poleward of 55° latitude is considered in all products, and GPM and CloudSat products are used to assess frequency of precipitation occurrence by phase, defined as rain, snow or mixed phase. Estimates of snowfall over Antarctica and Greenland are compared from various products. A number of disagreements on regional or seasonal scales are identified which will be reported and discussed. These estimates from observations and reanalyses provide useful insights for diagnostic assessment of precipitation products in high latitudes, quantifying the current uncertainties among observations and reanalyses, and establishing a benchmark for assessment of climate models.

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Inclusions and Precipitation Hardening in Metal Matrix Composites: Application to Advanced High-Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Askari, Hesam A.; Zbib, Hussein M.; Sun, Xin

    2013-06-30

    In this study, the strengthening effect of inclusions and precipitates in metals is investigated within a multiscale approach that utilizes models at various length scales, namely, Molecular Mechanics (MM), discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD), and an Eigenstrain Inclusion Method (EIM). Particularly, precipitates are modeled as hardsoft particles whose stress fields interact with dislocations. The stress field resulting from the elastic mismatch between the particles and the matrix is accounted for through the EIM. While the MM method is employed for the purpose of developing rules for DD for short range interaction between a single dislocation and an inclusion, the DD method is used to predict the strength of the composite resulting from the interaction between ensembles of dislocations and particles. As an application to this method, the mechanical behavior of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) is investigated and the results are then compared to the experimental data. The results show that the finely dispersive precipitates can strengthen the material by pinning the dislocations up to a certain shear stress and retarding the recovery, as well as annihilation of dislocations. The DD results show that strengthening due to nano sized particles is a function of the density and size of the precipitates. This size effect is then explained using a mechanistic model developed based on dislocation-particle interaction.

  6. Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions from Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometry. Part 2; Evaluation of Estimates Using Independent Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Olson, William S.; Wang, Jian-Jian; Bell, Thomas L.; Smith, Eric A.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall rate estimates from space-borne k&ents are generally accepted as reliable by a majority of the atmospheric science commu&y. One-of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRh4M) facility rain rate algorithms is based upon passive microwave observations fiom the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Part I of this study describes improvements in the TMI algorithm that are required to introduce cloud latent heating and drying as additional algorithm products. Here, estimates of surface rain rate, convective proportion, and latent heating are evaluated using independent ground-based estimates and satellite products. Instantaneous, OP5resolution estimates of surface rain rate over ocean fiom the improved TMI algorithm are well correlated with independent radar estimates (r approx. 0.88 over the Tropics), but bias reduction is the most significant improvement over forerunning algorithms. The bias reduction is attributed to the greater breadth of cloud-resolving model simulations that support the improved algorithm, and the more consistent and specific convective/stratiform rain separation method utilized. The bias of monthly, 2.5 deg. -resolution estimates is similarly reduced, with comparable correlations to radar estimates. Although the amount of independent latent heating data are limited, TMI estimated latent heating profiles compare favorably with instantaneous estimates based upon dual-Doppler radar observations, and time series of surface rain rate and heating profiles are generally consistent with those derived from rawinsonde analyses. Still, some biases in profile shape are evident, and these may be resolved with: (a) additional contextual information brought to the estimation problem, and/or; (b) physically-consistent and representative databases supporting the algorithm. A model of the random error in instantaneous, 0.5 deg-resolution rain rate estimates appears to be consistent with the levels of error determined from TMI comparisons to collocated radar

  7. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Carlisle, Candace

    2010-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GP!v1) mission is an international cooperative effort to advance the understanding of the physics of the Earth's water and energy cycle. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the weather/climate/ecological system, for improving our ability to manage freshwater resources, and for predicting high-impact natural hazard events including floods, droughts, extreme weather events, and landslides. The GPM Core Observatory will be a reference standard to uniformly calibrate data from a constellation of spacecraft with passive microwave sensors. GPM is being developed under a partnership between the United States (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA). NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD is developing the Core Observatory, two GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) instruments, Ground Validation System and Precipitation Processing System for the GPM mission. JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) for installation on the Core satellite and launch services for the Core Observatory. The second GMI instrument will be flown on a partner-provided spacecraft. Other US agencies and international partners contribute to the GPM mission by providing precipitation measurements obtained from their own spacecraft and/or providing ground-based precipitation measurements to support ground validation activities. The Precipitation Processing System will provide standard data products for the mission.

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager Polarimetric (GMI-P); 10 - 183 GHz with Polarimetric channels including digital and analog back-ends: Ardeshir Art Azarbarzin, Sergey Krimchansky Jeff Piepmeir NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarbarzin, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager Polarimetric (GMI-P) will be an instrument covering 10, 18, 23, 36, 89, 166 and 183 GHz with polarimetric channels on 10, 18 and 36 GHz channels. The GMI-P (or VWPIR) will have 13 analog channels and 12 digital channels. This instrument builds upon the success of GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) flying on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) launched in Feb 2014. And with GMI-P for the first time we can compare performance of digital and analog channels for 10, 18 and 36 channels. The GMI-P is recently renamed "Vector Wind Precipitation Imaging Radiometer (VWPIR). The instrument is a passive microwave with 1.2 m diameter reflector with 4-point hot/cold calibration capability in orbit. GMI-P (VWPIR) will provides measurements of precipitation intensity and distribution in addition to wind vector and speed. The Receivers, and multiple feedhorn tray rotate with the reflector at 32 RPM. The GMI-P will have capabilities as good as Windsat with added cyclone intensity and snow/ice measurement capability. This instrument will have a 2-Look capability (front and back) as well which will reduce uncertainty of reducing calibration accuracy further.

  9. Advances in Assimilation of Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Observations for Soil-Moisture Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Pauwels, Valentijn; Reichle, Rolf H.; Draper, Clara; Koster, Randy; Liu, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based microwave measurements have long shown potential to provide global information about soil moisture. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, [1]) mission as well as the future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP, [2]) mission measure passive microwave emission at L-band frequencies, at a relatively coarse (40 km) spatial resolution. In addition, SMAP will measure active microwave signals at a higher spatial resolution (3 km). These new L-band missions have a greater sensing depth (of -5cm) compared with past and present C- and X-band microwave sensors. ESA currently also disseminates retrievals of SMOS surface soil moisture that are derived from SMOS brightness temperature observations and ancillary data. In this research, we address two major challenges with the assimilation of recent/future satellite-based microwave measurements: (i) assimilation of soil moisture retrievals versus brightness temperatures for surface and root-zone soil moisture estimation and (ii) scale-mismatches between satellite observations, models and in situ validation data.

  10. Calibration of the advanced microwave sounding unit-A for NOAA-K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Tsan

    1995-01-01

    The thermal-vacuum chamber calibration data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) for NOAA-K, which will be launched in 1996, were analyzed to evaluate the instrument performance, including calibration accuracy, nonlinearity, and temperature sensitivity. The AMSU-A on NOAA-K consists of AMSU-A2 Protoflight Model and AMSU-A1 Flight Model 1. The results show that both models meet the instrument specifications, except the AMSU-A1 antenna beamwidths, which exceed the requirement of 3.3 +/- 10%. We also studied the instrument's radiometric characterizations which will be incorporated into the operational calibration algorithm for processing the in-orbit AMSU-A data from space. Particularly, the nonlinearity parameters which will be used for correcting the nonlinear contributions from an imperfect square-law detector were determined from this data analysis. It was found that the calibration accuracies (differences between the measured scene radiances and those calculated from a linear two-point calibration formula) are polarization-dependent. Channels with vertical polarizations show little cold biases at the lowest scene target temperature 84K, while those with horizontal polarizations all have appreciable cold biases, which can be up to 0.6K. It is unknown where these polarization-dependent cold biases originate, but it is suspected that some chamber contamination of hot radiances leaked into the cold scene target area. Further investigation in this matter is required. The existence and magnitude of nonlinearity in each channel were established and a quadratic formula for modeling these nonlinear contributions was developed. The model was characterized by a single parameter u, values of which were obtained for each channel via least-squares fit to the data. Using the best-fit u values, we performed a series of simulations of the quadratic corrections which would be expected from the space data after the launch of AMSU-A on NOAA-K. In these simulations

  11. Advanced Chemical Precipitation Softening. Training Module 2.217.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the operation and maintenance of a chemical precipitation softening system. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series. This module considers…

  12. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  13. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  14. Precipitable water and surface humidity over global oceans from special sensor microwave imager and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Global fields of precipitable water W from the special sensor microwave imager were compared with those from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. They agree over most ocean areas; both data sets capture the two annual cycles examined and the interannual anomalies during an ENSO episode. They show significant differences in the dry air masses over the eastern tropical-subtropical oceans, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, comparisons with radiosonde data indicate that overestimation by the ECMWF model accounts for a large part of the differences. As a check on the W differences, surface-level specific humidity Q derived from W, using a statistical relation, was compared with Q from the ECMWF model. The differences in Q were found to be consistent with the differences in W, indirectly validating the Q-W relation. In both W and Q, SSMI was able to discern clearly the equatorial extension of the tongues of dry air in the eastern tropical ocean, while both ECMWF and climatological fields have reduced spatial gradients and weaker intensity.

  15. Polarity-enhanced gas-sensing performance of Au-loaded ZnO nanospindles synthesized via precipitation and microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Lv, Tan; Zhao, Fang-Xian; Lian, Xiao-Xue; Zou, Yun-Ling; Wang, Qiong

    2016-05-01

    Loading noble metal and exploring suitable morphology to achieve excellent gas-sensing performance is very crucial for the fabrication of gas sensors. We have successfully synthesized Au-loaded ZnO (Au/ZnO) nanospindles (NSs) through a really facile procedure involving a precipitation and subsequent microwave irradiation. The as-prepared products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM). The formation and gas-sensing mechanism of Au/ZnO NSs were discussed. The SEM micrographs revealed an interesting morphological evolution of the Au/ZnO NSs with Au-loading content ranging from 0 at. % to 7 at. %. The nanostructures were employed for gas-sensing measurement toward various gases. It indicated that the Au/ZnO NSs based sensor showed a highly enhanced response (226.81) to 400 ppm acetone gas at a relatively low working temperature (270°C), and exhibited a fast response (1 s) and recovery speed (10 s). The highly enhanced acetone gas sensitivity of Au/ZnO NSs based sensor could be attributed to its enhanced polarity owing to the peculiar morphology, Schottcky barriers, as well as catalytic effect of Au NPs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Arctic sea ice concentrations from special sensor microwave imager and advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Fowler, C.; Maslanik, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly coincident data from the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to compute and compare Arctic sea ice concentrations for different regions and times of the year. To help determine overall accuracies and to highlight sources of differences between passive microwave, optical wavelength, and thermal wavelength data, ice concentrations are estimated using two operational SSM/I ice concentration algorithms and with visible- and thermal-infrared wavelength AVHRR data. All algorithms capture the seasonal patterns of ice growth and melt. The ranges of differences fall within the general levels of uncertainty expected for each method and are similar to previous accuracy estimates. The estimated ice concentrations are all highly correlated, with uniform biases, although differences between individual pairs of observations can be large. On average, the NASA Team algorithm yielded 5% higher ice concentrations than the Bootstrap algorithm, while during nonmelt periods the two SSM/I algorithms agree to within 0.5%. These seasonal differences are consistent with the ways that the 19-GHz and 37-GHz microwave channels are used in the algorithms. When compared to the AVHRR-derived ice concentrations, the Team-algorithm results are more similar on average in terms of correlation and mean differences. However, the Team algorithm underestimates concentrations relative to the AVHRR output by 6% during cold months and overestimates by 3% during summer. Little seasonal difference exists between the Bootstrap and AVHRR results, with a mean difference of about 5%. Although the mean differences are less between the SSM/I-derived concentrations and concentrations estimated using AVHRR channel 1, the correlations appear substantially better between the SSM/I data and concentrations derived from AVHRR channel 4, particularly for the Team algorithm output.

  17. Foundations for statistical-physical precipitation retrieval from passive microwave satellite measurements. II - Emission-source and generalized weighting-function properties of a time-dependent cloud-radiation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugnai, Alberto; Smith, Eric A.; Tripoli, Gregory J.

    1993-01-01

    The foremost physical aspects of microphysical-radiative interactions that control the formation and modulation of frequency-dependent passive microwave TB over a continental cold-rain precipitation system are explained within the framework of the essential ingredients of a physically based precipitation-retrieval algorithm. The analysis is based on a modeling study in which a 3D cloud model has provided the objective basis for generating an extensive set of microphysical profiles that describe numerous precipitation features in the course of the evolution of a continental hail storm. A summary of the various components of the algorithm, as well as the surface rain rates, is given. The algorithm employs the cloud model to provide a consistent and objectively generated source of detailed microphysical information as the underpinnings to an inversion-based perturbative retrieval scheme.

  18. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) METOP Stress Analysis Report (Qual Level Random Vibration) A1 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehitretter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module performed using the Meteorological Operational (METOP) Qualification Level 9.66 grms Random Vibration PSD Spectrum is presented. The random vibration structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions are summarized.

  20. Technology advances in active and passive microwave sensing through 1985. [microwave technology for the Seasat-A and Nimbus-G satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The capabilities of passive and active microwave sensors are discussed. The Nimbus-G and Seasat-A scanning multichannel microwave spectrometer, the Seasat-A radar altimeter, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar represent the first systematic attempt at exploring a wide variety of applications utilizing microwave sensing techniques and are indicators of the directions in which the pertinent technology is likely to evolve. The trend is toward high resolution multi-frequency imagers spanning wide frequency ranges and wide swaths requiring sophisticated receivers, real-time data processors and most importantly, complex antennas.

  1. NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States

  2. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  3. Using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System to study the climatology of hurricane precipitation structure from 10 years of passive microwave satellite observations in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Haddad, Ziad; Knosp, Brian; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Li, P. Peggy; Poulsen, William; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Shen, Tsae-Pyng; Turk, Francis J.; Vu, Quoc

    2013-04-01

    In spite of recent improvements in hurricane track forecast accuracy, currently there are still many unanswered questions about the physical processes that determine hurricane genesis, and evolution. Furthermore, a significant amount of work remains to be done in validating and improving hurricane forecast models. None of this can be accomplished without a comprehensive set of multi-parameter observations that are relevant to both the large-scale and the storm-scale processes in the atmosphere and in the ocean. Despite the significant amount of satellite observations today, they are still underutilized in hurricane research and operations, due to complexity and volume. To facilitate hurricane research, we developed the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) of multi-instrument satellite observations pertaining to: i) the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; ii) the air-sea interaction processes; iii) the larger-scale environment as depicted by the SST and the Total Precipitable Water of the environment (Hristova-Veleva et al., 2008, 2011). Our goal was to create a one-stop place to provide the researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane data, and their graphical representation, organized in an easy way to determine when coincident observations from multiple instruments are available. In this study we use the 10+ years of passive microwave observations of Atlantic hurricanes to create composite structures that are segregated by hurricane category and by intensification rate. The use of composite structures provides a statistically robust framework (e.g. Rogers et al., 2012). We analyze the storm asymmetry as depicted by several factors - brightness temperatures and their derivatives such as a newly-develop Rain Indicator and a new convective/stratiform separation that is based on the value and the spatial variability of this Rain Indicator. The goal is to determine whether the storm morphology (in particular, the storm

  4. Recent Advances in the Design of Electro-Optic Sensors for Minimally Destructive Microwave Field Probing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Kang, No-Weon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kim, Junyeon; Whitaker, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review recent design methodologies for fully dielectric electro-optic sensors that have applications in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of devices and materials that radiate, guide, or otherwise may be impacted by microwave fields. In many practical NDE situations, fiber-coupled-sensor configurations are preferred due to their advantages over free-space bulk sensors in terms of optical alignment, spatial resolution, and especially, a low degree of field invasiveness. We propose and review five distinct types of fiber-coupled electro-optic sensor probes. The design guidelines for each probe type and their performances in absolute electric-field measurements are compared and summarized. PMID:22346604

  5. Fresnel-region fields and antenna noise-temperature calculations for advanced microwave sounding units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A transition from the antenna noise temperature formulation for extended noise sources in the far-field or Fraunhofer-region of an antenna to one of the intermediate near field or Fresnel-region is discussed. The effort is directed toward microwave antenna simulations and high-speed digital computer analysis of radiometric sounding units used to obtain water vapor and temperature profiles of the atmosphere. Fresnel-region fields are compared at various distances from the aperture. The antenna noise temperature contribution of an annular noise source is computed in the Fresnel-region (D squared/16 lambda) for a 13.2 cm diameter offset-paraboloid aperture at 60 GHz. The time-average Poynting vector is used to effect the computation.

  6. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  7. Accurate Characterization of Winter Precipitation Using In-Situ Instrumentation, CSU-CHILL Radar, and Advanced Scattering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. J.; Notaros, B. M.; Bringi, V. N.; Kleinkort, C.; Huang, G. J.; Kennedy, P.; Thurai, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel approach to remote sensing and characterization of winter precipitation and modeling of radar observables through a synergistic use of advanced in-situ instrumentation for microphysical and geometrical measurements of ice and snow particles, image processing methodology to reconstruct complex particle three-dimensional (3D) shapes, computational electromagnetics to analyze realistic precipitation scattering, and state-of-the-art polarimetric radar. Our in-situ measurement site at the Easton Valley View Airport, La Salle, Colorado, shown in the figure, consists of two advanced optical imaging disdrometers within a 2/3-scaled double fence intercomparison reference wind shield, and also includes PLUVIO snow measuring gauge, VAISALA weather station, and collocated NCAR GPS advanced upper-air system sounding system. Our primary radar is the CSU-CHILL radar, with a dual-offset Gregorian antenna featuring very high polarization purity and excellent side-lobe performance in any plane, and the in-situ instrumentation site being very conveniently located at a range of 12.92 km from the radar. A multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) is used to capture multiple different high-resolution views of an ice particle in free-fall, along with its fall speed. We apply a visual hull geometrical method for reconstruction of 3D shapes of particles based on the images collected by the MASC, and convert these shapes into models for computational electromagnetic scattering analysis, using a higher order method of moments. A two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), collocated with the MASC, provides 2D contours of a hydrometeor, along with the fall speed and other important parameters. We use the fall speed from the MASC and the 2DVD, along with state parameters measured at the Easton site, to estimate the particle mass (Böhm's method), and then the dielectric constant of particles, based on a Maxwell-Garnet formula. By calculation of the "particle-by-particle" scattering

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Science Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Stocker, Erich F.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors provided by a consortium of international partners. NASA and JAXA will deploy a Core Observatory in 2014 to serve as a reference satellite for precipitation measurements by the constellation sensors. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR, the first dual-frequency radar in space, will provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will serve as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. In addition to the Core Observatory, the GPM constellation consists of (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1 satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder (SAPHIR) on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite, (4) the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), (5) MHS instruments on MetOp satellites launched by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), (6) the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on the National Polar

  9. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance global precipitation measurements from a constellation of dedicated and operational microwave sensors. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a non-Sun-synchronous orbit at 65 degrees inclination carrying a dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and a multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer (GMI) with high-frequency capabilities to serve as a precipitation physics observatory and calibration standard for the constellation radiometers. The baseline GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise conical-scanning microwave imagers (e.g., GMI, SSMIS, AMSR, MIS, MADRAS, GPM-Brazil) augmented with cross-track microwave temperature/humidity sounders (e.g., MHS, ATMS) over land. In addition to the Core Satellite, the GPM Mission will contribute a second GMI to be flown in a low-inclination (approximately 40 deg.) non-Sun-synchronous orbit to improve near real-time monitoring of hurricanes. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals aimed at (1) advancing the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle variability and freshwater availability and (2) improving weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional partners in satellite constellation and ground validation activities. Within the framework of the inter-governmental Group ob Earth Observations (GEO) and Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), GPM has been identified as a cornerstone for the Precipitation Constellation (PC) being developed under the auspices of Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in 2013, followed by the launch of the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory in

  10. Successes with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George; Stocker, Erich; Petersen, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential to our planet Earth. Knowing when, where and how precipitation falls is crucial for understanding the linkages between the Earth's water and energy cycles and is extraordinarily important for sustaining life on our planet during climate change. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory spacecraft launched February 27, 2014, is the anchor to the GPM international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. GPM is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Status and successes in terms of spacecraft, instruments, retrieval products, validation, and impacts for science and society will be presented. Precipitation, microwave, satellite

  11. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar/Radiometer Measurements Within the GPM Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM mission centers upon the deployment of a Core Observatory in a 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for intersatellite calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles needed for improving precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1

  12. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  13. Percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation as maintenance after first-line treatment for patients with advanced NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiang; Han, Jun-Qing; Ye, Xin; Wei, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic therapy is recommended for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, conventional first-line treatment has generated a plateau in response rate of 25% to 35%. Few studies have shown patients benefit from microwave ablation (MWA) in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This study aims to evaluate safety and efficacy of percutaneous computed tomography-guided MWA as maintenance after first-line treatment for patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods Patients with histologically verified NSCLC stage IIIB or IV between January 2010 and March 2014 were involved. After completion of first-line treatment with partial response or stable disease, 35 patients with 39 tumors underwent 39 MWA procedures. Complications, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and correlated predictors were analyzed. Results During a median follow-up of 17.7 months and 10.8 months after initial MWA, local efficacy was 87.2%, median MWA-related local control time was 10.6 months, and tumor size was the only predictor (P=0.002). Median MWA-related PFS, MWA-related OS, PFS, and OS were 5.4, 10.6, 11.8 and 17.7 months, respectively. Local efficacy was significantly correlated with MWA-related PFS (P=0.003), MWA-related OS (P=0.000), and OS (P=0.001). There were no procedure-specific deaths. Total incidence of major complications was 12.8%, including pneumothorax resolved by closed pleural drainage and pneumonia controlled by antibiotics in a short time. Conclusion This study concluded two points, including: 1) patients benefited from MWA as maintenance both in local control and survival; 2) as maintenance MWA was superior to conventional maintenance therapy with improved survival and well-tolerated complications. Therefore, MWA was a safe and effective maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:26604789

  14. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Neeck, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. Building upon the success of the U.S.-Japan Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) will deploy in 2013 a GPM "Core" satellite carrying a KulKa-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) to establish a new reference standard for precipitation measurements from space. The combined active/passive sensor measurements will also be used to provide common database for precipitation retrievals from constellation sensors. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- 2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-Wl satellite of JAXA, (3) the Multi-Frequency Microwave Scanning Radiometer (MADRAS) and the multi-channel microwave humidity sounder (SAPHIR) on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite, (4) the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-19, (5) MHS instruments on MetOp satellites launched by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological

  15. Application of Gis Technology for the Precipitation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyras, I.; Serafin-Rek, D.

    2003-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the most variable meteorological parameters in time and space. The standard surface measurement network provides a very localised information about the precipitation. The satellite, radar observations and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models provide the continuous information on the state of the atmosphere, however, with the much lower resolution. Combining these data into one system allows analysing the data from different sources in order to estimate the precipitation intensity and range. The paper presents the works undertaken for the Central Europe region for the stratiform and convective precipitation. The analysis results are prepared in the form of maps of precipitation intensity and range. The satellite data available from an Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board of NOAA-15, 16 and 17 satellites enhanced the possibilities of the new meteorological precipitation related products derivation. The products such as Rain Rate (RR), Scattering Index (SI), Total Precipitation Water (TPW), Precipitation Probability (PP) and Liquid Water Path (LWP) were prepared basing on the regression algorithms. The data from spring and summer seasons in 2001 and 2002 were used. The temperature and precipitation thematic layers are created from the NWP model grid data. Also SYNOP and TEMP data are converted into thematic coverages. The progress in GIS technology application for NOAA/AMSU microwave derived products preparation and visualization in the Satellite Research Department in Poland was accomplished. The developed system allows displaying the rain field forecasted by the NWP model Aladin and the precipitation observed with the satellite data and other ancillary information. The maps of precipitation with additional geographical data and administrative boundaries are available for the weather forecasting units via Intranet. It is planned to make images available on the web for external customers. Radar and lightning data as well as

  16. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  17. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT Phase Locked Oscillator Assembly, P/N 1348360-1, S/N's F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (Meteorological Satellites) Phase Locked Oscillator Assembly, P/N 1348360-1, S/N F09 and F10, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  18. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). As-Designed Parts List: Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts List for the AMSU-A Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the As-Designed Parts List, Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Built Parts Lists For The AMSU-A Instruments, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  1. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products.

  2. New Approaches For Validating Satellite Global Precipitation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific successes of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional recent satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects, particularly those based on use of passive microwave radiometer measurements, have paved the way for a more advanced mission currently under development as the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This new mission is motivated by a number of scientific questions that TRMM research has posed over a range of space-time scales and within a variety of scientific disciplines that are becoming more integrated into earth system science modeling.

  3. Pre-Launch Characterization of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Satellite (JPSS-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Leslie, Vince; Lyu, Joseph; Smith, Craig; McCormick, Lisa; Anderson, Kent

    2016-04-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is the newest generation of microwave sounder in the international fleet of polar-orbiting weather satellites, replacing the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) which first entered service in 1998. The first ATMS was launched aboard the Suomi NPP (S-NPP) satellite in late 2011. The second ATMS is manifested on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Satellite (JPSS-1). ATMS provides 22 channels of temperature and humidity sounding observations over a frequency range from 23 to 183 GHz. These microwave soundings provide the highest impact data ingested by operational Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, and are the most critical of the polar-orbiting satellite observations, particularly because microwave sensing can penetrate clouds. This paper will present performance characterizations from pre-launch calibration measurements of the JPSS-1 ATMS just completed in December, 2015. The measurements were conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber with blackbody targets simulating cold space, ambient, and a variable Earth scene. They represent the best opportunity for calibration characterization of the instrument since the environment can be carefully controlled. We will present characterizations of the sensitivity (NEDT), accuracy, nonlinearity, noise spectral characteristics, gain stability, repeatability, and inter-channel correlation. An estimate of expected "striping" will be presented, and a discussion of reflector emissivity effects will also be provided. Comparisons will be made with the S-NPP flight unit. Finally, we will describe planned on-orbit characterizations - such as pitch and roll maneuvers - that will further improve both the measurement quality and the understanding of various error contributions.

  4. Measurement of size-dependent composition variations for gamma prime (γ') precipitates in an advanced nickel-based superalloy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Q; Slater, T J A; Lewis, E A; Francis, E M; Burke, M G; Preuss, M; Haigh, S J

    2014-09-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been used to demonstrate the presence of size-dependent compositional variation for L12-structured Ni3Al-type gamma-prime (γ') precipitates within a commercial RR1000 Ni-based superalloy. This semi-quantitative elemental analysis has been achieved using electrochemical extraction of the γ' precipitates from the γ matrix. The applicability of this approach to size-dependent compositional analysis of precipitates was confirmed by a comparison of the size distribution for the extracted precipitates with those present in traditional electropolished foil specimens in the size range 20-250nm. By applying suitable thickness-dependent absorption-corrections we have demonstrated that the composition of γ' precipitates in our material depends on the size of the precipitate in the range of 5nm to 3μm. In particular, the Al content was observed to increase in smaller γ' precipitates while Ti and Ta contents are constant for all sizes of precipitate. Hf was observed to be present only in the largest precipitates. This type of local compositional information provides invaluable input to assess the accuracy of microstructural modelling for these complex alloys and provides new evidence supporting the importance of anti-site diffusion. PMID:24814008

  5. Measurement of size-dependent composition variations for gamma prime (γ') precipitates in an advanced nickel-based superalloy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y Q; Slater, T J A; Lewis, E A; Francis, E M; Burke, M G; Preuss, M; Haigh, S J

    2014-09-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been used to demonstrate the presence of size-dependent compositional variation for L12-structured Ni3Al-type gamma-prime (γ') precipitates within a commercial RR1000 Ni-based superalloy. This semi-quantitative elemental analysis has been achieved using electrochemical extraction of the γ' precipitates from the γ matrix. The applicability of this approach to size-dependent compositional analysis of precipitates was confirmed by a comparison of the size distribution for the extracted precipitates with those present in traditional electropolished foil specimens in the size range 20-250nm. By applying suitable thickness-dependent absorption-corrections we have demonstrated that the composition of γ' precipitates in our material depends on the size of the precipitate in the range of 5nm to 3μm. In particular, the Al content was observed to increase in smaller γ' precipitates while Ti and Ta contents are constant for all sizes of precipitate. Hf was observed to be present only in the largest precipitates. This type of local compositional information provides invaluable input to assess the accuracy of microstructural modelling for these complex alloys and provides new evidence supporting the importance of anti-site diffusion.

  6. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hash, G. L.; Schwank, J. R.; Shaneyfelt, M. R.; Sandoval, C. E.; Connors, M. P.; Sheridan, T. J.; Sexton, F. W.; Slayton, E. M.; Heise, J. A.; Foster, C.

    1994-01-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10(exp 10) to 2 x 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 x 10(exp -5) errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10(exp -5) errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-(mu)m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm (equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)).

  7. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A.; Foster, C.

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Science Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, an international satellite mission to unify and advance space-based precipitation measurements around the globe, is a science mission with integrated application goals. The mission is designed to (1) advance the knowledge of the global water cycle and freshwater availability, and (2) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation. The cornerstone of GPM is the deployment of a Core Spacecraft in a unique 65 deg-inclined orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve the accuracy of precipitation measurements by a heterogeneous constellation of dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. The Core Spacecraft will carry a dual-frequency (Ku-Ka band) radar and a multi-channel microwave radiometer with high-frequency capabilities to provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improved retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The GPM constellation is envisioned to comprise 5 or more conical-scanning microwave radiometers provided by partners, augmented by cross-track microwave sounders on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), POES, NPOESS, and MetOp satellites for improved sampling over land. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional international partners in constellation satellites and ground validation. An overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States will be presented.

  9. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  10. Use of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) for estimation of precipitation features in a semi-arid, mountain region: A case study of southwest Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Mashat, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The linear regression method was used to determine the degree of correlation between soil caused by rainfall and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures or combinations of two brightness temperatures. This study is concerned with the application of passive microwaves to soil moisture classifications in a semi-arid, mountain region. The southwest region of Saudi Arabia was chosen for this study. Two case studies were performed to investigate the response of SSM/I brightness temperatures to soil moisture. The first case study is at satellite ascending overpass time (about 6:00 a.m. local solar time), and the second case study is at satellite descending overpass time (about 6:00 p.m. local solar time). It is shown that brightness temperatures normalized with respect to ground temperature may be interpreted in terms of the soil moisture in the surface layer of the soil. Normalized brightness temperatures are not sensitive to soil moisture when precipitating clouds are present. The existence of precipitating clouds over the study area was determined through an examination of brightness temperatures at 8.5. GHz. It was found that the normalized brightness temperatures with respect to ground temperature responded to the change of the soil moisture caused by rainfall. The normalized brightness temperature in channel H19 with respect to ground temperature (H19/T) was the best single SSM/I channel to use for a surface soil moisture investigation at satellite descending overpass time, and the normalized brightness temperature in channel H37 with respect to ground temperature (H37/T) was the best single SSM/I channel to use for a surface soil moisture investigation at satellite ascending overpass time.

  11. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) worst-case analysis: Antenna beam pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a worst-case analysis of the EOS/AMSU-A (Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) Antenna beam-pointing accuracy. There are three sources of beam pointing error. These are mechanical tolerances in the manufacture and assembly of the parts, allowable axial displacement of the reflector relative to the motor shaft, and on-orbit thermal distortions. For the worst-case analysis, each will be assumed to act independently and thus each contribution is additive.

  12. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  13. Application of advanced data assimilation techniques to the study of cloud and precipitation feedbacks in the tropical climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, Derek J.

    The research documented in this study centers around two topics: evaluation of the response of precipitating cloud systems to changes in the tropical climate system, and assimilation of cloud and precipitation information from remote-sensing platforms. The motivation for this work proceeds from the following outstanding problems: (1) Use of models to study the response of clouds to perturbations in the climate system is hampered by uncertainties in cloud microphysical parameterizations. (2) Though there is an ever-growing set of available observations, cloud and precipitation assimilation remains a difficult problem, particularly in the tropics. (3) Though it is widely acknowledged that cloud and precipitation processes play a key role in regulating the Earth's response to surface warming, the response of the tropical hydrologic cycle to climate perturbations remains largely unknown. The above issues are addressed in the following manner. First, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to quantify the sensitivity of the NASA Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model (CRM) to changes in its cloud odcrnpbymiC8l parameters. TRMM retrievals of precipitation rate, cloud properties, and radiative fluxes and heating rates over the South China Sea are then assimilated into the GCE model to constrain cloud microphysical parameters to values characteristic of convection in the tropics, and the resulting observation-constrained model is used to assess the response of the tropical hydrologic cycle to surface warming. The major findings of this study are the following: (1) MCMC provides an effective tool with which to evaluate both model parameterizations and the assumption of Gaussian statistics used in optimal estimation procedures. (2) Statistics of the tropical radiation budget and hydrologic cycle can be used to effectively constrain CRM cloud microphysical parameters. (3) For 2D CRM simulations run with and without shear, the precipitation efficiency of

  14. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and U.S. Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy the GPM Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar-radiometer system to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for inter-calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in July 2013. NASA will provide a second radiometer to be flown on a partner-provided GPM Low-Inclination Observatory to enhance the near real-time monitoring of hurricanes and mid-latitude storms. JAXA will also contribute data from the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) satellite. Additional partnerships are under development to include microwave radiometers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as cross-track scanning humidity sounders on operational satellites such as the NPP, POES, JPSS, and MetOp satellites, which are used to improve the precipitation sampling over land. Brazil has in its national space plan for a GPM low-inclination radiometer, and data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers could potentially become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The current generation of global rainfall products combines observations from a network of uncoordinated satellite missions using a variety of merging techniques. GPM will provide "next-generation" precipitation data products characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurement (especially for light rain and cold-season solid precipitation), (2) more frequent sampling by an expanded constellation of microwave radiometers including operational humidity sounders over land, (3) intercalibrated microwave

  15. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: U.S. Program and Science Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Arthur; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Kakar, Ramesh; Neeck, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. NASA and JAXA will deploy the GPM Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar-radiometer system to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for inter-calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled for launch in July 2013. In addition, NASA will provide a second radiometer to be flown on a partner-provided GPM Low-Inclination Observatory to enhance the near real-time monitoring of hurricanes and mid-latitude storms. JAXA will also contribute data from the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) satellite. Additional partnerships are under development to include conical-scanning microwave imagers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as cross-track scanning humidity sounders on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), POES, NPOESS, and European MetOp satellites, which are used to improve the precipitation sampling over land. Currently, Brazil has in its national space plan for a GPM low-inclination radiometer, and data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers could potentially become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The current generation of global rainfall products combines observations from a network of uncoordinated satellite missions using a variety of merging techniques. GPM will provide "next-generation" precipitation data products characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurement (especially for light rain and cold-season solid precipitation), (2) more

  16. ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite-Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL (S-band Polarimetric Radar) and TOGA (Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere) ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

  17. Advanced Component Development to Enable Low-Mass, Low-Power High-Frequency Microwave Radiometers for Coastal Wet-Tropospheric Correction on SWOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reising, S. C.; Brown, S.; Kangaslahti, P.; Hoppe, D.; Dawson, D.; Lee, A.; Albers, D.; Montes, O.; Gaier, T.; Khayatian, B.

    2010-12-01

    Critical microwave component and receiver technologies are under development to reduce the risk, cost, volume, mass, and development time for a high-frequency microwave radiometer needed to enable wet-tropospheric correction in the coastal zone and over land as part of the NRC Decadal Survey-recommended Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission. Current satellite ocean altimeters include a nadir-viewing, co-located 18-37 GHz multi-channel microwave radiometer to measure wet-tropospheric path delay. However, due to the area of the instantaneous fields of view on the surface at these frequencies, the accuracy of wet path retrievals begins to degrade at approximately 50 km from the coasts. Addition of higher-frequency microwave channels to the Jason-class radiometers on the recommended SWOT mission will improve retrievals in coastal regions and enable retrievals over land. Specifically, high-frequency window channels at 92, 130 and 166 GHz are optimum for wet path delay retrievals in coastal regions. New, high-sensitivity, wide-bandwidth mm-wave radiometers using both window and sounding channels show good potential for over-land wet-path delay retrievals. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of a prototype system consisting of: (1) a low-power, low-mass and small-volume direct-detection millimeter-wave radiometer with integrated calibration sources covering frequencies from 90 to 170 GHz that fits within the overall SWOT mission constraints, and (2) a multi-frequency feed horn covering the same frequency range. Three key component technologies are under development to scale the design of the Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR) on the OSTM/Jason-2 altimetry mission from 18-34 GHz to 90-170 GHz, i.e. a PIN-diode switch for calibration that can be integrated into the receiver front end, a high-Excess Noise Ratio (ENR) noise source and a single, tri-frequency feed horn. These new components are currently in the process of fabrication and testing, after

  18. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The specification establishes the requirements for the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the Advanced Microwave Sounding, Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2), referred to herein as the unit. The unit is defined on Drawing 1331200. 1.2 Test procedure sequence. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown in Figure 1, but the sequence can be in any order.

  19. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission contributions to terrestrial hydrology and societal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Huffman, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Too much or too little rain can serve as a tipping point for triggering catastrophic flooding and landslides or widespread drought. Knowing when, where and how much rain is falling globally is vital to understanding how vulnerable areas may be more or less impacted by these disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international constellation of satellites coordinated through a partnership with NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to provide next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM mission centers on the deployment of a Core Observatory satellite that serves as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. This satellite launched from Tanegashima Space Complex in Japan on January 28th, 2014 and carries advanced instruments setting a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The GPM Core Observatory satellite measures rain and snow using two science instruments: the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The GMI captures precipitation intensities and horizontal patterns, while the DPR provides insights into the three dimensional structure of precipitating particles. Together these two instruments provide a database of measurements against which other partner satellites' microwave observations can be meaningfully compared and combined to make a global precipitation dataset. GPM has already provided unprecedented views of typhoons, extratropical systems, light rain, snow storms and extreme precipitation. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission provides new insights into measuring the fluxes of Earth's water cycle. This presentation will outline new findings and advancements of GPM in understanding and modeling of Earth's water and energy cycles, improving forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extending current

  20. An Experimental Study of the Rainfall Variability Within TRMM/GPM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Sensor Instantaneous Field of View During MC3E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matt; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    Dual tipping bucket gauges were operated at 16 sites in support of ground based precipitation measurements during Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The experiment is conducted in North Central Oklahoma from April 22 through June 6, 2011. The gauge sites were distributed around Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research facility where the minimum and maximum separation distances ranged from 1 to 12 km. This study investigates the rainfall variability by employing the stretched exponential function. It will focus on the quantitative assessment of the partial beam of the experiment area in both convective and stratiform rain. The parameters of the exponential function will also be determined for various events. This study is unique for two reasons. First is the existing gauge setup and the second is the highly convective nature of the events with rain rates well above 100 mm/h for 20 minutes. We will compare the findings with previous studies.

  1. An Experimental Study of the Rainfall Variability Within TRMM/GPM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Sensor Instantaneous Field of View During MC3E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Petersen, Arthur; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matt; Wolff, David B.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    Dual tipping bucket gauges were operated at 16 sites in support of ground based precipitation measurements during Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The experiment is conducted in North Central Oklahoma from April 22 through June 6, 2011. The gauge sites were distributed around Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research facility where the minimum and maximum separation distances ranged from 1 to 12 km. This study investigates the rainfall variability by employing the stretched exponential function. It will focus on the quantitative assessment of the partial beam of the experiment area in both convective and stratiform rain. The parameters of the exponential function will also be determined for various events. This study is unique for two reasons. First is the existing gauge setup and the second is the highly convective nature of the events with rain rates well above 100 mm h-1 for 20 minutes. We will compare the findings with previous studies.

  2. Current Development of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects, particularly those based on use of passive microwave radiometer measurements, have paved the way for a more advanced global precipitation mission. The new mission is motivated by a number of scientific questions that TRMM research has posed over a range of space-time scales and within a variety of scientific disciplines that are becoming more integrated into earth system science modeling. Added to this success is the realization that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool in understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond. This progress has motivated a comprehensive global measuring strategy -- leading to the "Global Precipitation Mission" (GPM). GPM is planning to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a satellite constellation. The intent is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction & prediction of fresh water resources, the global carbon budget, and biogeochemical cycles. This talk overviews the status and scientific agenda of this mission currently planned for launch in the 2007-2008 time frame. The GPM notional design involves a 10-member satellite constellation, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar (DFPR) and a TMI-like radiometer. The other nine members of the constellation will be considered daughters of the core satellite, each carrying some type of passive microwave radiometer measuring across the 10.7-85 GHz frequency range -- likely to include a combination of lightweight satellites and co-existing operational/experimental satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers (i.e., 2 DMSP/SSMISs, GCOM-B1/AMSR-J, & Megha Tropiques/MADRAS). The goal behind the constellation is to achieve no worse than

  3. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: U.S. Program and Science Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, A.; Azarbarzin, A.; Kakar, R.; Neeck, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors to provide next-generation precipitation data products for scientific research and societal applications. NASA and JAXA will deploy the GPM Core Observatory carrying an advanced radar-radiometer system to serve as a physics observatory and calibration reference for constellation radiometers. NASA will deploy the GPM Low-Inclination Observatory to enhance the near real-time monitoring of hurricanes and mid-latitude storms, and JAXA will contribute data from the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) satellite. Partnerships are under development to include additional conical-scanning microwave imagers on the French-Indian Megha-Tropiques satellite and U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, as well as cross-track scanning humidity sounders on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), POES, NPOESS, and European MetOp satellites, which are used to improve the precipitation sampling over land. In addition, Brazil has in its national space plan for a GPM low-inclination radiometer, and data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers could potentially become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is expected to (1) provide new measurement standards for precipitation estimation from space, (2) improve understanding of precipitation physics, the global water cycle variability, and freshwater availability, and (3) advance weather/climate/hydrological prediction capabilities to directly benefit the society. An overview of the GPM mission concept, program

  4. Precipitation Measurements From Space: Workshop report. An element of the climate observing system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D. (Editor); Thiele, O. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Global climate, agricultural uses for precipitation information, hydrological uses for precipitation, severe thunderstorms and local weather, global weather are addressed. Ground truth measurement, visible and infrared techniques, microwave radiometry and hybrid precipitation measurements, and spaceborne radar are discussed.

  5. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  6. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Reports: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N: 1356006-1, S.N: 202/A2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report. the process specification establishes the requirements for the comprehensive performance test (CPT) and limited performance test (LPT) of the earth observing system advanced microwave sounding unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A2), referred to as the unit. The unit is defined on drawing 1356006.

  7. Remote Sensing Observatory Validation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E, Common Land Model, and Ground Based Data: Case Study in SMEX03 Little River Region, Georgia, U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal soil moisture estimation may be characterized by inter-comparisons among remotely sensed measurements, ground-based measurements, and land surface models. In this study, we compared soil moisture from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E (AMSR-E), ground-based measurements, and Soil-Vege...

  8. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). As-Designed Parts List: Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) As-Designed Parts List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report comprises the Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) As Designed Parts List to be used in the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. The purpose of the EEE As-Designed Parts List is to provide a listing of EEE parts identified for use on the Integrated AMSU-A. All EEE parts used on the AMSU-A must meet the parts control requirements as defined in the Parts Control Plan (POP). All part applications are reviewed by the Parts Control Board (PCB) and granted approval if POP requirements are met. The "As Designed Parts Lists" indicates PCB approval status, and thus also serves as the Program Approved Parts List.

  9. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  10. Fine precipitation scenarios of AlZnMg(Cu) alloys revealed by advanced atomic-resolution electron microscopy study Part I: Structure determination of the precipitates in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Z.; Chen, J.H.; Yuan, D.W.; Wu, C.L.; Zhu, J.; Cheng, Z.Y.

    2015-01-15

    Although they are among the most important precipitation-hardened materials for industry applications, the high-strength AlZnMg(Cu) alloys have thus far not yet been understood adequately about their underlying precipitation scenarios in relation with the properties. This is partly due to the fact that the structures of a number of different precipitates involved in electron microscopy in association with quantitative image simulations have to be employed; a systematic study of these hardening precipitates in different alloys is also necessary. In Part I of the present study, it is shown that there are five types of structurally different precipitates including the equilibrium η-phase precipitate. Using two state-of-the-art atomic-resolution imaging techniques in electron microscopy in association with quantitative image simulations, we have determined and clarified all the unknown precipitate structures. It is demonstrated that atomic-resolution imaging can directly suggest approximate structure models, whereas quantitative image analysis can refine the structure details that are much smaller than the resolution of the microscope. This combination is crucially important for solving the difficult structure problems of the strengthening precipitates in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys. - Highlights: Part I: • We determine and verify all the key precipitate structures in AlMgZn(Cu) alloys. • We employ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • We use aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) for the investigations. • We obtain atomic-resolution images of the precipitates and model their structures. • We refine all precipitate structures with quantitative image simulation analysis. Part II: • The hardening precipitates in AlZnMg alloys shall be classified into two groups. • Two precipitation scenarios coexist in the alloys. • The precipitation behavior of such an alloy depends on the alloy's composition. • Very detailed phase

  11. A novel algorithm for detection of precipitation in tropical regions using PMW radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, D.; Panegrossi, G.; Sanò, P.; Milani, L.; Petracca, M.; Dietrich, S.

    2015-03-01

    A novel algorithm for the detection of precipitation is described and tested. The algorithm is applicable to any modern passive microwave radiometer on board polar orbiting satellites independent of the observation geometry and channel frequency assortment. The algorithm is based on the application of canonical correlation analysis and on the definition of a threshold to be applied to the resulting linear combination of the brightness temperatures in all available channels. The algorithm has been developed using a 2-year data set of co-located Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar (TRMM-PR) measurements and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) Microwave Humidity Sounder and TRMM-PR measurements. This data set was partitioned into four classes depending on the background surface emissivity (vegetated land, arid land, ocean, and coast) with the same procedure applied for each surface class. In this paper we describe the procedure and evaluate the results in comparison with many well-known algorithms for the detection of precipitation. The algorithm shows a small rate of false alarms and superior detection capability; it can efficiently detect (probability of detection between 0.55 and 0.71) minimum rain rate varying from 0.14 mm h-1 (AMSU over ocean) to 0.41 (SSMIS over coast) with the remarkable result of 0.25 mm h-1 over arid land surfaces.

  12. Integrated Hydrologic Validation to Improve Physical Precipitation Retrievals for GPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Harrison, K. W.; Tian, Y.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    One of the five scientific objectives for GPM is to "Improve hydrological modeling and prediction", including advancing prediction skill for high-impact hazards such as floods, droughts, landslides and landfalling hurricanes. Given the focus on land hydrology, and the range of hydrologic regimes targeted by GPM, it follows that a hydrologically-oriented ground validation program that covers these regimes from both the physical retrieval and the hydrological prediction perspectives is required for the successful application of GPM to land hydrology. In order to investigate the robustness of both hydrologic model predictions and physical precipitation retrievals, this talk will present recent evaluations of skill in land surface hydrologic models forced with TRMM-era multisensor products, with and without land data assimilation. In addition to LSM skill, we will also demonstrate how physical precipitation retrievals can be supported by land surface emissivity and temperature estimates obtained by coupling microwave emission models (e.g., the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation Community Radiative Transfer Model CRTM and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting's Community Microwave Emission Model CMEM) to the land surface models in the Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov). Evaluation at multiple frequencies, with and without land data assimilation, demonstrates the critical impact of certain real-time ancillary data (e.g., snow cover) on the microwave background states required for physical retrievals.

  13. Advances in imaging and quantification of electrical properties at the nanoscale using Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Stuart; Stanke, Fred; Yang, Yongliang; Amster, Oskar

    Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) is a mode for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) enabling imaging of unique contrast mechanisms and measurement of local permittivity and conductivity at the 10's of nm length scale. sMIM has been applied to a variety of systems including nanotubes, nanowires, 2D materials, photovoltaics and semiconductor devices. Early results were largely semi-quantitative. This talk will focus on techniques for extracting quantitative physical parameters such as permittivity, conductivity, doping concentrations and thin film properties from sMIM data. Particular attention will be paid to non-linear materials where sMIM has been used to acquire nano-scale capacitance-voltage curves. These curves can be used to identify the dopant type (n vs p) and doping level in doped semiconductors, both bulk samples and devices. Supported in part by DOE-SBIR DE-SC0009856.

  14. Advances in imaging and quantification of electrical properties at the nanoscale using Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Stuart; Yang, Yongliang; Amster, Oskar

    2015-03-01

    Scanning Microwave Impedance Microscopy (sMIM) is a mode for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) enabling imaging of unique contrast mechanisms and measurement of local permittivity and conductivity at the 10's of nm length scale. Recent results will be presented illustrating high-resolution electrical features such as sub 15 nm Moire' patterns in Graphene, carbon nanotubes of various electrical states and ferro-electrics. In addition to imaging, the technique is suited to a variety of metrology applications where specific physical properties are determined quantitatively. We will present research activities on quantitative measurements using multiple techniques to determine dielectric constant (permittivity) and conductivity (e.g. dopant concentration) for a range of materials. Examples include bulk dielectrics, low-k dielectric thin films, capacitance standards and doped semiconductors. Funded in part by DOE SBIR DE-SC0009586.

  15. Fine precipitation scenarios of AlZnMg(Cu) alloys revealed by advanced atomic-resolution electron microscopy study Part II: Fine precipitation scenarios in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Z.; Chen, J.H.; Liu, Z.R.; Wu, C.L.

    2015-01-15

    Although they are among the most important precipitation-hardened materials for industry applications, the high-strength AlZnMg(Cu) alloys have thus far not yet been understood adequately about their underlying precipitation scenarios in relation with the properties. This is partly due to the fact that the structures of a number of different precipitates involved in the alloys are unknown, and partly due to the complexity that the precipitation behaviors of the alloys may be closely related to the alloy's composition. In Part I of the present study, we have determined all the unknown precipitate structures in the alloys. Here in Part II, using atomic-resolution electron microscopy in association with the first principles energy calculations, we further studied and correlated the phase/structure transformation/evolution among these hardening precipitates in relation with the alloy's composition. It is shown that there are actually two coexisting classes of hardening precipitates in these alloys: the first class includes the η′-precipitates and their early-stage Guinier–Preston (GP-η′) zones; the second class includes the precursors of the equilibrium η-phase (referred to η{sub p}, or η-precursor) and their early-stage Guinier–Preston (GP-η{sub p}) zones. The two coexisting classes of precipitates correspond to two precipitation scenarios. - Highlights: • We determine and verify all the key precipitate structures in AlMgZn(Cu) alloys. • We employ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • We use aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) for the investigations. • We obtain atomic-resolution images of the precipitates and model their structures. • We refine all precipitate structures with quantitative image simulation analysis. • The hardening precipitates in AlZnMg alloys shall be classified into two groups. • Two precipitation scenarios coexist in the alloys. • The precipitation behavior of such an

  16. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Notifications to Industry (PDF ...

  17. Recent advances in near-surface moisture monitoring using commercial microwave links in Tel-Aviv University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; David, Noam; Messer, Hagit

    2015-04-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for two different semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert and in the northern Negev in Israel. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, atmospheric moisture. Special focus on fog monitoring potential will be highlighted. References: N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure- the future of fog monitoring?", BAMS, (in press, 2015). N. David, P. Alpert and H. Messer, "The potential of cellular network infrastructures for sudden rainfall monitoring in dry climate regions", Atmospheric Research, 131, 13-21, 2013.

  18. Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhenyu; Lours, Michel; Boudot, Rodolphe; Kersalé, Yann; Luiten, Andre N; Le Coq, Yann; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2011-05-01

    We report what we believe to be the lowest phase noise optical-to-microwave frequency division using fiber-based femtosecond optical frequency combs: a residual phase noise of -120 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset from an 11.55 GHz carrier frequency. Furthermore, we report a detailed investigation into the fundamental noise sources which affect the division process itself. Two frequency combs with quasi-identical configurations are referenced to a common ultrastable cavity laser source. To identify each of the limiting effects, we implement an ultra-low noise carrier-suppression measurement system, which avoids the detection and amplification noise of more conventional techniques. This technique suppresses these unwanted sources of noise to very low levels. In the Fourier frequency range of ∼200 Hz to 100 kHz, a feed-forward technique based on a voltage-controlled phase shifter delivers a further noise reduction of 10 dB. For lower Fourier frequencies, optical power stabilization is implemented to reduce the relative intensity noise which causes unwanted phase noise through power-to-phase conversion in the detector. We implement and compare two possible control schemes based on an acousto-optical modulator and comb pump current. We also present wideband measurements of the relative intensity noise of the fiber comb. PMID:21622045

  19. VOCs elimination and health risk reduction in e-waste dismantling workshop using integrated techniques of electrostatic precipitation with advanced oxidation technologies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Hu, Yunkun; Li, Yunlu

    2016-01-25

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the electronic waste dismantling process (EWDP) were treated at a pilot scale, using integrated electrostatic precipitation (EP)-advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs, subsequent photocatalysis (PC) and ozonation). Although no obvious alteration was seen in VOC concentration and composition, EP technology removed 47.2% of total suspended particles, greatly reducing the negative effect of particles on subsequent AOTs. After the AOT treatment, average removal efficiencies of 95.7%, 95.4%, 87.4%, and 97.5% were achieved for aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, respectively, over 60-day treatment period. Furthermore, high elimination capacities were also seen using hybrid technique of PC with ozonation; this was due to the PC unit's high loading rates and excellent pre-treatment abilities, and the ozonation unit's high elimination capacity. In addition, the non-cancer and cancer risks, as well as the occupational exposure cancer risk, for workers exposed to emitted VOCs in workshop were reduced dramatically after the integrated technique treatment. Results demonstrated that the integrated technique led to highly efficient and stable VOC removal from EWDP emissions at a pilot scale. This study points to an efficient approach for atmospheric purification and improving human health in e-waste recycling regions.

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331720-2TST, S/N 105/A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Final Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) Report, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). This specification establishes the requirements for the CPT and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the AMSU-1A, referred to here in as the unit. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown.

  1. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: AMSU-A1 Antenna Drive Subsystem, PN 1331720-2, S/N 106

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, AMSU-A1 Antenna Drive Subsystem, P/N 1331720-2, S/N 106, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The antenna drive subsystem of the METSAT AMSU-A1, S/N 106, P/N 1331720-2, completed acceptance testing per A-ES Test Procedure AE-26002/lD. The test included: Scan Motion and Jitter, Pulse Load Bus Peak Current and Rise Time, Resolver Reading and Position Error, Gain/ Phase Margin, and Operational Gain Margin. The drive motors and electronic circuitry were also tested at the component level. The drive motor test includes: Starting Torque Test, Motor Commutation Test, Resolver Operation/ No-Load Speed Test, and Random Vibration. The electronic circuitry was tested at the Circuit Card Assembly (CCA) level of production; each test exercised all circuit functions. The transistor assembly was tested during the W3 cable assembly (1356941-1) test.

  2. Tropical cyclone intensities from satellite microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Kidder, S. Q.

    1980-01-01

    Radial profiles of mean 1000 mb to 250 mb temperature from the Nimbus 6 scanning microwave spectrometer (SCAMS) were constructed around eight intensifying tropical storms in the western Pacific. Seven storms showed distinct inward temperature gradients required for intensification; the eighth displayed no inward gradient and was decaying 24 hours later. The possibility that satellite data might be used to forecast tropical cyclone turning motion was investigated using estimates obtained from Nimbus 6 SCAMS data tapes of the mean 1000 mb to 250 mb temperature field around eleven tropical storms in 1975. Analysis of these data show that for turning storms, in all but one case, the turn was signaled 24 hours in advance by a significant temperature gradient perpendicular to the storm's path, at a distance of 9 deg to 13 deg in front of the storm. A thresholding technique was applied to the North Central U.S. during the summer to estimate precipitation frequency. except

  3. PM-GCD - a combined IR-MW satellite technique for frequent retrieval of heavy precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; di Paola, F.; Formenton, M.; Mugnai, A.; Porcù, F.; Sanò, P.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation retrievals based on measurements from microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites can reach high level of accuracy - especially regarding convective precipitation. At the present stage though, these observations cannot provide satisfactory coverage of the evolution of intense and rapid precipitating systems. As a result, the obtained precipitation retrievals are often of limited use for many important applications - especially in supporting authorities for flood alerts and weather warnings. To tackle this problem, over the past two decades several techniques have been developed combining accurate MW estimates with frequent infrared (IR) observations from geosynchronous (GEO) satellites, such as the European Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In this framework, we have developed a new fast and simple precipitation retrieval technique which we call Passive Microwave - Global Convective Diagnostic, (PM-GCD). This method uses MW retrievals in conjunction with the Global Convective Diagnostic (GCD) technique which discriminates deep convective clouds based on the difference between the MSG water vapor (6.2 μm) and thermal-IR (10.8 μm) channels. Specifically, MSG observations and the GCD technique are used to identify deep convective areas. These areas are then calibrated using MW precipitation estimates based on observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiometers onboard operational NOAA and Eumetsat satellites, and then finally propagated in time with a simple tracking algorithm. In this paper, we describe the PM-GCD technique, analyzing its results for a case study that refers to a flood event that struck the island of Sicily in southern Italy on 1-2 October 2009.

  4. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  5. A Plan for Measuring Climatic Scale Global Precipitation Variability: The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The outstanding success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) stemmed from a near flawless launch and deployment, a highly successful measurement campaign, achievement of all original scientific objectives before the mission life had ended, and the accomplishment of a number of unanticipated but important additional scientific advances. This success and the realization that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool in the understanding of decadal climate variability has helped motivate a comprehensive global rainfall measuring mission, called 'The Global Precipitation Mission' (GPM). The intent of this mission is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction, the global carbon budget, and atmosphere-biosphere-cryosphere chemistry. This paper addresses the status of that mission currently planed for launch in the early 2007 time frame. The GPM design involves a nine-member satellite constellation, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like 'core' satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar (df-PR) and a TMI-like radiometer. The other eight members of the constellation can be considered drones to the core satellite, each carrying some type of passive microwave radiometer measuring across the 10.7-85 GHz frequency range, likely based on both real and synthetic aperture antenna technology and to include a combination of new lightweight dedicated GPM drones and both co-existing operational and experimental satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers (i.e., SSM/l, AMSR, etc.). The constellation is designed to provide a minimum of three-hour sampling at any spot on the globe using sun-synchronous orbit architecture, with the core satellite providing relevant measurements on internal cloud precipitation microphysical processes. The core satellite also enables 'training' and 'calibration' of the drone retrieval process. Additional

  6. Precipitation Estimates for Hydroelectricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Hou, Arthur Y.; de Castro, Manuel; Checa, Ramiro; Cuartero, Fernando; Barros, Ana P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroelectric plants require precise and timely estimates of rain, snow and other hydrometeors for operations. However, it is far from being a trivial task to measure and predict precipitation. This paper presents the linkages between precipitation science and hydroelectricity, and in doing so it provides insight into current research directions that are relevant for this renewable energy. Methods described include radars, disdrometers, satellites and numerical models. Two recent advances that have the potential of being highly beneficial for hydropower operations are featured: the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM) mission, which represents an important leap forward in precipitation observations from space, and high performance computing (HPC) and grid technology, that allows building ensembles of numerical weather and climate models.

  7. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  8. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  9. The development of advanced automatic flare and decrab for powered lift short haul aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevaert, G.; Feinreich, B.

    1977-01-01

    Advanced automatic flare and decrab control laws were developed for future powered lift STOL aircraft using the NASA-C-8A augmentor wing vehicle as the aircraft model. The longitudinal control laws utilize the throttle for flight path control and use the direct lift augmentor flap chokes for flight path augmentation. The elevator is used to control airspeed during the approach phase and to enhance path control during the flare. The forward slip maneuver was selected over the flat decrab technique for runway alignment because it can effectively handle the large crab angles obtained at STOL approach speeds. Performance evaluation of selected system configurations were obtained over the total landing environment. Limitations were defined and critical failure modes assessed. Pilot display concepts are discussed.

  10. Current Status of Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kida, Satoshi; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under collaboration with many international partners, who will provide constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM Core Observatory, which carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by JAXA and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by NASA. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled to be launched in early 2014. JAXA also provides the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) 1st - Water (GCOM-W1) named "SHIZUKU," as one of constellation satellites. The SHIZUKU satellite was launched in 18 May, 2012 from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center, and public data release of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on board the SHIZUKU satellite was planned that Level 1 products in January 2013, and Level 2 products including precipitation in May 2013. The Japanese GPM research project conducts scientific activities on algorithm development, ground validation, application research including production of research products. In addition, we promote collaboration studies in Japan and Asian countries, and public relations activities to extend potential users of satellite precipitation products. In pre-launch phase, most of our activities are focused on the algorithm development and the ground validation related to the algorithm development. As the GPM standard products, JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and the DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map product as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. All standard algorithms including Japan-US joint algorithm will be reviewed by the Japan-US Joint

  11. HAMP - the microwave package on the upcoming High Altitude and LOng range aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mech, M.; Crewell, S.; Peters, G.; Hirsch, L.

    2009-04-01

    New cloud observation techniques are needed to improve our understanding of the impact of clouds on the earth's water cycle and radiation budget, which represents still one of the largest uncertainties in global and regional climate modeling. An airborne platform for such observation techniques will be provided by the new German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range) that will be commissioned in 2009. HALO will open a new dimension for climate and atmospheric research. By HALO it will be possible to survey the atmosphere on continental scales but with much finer resolution and with more powerful instrumentation than feasible on space borne platforms. An advanced set of microwave remote cloud sensing instruments (HAMP - HALO Microwave Package) will be operated on board of HALO. It consists of a cloud radar and a suite of passive radiometers in different frequency bands. The radar MIRA-36 operates at 36.5 GHz. Although this is an unusual low frequency, it benefits from the wider range of applications due to less signal attenuation in deep clouds and rain, compared to the 94 GHz radar operated on CloudSat. The frequencies for the passive microwave radiometers were selected in allusion to the AMSU-A and -B sounder. Thereby the 150 GHz channel of AMSU-B has been replaced by frequencies in the 118 GHz oxygen band. In combination with the 60 GHz oxygen complex channels, this frequencies can be used for precipitation retrieval after Bauer and Mugnai (2003). Furthermore by including channels in the water vapor lines at 22.235 GHz and 183.31 GHz and higher microwave channels sensitive to scattering in the ice phase, various precipitation retrieval algorithms can be compared by measurements with HAMP. This presentation introduces the microwave package on HALO. It further shows the potential of the observations by presenting results of a simulation study for the selected microwave frequencies and the cloud radar. The potential of the selected frequencies for

  12. Foreword to the Special Issue on the 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing Applications (MicroRad 2010)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, David M; Jackson, Thomas J.; Kim, Edward J.; Lang, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2010) was held in Washington, DC from March 1 to 4, 2010. The objective of MicroRad 2010 was to provide an open forum to report and discuss recent advances in the field of microwave radiometry, particularly with application to remote sensing of the environment. The meeting was highly successful, with more than 200 registrations representing 48 countries. There were 80 oral presentations and more than 100 posters. MicroRad has become a venue for the microwave radiometry community to present new research results, instrument designs, and applications to an audience that is conversant in these issues. The meeting was divided into 16 sessions (listed in order of presentation): 1) SMOS Mission; 2) Future Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Missions; 3) Theory and Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Models; 4) Field Experiment Results; 5) Soil Moisture and Vegetation; 6) Snow and Cryosphere; 7) Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Synergy; 8) Oceans; 9) Atmospheric Sounding and Assimilation; 10) Clouds and Precipitation; 11) Instruments and Advanced Techniques I; 12) Instruments and Advanced Techniques II; 13) Cross Calibration of Satellite Radiometers; 14) Calibration Theory and Methodology; 15) New Technologies for Microwave Radiometry; 16) Radio Frequency Interference.

  13. Towards the Development of a Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects have paved the way for a more advanced global precipitation mission. A comprehensive global measuring strategy is currently under study - Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). The GPM study could ultimately lead to the development of the Global Precipitation Mission. The intent of GPM is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction and prediction of freshwater resources, the global carbon cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. This talk overviews the status and scientific agenda of this proposed mission currently planned for launch in the 2007-2008 time frame. GPM is planning to expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of 6-10 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carry dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar and a microwave radiometer (e.g. TMI-like). The other constellation members will likely include new lightweight satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers. The goal behind the constellation is to achieve no worse than 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-su n -synchronous satellites with the "core" satellite providing measurement of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus "training calibrating" information to be used with the retrieval algorithms for the constellation satellite measurements. The GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US, NASDA in Japan, and ESA in Europe (representing the European community). The program is expected to involve additional international partners, other federal agencies, and a diverse collection of scientists from academia

  14. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  15. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  16. Multiscale assimilation of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS snow water equivalent and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer snow cover fraction observations in northern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lannoy, GabriëLle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Houser, Paul R.; Kumar, Sujay; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.

    2012-01-01

    Eight years (2002-2010) of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF) observations are assimilated separately or jointly into the Noah land surface model over a domain in Northern Colorado. A multiscale ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is used, supplemented with a rule-based update. The satellite data are either left unscaled or are scaled for anomaly assimilation. The results are validated against in situ observations at 14 high-elevation Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites with typically deep snow and at 4 lower-elevation Cooperative Observer Program (COOP) sites. Assimilation of coarse-scale AMSR-E SWE and fine-scale MODIS SCF observations both result in realistic spatial SWE patterns. At COOP sites with shallow snowpacks, AMSR-E SWE and MODIS SCF data assimilation are beneficial separately, and joint SWE and SCF assimilation yields significantly improved root-mean-square error and correlation values for scaled and unscaled data assimilation. In areas of deep snow where the SNOTEL sites are located, however, AMSR-E retrievals are typically biased low and assimilation without prior scaling leads to degraded SWE estimates. Anomaly SWE assimilation could not improve the interannual SWE variations in the assimilation results because the AMSR-E retrievals lack realistic interannual variability in deep snowpacks. SCF assimilation has only a marginal impact at the SNOTEL locations because these sites experience extended periods of near-complete snow cover. Across all sites, SCF assimilation improves the timing of the onset of the snow season but without a net improvement of SWE amounts.

  17. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  18. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  19. Complementary information from TRMM and CloudSat to improve our global estimate of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, A.; Stephens, G. L.; Adler, R. F.; Huffman, G. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Lebsock, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Complementary information from CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), TRMM PR, and AMSR-E are used to investigate the precipitation detection and estimation performance of a suite of precipitation measuring sensors, commonly used in the production of the merged precipitation products. CPR has high sensitivity to liquid and frozen hydrometeors and can provide added information with respect to the measurement of light rain and snowfall within 80oS-80oN. PR has also enabled significant advancement in quantification of moderate to intense rainfall. The study requires careful consideration of the scale issues among different sensors that will be discussed. Furthermore, we expand the sensor-level analysis to investigate the performance of the global precipitation climatology products: GPCP and CMAP. CloudSat together with TRMM and AMSR-E are used to calculate the mean global precipitation rate and its zonal distribution through a merging process constrained by precipitation occurrence from CloudSat. The three sensors have not been used in GPCP and CMAP thus give us an independent estimate of global precipitation and can be used to understand and assess the strengths and potential weaknesses of the two products. The insights gained from the analysis are found extremely useful to guide our future updates of the products as well as to design future precipitation measuring sensors. The study highlights the important role of GPM to better detect and quantify global precipitation using its Ka/Ku band dual frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and multichannel passive microwave imager (GMI).

  20. The construction and application of the AMSR-E global microwave emissivity database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Shi; Yubao, Qiu; Jingjing, Niu; Wenbo, Wu

    2014-03-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of terrestrial microwave radiation, and is the necessary input amount for inversion various geophysical parameters. We use brightness temperature of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and synchronous land surface temperature and atmospheric temperature-humidity profile data obtained from the MODIS which aboard on satellite AQUA the same as AMSR-E, to retrieved microwave emissivity under clear sky conditions. After quality control, evaluation and design, the global microwave emissivity database of AMSR-E under clear sky conditions is established. This database include 2002-2011 years, different regions, different surface coverage, dual-polarized, 6.9,10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5 and 89GHz, ascending and descending orbit, spatial resolution 25km, global 0.05 degrees, instantaneous and half-month averaged emissivity data. The database can provide the underlying surface information for precipitation algorithm, water-vapor algorithm, and long-resolution mode model (General Circulation Model (GCM) etc.). It also provides underlying surface information for the satellite simulator, and provides basic prior knowledge of land surface radiation for future satellite sensors design. The emissivity database or the fast emissivity obtained can get ready for climate model, energy balance, data assimilation, geophysical model simulation, inversion and estimates of the physical parameters under the cloud cover conditions.

  1. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  2. Microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yao-Jen; Cho, T.-C.; Chuang, S.-S.; Hsueh, F.-K.; Lu, Y.-L.; Sung, P.-J.; Chen, S.-J.; Lo, C.-H.; Lai, C.-H.; Current, Michael I.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Chao, T.-S.; Yang, F.-L.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave annealing of dopants in Si has been reported to produce highly activated junctions at temperatures far below those needed for comparable results using conventional thermal processes. However the details of the kinetics and mechanisms for microwave annealing are far from well understood. Comparisons between MWA and RTA of dopants in implanted Si has been investigated to produce highly activated junctions. First, As, 31P, and BF 2 implants in Si substrate were annealed by MWA at temperatures below 550 °C.

  3. A Multi-Frequency Wide-Swath Spaceborne Cloud and Precipitation Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gary; McLinden, Matthew; Venkatesh, Vijay; Coon, Michael; Perrine, Martin; Park, Richard; Cooley, Michael; Stenger, Pete; Spence, Thomas; Retelny, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave radars have proven their effectiveness in cloud and precipitation observations. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS) Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission calls for a dual-frequency cloud radar (W band 94 GHz and Ka-band 35 GHz) for global measurements of cloud microphysical properties. Recently, there have been discussions of utilizing a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) radar for a combined ACE and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) follow-on mission that has evolved into the Cloud and Precipitation Process Mission (CaPPM) concept. In this presentation we will give an overview of the technology development efforts at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) through projects funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). Our primary objective of this research is to advance the key enabling technologies for a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) shared-aperture spaceborne imaging radar to provide unprecedented, simultaneous multi-frequency measurements that will enhance understanding of the effects of clouds and precipitation and their interaction on Earth climate change. Research effort has been focused on concept design and trade studies of the tri-frequency radar; investigating architectures that provide tri-band shared-aperture capability; advancing the development of the Ka band active electronically scanned array (AESA) transmitreceive (TR) module, and development of the advanced radar backend electronics.

  4. Precipitation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although weather, including its role in the water cycle, is included in most elementary science programs, any further examination of raindrops and snowflakes is rare. Together rain and snow make up most of the precipitation that replenishes Earth's life-sustaining fresh water supply. When viewed individually, raindrops and snowflakes are quite…

  5. Advances in nanomaterial-based microwaves and infrared wave-assisted tryptic digestion for ultrafast proteolysis and rapid detection by MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The unique physical/chemical properties of nanomaterials have significant impacts in electromagnetic waves (microwave and infrared waves)-assisted tryptic digestion approaches by using them as heat absorbers to expedite digestion and as affinity probes to enrich digested proteins prior to MALDI-MS analysis. We review recent developments in electromagnetic waves (microwaves and infrared waves)-assisted proteolysis using nanomaterials as heat absorbers and as affinity probes for analysis of digested proteins in MALDI-MS. New trends in ultrafast proteolysis (nonphosphoproteins- lysozyme, cytochrome c, myoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA); phosphoproteins- α- and β- caseins) using nanomaterials based microwaves and infrared (IR) waves assisted digestion approaches for rapid identification of digested proteins in the MALDI-MS.

  6. GRACE and AMSR-E-based estimates of winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic drainage region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Eom, Jooyoung

    2010-10-01

    Solid precipitation plays a major role in controlling the winter hydrological cycle and spring discharge in the Arctic region. However, it has not been well documented due to sharply decreasing numbers of precipitation gauges, gauge measurement biases, as well as limitations of conventional satellite methods in high latitudes. In this study, we document the winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic region using the latest new satellite measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). GRACE measures the winter total water (mainly from snow water equivalent (SWE)) storage change through gravity changes while AMSR-E measures the winter SWE through passive microwave measurements. The GRACE and AMSR-E measurements are combined with in situ and numerical model estimates of discharge and evapotranspiration to estimate the winter season solid precipitation accumulation in the Arctic region using the water budget equation. These two satellite-based estimates are then compared to the conventional estimates from two global precipitation products, such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), and three reanalyses, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' ERA-Interim, and the Japan Meteorological Agency's Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS) reanalysis. The GRACE-based estimate is very close to the GPCP and ERA-Interim estimates. The AMSR-E-based estimate is the most different from the other estimates. This GRACE-based measurement of winter season solid precipitation accumulation can provide a new valuable benchmark to understand the hydrological cycle, to validate and evaluate the model simulation, and to improve data assimilation in the

  7. Impact of precipitating ice on the simulation of a heavy rainfall event with advanced research WRF using two bulk microphysical schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Zoumakis, N. M.; Melas, D.; Kassomenos, P.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.2 is used to examine the impact of precipitating ice and especially snow-graupel partitioning in the simulation of a heavy rainfall event over Chalkidiki peninsula in Northern Greece. This major precipitation event, associated with a case of cyclogenesis over the Aegean Sea, occurred on the 8th of October 2006 causing severe flooding and damage. Two widely used microphysical parameterizations, the Purdue Lin (PLIN) and WRF Single-Moment 6-class scheme (WSM6) are compared with available raingauge measurements over the complex topography of Chalkidiki. To further investigate the importance of snow and graupel relative mass content and the treatment of precipitating ice sedimentation velocity, two older versions of the WSM6 scheme were compiled and run with the current model. The verification results indicate that all simulations were found to match raingauge data more closely over the eastern mountainous Chalkidiki peninsula where maximum accumulations were observed. In other stations all schemes overestimate 24h accumulated rainfall except a station situated at the western part of the peninsula, where none of the simulations was able to reproduce observed rainfall. Graupel dominance in PLIN generates rapid precipitation fallout at the point of maximum predicted 24h accumulation. Similar behavior is shown in WSM6 from WRF version 2, but with significant less rainfall. Increasing snow amounts aloft, due to the unified treatment of precipitating ice in WSM6 from WRF version 3, modifies rain dynamics which decrease rainfall rates, but increases 24h accumulations. A sensitivity experiment where PLIN is used with snow accretion by graupel turned off, indicated that this process seems to be the most important factor controlling the differences in surface precipitation between PLIN and WSM6 from WRF version 3, determining the spatial and temporal distribution of this heavy precipitation event. The

  8. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  9. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  10. Electrostatic precipitator with precipitator electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Junkers, G.

    1980-12-16

    The invention relates to an electrostatic precipitator with collecting electrodes which are arranged in rows adjacent to each other and in respective pairs at equal distances from a respective discharge electrode with which they cooperate. Spring elements are provided between the collecting electrodes and influence the stiffness and oscillating properties of the array of the collecting electrodes.

  11. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  12. Simple microwave preionization source for ohmic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, W.; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jayhyun; Jeon, Sang-Jean; Huh, Songwhe

    2000-07-01

    A simple economical 2.45 GHz microwave system has been developed and utilized for preionization on the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)-TOKAMAK. The magnetron microwave source was obtained from a widely used, household microwave oven. Since ac operation of the magnetron is not suitable for tokamak application, the magnetron cathode bias circuit was modified to obtain continuous and stable operation of the magnetron for several hundred milliseconds. Application of the developed microwave system to KAIST-TOKAMAK resulted in a reduction of ohmic flux consumption.

  13. Detection of Rain-on-Snow (ROS) Events Using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. M.; Brucker, L.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter months, the occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events can impact snow stratigraphy via generation of large scale ice crusts, e.g., on or within the snowpack. The formation of such layers significantly alters the electromagnetic response of the snowpack, which can be witnessed using space-based microwave radiometers. In addition, ROS layers can hinder the ability of wildlife to burrow in the snow for vegetation, which limits their foraging capability. A prime example occurred on 23 October 2003 in Banks Island, Canada, where an ROS event is believed to have caused the deaths of over 20,000 musk oxen. Through the use of passive microwave remote sensing, ROS events can be detected by utilizing observed brightness temperatures (Tb) from AMSR-E. Tb observed at different microwave frequencies and polarizations depends on snow properties. A wet snowpack formed from an ROS event yields a larger Tb than a typical dry snowpack would. This phenomenon makes observed Tb useful when detecting ROS events. With the use of data retrieved from AMSR-E, in conjunction with observations from ground-based weather station networks, a database of estimated ROS events over the past twelve years was generated. Using this database, changes in measured Tb following the ROS events was also observed. This study adds to the growing knowledge of ROS events and has the potential to help inform passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals or snow cover properties in polar regions.

  14. Using Passive Microwaves for Open Water Monitoring and Flood Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parinussa, R.; Johnson, F.; Sharma, A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest and severest natural disasters that society faces is floods. An important component that can help in reducing the impact of floods is satellite remote sensing as it allows for consistent monitoring and obtaining catchment information in absence of physical contact. Nowadays, passive microwave remote sensing observations are available in near real time (NRT) with a couple of hours delay from the actual sensing. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is a multi-frequency passive microwave sensor onboard the Global Change Observation Mission 1 - Water that was launched in May 2012. Several of these frequencies have a high sensitivity to the land surface and they also have the capacity to penetrate clouds. These advantages come at the cost of the relatively coarse spatial resolution (footprints range from ~5 to ~50 km) which in turn allows for global monitoring. A relatively simple methodology to monitor the fraction of open water from AMSR2 observations is presented here. Low frequency passive microwave observations have sensitivity to the land surface but are modulated by overlying signals from physical temperature and vegetation cover. We developed a completely microwave based artificial neural network supported by physically based components to monitor the fraction of open water. Three different areas, located in China, Southeast Asia and Australia, were selected for testing purposes and several different characteristics were examined. First, the overall performance of the methodology was evaluated against the NASA NRT Global Flood Mapping system. Second, the skills of the various different AMSR2 frequencies were tested and revealed that artificial contamination is a factor to consider. The different skills of the tested frequencies are of interest to apply the methodology to alternative passive microwave sensors. This will be of benefit in using the numerous multi-frequency passive microwaves sensors currently observing our Earth

  15. Potential of microwave observations for the evaluation of rainfall and convection in a regional climate model in the frame of HyMeX and MED-CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysman, Jean-François; Berthou, Ségolène; Claud, Chantal; Drobinski, Philippe; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Delanoë, Julien

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the potential of spaceborne passive microwave observations for assessing decadal simulations of precipitation from a regional climate model through a model-to-satellite approach. A simulation from the Weather and Research Forecasting model is evaluated against 2002-2012 observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit and the Microwave Humidity Sounder over the Mediterranean region using the radiative transfer code Radiative Transfer for Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder. It is first shown that simulated and observed brightness temperatures are consistently correlated for both water vapour and window channels. Yet, although the average simulated and observed brightness temperatures are similar, the range of brightness temperatures is larger in the observations. The difference is presumably due to the too low content of frozen particles in the simulation. To assess this hypothesis, density and altitude of simulated frozen hydrometeors are compared with observations from an airborne cloud radar. Results show that simulated frozen hydrometeors are found at lower median altitude than observed frozen hydrometeors, with an average content at least 5 times inferior. Spatial distributions of observed and simulated precipitation match reasonably well. However, when using simulated brightness temperatures to diagnose rainfall, the simulation performs very poorly. These results highlight the need of providing more realistic frozen hydrometeors content, which will increase the interest of using passive microwave observations for the long-term evaluation of regional models. In particular, significant improvements are expected from the archiving of convective fluxes of precipitating hydrometeors in future regional model simulation programs.

  16. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) launch, commissioning, and early operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international partnership co-led by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The mission centers on the GPM Core Observatory and consists of an international network, or constellation, of additional satellites that together will provide next-generation global observations of precipitation from space. The GPM constellation will provide measurements of the intensity and variability of precipitation, three-dimensional structure of cloud and storm systems, the microphysics of ice and liquid particles within clouds, and the amount of water falling to Earth's surface. Observations from the GPM constellation, combined with land surface data, will improve weather forecast models; climate models; integrated hydrologic models of watersheds; and forecasts of hurricanes/typhoons/cylcones, landslides, floods and droughts. The GPM Core Observatory carries an advanced radar/radiometer system and serves as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from all satellites that fly within the constellation. The GPM Core Observatory improves upon the capabilities of its predecessor, the NASA-JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), with advanced science instruments and expanded coverage of Earth's surface. The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments, the NASA-supplied GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the JAXA-supplied Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The GMI measures the amount, size, intensity and type of precipitation, from heavy-tomoderate rain to light rain and snowfall. The DPR provides three-dimensional profiles and intensities of liquid and solid precipitation. The French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the U.S. Department of Defense are partners with NASA and

  18. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  19. Electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.

    1982-08-03

    An electrostatic precipitator comprising a plurality of flat plate dust-collecting electrodes, arranged in substantially equally spaced and parallel relationship with one another and each having a discharge electrode, or electrodes, on and along the edge of one side thereof with the discharge electrodes of the adjacent dust-collecting electrodes alternately facing in opposite directions; the edges having the discharge electrodes are arranged in a setback relation by some distance in relation to the nearby edges of the adjacent dust-collecting plates, where no discharge electrodes are provided, so that uniform and nonuniform electric fields may be produced.

  20. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    As accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates improves and observation frequency increases, application of those data to societal benefit areas, such as weather forecasts and flood predictions, is expected, in addition to research of precipitation climatology to analyze precipitation systems. There is, however, limitation on single satellite observation in coverage and frequency. Currently, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is scheduled under international collaboration to fulfill various user requirements that cannot be achieved by the single satellite, like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The GPM mission is an international mission to achieve high-accurate and high-frequent rainfall observation over a global area. GPM is composed of a TRMM-like non-sun-synchronous orbit satellite (GPM core satellite) and constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM core satellite carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), which is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and microwave radiometer provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of DPR instrument is in good progress for scheduled launch in 2013, and DPR Critical Design Review has completed in July - September 2009. Constellation satellites, which carry a microwave imager and/or sounder, are planned to be launched around 2013 by each partner agency for its own purpose, and will contribute to extending coverage and increasing frequency. JAXA's future mission, the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W) satellite will be one of constellation satellites. The first generation of GCOM-W satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2011, and it carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), which is being developed based on the experience of the AMSR-E on EOS Aqua satellite

  1. Monitoring All Weather Precipitation Using PIP and MRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliven, Francis; Petersen, Walter; Kulie, Mark; Pettersen, Claire; Wolff, David; Dutter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the science benefit of monitoring all weather precipitation for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Ground Validation Program using a combination of two instruments: the Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP) and a Microwave Rain Radar-II (MRR). The PIP is a new ground based precipitation imaging instrument that uses a high speed camera and advanced processing software to image individual hydrometeors, measure hydrometeor size distributions, track individual hydrometeors and compute fall velocities. PIP hydrometeor data are also processed using algorithms to compute precipitation rates in one-minute time increments, and to discriminate liquid, mixed and frozen (e.g., snow) precipitation. The MRR, a vertically-pointing 24 GHz radar, is well documented in the literature and monitors hydrometeor vertical profile characteristics such as Doppler fall-speed spectra, radar reflectivity, size distribution and precipitation rate. Of interest to GPM direct and physical ground validation are collections of robust, satellite overpass-coincident, long-duration datasets consisting of observations of the aforementioned hydrometeor characteristics for falling snow and mixes of falling-snow and rain, as there are relatively few instruments that provide continuous observations of coincident hydrometeor image, size, and fall velocity in cold regions due to harsh environmental conditions. During extended periods of 2013 and 2014, concurrent PIP and MRR data sets were obtained at the National Weather Service station in Marquette, Michigan (2014), and at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Virginia (2013,14). Herein we present examples of those data sets for a variety of weather conditions (rain, snow, frontal passages, lake effect snow events etc.). The results demonstrate 1) that the PIP and MRR are well-suited to long term operation in cold regions; 2) PIP and MRR data products are useful for characterizing a

  2. Passive Microwave Spectral Imaging of Amospheric Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Rosenkranz, Philip W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve the scientific foundation necessary to full realization of the meteorological potential of the NOAA Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) recently first launched on the NOAA-15 satellite in May, 1998. These advances were made in four main areas: (1) improvements, based on aircraft observations, in the atmospheric transmittance expressions used for interpreting AMSU and similar data; (2) development of neural network retrieval methods for cloud top altitude estimates of approximately 1-km accuracy under cirrus shields--the altitude is that of the larger ice particles aloft, which is related to precipitation rate; (3) analysis of early AMSU flight data with respect to its precipitation sensitivity and fine-scale thermal structure; and (4) improvements to the 54-GHz and 118-GHz MTS aircraft imaging spectrometer now operating on the NASA ER-2 aircraft. More specifically, the oxygen transmittance expressions near 118 GHz were in better agreement with aircraft data when the temperature dependence exponent of the 118.75-GHz linewidth was increased from the MPM92 value (Liebe et al., 1992) of 0.8 to 0.97+/-0.03. In contrast, the observations 52.5-55.8 GHz were consistent with the MPM92 model. Neural networks trained on comparisons of 118-GHz spectral data and coincident stereoscopic video images of convective cells observed from 20-km altitude yielded agreement in their peak altitudes within as little as 1.36 km rms, much of which is stereoscopic error. Imagery using these methods produced useful characterizations for Cyclone Oliver in 1993 and other storms (Schwartz et al., 1996; Spina et al., 1998). Similar neural network techniques yielded simulated rms errors in relative humidity retrievals of 6-14 percent over ocean and 6-15 percent over land at pressure levels from 1013 to 131 mbar (Cabrera-Mercader and Staelin, 1995).

  3. Correcting Errors in Catchment-Scale Satellite Rainfall Accumulation Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, D.; Crow, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    Streamflow forecasting in the poorly gauged or ungauged catchments is very difficult mainly due to the absence of the input forcing data for forecasting models. This challenge poses a threat to human safety and industry in the areas where proper warning system is not provided. Currently, a number of studies are in progress to calibrate streamflow models without relying on ground observations as an effort to construct a streamflow forecasting systems in the ungauged catchments. Also, recent advances in satellite altimetry and innovative application of the optical has enabled mapping streamflow rate and flood extent in the remote areas. In addition, remotely sensed hydrological variables such as the real-time satellite precipitation data, microwave soil moisture retrievals, and surface thermal infrared observations have the great potential to be used as a direct input or signature information to run the forecasting models. In this work, we evaluate a real-time satellite precipitation product, TRMM 3B42RT, and correct errors of the product using the microwave satellite soil moisture products over 240 catchments in Australia. The error correction is made by analyzing the difference between output soil moisture of a simple model forced by the TRMM product and the satellite retrievals of soil moisture. The real-time satellite precipitation products before and after the error correction are compared with the daily gauge-interpolated precipitation data produced by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The error correction improves overall accuracy of the catchment-scale satellite precipitation, especially the root mean squared error (RMSE), correlation, and the false alarm ratio (FAR), however, only a marginal improvement is observed in the probability of detection (POD). It is shown that the efficiency of the error correction is affected by the surface vegetation density and the annual precipitation of the catchments.

  4. The NASA CloudSat/GPM Light Precipitation Validation Experiment (LPVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Moisseev, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of cool-season precipitation at mid and high latitudes (e.g., above 45 deg N/S) suggest that a significant fraction of the total precipitation volume falls in the form of light rain, i.e., at rates less than or equal to a few mm/h. These cool-season light rainfall events often originate in situations of a low-altitude (e.g., lower than 2 km) melting level and pose a significant challenge to the fidelity of all satellite-based precipitation measurements, especially those relying on the use of multifrequency passive microwave (PMW) radiometers. As a result, significant disagreements exist between satellite estimates of rainfall accumulation poleward of 45 deg. Ongoing efforts to develop, improve, and ultimately evaluate physically-based algorithms designed to detect and accurately quantify high latitude rainfall, however, suffer from a general lack of detailed, observationally-based ground validation datasets. These datasets serve as a physically consistent framework from which to test and refine algorithm assumptions, and as a means to build the library of algorithm retrieval databases in higher latitude cold-season light precipitation regimes. These databases are especially relevant to NASA's CloudSat and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) ground validation programs that are collecting high-latitude precipitation measurements in meteorological systems associated with frequent coolseason light precipitation events. In an effort to improve the inventory of cool-season high-latitude light precipitation databases and advance the physical process assumptions made in satellite-based precipitation retrieval algorithm development, the CloudSat and GPM mission ground validation programs collaborated with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the University of Helsinki (UH), and Environment Canada (EC) to conduct the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment (LPVEx). The LPVEx field campaign was designed to make detailed measurements of

  5. Global Precipitation Measurement. Report 7; Bridging from TRMM to GPM to 3-Hourly Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Smith, Eric A.; Adams, W. James (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Historically, multi-decadal measurements of precipitation from surface-based rain gauges have been available over continents. However oceans remained largely unobserved prior to the beginning of the satellite era. Only after the launch of the first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite in 1987 carrying a well-calibrated and multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer called Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) have systematic and accurate precipitation measurements over oceans become available on a regular basis; see Smith et al. (1994, 1998). Recognizing that satellite-based data are a foremost tool for measuring precipitation, NASA initiated a new research program to measure precipitation from space under its Mission to Planet Earth program in the 1990s. As a result, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a collaborative mission between NASA and NASDA, was launched in 1997 to measure tropical and subtropical rain. See Simpson et al. (1996) and Kummerow et al. (2000). Motivated by the success of TRMM, and recognizing the need for more comprehensive global precipitation measurements, NASA and NASDA have now planned a new mission, i.e., the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The primary goal of GPM is to extend TRMM's rainfall time series while making substantial improvements in precipitation observations, specifically in terms of measurement accuracy, sampling frequency, Earth coverage, and spatial resolution. This report addresses four fundamental questions related to the transition from current to future global precipitation observations as denoted by the TRMM and GPM eras, respectively.

  6. Estimation of daily rainfall over Italy by merging multiple microwave-based satellite products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panegrossi, Giulia; Casella, Daniele; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Sano, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano; Brocca, Luca; Ciabatta, Luca; Massari, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation retrieval from space has seen great advances thanks to the improving quality of PMW measurements, the refinement of precipitation retrieval techniques, and the increasing number of microwave radiometers on board LEO satellites orbiting around the Earth. With the recent advent of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission the constellation of cross-track and conically scanning microwave radiometers with precipitation-sensing capabilities currently ensures 1- to 3-hourly coverage at mid/high latitudes. Traditionally passive microwave (PMW) retrieval algorithms are based on the principle that surface precipitation can be estimated from the multichannel brightness temperature (TB) measurements because these are affected (in different ways depending on channel frequency, viewing geometry, spatial resolution, and surface background conditions) by the microphysical properties and 3-D distribution of liquid and frozen hydrometeors within the precipitating cloud, and, therefore, can be related to surface precipitation. These approaches can be categorized as top-down approaches and they provide instantaneous precipitation rate estimate at the surface at the time of the satellite observation. Recently a new perspective for surface precipitation estimate has been proposed, the bottom-up approach, based on the principle that the soil moisture can be considered as a "natural raingauge" and can be employed for "measuring" rainfall. The algorithm, called SM2RAIN, allows estimating rainfall directly from soil moisture retrieved from spaceborne sensors (i.e., ASCAT). Several recent studies have demonstrated that the approach is very effective for precipitation estimation from the daily to 5-daily scale, even though not applicable in regions where soil moisture retrieval is not feasible (i.e., highly vegetated areas, frozen surfaces, oceans). This study shows that the precipitation estimates obtained by PMW observations using the two approaches (top-down and

  7. Comparison of data from the Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) with data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for terrestrial environmental monitoring - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Giddings, L.; Justice, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison between the microwave polarized difference temperature (MPDT) derived from 37 GHz band data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from near-infrared and red bands, from several empirical investigations are summarized. These indicate the complementary character of the two measures in environmental monitoring. Overall the NDVI is more sensitive to green leaf activity, whereas the MPDT appears also to be related to other elements of the above-ground biomass. Monitoring of hydrological phenomena is carried out much more effectively by the MPDT. Further work is needed to explain spectral and temporal variation in MPDT both through modelling and field experiments.

  8. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 109) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F06 and P/N 1356409 S/N F06, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  9. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A. Engineering Report: Electromagnetic Interface (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), for the METSAT/METOP AMSU-A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Susceptibility, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) qualification test for the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) and the Meteorological Operation Platform (METOP) projects. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/5D. This document describes the EMI/EMC test performed by Aerojet and it is presented in the following manner: Section-1 contains introductory material and a brief summary of the test results. Section 2 contains more detailed descriptions of the test plan, test procedure, and test results for each type of EMI/EMC test conducted. Section 3 contains supplementary information that includes test data sheets, plots, and calculations collected during the qualification testing.

  10. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Reliability prediction report for module A1 (channels 3 through 15) and module A2 (channels 1 and 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geimer, W.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the final reliability prediction performed on the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A). The A1 Module contains Channels 3 through 15, and is referred to herein as 'EOS/AMSU-A1'. The A2 Module contains Channels 1 and 2, and is referred herein as 'EOS/AMSU-A2'. The 'specified' figures were obtained from Aerojet Reports 8897-1 and 9116-1. The predicted reliability figure for the EOS/AMSU-A1 meets the specified value and provides a Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of 74,390 hours. The predicted reliability figure for the EOS/AMSU-A2 meets the specified value and provides a MTBF of 193,110 hours.

  11. The Status of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission 26 Months After Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential to our planet Earth. Knowing when, where and how precipitation falls is crucial for understanding the linkages between the Earth's water and energy cycles and is extraordinarily important for sustaining life on our planet during climate change. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory spacecraft launched February 27, 2014, is the anchor to the GPM international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products [1-2]. GPM is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 407 km for the GPM Core Observatory allows for highly sophisticated observations of precipitation in the mid-latitudes where a majority of the population lives. Indeed, the GOM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone, as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. GPM's requirements are to measure rain rates from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect and estimate falling snow. GPM has several retrieval product levels ranging from raw instrument data to Core and partner swath precipitation estimates to gridded and accumulated products and finally to multi-satellite merged products. The latter merged product, called IMERG, is available with a 5-hour latency with temporal resolution of 30 minutes and spatial resolution of 0.1o x 0.1o (~10km x 10km) grid box. Some products have a 1-hour latency for societal applications such as floods, landslides, hurricanes, blizzards, and typhoons and all have late-latency high-quality science products. The GPM mission is well on its way to providing essential data on precipitation (rain and snow) from micro to local to global scales via providing precipitation

  12. The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Xie, Ping-Ping; Janowiak, John; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version 2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5 degrees x 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude resolution is available from January 1979 to the present. It is a merged analysis that incorporates precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit-satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The merging approach utilizes the higher accuracy of the low-orbit microwave observations to calibrate, or adjust, the more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations. The data set is extended back into the premicrowave era (before 1987) by using infrared-only observations calibrated to the microwave-based analysis of the later years. The combined satellite-based product is adjusted by the raingauge analysis. This monthly analysis is the foundation for the GPCP suite of products including those at finer temporal resolution, satellite estimate, and error estimates for each field. The 23-year GPCP climatology is characterized, along with time and space variations of precipitation.

  13. Microwave and Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, E.K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. (1) We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. (2) We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. (3) We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO{sub x} from various effluent sources. (4) We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. (5) We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. (6) We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  14. Microwave heating of porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, F.; Martini, L. ); Gentili, G.B. )

    1987-05-01

    The technique actually used for recycling in place asphaltic concrete pavements is the following: heating of the surface layer of the pavement with special infrared lamps (gas-fed); hot removal and remixing in place of the materials with the addition of new binder; in-line reconstruction of the pavement layer with rolling. Such a technique is highly efficient and economic but it suffers an important disadvantage: The low thermal conductivity of the asphalt causes a strong temperature decrease with depth. Further on, the infrared radiation produces carbonization of the pavement skin with possible modification of the rheological properties of the bitumen. The technology of microwave generators (Magnetron, Klystron, and Amplitron) has registered some recent advances. It is now possible, and in some cases convenient, to use microwave energy for industrial heating of low-thermal-conductivity materials. Actually the microwaves are employed for drying wood, paper, and textiles, and for freeze-drying, cooking, and defrosting foods. One of the most interesting features of the microwave process is the rate and uniformity of the heating inside the material. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out for recycling in place asphaltic concrete pavements. The goal of the present paper is to propose a theoretical model capable of describing the phenomena occurring in a soil during a microwave heating process.

  15. Microwave waste processing technology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.

    1993-02-01

    Applications using microwave energy in the chemical processing industry have increased within the last ten years. Recently, interest in waste treatment applications process development, especially solidification, has grown. Microwave waste processing offers many advantages over conventional waste treatment technologies. These advantages include a high density, leach resistant, robust waste form, volume and toxicity reduction, favorable economics, in-container treatment, good public acceptance, isolated equipment, and instantaneous energy control. The results from the {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} demonstration scale testing at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility are described. Preliminary results for a transuranic (TRU) precipitation sludge indicate that volume reductions of over 80% are achievable over the current immobilization process. An economic evaluation performed demonstrated cost savings of $11.68 per pound compared to the immobilization process currently in use on wet sludge.

  16. The Changing Character of Precipitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Dai, Aiguo; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Parsons, David B.

    2003-09-01

    From a societal, weather, and climate perspective, precipitation intensity, duration, frequency, and phase are as much of concern as total amounts, as these factors determine the disposition of precipitation once it hits the ground and how much runs off. At the extremes of precipitation incidence are the events that give rise to floods and droughts, whose changes in occurrence and severity have an enormous impact on the environment and society. Hence, advancing understanding and the ability to model and predict the character of precipitation is vital but requires new approaches to examining data and models. Various mechanisms, storms and so forth, exist to bring about precipitation. Because the rate of precipitation, conditional on when it falls, greatly exceeds the rate of replenishment of moisture by surface evaporation, most precipitation comes from moisture already in the atmosphere at the time the storm begins, and transport of moisture by the storm-scale circulation into the storm is vital. Hence, the intensity of precipitation depends on available moisture, especially for heavy events. As climate warms, the amount of moisture in the atmosphere, which is governed by the Clausius- Clapeyron equation, is expected to rise much faster than the total precipitation amount, which is governed by the surface heat budget through evaporation. This implies that the main changes to be experienced are in the character of precipitation: increases in intensity must be offset by decreases in duration or frequency of events. The timing, duration, and intensity of precipitation can be systematically explored via the diurnal cycle, whose correct simulation in models remains an unsolved challenge of vital importance in global climate change. Typical problems include the premature initiation of convection, and precipitation events that are too light and too frequent. These challenges in observations, modeling, and understanding precipitation changes are being taken up in the NCAR

  17. Precipitation Measurements from Space: The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2007-01-01

    Water is fundamental to the life on Earth and its phase transition between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states dominates the behavior of the weather/climate/ecological system. Precipitation, which converts atmospheric water vapor into rain and snow, is central to the global water cycle. It regulates the global energy balance through interactions with clouds and water vapor (the primary greenhouse gas), and also shapes global winds and dynamic transport through latent heat release. Surface precipitation affects soil moisture, ocean salinity, and land hydrology, thus linking fast atmospheric processes to the slower components of the climate system. Precipitation is also the primary source of freshwater in the world, which is facing an emerging freshwater crisis in many regions. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the behavior of the global water cycle, improving freshwater management, and advancing predictive capabilities of high-impact weather events such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. With limited rainfall networks on land and the impracticality of making extensive rainfall measurements over oceans, a comprehensive description of the space and time variability of global precipitation can only be achieved from the vantage point of space. This presentation will examine current capabilities in space-borne rainfall measurements, highlight scientific and practical benefits derived from these observations to date, and provide an overview of the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission scheduled to bc launched in the early next decade.

  18. Signal processing device to control microwave output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. G.

    1989-08-01

    The development of an electronic device to control the operation of a commercial microwave oven is discussed. This device when installed in conjunction with the existing circuitry of SHARP MICROWAVE OVEN (model R-9524) is capable of automatically advancing through a sequence of thawing recipes programmed and stored in the memory bank of the oven. The device therefore eliminates or minimizes human operator action needed in previous prototype version of a blood thawing device.

  19. Fiber-Optic Discriminator Stabilizes Microwave Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    New fiber-optic delay line discriminator enables stabilization of oscillators directly at microwave output frequency, eliminating need for frequency multiplication. Discriminator is wide-band device, capable of stabilizing outputs of frequency-agile microwave sources over multigigahertz tuning ranges. Use of advanced fiber-optic delay line with wider bandwidth and low noise predicted to yield corresponding improvements in phase-noise performance.

  20. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  1. Joint Variability of Airborne Passive Microwave and Ground-based Radar Observations Obtained in the TRMM Kwajalein Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) held July-September 1999 in the west Pacific was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. The majority of the precipitation was from mixed-phase clouds. Coordinated data sets were obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors including passive microwave measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and S-band volumetric radar data by the KPOL radar. The AMPR and KPOL data sets were processed to yield a set of 25,049 matching observations at ~ 2 km x 2 km horizontal spatial resolution and within 6 min. The TRMM satellite Microwave Imager (TMI) has a similar set of channels to AMPR but coarser spatial resolution (19 GHz: 35 km, 85 GHz: 7.7 km). During KWAJEX, the 0 deg C level height was nearly constant at ~ 4800 m. Hence, two potential sources of uncertainty in relating passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface precipitation, inhomogeneous beam filling and variations in depth of the rain layer are much smaller sources of error in the KWAJEX data set than for TMI. TRMM was originally designed to yield monthly rainfall estimates over 5 deg x 5 deg grid boxes. The use of these data to yield instantaneous rainrate products at smaller spatial scales is more sensitive to the detailed characteristics of the joint distributions of passive microwave Tbs versus rain rate. KWAJEX data sets reveal poor correlations, very wide scatter, and weak modes in these distributions. The spread of emission Tb values for a given rain-layer reflectivity (e.g., 75 K at 30 dBZ for 19 GHz) is similar or larger within convective compared to stratiform precipitation regions. This result implies that the enhancement in emission Tbs associated with partially melted ice particles can occur whether the particles are concentrated within a thin layer in stratiform

  2. Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Types and Electrical Field Information Observed by High Altitude Aircraft Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Blakeslee, Richard; Cecil, Daniel; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Marks, Frank

    2004-01-01

    During the 1998 and 200 1 hurricane seasons of the Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the ER-2 Doppler (EDOP) radar, and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) were flown aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of the Third Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) and the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). Several hurricanes and tropical storms were sampled during these experiments. A rainfall screening technique has been developed using AMPR passive microwave observations of these tropical cyclones (TC) collected at frequencies of 10.7, 19.35,37.1, and 85.5 GHz and verified using vertical profiles of EDOP reflectivity and lower altitude horizontal reflectivity scam collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOM) P-3 radar. Matching the rainfall classification results with coincident electrical field information collected by the LIP readily identifl convective rain regions within the TC precipitation fields. Strengths and weaknesses of the rainfall classification procedure will be discussed as well as its potential as a real-time analysis tool for monitoring vertical updrafl strength and convective intensity from a remotely operated or uninhabited aerial vehicle.

  3. Electrostatic precipitator manual

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.R.; Dean, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies performed by various individuals and organizations on the application of electrostatic precipitators to the collection of fly ash produced in the combustion of pulverized fuel are summarized in this manual. The scope of the studies evaluated include full scale precipitators and laboratory investigations. It covers measurement of fly ash resistivity, rapping reentrainment, conditioning agents, fundamental operations of hot-side precipitators. The major chapter headings are: Terminology and General Design Features Associated with Electrostatic Precipitators Used to Collect Fly Ash Particles; Fundamental Principles of Electrostatic Precipitation; Limiting Factors Affecting Precipitator Performance; Use of Electrostatic Precipitators for the Collection of Fly Ash; Analysis of Factors influencing ESP Performance; Emissions from Electrostatic Precipitators; Choosig an Electrostatic Precipitator: Cold-side versus Hot-side; Safety Aspects of Working with Electrostatic Precipitators; Maintenance Procedures; Troubleshooting; An Electrostatic Precipitator Computer Model; Features of a Well-equipped Electrostatic Precipitator.

  4. The Los Alamos microwave interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, M.W.; Carlos, R.; Shao, X.M.; DeHaven, X.V.; Jacobson, A.R.

    2000-03-01

    The authors describe a multi-antenna microwave receiver system that monitors an unmodulated beacon transmission from a geosynchronous satellite. The system interferometrically measures temporal fluctuations in tropospheric differential path length, which include fluctuations in precipitable water vapor, over 100- to 400-meter baseline lengths. Over 300 s, the system root mean square error (rms) noise is 0.01 radian. These observations will facilitate studies of air parcel motion as the means by which the causative, phase-corrupting atmospheric inhomogeneities drift over the array. The resulting data will be useful for studies of convective boundary layer turbulence, a region difficult to fully access.

  5. NASA Global Precipitation Mission Ground Validation Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM; core-satellite launch 2013) will provide Ka/Ku-band dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and accompanying passive microwave radiometer-diagnosed precipitation estimates over a latitude range of 65 N to 65 S. The extended latitudinal domain of GPM coverage combined with requirements to detect (and in the case of liquid, estimate) liquid and frozen precipitation rates for values ranging from several hundred to just a few tenths of a millimeter per hour present new challenges to the development of physically-based satellite precipitation retrieval algorithms. On regional scales select national and international resources such as existing calibrated radar and rain gauge networks can provide basic datasets that enable direct statistical validation of GPM core-satellite reflectivitys and core/constellation rain rate measurements. Near-term planned field campaign involvements include Finland/Baltic Sea (fall 2010; joint CloudSat,GPM, and European study of precipitation in low-altitude melting layers and snowfall in the vicinity of the Helsinki testbed), central Oklahoma (spring 2011; joint with DOE ARM- precipitation retrievals over a mid-latitude continental land surface), and the Great Lakes region (winter 2011-12, snowfall retrieval).

  6. Sensitivity of Passive Microwave Snow Depth Retrievals to Weather Effects and Snow Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Powell, Dylan C.; Wang, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Snow fall and snow accumulation are key climate parameters due to the snow's high albedo, its thermal insulation, and its importance to the global water cycle. Satellite passive microwave radiometers currently provide the only means for the retrieval of snow depth and/or snow water equivalent (SWE) over land as well as over sea ice from space. All algorithms make use of the frequency-dependent amount of scattering of snow over a high-emissivity surface. Specifically, the difference between 37- and 19-GHz brightness temperatures is used to determine the depth of the snow or the SWE. With the availability of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (launched in May 2002), a wider range of frequencies can be utilized. In this study we investigate, using model simulations, how snow depth retrievals are affected by the evolution of the physical properties of the snow (mainly grain size growth and densification), how they are affected by variations in atmospheric conditions and, finally, how the additional channels may help to reduce errors in passive microwave snow retrievals. The sensitivity of snow depth retrievals to atmospheric water vapor is confirmed through the comparison with precipitable water retrievals from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-B). The results suggest that a combination of the 10-, 19-, 37-, and 89-GHz channels may significantly improve retrieval accuracy. Additionally, the development of a multisensor algorithm utilizing AMSR-E and AMSU-B data may help to obtain weather-corrected snow retrievals.

  7. PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONOUS PEROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.

    1961-08-15

    A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

  8. Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content Profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B Brightness Temperatures Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, E-K.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    One of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program important goals is to develop and test radiation and cloud parameterizations of climate models using single column modeling (SCMs) (Randall et al. 1996). As forcing terms, SCMs need advection tendency of cloud condensates besides the tendencies of temperature, moisture and momentum. To compute the tendency terms of cloud condensates, 3D distribution of cloud condensates over a scale much larger than the climate model's grid scale is needed. Since they can cover a large area within a short time period, satellite measurements are useful utilities to provide advection tendency of cloud condensates for SCMs. However, so far, most satellite retrieval algorithms only retrieve vertically integrated quantities, for example, in the case of cloud ice, ice water path (IWP). To fulfill the requirement of 3D ice water content field for computing ice water advection, in this study, we develop an ice water content profile retrieval algorithm by combining the vertical distribution characteristics obtained from long-term surface radar observations and satellite high-frequency microwave observations that cover a large area. The algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem using a priori database derived from analyzing cloud radar observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The end product of the algorithm is a 3D ice water content covering 10{sup o} x 10{sup o} surrounding the SGP site during the passage of the satellite. This 3D ice water content, together with wind field analysis, can be used to compute the advection tendency of ice water for SCMs.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx): For Measurement Sake Let it Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Hudak, David; Petersen, Walter; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; Chandrasekar, V.; Durden, Stephen; Gleicher, Kirstin J.; Huang, Gwo-Jong; Joe, Paul; Kollias, Pavlos; Reed, Kimberly A.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Stewart, Ronald; Tanelli, Simone; Tokay, Ali; Wang, James R.; Wolde, Mengistu

    2014-01-01

    As a component of the Earth's hydrologic cycle, and especially at higher latitudes,falling snow creates snow pack accumulation that in turn provides a large proportion of the fresh water resources required by many communities throughout the world. To assess the relationships between remotely sensed snow measurements with in situ measurements, a winter field project, termed the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), was carried out in the winter of 2011-2012 in Ontario, Canada. Its goal was to provide information on the precipitation microphysics and processes associated with cold season precipitation to support GPM snowfall retrieval algorithms that make use of a dual-frequency precipitation radar and a passive microwave imager on board the GPM core satellite,and radiometers on constellation member satellites. Multi-parameter methods are required to be able to relate changes in the microphysical character of the snow to measureable parameters from which precipitation detection and estimation can be based. The data collection strategy was coordinated, stacked, high-altitude and in-situ cloud aircraft missions with three research aircraft sampling within a broader surface network of five ground sites taking in-situ and volumetric observations. During the field campaign 25 events were identified and classified according to their varied precipitation type, synoptic context, and precipitation amount. Herein, the GCPEx fieldcampaign is described and three illustrative cases detailed.

  10. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  11. WindSat Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: WindSat is a spaceborne fully polarimetric conical scanning microwave radiometer. It operates at frequencies and polarizations that match other radiometers such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and in addition it acquires additional polarimetric measurements...

  12. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  13. New Technique for Retrieving Liquid Water Path over Land using Satellite Microwave Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Deeter, M.N.; Vivekanandan, J.

    2005-03-18

    We present a new methodology for retrieving liquid water path over land using satellite microwave observations. As input, the technique exploits the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for earth observing plan (EOS) (AMSR-E) polarization-difference signals at 37 and 89 GHz. Regression analysis performed on model simulations indicates that over variable atmospheric and surface conditions the polarization-difference signals can be simply parameterized in terms of the surface emissivity polarization difference ({Delta}{var_epsilon}), surface temperature, liquid water path (LWP), and precipitable water vapor (PWV). The resulting polarization-difference parameterization (PDP) enables fast and direct (noniterative) retrievals of LWP with minimal requirements for ancillary data. Single- and dual-channel retrieval methods are described and demonstrated. Data gridding is used to reduce the effects of instrumental noise. The methodology is demonstrated using AMSR-E observations over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during a six day period in November and December, 2003. Single- and dual-channel retrieval results mostly agree with ground-based microwave retrievals of LWP to within approximately 0.04 mm.

  14. Microwave combustion and sintering without isostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years interest has grown rapidly in the application of microwave energy to the processing of ceramics, composites, polymers, and other materials. Advances in the understanding of microwave/materials interactions will facilitate the production of new ceramic materials with superior mechanical properties. One application of particular interest is the use of microwave energy for the mobilization of uranium for subsequent redeposition. Phase III (FY98) will focus on the microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration tests for mobilization and redeposition of radioactive species in the mixed sludge waste. Uranium hexachloride and uranium (IV) borohydride are volatile compounds for which the chemical vapor infiltration procedure might be developed for the separation of uranium. Microwave heating characterized by an inverse temperature profile within a preformed ceramic matrix will be utilized for CVI using a carrier gas. Matrix deposition is expected to commence from the inside of the sample where the highest temperature is present. The preform matrix materials, which include aluminosilicate based ceramics and silicon carbide based ceramics, are all amenable to extreme volume reduction, densification, and vitrification. Important parameters of microwave sintering such as frequency, power requirement, soaking temperature, and holding time will be investigated to optimize process conditions for the volatilization of uranyl species using a reactive carrier gas in a microwave chamber.

  15. Spatio-temporal evaluation of resolution enhancement for passive microwave soil moisture and vegetation optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevaert, A. I.; Parinussa, R. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; de Jeu, R. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Space-borne passive microwave radiometers are used to derive land surface parameters such as surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth (VOD). However, the value of such products in regional hydrology is limited by their coarse resolution. In this study, the land parameter retrieval model (LPRM) is used to derive enhanced resolution (∼10 km) soil moisture and VOD from advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E) brightness temperatures sharpened by a modulation technique based on high-frequency observations. A precipitation mask based on brightness temperatures was applied to remove precipitation artefacts in the sharpened LPRM products. The spatial and temporal patterns in the resulting products are evaluated against field-measured and modeled soil moisture as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over mainland Australia. Results show that resolution enhancement accurately sharpens the boundaries of different vegetation types, lakes and wetlands. Significant changes in temporal agreement between LPRM products and related datasets are limited to specific areas, such as lakes and coastal areas. Spatial correlations, on the other hand, increase over most of Australia. In addition, hydrological signals from irrigation and water bodies that were absent in the low-resolution soil moisture product become clearly visible after resolution enhancement. The increased information detail in the high-resolution LPRM products should benefit hydrological studies at regional scales.

  16. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement, Validation, and Applications Integrated Hydrologic Validation to Improve Physical Precipitation Retrievals for GPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidar, Christa D.; Tian, Yudong; Kenneth, Tian; Harrison, Kenneth; Kumar, Sujay

    2011-01-01

    Land surface modeling and data assimilation can provide dynamic land surface state variables necessary to support physical precipitation retrieval algorithms over land. It is well-known that surface emission, particularly over the range of frequencies to be included in the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM), is sensitive to land surface states, including soil properties, vegetation type and greenness, soil moisture, surface temperature, and snow cover, density, and grain size. In order to investigate the robustness of both the land surface model states and the microwave emissivity and forward radiative transfer models, we have undertaken a multi-site investigation as part of the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions (PMM) Land Surface Characterization Working Group. Specifically, we will demonstrate the performance of the Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Peters-Lidard et aI., 2007; Kumar et al., 2006) coupled to the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA's) Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM; Weng, 2007; van Deist, 2009). The land surface is characterized by complex physical/chemical constituents and creates temporally and spatially heterogeneous surface properties in response to microwave radiation scattering. The uncertainties in surface microwave emission (both surface radiative temperature and emissivity) and very low polarization ratio are linked to difficulties in rainfall detection using low-frequency passive microwave sensors (e.g.,Kummerow et al. 2001). Therefore, addressing these issues is of utmost importance for the GPM mission. There are many approaches to parameterizing land surface emission and radiative transfer, some of which have been customized for snow (e.g., the Helsinki University of Technology or HUT radiative transfer model;) and soil moisture (e.g., the Land Surface Microwave Emission Model or LSMEM).

  18. Microwave-enhanced reaction rates for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gerbec, Jeffrey A; Magana, Donny; Washington, Aaron; Strouse, Geoffrey F

    2005-11-16

    Microwave reactor methodologies are unique in their ability to be scaled-up without suffering thermal gradient effects, providing a potentially industrially important improvement in nanocrystal synthetic methodology over convective methods. Synthesis of high-quality, near monodispersity nanoscale InGaP, InP, and CdSe have been prepared via direct microwave heating of the molecular precursors rather than convective heating of the solvent. Microwave dielectric heating not only enhances the rate of formation, it also enhances the material quality and size distributions. The reaction rates are influenced by the microwave field and by additives. The final quality of the microwave-generated materials depends on the reactant choice, the applied power, the reaction time, and temperature. CdSe nanocrystals prepared in the presence of a strong microwave absorber exhibit sharp excitonic features and a QY of 68% for microwave-grown materials. InGaP and InP are rapidly formed at 280 degrees C in minutes, yielding clean reactions and monodisperse size distributions that require no size-selective precipitation and result in the highest out of batch quantum efficiency reported to date of 15% prior to chemical etching. The use of microwave (MW) methodology is readily scalable to larger reaction volumes, allows faster reaction times, removes the need for high-temperature injection, and suggests a specific microwave effect may be present in these reactions.

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Test Report, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation(EMR) and Electromagnetic Capability (EMC) for the EOS/AMSU-A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paliwoda, L.

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project, assembly part number 1356008-1, serial number 202, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Electromagnetic Susceptibility (EMC) qualification test. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/8B, dated 10 September 1998. Aerojet intends that the presentation and submittal of this document, prepared in accordance with the objectives established by the aforementioned Test Plan/Procedure, document number AE-26151/8B, will satisfy the data requirement with respect to the AMSU-A/EOS instrument operational compliance of the EMI/EMC test requirement. Test for the AMSU-A/EOS instrument have been completed and all the requirements per General Interface Requirement Document (GIRD), GSFC 422-11-12-01, for EOS Common Spacecraft/Instruments, paragraph 10.11, were met with the exceptions of the test methods CE03, RE01, and RE02, as described in this document.

  20. Diurnal Difference Vegetation Water Content (ddVWC) of Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for assessment of crop water stress at regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) derived Vegetation Water Content (VWC) at predawn (01:30 LST, descending pass) and afternoon (13:30 LST; ascending pass) were used to assess crop water stress condition over the selected meteorological subdivisions of India. The temporal profile of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to study the progression of crop growth. The Diurnal Difference Vegetation Water Content (ddVWC) was found to be sensitive to rainfall patterns (wet/dry spell) particularly in moderate to full crop cover condition (NDVI > 0.4). The ddVWC was found to be significantly (p = 0.05) correlated with the rainfall over the rainfed regions. The ddVWC was further characterized to represent different categories of crop water stress considering irrigated flooded rice crop as a benchmark. Inter year comparative analysis of temporal variations of the ddVWC revealed its capability to differentiate normal (2005) and sub-normal years (2008 and 2009) in term of intensity and persistence of crop water stress. Spatio-temporal patterns of ddVWC could capture regional progression of crop water stress at high temporal resolution in near real time.

  1. Microwave guiding in air by a cylindrical filament array waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Chateauneuf, M.; Dubois, J.; Payeur, S.; Kieffer, J.-C.

    2008-03-03

    Microwave guiding was demonstrated over 16 cm in air using a large diameter hollow plasma waveguide. The waveguide was generated with the 100 TW femtosecond laser system at the Advanced Laser Light Source facility. A deformable mirror was used to spatially shape the intense laser pulses in order to generate hundreds of filaments judiciously distributed in a cylindrical shape, creating a cylindrical plasma wall that acts as a microwave waveguide. The microwaves were confined for about 10 ns, which corresponds to the free electron plasma wall recombination time. The characteristics of the plasma waveguide and the results of microwave guiding are presented.

  2. Microwave Brightness Of Land Surfaces From Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Yann H.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical model approximates microwave radiation emitted by land surfaces traveling to microwave radiometer in outer space. Applied to measurements made by Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). Developed for interpretation of microwave imagery of Earth to obtain distributions of various chemical, physical, and biological characteristics across its surface. Intended primarily for use in mapping moisture content of soil and fraction of Earth covered by vegetation. Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), provides additional information on vegetative cover, thereby making possible retrieval of soil-moisture values from SMMR measurements. Possible to monitor changes of land surface during intervals of 5 to 10 years, providing significant data for mathematical models of evolution of climate.

  3. An Overview of GPM At-Launch Level 2 Precipitation Algorithms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, S. J.; Meneghini, R.; Kummerow, C. D.; Olson, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement core satellite will carry the most advanced array of precipitation sensing instruments yet flown in space, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). Algorithms to convert the measurements from these instruments to precipitation rates have been developed and tested with data from aircraft instruments, physical model simulations, and existing satellites. These algorithms build upon the heritage of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) algorithms to take advantage of the additional frequencies probed by GMI and DPR. As with TRMM, three instrument-specific level 2 precipitation products will be available: Radar-only, radiometer-only, and combined radar-radiometer. The radar-only product will be further subdivided into three subproducts: Ku-band-only (245 km swath), Ka-band-only (120 km swath with enhanced sensitivity), and Ku-Ka (120 km swath). The dual-frequency algorithm will provide enhanced estimation of rainfall rates and microphysical parameters such as mean raindrop size and phase identification relative to single-frequency products. The GMI precipitation product will be based upon a Bayesian algorithm that seeks to match observed brightness against those in a database. After launch, this database will be populated with observations from the GPM Core Observatory, but the at-launch database consists of profiles observed by TRMM, CloudSat, ground radars, and is augmented by model data fields to facilitate the generation of databases at non-observed frequencies. Ancillary data is used to subset the database by surface temperature, column water vapor, and surface type. This algorithm has been tested with data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder and comparisons with ground-based radar mosaic rainfall (NMQ) will be presented. The combined GMI-DPR algorithm uses an ensemble filtering approach to create and adjust many solutions (owing to different assumptions about the

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  5. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  6. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  7. Precipitation Data from Space for Hydrology: TRMM Era to GPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Tian, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Beginning shortly after the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in late 1997, an increased emphasis was placed upon the development and evaluation of multi-satellite or "blended" techniques, that attempted to marry the best features of the precipitation estimates from the multiple, intermittently spaced passive (or active) microwave sensors, with the fine spatial and temporal sampling provided by the global operational geostationary imagers. These collective efforts have largely converged to the "motion-based" methodologies inherent in the designs of the current Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) merged product (IMERG) and the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) produced by the Japanese Space Agency JAXA. At their core, the performance of the multi-satellite techniques hinges upon the quality of the input precipitation data that is inherited from the various passive microwave (PMW) radiometers, such as the TRMM Microwave Imager, and the most recent GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). Typically, the radiometrically warm land surface background and its highly variable surface characteristics have limited the use of these sensors to the higher-frequency channels, which perform poorly for lighter rainfall and over complex, cold surfaces. This has limited the use of these data for hydrological modeling in watersheds where much of the streamflow originates from runoff of cold-season precipitation and snow. In this presentation, we will discuss some of the more recent changes to satellite-based precipitation techniques to account for land surface properties, including techniques that have been (or are under consideration for) the GPM over-land precipitation products.

  8. Some comments on passive microwave measurement of rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, Thomas T.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that because microwave radiation interacts much more strongly with hydrometeors than with cloud particles, microwave measurements from space offer a significant chance of making global precipitation estimates. Over oceans, passive microwave measurements are essentially attenuation measurements that can be very closely related to the rain rate independently of the details of the drop-size distribution. Over land, scattering of microwave radiation by the hydrometeors, especially in the ice phase, can be used to estimate rainfall. In scattering, the details of the drop-size distribution are very important and it is therefore more difficult to achieve a high degree of accuracy. The SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager), a passive microwave imaging sensor that will be launched soon, will have dual-polarized channels at 85.5 GHz that will be very sensitive to scattering by frozen hydrometeors. Other sensors being considered for the future space missions would extend the ability to estimate rain rates from space. The ideal spaceborne precipitation-measurement system would use the complementary strengths of passive microwave, radar, and visible/infrared measurements.

  9. Overview and Scientific Agenda of Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the status of the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) currently planned for launch in the 2007-2008 time frame. The GPM notional design involves a 9-member satellite constellation, one of which wilt be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar (DFPR) and a TMI-like radiometer. The other eight members of the constellation will be considered daughters of the core satellite, each carrying some type of passive microwave radiometer measuring across the 10.7 - 85 GHz ,frequency range - likely to include a combination of lightweight satellites and co-existing operational/Experimental satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers (i.e., SSM/I and AMSR-E & -F). The constellation is designed to provide no worse than 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe using sun-synchronous orbit architecture for the daughter satellites, with the core satellite providing relevant measurements on internal cloud-precipitation microphysical processes and the "training-calibrating" information for retrieval algorithms used on daughter satellite measurements. The GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US, NASDA in Japan, and ESA in Europe (representing the European community nations). The mission is expected to involve additional international participants, sister agencies to the mainstream space agencies, and a diverse collection scientists from academia, government, and the private sector, A critical element in understanding the scientific thinking which has motivated the GPM project is an understanding of what scientific problems TRMM has and has not been able to address and at what scales. The TRMM satellite broke important scientific ground because it carried to space an array of rain-sensitive instruments, two of which were specifically designed for physical precipitation retrieval. These were the 9-channel TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the 13.8 GHz Precipitation Radar (PR

  10. Precipitation Signatures Observed by EDOP, AMPR and MIR During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Skofronick-Jackson, G. M.; Hood, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Manning, W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) field campaign of January - February 1999, EDOP (ER-2 Doppler Radar), AMPR (Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer), and MIR (Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer) on board the NASA ER-2 aircraft made a number of flights over the same Amazon area for studies of precipitation signatures. It is generally perceived that AMPR, with measurements at the frequencies of 10.7, 19.35, 37.0, and 85 GHz, is not sensitive to precipitation over land; a possible exception is detection through electromagnetic wave scattering at 85 GHz by frozen hydrometeors aloft above the freezing level. Analysis of the combined data sets from these instruments shows that, in the Amazon highly forested areas where the surface emissivity is high and uniform, direct detection of rain by a radiometer at frequencies less than or equal to 37 GHz is possible. The detection of rain is reflected by a depression in brightness temperature, which amounts to as much as 20 K at 19.35 GHz. Measurements at higher frequencies by the MIR help delineate the regions of scattering signatures above the freezing level. Implications of the combined wideband measurements from AMPR and MIR will be discussed.

  11. Gauge Adjusted Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP_GAUGE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mega, T.; Ushio, T.; Yoshida, S.; Kawasaki, Z.; Kubota, T.; Kachi, M.; Aonashi, K.; Shige, S.

    2013-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important parameters on the earth system, and the global distribution of precipitation and its change are essential data for modeling the water cycle, maintaining the ecosystem environment, agricultural production, improvements of the weather forecast precision, flood warning and so on. The GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) project is led mainly by the United States and Japan, and is now being actively promoted in Europe, France, India, and China with international cooperation. In this project, the microwave radiometers observing microwave emission from rain will be placed on many low-orbit satellites, to reduce the interval to about 3 hours in observation time for each location on the earth. However, the problem of sampling error arises if the global precipitation estimates are less than three hours. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize a gap-filling technique to generate precipitation maps with high temporal resolution, which is quite important for operational uses such as flash flood warning systems. Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) project was established by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) in 2002 to produce global precipitation products with high resolution and high precision from not only microwave radiometers but also geostationary infrared radiometers. Currently, the GSMaP_MVK product has been successfully producing fairly good pictures in near real time, and the products shows a comparable score compared with other high-resolution precipitation systems (Ushio et al. 2009 and Kubota et al. 2009). However some evaluations particularly of the operational applications show the tendency of underestimation compared to some ground based observations for the cases showing extremely high precipitation rates. This is partly because the spatial and temporal samplings of the satellite estimates are different from that of the ground based estimates. The microwave imager observes signals from

  12. Current status of the dual-frequency precipitation radar on the global precipitation measurement core spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, K.; Nio, T.; Konishi, T.; Oki, R.; Masaki, T.; Kubota, T.; Iguchi, T.; Hanado, H.

    2015-10-01

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite was developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The GPM is a follow-on mission of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The objectives of the GPM mission are to observe global precipitation more frequently and accurately than TRMM. The frequent precipitation measurement about every three hours will be achieved by some constellation satellites with microwave radiometers (MWRs) or microwave sounders (MWSs), which will be developed by various countries. The accurate measurement of precipitation in mid-high latitudes will be achieved by the DPR. The GPM core satellite is a joint product of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), JAXA and NICT. NASA developed the satellite bus and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and JAXA and NICT developed the DPR. JAXA and NICT developed the DPR through procurement. The configuration of precipitation measurement using active radar and a passive radiometer is similar to TRMM. The major difference is that DPR is used in GPM instead of the precipitation radar (PR) in TRMM. The inclination of the core satellite is 65 degrees, and the nominal flight altitude is 407 km. The non-sun-synchronous circular orbit is necessary for measuring the diurnal change of rainfall similarly to TRMM. The DPR consists of two radars, which are Ku-band (13.6 GHz) precipitation radar (KuPR) and Ka-band (35.5 GHz) precipitation radar (KaPR). Both KuPR and KaPR have almost the same design as TRMM PR. The DPR system design and performance were verified through the ground test. GPM core observatory was launched at 18:37:00 (UT) on February 27, 2014 successfully. DPR orbital check out was completed in May 2014. The results of orbital checkout show that DPR meets its specification on orbit. After completion of initial checkout, DPR started Normal

  13. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Behavior of multitemporal and multisensor passive microwave indices in Southern Hemisphere ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza, Veronica; Grings, Francisco; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Huete, Alfredo; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Beringer, Jason; Van Gorsel, Eva; Karszenbaum, Haydee

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the time series analysis of passive microwave and optical satellite data collected from six Southern Hemisphere ecosystems in Australia and Argentina. The selected ecosystems represent a wide range of land cover types, including deciduous open forest, temperate forest, tropical and semiarid savannas, and grasslands. We used two microwave indices, the frequency index (FI) and polarization index (PI), to assess the relative contributions of soil and vegetation properties (moisture and structure) to the observations. Optical-based satellite vegetation products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer were also included to aid in the analysis. We studied the X and Ka bands of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS and Wind Satellite, resulting in up to four observations per day (1:30, 6:00, 13:30, and 18:00 h). Both the seasonal and hourly variations of each of the indices were examined. Environmental drivers (precipitation and temperature) and eddy covariance measurements (gross ecosystem productivity and latent energy) were also analyzed. It was found that in moderately dense forests, FI was dependent on canopy properties (leaf area index and vegetation moisture). In tropical woody savannas, a significant regression (R2) was found between FI and PI with precipitation (R2 > 0.5) and soil moisture (R2 > 0.6). In the areas of semiarid savanna and grassland ecosystems, FI variations found to be significantly related to soil moisture (R2 > 0.7) and evapotranspiration (R2 > 0.5), while PI varied with vegetation phenology. Significant differences (p < 0.01) were found among FI values calculated at the four local times.

  15. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  16. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  17. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  18. Retrieval assessment using the microwave simulation tool for the High Altitude and LOng range aircraft HALO: humidity, temperature and hydrometeor profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mech, M.; Crewell, S.; Orlandi, E.; Hirsch, L.

    2011-12-01

    New cloud observation techniques are needed to improve our understanding of the impact of clouds on the Earth's water cycle and radiation budget, which still represents one of the largest uncertainties in global and regional climate modelling. An airborne platform for such observation techniques will be provided by the new German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude LOng Range). In early 2013 a dedicated remote sensing mission NARVAL employing the microwave package HAMP (HALO Microwave Package; 36 channels microwave radiometer and 35.5 GHz Doppler radar), wind and water vapour lidar as well as auxiliary measurements will invest cloud systems in the North Atlantic in much higher detail than feasible on space-borne platforms. An advanced set of microwave remote cloud sensing instruments is to be operated on board of HALO. It consists of a cloud radar and a suite of passive radiometers in different frequency bands. The radar MIRA-36 operates at 35.5 GHz. The frequencies for the passive microwave radiometers were selected in allusion to the AMSU-A and -B sounder. In addition to the channels along the 60 GHz oxygen complex measurements along the 118 GHz oxygen line hint at the vertical distribution of liquid water that show a strong emission increase with frequency. This combination can be used for precipitation retrieval. In addition to include channels in the water vapor lines at 22.235 GHz and 183.31 GHz, information about the water vapor distribution throughout the troposphere can be retrieved. By including higher microwave channels sensitive to scattering in the ice phase various precipitation retrieval algorithms can be compared with measurements from HAMP. Retrieval algorithms and potential flight patterns are investigated using a simulation test bed combining cloud model and radiative transfer simulations. Thereby the cloud resolving model simulations and the forward radiative transfer calculations include a one- and two-moment cloud microphysical scheme with

  19. Diurnal variability of precipitation from TRMM measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Smith, Eric A.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2006-12-01

    This investigation focuses on developing a better understanding of the assorted mechanisms controlling the global distribution of diurnal rainfall variability. The horizontal distributions of precipitation's diurnal cycle, based on eight years of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) measurements involving three TRMM standard algorithms, are analyzed in detail at various spatiotemporal scales. Results demonstrate the prominence of the late-evening to early-morning precipitation maxima over oceans and the mid- to late-afternoon maxima over continents, but also reveal a widespread distribution of secondary maxima occurring over both oceans and continents, maxima which generally mirror their counterpart regime's behavior. That is, many ocean regions exhibit clear-cut secondary afternoon precipitation maxima while many continental areas exhibit just as evident secondary morning maxima. Notably, this investigation represents the first comprehensive study of these secondary maxima and their widespread nature when analyzed using a global precipitation dataset. The characteristics of the secondary maxima are thoroughly mapped and described on a global grid. In addition, a Fourier harmonic decomposition scheme is used to examine detailed amplitude and phase properties of the primary and secondary maxima -- as well as tertiary and quartern modes. Accordingly, the advantages, ambiguities, and pitfalls resulting from using harmonic analysis are also examined.

  20. Anticipated Improvements in Precipitation Physics and Understanding of Water Cycle from GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    The GPM mission is currently planned for start in the late-2007 to early-2008 time frame. Its main scientific goal is to help answer pressing scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like core satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe -- continuously. The constellation s orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, involving existing, pending, projected, and under-study partnerships which will link NASA and NOAA in the US, NASDA in Japan, ESA in Europe, ISRO in India, CNES in France, and possibly AS1 in Italy, KARI in South Korea, CSA in Canada, and AEB in Brazil. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international collaborators and

  1. Snowfall Rate Retrieval Using Passive Microwave Measurements and Its Applications in Weather Forecast and Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Yan, Banghua; Zavodsky, Bradley; Zhao, Limin; Dong, Jun; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has also been developed. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. It employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derives the probability of snowfall. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model. A method adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The SFR products are being used mainly in two communities: hydrology and weather forecast. Global blended precipitation products traditionally do not include snowfall derived from satellites because such products were not available operationally in the past. The ATMS and AMSU/MHS SFR now provide the winter precipitation information for these blended precipitation products. Weather forecasters mainly rely on radar and station observations for snowfall forecast. The SFR products can fill in gaps where no conventional snowfall data are available to forecasters. The products can also be used to confirm radar and gauge snowfall data and increase forecasters' confidence in their prediction.

  2. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  3. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Gu, Guojun; Nelkin, Eric J.; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Stocker, Erich; Wolff, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) provides a calibration-based sequential scheme for combining multiple precipitation estimates from satellites, as well as gauge analyses where feasible, at fine scales (0.25 degrees x 0.25 degrees and 3-hourly). It is available both after and in real time, based on calibration by the TRMM Combined Instrument and TRMM Microwave Imager precipitation products, respectively. Only the after-real-time product incorporates gauge data at the present. The data set covers the latitude band 50 degrees N-S for the period 1998 to the delayed present. Early validation results are as follows: The TMPA provides reasonable performance at monthly scales, although it is shown to have precipitation rate dependent low bias due to lack of sensitivity to low precipitation rates in one of the input products (based on AMSU-B). At finer scales the TMPA is successful at approximately reproducing the surface-observation-based histogram of precipitation, as well as reasonably detecting large daily events. The TMPA, however, has lower skill in correctly specifying moderate and light event amounts on short time intervals, in common with other fine-scale estimators. Examples are provided of a flood event and diurnal cycle determination.

  4. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  5. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  6. [Comparison of thawing of plasma by microwave or water bath: preliminary longitudinal biological study of hemostatic parameters].

    PubMed

    Gris, J C; Joussemet, M; Bourin, P; Fabre, G; Schved, J F

    1988-10-01

    Exploration of haemostasis was performed on plasmas thawed in an experimental microwave oven comparatively to a 37 degrees C water bath. Factor VIII:R:Ag, procoagulant and antigenic fibrinogen, and Fg:C/Fg:Ag ratio were found to be significantly, slightly decreased with microwave thawing. Factor VIII:C and VIII:C/VIII:R:Ag ratio were found to be increased with microwaves. Antigenic fractions were decreased because of partial precipitation. In addition, Fibrinogen slightly lost its activity; on the contrary, factor VIIIC was activated by micro-waves. All this allows to select parameters for new experimental microwave ovens development.

  7. Plasma enhanced microwave joining

    SciTech Connect

    Yiin, T.; Barmatz, M.; Sayir, A.

    1995-12-31

    A new method for plasma enhanced microwave joining of high purity (99.8%) alumina has been developed. The controlled application of a plasma between the adjoining surfaces of two rods initially heats the microwave-low-absorbing alumina rods to temperatures high enough for them to absorb microwave energy efficiently. With this technology, the adjacent surfaces of alumina rods can be melted and welded together in less than three minutes using approximately 400 watts of microwave energy. Four point bending tests measured fracture strengths of up to 130 MPa at the joined interface. Optical and SEM micrographs indicated that exaggerated grain growth prevailed for all joints studied.

  8. Merging Satellites, Models and Gauges to Obtain New Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiano, M.; Smith, T.; Arkin, P. A.; Janowiak, J.

    2009-12-01

    The most frequently used merged satellite/gauge global analyses of precipitation are the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) analysis and the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The multi-source nature of these datasets allows them to use the best data available to produce the most accurate estimate of precipitation for any given place and time. However, the quality of these datasets is reduced over mid- and high-latitude oceans where satellite estimates are of lower quality. Additionally, discontinuities, artifacts and inhomogeneities can be introduced by the use of time-varying inputs, which can impact the suitability of these datasets for investigation of long-term changes in global precipitation. The Multi-Source Analysis of Precipitation (MSAP) is a new global analysis of precipitation using Optimum Interpolation (OI) which naturally yields errors associated with the analysis that are needed for many applications. The initial version of the dataset uses the relatively long, consistent precipitation record (~20 years) from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and forecast precipitation from the ERA-40 reanalysis. This version has been updated to include the ERA-Interim data which extends the record to 22 years, as well as several other modifications and corrections. We will also show results form recent experiments to construct an even longer version of MSAP which uses satellite estimate based on the OLR record which extends to 30 years.

  9. Selective Precipitation of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-01-01

    Selective precipitation of proteins can be used as a bulk method to recover the majority of proteins from a crude lysate, as a selective method to fractionate a subset of proteins from a protein solution, or as a very specific method to recover a single protein of interest from a purification step. This unit describes a number of methods suitable for selective precipitation. In each of the protocols that are outlined, the physical or chemical basis of the precipitation process, the parameters that can be varied for optimization, and the basic steps for developing an optimized precipitation are described.

  10. Auroral precipitation and descent of thermospheric NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, Sven; Espy, Patrick; Hibbins, Robert; Paxton, Larry; Funke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Energetic particle precipitation in Auroras (E <20 keV) produces nitric oxide (NO) in the upper meso- and lower thermosphere region (UMLT). The subsequent descent of the NO produced in the UMLT to the lower meso- and upper stratosphere is referred to as the energetic particle precipitation indirect effect (EPP IE). The downwelling of NO produced in Auroras alters the chemistry of the mesosphere and upper stratosphere (e.g. by the NOx cycle) and possibly has important effects also on its dynamics. By observations of auroral precipitation from SSUSI(DMSP) and measurements of NO from MIPAS(ENVISAT) and SMR(ODIN) we investigate the quantitative relation of the electron fluxes and characteristic energies of auroral precipitation to the NO produced in the lower thermosphere and the subsequent downwelling of NO. Using additional ground-based (e.g. Meteor Radar, Microwave Radiometer) and satellite observations (SOFIE) we attempt to quantify the EPP IE and its impact on atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.

  11. Radiation-hardened microwave system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Moore, J.A.; Nowlin, C.H.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop a wireless communication system to meet the stringent requirements for a nuclear hot cell and similar environments, including control of advanced servomanipulators, a microwave signal transmission system development program was established to produce a demonstration prototype for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Proof-of-principle tests in a partially metal lined enclosure at ORNL successfully demonstrated the feasibility of directed microwave signal transmission techniques for remote systems applications. The potential for much more severe RF multipath propagation conditions in fully metal lined cells led to a programmatic decision to conduct additional testing in more typical hot-cell environments at other sites. Again, the test results were excellent. Based on the designs of the earlier systems, an advanced MSTS configuration was subsequently developed that, in highly reflective environments, will support both high-performance video channels and high band-rate digital data links at total gamma dose tolerance levels exceeding 10{sup 7} rads and at elevated ambient temperatures. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dongmin; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Huffman, George J.; Rossow, William B.; Kang, In-Sik

    2011-01-01

    We examine the daytime precipitation characteristics of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states in the extended tropics (35 deg S to 35 deg N) for a 10-year period. Our main precipitation data set is the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 data set, but Global Precipitation Climatology Project daily data are also used for comparison. We find that the most convective weather state (WS1), despite an occurrence frequency below 10%, is the most dominant state with regard to surface precipitation, producing both the largest mean precipitation rates when present and the largest percent contribution to the total precipitation of the tropical zone of our study; yet, even this weather state appears to not precipitate about half the time. WS1 exhibits a modest annual cycle of domain-average precipitation rate, but notable seasonal shifts in its geographic distribution. The precipitation rates of the other weather states tend to be stronger when occurring before or after WS1. The relative contribution of the various weather states to total precipitation is different between ocean and land, with WS1 producing more intense precipitation on average over ocean than land. The results of this study, in addition to advancing our understanding of the current state of tropical precipitation, can serve as a higher order diagnostic test on whether it is distributed realistically among different weather states in atmospheric models.

  13. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  14. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  15. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  16. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  17. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  18. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  19. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  20. PRECIPITATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-07-15

    An lmprovement in the separation of protactinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. 1t covers the use of lead dioxide and tin dioxide as carrier precipitates for the protactinium. In carrying out the process, divalent lead or divalent tin is addcd to the solution and oxidized, causing formation of a carrier precipitate of lead dioxide or stannic oxide, respectively.

  1. Electrostatic precipitator efficiency enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzotti, D.M.; Steelhammer, J.C.

    1983-05-24

    Method for enhancing the removal of particles from a particleladen gas stream utilizing an electrostatic precipitator, which comprises treating the gas with morpholine or derivatives thereof. Treated particles are found to also have desirable flow characteristics. Particularly effective compositions for the purpose comprise a combination of the morpholine, or derivative thereof, with an electrostatic precipitator efficiency enhancer, and in particular an alkanolamine.

  2. Synthesis and microwave modification of CuO nanoparticles: crystallinity and morphological variations, catalysis, and gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Jide; Su, Xintai

    2014-12-01

    CuO nanoparticles with different morphologies were synthesized by chemical precipitation and subsequently modified by microwave hydrothermal processing. The nanoparticles were precipitated by the introduction of a strong base to an aqueous solution of copper cations in the presence/absence of the polyethylene glycol and urea additives. The modification of the nanoparticles was subsequently carried out by a microwave hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of the precipitates, precipitated with and without the additives. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity and crystallite size of the CuO nanoparticles increased after the microwave hydrothermal modification. Microscopy observations revealed the morphology changes induced by microwave hydrothermal processing. The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and the detection of volatile gases were performed to evaluate the catalytic and gas sensing properties of the synthesized CuO nanoparticles.

  3. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  4. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  5. Passive microwave algorithm development and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Grant W.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific objectives of this grant are: (1) thoroughly evaluate, both theoretically and empirically, all available Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) retrieval algorithms for column water vapor, column liquid water, and surface wind speed; (2) where both appropriate and feasible, develop, validate, and document satellite passive microwave retrieval algorithms that offer significantly improved performance compared with currently available algorithms; and (3) refine and validate a novel physical inversion scheme for retrieving rain rate over the ocean. This report summarizes work accomplished or in progress during the first year of a three year grant. The emphasis during the first year has been on the validation and refinement of the rain rate algorithm published by Petty and on the analysis of independent data sets that can be used to help evaluate the performance of rain rate algorithms over remote areas of the ocean. Two articles in the area of global oceanic precipitation are attached.

  6. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  7. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  8. Structure and Characteristics of Precipitation Systems Observed by TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steve; Cecil, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-sensor measurements of total lightning (in-cloud plus cloud-to-ground) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite has been combined with passive microwave ice scattering and precipitation radar reflectivity profile information previously cataloged for precipitation features observed by TRMM. These precipitation features are defined by their surface rainfall or ice scattering signatures, with horizontal scales approx. 100 - 10000 sq km. Additionally, convective scale (approx. 100 sq km) storms are defined by the lightning data. Over the U.S. the national cloud-to-ground lightning observations are used to also determine the ratio of in-cloud to cloud-to-ground lightning, where it is hypothesized these ratios are related to the vertical profile of reflectivity and concentration of precipitation-sized ice. Combining the LIS, TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and Precipitation Radar (PR) for these storms allows investigation of the convective structures and convective regimes leading to observed lightning, scattering, and reflectivity signatures. Application of this approach to a global, multi-year data set (1998-2000) furthers our understanding of convective processes in different climatological regimes. The figure shows the distribution of high flash rate storms.

  9. Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

    Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

  10. Microwave drilling of bones.

    PubMed

    Eshet, Yael; Mann, Ronit Rachel; Anaton, Abby; Yacoby, Tomer; Gefen, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue in vitro using the microwave drill method [Jerby et al, 2002], toward testing its applicability in orthopaedic surgery. The microwave drill uses a near-field focused energy (typically, power under approximately 200 W at 2.45-GHz frequency) in order to penetrate bone in a drilling speed of approximately 1 mm/s. The effect of microwave drilling on mechanical properties of whole ovine tibial and chicken femoral bones drilled in vitro was studied using three-point-bending strength and fatigue tests. Properties were compared to those of geometrically similar bones that were equivalently drilled using the currently accepted mechanical rotary drilling method. Strength of mid-shaft, elastic moduli, and cycles to failure in fatigue were statistically indistinguishable between specimen groups assigned for microwave and mechanical drilling. Carbonized margins around the microwave-drilled hole were approximately 15% the hole diameter. Optical and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the microwave drill produces substantially smoother holes in cortical bone than those produced by a mechanical drill. The hot spot produced by the microwave drill has the potential for overcoming two major problems presently associated with mechanical drilling in cortical and trabecular bone during orthopaedic surgeries: formation of debris and rupture of bone vasculature during drilling.

  11. Inter-comparison of precipitation retrievals from the Global Precipitation Measurement mission constellation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Chris; Matsui, Toshihisa; Randel, Dave; Stocker, Erich; Kummerow, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) is an international satellite mission that brings together a number of different component satellites and sensors, each contributing observations capable of providing information on precipitation. The joint US-Japan core observatory, launched on 27 February 2014, carries the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The core observatory serves as a standard against which other sensors in the constellation are calibrated, providing a consistent observational dataset to ensure the highest quality precipitation retrievals to be made. Precipitation retrievals from the constellation of partner satellites are generated through the common framework of the Goddard-PROFiling (GPROF) scheme, and is applied to both the conically-scanning sensors and the cross-track sensors; the provision of precipitation estimates from all the constellation sensors contributing to the better-than 3-hour average temporal sampling. This study focuses upon the inter-comparison of the products from the different sensors during the first year of GPM operations; March 2014-February 2015. The two regions chosen for the inter-comparison, are the United States and Western Europe, and utilize the extensive radar networks of these regions. Statistical results were generated for instantaneous precipitation retrievals for each of the constellation sensors. Results show that overall the retrievals from the cross-track observations produce higher correlations with the surface radar data sets than the retrievals from the conically-scanning observations, although they tend to have higher root-mean squared errors. Some variation in performance between the individual types of sensors is also noted, which may be attributed to assumptions within the retrieval scheme (e.g. resolution, background fields, etc); other differences require further investigation.

  12. Microwave integrated circuits for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), which incorporate all the elements of a microwave circuit on a single semiconductor substrate, offer the potential for drastic reductions in circuit weight and volume and increased reliability, all of which make many new concepts in electronic circuitry for space applications feasible, including phased array antennas. NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of MMICs for space applications. The first such circuits targeted for development were an extension of work in hybrid (discrete component) technology in support of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). It focused on power amplifiers, receivers, and switches at ACTS frequencies. More recent work, however, focused on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and emphasizes advanced materials in an effort to enhance efficiency, power handling capability, and frequency of operation or noise figure to meet the requirements of space systems.

  13. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  14. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  15. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  16. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  17. Microwave sterilization of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Anzanel, D; Salvatorelli, G

    1993-01-01

    A new method is described which makes it possible to treat metal materials with microwaves. In consequence scalpel blades as well as cover glasses contaminated with four species of bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were sterilized. With this method sterilization can be achieved quite rapidly (1.5-2 min). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a progressive alteration in the morphology of micro-organisms and this proved proportional to the microwave exposure time. Only in Proteus mirabilis were no modifications found, even after long periods of microwave exposure. PMID:8302204

  18. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  19. IMERG Global Precipitation Rates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission has produced its first global map of rainfall and snowfall. The GPM Core Observatory launched one year ago on Feb. 27, 2014 as a collaboration betwee...

  20. My NASA Data Precipitation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson has two activities that help students develop a basic understanding of the relationship between cloud type and the form of precipitation and the relationship between the amount of water...

  1. Chemisorption And Precipitation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transport and bioavailability of chemical components within soils is, in part, controlled by partitioning between solids and solution. General terms used to describe these partitioning reactions include chemisorption and precipitation. Chemisorption is inclusive of the suit...

  2. A global satellite-assisted precipitation climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, A.; Michaelsen, J.; Peterson, P.; Pedreros, D.; Husak, G.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high-resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data-sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  3. A global satellite assisted precipitation climatology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Verdin, Andrew P.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Pedreros, Diego; Husak, Gregory J.; Peterson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate representations of mean climate conditions, especially in areas of complex terrain, are an important part of environmental monitoring systems. As high-resolution satellite monitoring information accumulates with the passage of time, it can be increasingly useful in efforts to better characterize the earth's mean climatology. Current state-of-the-science products rely on complex and sometimes unreliable relationships between elevation and station-based precipitation records, which can result in poor performance in food and water insecure regions with sparse observation networks. These vulnerable areas (like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, or Haiti) are often the critical regions for humanitarian drought monitoring. Here, we show that long period of record geo-synchronous and polar-orbiting satellite observations provide a unique new resource for producing high resolution (0.05°) global precipitation climatologies that perform reasonably well in data sparse regions. Traditionally, global climatologies have been produced by combining station observations and physiographic predictors like latitude, longitude, elevation, and slope. While such approaches can work well, especially in areas with reasonably dense observation networks, the fundamental relationship between physiographic variables and the target climate variables can often be indirect and spatially complex. Infrared and microwave satellite observations, on the other hand, directly monitor the earth's energy emissions. These emissions often correspond physically with the location and intensity of precipitation. We show that these relationships provide a good basis for building global climatologies. We also introduce a new geospatial modeling approach based on moving window regressions and inverse distance weighting interpolation. This approach combines satellite fields, gridded physiographic indicators, and in situ climate normals. The resulting global 0.05° monthly precipitation climatology, the Climate

  4. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannitsem, S.; Naveau, P.

    2007-09-01

    For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space. Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter) and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.). Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days) strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km) for summer (winter) for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  5. Electrostatic precipitator upgrading -- Twelve years of progress

    SciTech Connect

    Grieco, G.J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1984 the author presented a paper entitled ``Electrostatic Precipitator Upgrading: A Technology Overview`` which reviewed various technologies for electrostatic precipitator performance enhancement in the utility industry. This evaluation was based on a set of criteria which included: commercial status; space requirements; required outage time for installation; installed cost; operating cost; range of applicability; and performance enhancement factor. The upgrade technologies discussed and evaluated included: gas/particulate flow upgrade; microprocessor controller retrofit; transformer-rectifier (T/R) set upgrade; pulse energization; electrode rapping modification; flue gas conditioning agents such as sulfur trioxide, ammonia and sodium; pulse energization; precipitator rebuild; and precipitator retrofit. The findings of this 1984 survey are summarized on Table 1. The installed costs listed on this table range from a low end cost associated with large precipitators with 250,000 ft{sup 2} of collecting electrode plate area and above, to a high end cost for small precipitators with only 25,000 ft{sup 2} of plate area. Twelve years later this subject is revisited and, surprisingly, significant progress has been made--this in spite of what some experts would characterize as a mature and somewhat stagnant technology field. Commercially proven techniques such as advanced flue gas conditioning, sonic horns, selective fuel blending using powder river basin coals, prudent selection of electrode geometry, and pulse energization are discussed and evaluated. Updated costs are presented for these technologies.

  6. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  7. The Relationship between Wind Speed and Precipitation in the Pacific ITCZ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Larissa E.; Bretherton, Christopher S.

    2005-10-01

    The relationship between wind speed and precipitation in the Pacific ITCZ is analyzed using 4 yr of daily Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) satellite passive microwave retrievals averaged over 2.5° boxes. Throughout the ITCZ, at high-column relative humidities (conditions under which deep convection is likely to occur), faster winds are associated with substantially more precipitation, explaining a small, but highly statistically significant fraction of daily rainfall variability. The slope of this relationship varies geographically and rapidly increases as the atmosphere becomes moister. Analysis of other data sources, including vector mean winds computed from QuikSCAT and area-averaged radar-derived precipitation estimates from Kwajalein Island, shows that the wind speed precipitation correlation is robust.This relation provides a test of large-scale forecast models and insight into conceptual models of deep convection. The observed increases in precipitation are much greater than evaporation changes associated with the increased wind speed; this implies a convergence feedback by which evaporation induces moisture convergence that feeds increases in precipitation. The authors study whether the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) and NCEP NCAR reanalysis show the observed wind speed precipitation correlation and explore mechanisms for convergence feedback using column-integrated moist static energy budgets computed from the reanalyses.

  8. Subsurface Emission Effects in AMSR-E Measurements: Implications for Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of land surface microwave emission time series shows that the characteristic diurnal signature associated with subsurface emission in sandy deserts carry over to arid and semi-arid region worldwide. Prior work found that diurnal variation of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures in deserts was small relative to International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project land surface temperature (LST) variation and that the difference varied with surface type and was largest in sand sea regions. Here we find more widespread subsurface emission effects in Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. The AMSR-E orbit has equator crossing times near 01:30 and 13 :30 local time, resulting in sampling when near-surface temperature gradients are likely to be large and amplifying the influence of emission depth on effective emitting temperature relative to other factors. AMSR-E measurements are also temporally coincident with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST measurements, eliminating time lag as a source of LST uncertainty and reducing LST errors due to undetected clouds. This paper presents monthly global emissivity and emission depth index retrievals for 2003 at 11, 19, 37, and 89 GHz from AMSR-E, MODIS, and SSM/I time series data. Retrieval model fit error, stability, self-consistency, and land surface modeling results provide evidence for the validity of the subsurface emission hypothesis and the retrieval approach. An analysis of emission depth index, emissivity, precipitation, and vegetation index seasonal trends in northern and southern Africa suggests that changes in the emission depth index may be tied to changes in land surface moisture and vegetation conditions

  9. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  10. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  11. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  12. Microwave sensing from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.; Shiue, J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave sensors, used in conjunction with the traditional sensors of visible and infrared light to extend present capabilities of global weather forecasts and local storm watches, are discussed. The great advantage of these sensors is that they can penetrate or 'see' through cloud formations to monitor temperature, humidity and wind fields below the clouds. Other uses are that they can penetrate the earth deeper than optical and IR systems; they can control their own angle of incidence; they can detect oil spills; and they can enhance the studies of the upper atmosphere through measurement of temperature, water vapor and other gaseous species. Two types of microwave sensors, active and passive, are examined. Special attention is given to the study of the microwave radiometer and the corresponding temperature resolution as detected by the antenna. It is determined that not only will the microwave remote sensors save lives by allowing close monitoring of developing storms, but also save approximately $172 million/year.

  13. Microwave beam power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, Karl A.

    1989-01-01

    Information on microwave beam power is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer proulsion applications, costs of delivering 100 kWe of usable power, and costs of delivering a 1 kg payload into orbit.

  14. The microwave drill.

    PubMed

    Jerby, E; Dikhtyar, V; Aktushev, O; Grosglick, U

    2002-10-18

    We present a drilling method that is based on the phenomenon of local hot spot generation by near-field microwave radiation. The microwave drill is implemented by a coaxial near-field radiator fed by a conventional microwave source. The near-field radiator induces the microwave energy into a small volume in the drilled material under its surface, and a hot spot evolves in a rapid thermal-runaway process. The center electrode of the coaxial radiator itself is then inserted into the softened material to form the hole. The method is applicable for drilling a variety of nonconductive materials. It does not require fast rotating parts, and its operation makes no dust or noise. PMID:12386331

  15. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  16. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  17. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  18. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  19. Spaceborne Microwave Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Monograph presents comprehensive overview of science and technology of spaceborne microwave-imaging systems. Microwave images used as versatile orbiting, remote-sensing systems to investigate atmospheres and surfaces of planets. Detect surface objects through canopies of clouds, measure distributions of raindrops in clouds that their views penetrate, find meandering rivers in rain forests and underground water in arid regions, and provide information on ocean currents, wakes, ice/water boundaries, aircraft, ships, buoys, and bridges.

  20. Atmospheric water parameters in mid-latitude cyclones observed by microwave radiometry and compared to model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.; Hammarstrand, Ulla; Petty, Grant W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing and experimental algorithms for various parameters of atmospheric water content such as integrated water vapor, cloud water, precipitation, are used to examine the distribution of these quantities in mid latitude cyclones. The data was obtained from signals given by the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) and compared with data from the nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) for North Atlantic cyclones. The potential of microwave remote sensing for enhancing knowledge of the horizontal structure of these storms and to aid the development and testing of the cloud and precipitation aspects of limited area numerical models of cyclonic storms is investigated.

  1. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy.

  2. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743

  3. Microwave interaction with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, W. M.; Pershing, D.

    1985-06-01

    Microwave breakdown studies of gaseous elements have been carried out extensively over a wide range of pressures and for several microwave frequencies using CW and pulsed radiation sources. The main emphasis in these studies was on the determination of the breakdown power threshold and its dependence on the gas pressure and the microwave frequency. The coupling of mircowave energy into the breakdown plasma and neutral gas has not been studied in detail. The reason for this is that, until recently, no high-power microwave sources have been available to perform such studies. Most of the early work performed on breakdown thresholds was performed using high Q-cavities to obtain the necessary electric field to break down the gas. Once breakdown of the gas occurred, the Q of the cavity dropped and the interaction changed. Using the NRL high-power gyrotron facility, we have been able to eliminate the need for cavities and have performed experiments using a focused geometry to examine the coupling of microwave energy to nitrogen gas during breakdown. We have also modeled the experiments using a 1-D computer simulation code. Simulations were performed in a spherical geometry using a self-consistent, nitrogen chemistry, wave optics, microwave breakdown simulation code, MINI. The main emphasis of past work was on the ionization front created during nitrogen breakdown and its motion and plasma properties, as observed experimentally.

  4. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review. PMID:27698682

  5. Microwaves and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Huang, Wen-Juan; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's diseases (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disease that occurs when the nerve cells in the brain die. The cause and treatment of AD remain unknown. However, AD is a disease that affects the brain, an organ that controls behavior. Accordingly, anything that can interact with the brain may affect this organ positively or negatively, thereby protecting or encouraging AD. In this regard, modern life encompasses microwaves for all issues including industrial, communications, medical and domestic tenders, and among all applications, the cell phone wave, which directly exposes the brain, continues to be the most used. Evidence suggests that microwaves may produce various biological effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and many arguments relay the possibility that microwaves may be involved in the pathophysiology of CNS disease, including AD. By contrast, previous studies have reported some beneficial cognitive effects and that microwaves may protect against cognitive impairment in AD. However, although many of the beneficial effects of microwaves are derived from animal models, but can easily be extrapolated to humans, whether microwaves cause AD is an important issue that is to be addressed in the current review.

  6. Behavioral effects of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microwaves can produce sensations of warmth and sound in humans. In other species, they also can serve as cues, they may be avoided, and they can disrupt ongoing behavior. These actions appear to be due to heat produced by energy absorption. The rate of absorption depends on the microwave parameters and the electrical and geometric properties of the subject. We therefore, cannot predict the human response to microwaves based on data from other animals without appropriate scaling considerations. At low levels of exposure, microwaves can produce changes in behavior without large, or even measureable, changes in body temperature. Thermoregulatory behavior may respond to those low levels of heat, and thereby affect other behavior occurring concurrently. There are no data that demonstrate that behavioral effects of microwaves depend on any mechanism other than reactions to heat. Our interpretation of whether a reported behavioral effect indicates that microwaves may be hazardous depends on our having a complete description of the experiment and on our criteria of behavioral toxicity.

  7. A feasibility study on precipitation regime classification by meteorological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, A.; Takayabu, Y. N.

    2012-04-01

    Appropriate microphysical models of rainfall systems are essential for accurate precipitation retrievals from satellite measurements. For a better estimate of rainfall from the microwave imager satellites in Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), Takayabu (2008, GEWEX Newsletter; hereinafter T08) produced 3-monthly maps of dominant rainfall systems, utilizing TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. It is worthwhile if we can classify different type of rainfall systems not from satellite rainfall data themselves but from the environmental meteorological states. In this feasibility study, precipitation regime classification over the oceans is performed by constructing a look-up-table (LUT) for estimating precipitation types in terms of local state of the atmosphere and ocean. This time, we chose four variables to construct the LUTs; sea surface temperature (SST), pressure vertical velocity at 500hPa (ω500), lower-tropospheric baroclinicity at 900hPa (dT900/dy), and lower-tropospheric stability (LTS), obtained from ERA-interim and OISST. The LUTs are trained with the precipitation types defined by T08. The four-dimensional probability density functions for each precipitation types were utilized to reconstruct precipitation types at each point. The constructed four-dimensional LUT is shown to have a reasonably good skill in estimation over the oceans. The possibility of detection (POD) is above 60% up to 90% for all seasons. The estimation skill is less dependent on months despite that the LUT was trained with only one month climatology, indicating the choice of these state variables is reasonable. The LUT can also describe interannual variations of precipitation regimes, e.g., those differences in El Niño and La Niña periods. The way of separation by selected environmental states is mostly meteorologically reasonable, although some representative variables have some room for improvements especially in the midlatitudes. We

  8. as the Strengthening Precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Wei; van der Zwaag, Sybrand

    2014-12-01

    Generally, Laves phase and M23C6 are regarded as undesirable phases in creep-resistant steels due to their very high-coarsening rates and the resulting depletion of beneficial alloying elements from the matrix. In this study, a computational alloy design approach is presented to develop martensitic steels strengthened by Laves phase and/or M23C6, for which the coarsening rates are tailored such that they are at least one order of magnitude lower than those in existing alloys. Their volume fractions are optimized by tuning the chemical composition in parallel. The composition domain covering 10 alloying elements at realistic levels is searched by a genetic algorithm to explore the full potential of simultaneous maximization of the volume fraction and minimization of the precipitates coarsening rate. The calculations show that Co and W can drastically reduce the coarsening rate of Laves and M23C6 and yield high-volume fractions of precipitates. Mo on the other hand was shown to have a minimal effect on coarsening. The strengthening effects of Laves phase and M23C6 in the newly designed alloys are compared to existing counterparts, showing substantially higher precipitation-strengthening contributions especially after a long service time. New alloys were designed in which both Laves phase and M23C6 precipitates act as strengthening precipitates. Successfully combining MX and M23C6 was found to be impossible.

  9. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Falling Snow and Associated GPM Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent one of the next important challenges for the atmospheric, hydrological, and energy budget scientific communities. Historically, retrievals of falling snow have been difficult due to the relative insensitivity of satellite rain-based channels as used in the past. We emphasize the use of high frequency passive microwave channels (85-200 GHz) since these are more sensitive to the ice in clouds and have been used to estimate falling snow from space. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events and the science is relatively new, retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining. There are several current satellite sensors, though not specifically designed for estimating falling snow, are capable of measuring snow from space. These include NOAA's AMSU-B, the MHS sensors, and CloudSat radar. They use high frequency (greater than 85 GHz) passive and active microwave and millimeter-wave channels that are sensitive to the scattering from ice and snow particles in the atmosphere. Sensors with water vapor channels near 183 GHz center line provide opaqueness to the Earth's surface features that can contaminate the falling snow signatures, especially over snow covered surface. In addition, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission scheduled for launch in 2013 is specifically designed to measure both liquid rain and frozen snow precipitation. Since falling snow from space is the next precipitation measurement challenge from space, information must be determined in order to guide retrieval algorithm development for these current and future missions. This information includes thresholds of detection for various sensor channel configurations, snow event system characteristics, and surface types. For example, can a lake effect snow system with low cloud tops having an ice water content (IWC) at the surface of 1.0 gram per cubic meter be detected? If this information is

  10. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  11. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  12. FORMATION OF URANIUM PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Googin, J.M. Jr.

    1959-03-17

    A method is described for precipitation of uranium peroxide from uranium- containing solutions so as to obtain larger aggregates which facilitates washings decantations filtrations centrifugations and the like. The desired larger aggregate form is obtained by maintaining the pH of the solution in the approximate range of 1 to 3 and the temperature at about 25 deg C or below while carrytng out the precipitation. Then prior to removal of the precipitate a surface active sulfonated bicarboxyacids such as di-octyl sodium sulfo-succinates is incorporated in an anount of the order of 0.01 to 0.05 percent by weights and the slurry is allowed to ripen for about one-half hour at a temperatare below 10 deg C.

  13. Impact of MODIS and AIRS total precipitable water on modifying the vertical shear and Hurricane Emily simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Chin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chien, Fang-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The impact of retrieved total precipitable water (TPW) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) infrared (IR), MODIS near-infrared (NIR), and the combined Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)-IR and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-Microwave channels on simulations of Hurricane Emily was assessed and compared using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and its three-dimensional variation data assimilation (3D-Var) system. After assimilating MODIS IR TPW, the model clearly better reproduced storm tracking, intensity, and the 10 m wind field, while the improvement was limited or nil when assimilating either MODIS NIR TPW or AIRS TPW. After the data assimilation of MODIS IR TPW, a positive moisture increment was present to the east of the simulated storm in 3D-Var analysis (i.e., initial conditions). The positive TPW increment enhanced a convective cloud, which was also observed by satellites. The convective cloud effectively modulated the height and wind fields, resulting in a weakening of the vertical wind shear (VWS) over the region. The weak VWS band was then advected to the north of the storm, preventing the storm from attaching to the strong VWS zone located between 20°N and 30°N. There was no such positive moisture increment, convective cloud, or weak VWS band occurring to the east of the simulated storm in the other data assimilation experiments. This explains why the simulated storm intensified with assimilation of MODIS IR TPW but not for the other experiments.

  14. Large scale evaluation of soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture from the Earth’s surface. Several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and WindSat have been used for this purpose using multi-channel observations. Large sc...

  15. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments. Annual report, FY1997

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company. Continuous ceramic filaments are a principal component in many advanced high temperature materials like continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) and woven ceramic textiles. The use of continuous ceramic filaments in CFCC radiant burners, gas turbines, waste incineration, and hot gas filters in U.S. industry and power generation is estimated to save at least 2.16 quad/yr by year 2010 with energy cost savings of at least $8.1 billion. By year 2010, continuous ceramic filaments and CFCC`s have the potential to abate pollution emissions by 917,000 tons annually of nitrous oxide and 118 million tons annually of carbon dioxide (DOE Report OR-2002, February, 1994).

  16. Recent microwave sounder observations from aircraft during the HS3 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave sounder similar to but more capable and accurate than current satellite microwave sounders. Since 2010 it has operated on NASA's Global Hawk UAVs and has been participating in the multiyear Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) hurricane campaign. We present recent results from HS3, including analysis of the thermodynamic and precipitation structure in and around tropical storm systems sampled during HS3. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-temperature microwave processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Yu V.; Rybakov, K. I.; Semenov, V. E.

    2001-07-01

    This article reviews the physical aspects of a cross-disciplinary science and technology field: the microwave processing of materials. High-temperature microwave processing has a clear industrial perspective in such areas as the production of advanced ceramics, the deposition of thermal barrier coatings, the remediation of hazardous wastes etc. This review starts with the relevant fundamental notions regarding the absorption of electromagnetic waves, heat transfer and the electrodynamics of single- and multimode microwave cavities. Useful formulae, estimates, and interrelations between process variables are presented. This is followed by a review of process examples illustrating the specific features of microwave processing: reduction in energy consumption and process duration, rapid and controllable heating, peculiar temperature distribution, and selectivity of energy deposition. Much attention is given to the advantages of higher-frequency millimetre-wave processing, which include the enhanced absorption in many materials of industrial interest, improved uniformity of electromagnetic energy and temperature, and the possibility of surface treatment. The phenomenon of microwave process rate enhancement is addressed in connection with the problem of the non-thermal microwave effect on mass transport in solids. Both experimental and theoretical approaches to the identification of the mechanism responsible for this effect are illustrated. Finally, the physical and technical factors influencing microwave technology scaleup and transfer to industry are discussed.

  18. Precipitation-Regulated Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Star formation in the central galaxies of galaxy clusters appears to be fueled by precipitation of cold clouds out of hot circumgalactic gas via thermal instability. I will present both observational and theoretical support for the precipitation mode in large galaxies and discuss how it can be implemented in cosmological simulations of galaxy evolution. Galaxy cluster cores are unique laboratories for studying the astrophysics of thermal instability and may be teaching us valuable lessons about how feedback works in galaxies spanning the entire mass spectrum.

  19. Electrostatic particle precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiya, T.; Hikizi, S.; Yabuta, H.

    1984-04-03

    An electrostatic particle precipitator for removing dust particles from a flue gas. The precipitator includes a plurality of collecting electrodes in the shape of plates mounted on endless chains and moving between a first region through which flue gas to be treated flows and a second region where the flow of gas is extremely scarce. A dust removal mechanism is positioned in the second region to remove dust which accumulates on the electrode plates. The moving speed of the collecting electrodes is controlled within a certain range to maintain a prescribed thickness of dust on the electrodes whereby the ocurrence of reverse ionization phenomenon is prevented.

  20. Acid Precipitation; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rushing, J.W.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This publication, Acid Precipitation (APC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information on acid precipitation and closely related subjects, including wet and dry deposition, long-range transport, environmental effects, modeling, and socioeconomic factors. Information on the following subjects is included within the scope of this publication, but all subjects may not appear in each issue: Pollution sources and pollution control technology; atmospheric transport and chemistry; terrestrial transport and chemistry; aquatic transport and chemistry; biological effects; corrosive effects; and socioeconomics, policy, and legislation.

  1. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  2. Utilization of Precipitation and Moisture Products Derived from Satellites to Support NOAA Operational Precipitation Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, R.; Zhao, L.; Kuligowski, R. J.; Kusselson, S.; Ma, L.; Kidder, S. Q.; Forsythe, J. M.; Jones, A. S.; Ebert, E. E.; Valenti, E.

    2012-12-01

    NOAA/NESDIS operates a constellation of polar and geostationary orbiting satellites to support weather forecasts and to monitor the climate. Additionally, NOAA utilizes satellite assets from other U.S. agencies like NASA and the Department of Defense, as well as those from other nations with similar weather and climate responsibilities (i.e., EUMETSAT and JMA). Over the past two decades, through joint efforts between U.S. and international government researchers, academic partners, and private sector corporations, a series of "value added" products have been developed to better serve the needs of weather forecasters and to exploit the full potential of precipitation and moisture products generated from these satellites. In this presentation, we will focus on two of these products - Ensemble Tropical Rainfall Potential (eTRaP) and Blended Total Precipitable Water (bTPW) - and provide examples on how they contribute to hydrometeorological forecasts. In terms of passive microwave satellite products, TPW perhaps is most widely used to support real-time forecasting applications, as it accurately depicts tropospheric water vapor and its movement. In particular, it has proven to be extremely useful in determining the location, timing, and duration of "atmospheric rivers" which contribute to and sustain flooding events. A multi-sensor approach has been developed and implemented at NESDIS in which passive microwave estimates from multiple satellites and sensors are merged to create a seamless, bTPW product that is more efficient for forecasters to use. Additionally, this product is being enhanced for utilization for television weather forecasters. Examples will be shown to illustrate the roll of atmospheric rivers and contribution to flooding events, and how the bTPW product was used to improve the forecast of these events. Heavy rains associated with land falling tropical cyclones (TC) frequently trigger floods that cause millions of dollars of damage and tremendous loss

  3. Evaluations of microphysics schemes from the microwave rainfall measurement perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Shin, D.

    2008-12-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing of precipitation has been successfully used to monitor the global hydrologic cycle and rainfall retrieval algorithms continue to improve for accurate measurement. In the framework of current retrieval algorithms, the cloud resolving model (CRM) and its microphysical processes play an important role together with the radiative transfer model and their inversion technique. In this study, we construct various a-priori databases using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with four different microphysics schemes. Due to different characteristics of microphysical processes especially in their frozen hydrometeors, retrieval results of precipitation fields and rainfall amounts are found to be different. This study discusses a sensitivity of microwave rainfall retrievals to microphysical parameterization in the CRM.

  4. Heavy precipitation retrieval from combined satellite observations and ground-based lightning measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Dietrich, S.; Casella, D.; di Paola, F.; Formenton, M.; Sanò, P.

    2010-09-01

    We have developed a series of algorithms for the retrieval of precipitation (especially, heavy precipitation) over the Mediterranean area using satellite observations from the available microwave (MW) radiometers onboard low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and from the visible-infrared (VIS-IR) SEVIRI radiometer onboard the European geosynchronous (GEO) satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), in conjunction with lightning data from ground-based networks - such as ZEUS and LINET. These are: • A new approach for precipitation retrieval from space (which we call the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database approach, CDRD) that incorporates lightning and environmental/dynamical information in addition to the upwelling microwave brightness temperatures (TB’s) so as to reduce the retrieval uncertainty and improve the retrieval performance; • A new combined MW-IR technique for producing frequent precipitation retrievals from space (which we call PM-GCD technique), that uses passive-microwave (PM) retrievals in conjunction with lightning information and the Global Convection Detection (GCD) technique to discriminate deep convective clouds within the GEO observations; • A new morphing approach (which we call the Lightning-based Precipitation Evolving Technique, L-PET) that uses the available lightning measurements for propagating the rainfall estimates from satellite-borne MW radiometers to a much higher time resolution than the MW observations. We will present and discuss our combined MW/IR/lightning precipitation algorithms and analyses with special reference to some case studies over the western Mediterranean.

  5. Modeled Watershed Runoff Associated with Variations in Precipitation Data, with Implications for Contaminant Fluxes: Initial Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precipitation is one of the primary forcing functions of hydrologic and watershed fate and transport models; however, in light of advances in precipitation estimates across watersheds, data remain highly uncertain. A wide variety of simulated and observed precipitation data are a...

  6. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  7. Origins of the Earth's Diffuse Auroral Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Binbin; Thorne, Richard M.; Zhang, Xiaojia; Bortnik, Jacob; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Hu, Ze-jun; Han, Desheng; Shi, Run; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's diffuse auroral precipitation provides the major source of energy input into the nightside upper atmosphere and acts as an essential linkage of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Resonant wave-particle interactions play a dominant role in the scattering of injected plasma sheet electrons, leading to the diffuse auroral precipitation. We review the recent advances in understanding the origin of the diffuse aurora and in quantifying the exact roles of various magnetospheric waves in producing the global distribution of diffuse auroral precipitation and its variability with the geomagnetic activity. Combined scattering by upper-and lower-band chorus accounts for the most intense inner magnetospheric electron diffuse auroral precipitation on the nightside. Dayside chorus can be responsible for the weaker dayside electron diffuse auroral precipitation. Pulsating auroras, the dynamic auroral structures embedded in the diffuse aurora, can be mainly caused by modulation of the excitation of lower band chorus due to macroscopic density variations in the magnetosphere. Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves are an important or even dominant cause for the nightside electron diffuse auroral precipitation beyond {˜}8Re and can also contribute to the occurrence of the pulsating aurora at high L-shells. Scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could quite possibly be the leading candidate responsible for the ion precipitation (especially the reversed-type events of the energy-latitude dispersion) in the regions of the central plasma sheet and ring current. We conclude the review with a summary of current understanding, outstanding questions, and a number of suggestions for future research.

  8. Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Diak, George R.; Hayden, Cristopher M.; Young, John A.

    1995-01-01

    These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation. The assimilation of satellite-observed moisture and cloud water, together withy three-mode diabatic initialization, significantly alleviates the model precipitation spinup problem, especially in the first 3 h of the forecast. Experimental forecasts indicate that the impact of satellite-observed temperature and water vapor profiles and cloud water alone in the initialization procedure shortens the spinup time for precipitation rates by 1-2 h and for regeneration of the areal coverage by 3 h. The diabatic initialization further reduces the precipitation spinup time (compared to adiabatic initialization) by 1 h.

  9. Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Qing; Bindlish, Rajat; Cosh, Michael H.; Crow, Wade T.; deJeu, Richard; DeLannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Huffman, George J.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates from a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the study investigates soil moisture skill derived from (i) model forcing corrections based on large-scale, gauge- and satellite-based precipitation observations and (ii) assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Soil moisture skill is measured against in situ observations in the continental United States at 44 single-profile sites within the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) for which skillful AMSR-E retrievals are available and at four CalVal watersheds with high-quality distributed sensor networks that measure soil moisture at the scale of land model and satellite estimates. The average skill (in terms of the anomaly time series correlation coefficient R) of AMSR-E retrievals is R=0.39 versus SCAN and R=0.53 versus CalVal measurements. The skill of MERRA surface and root-zone soil moisture is R=0.42 and R=0.46, respectively, versus SCAN measurements, and MERRA surface moisture skill is R=0.56 versus CalVal measurements. Adding information from either precipitation observations or soil moisture retrievals increases surface soil moisture skill levels by IDDeltaR=0.06-0.08, and root zone soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.05-0.07. Adding information from both sources increases surface soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.13, and root zone soil moisture skill by DeltaR=0.11, demonstrating that precipitation corrections and assimilation of satellite soil moisture retrievals contribute similar and largely independent amounts of information.

  10. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  11. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Hannah, J.H.; Moore, J.A.; Nowlin, C.H.; Vandermolen, R.I.; Chagnot, D.; LeRoy, A.

    1993-03-01

    To develop a wireless communication system to meet the stringent requirements for a nuclear hot cell and similar environments, including control of advanced servomanipulators, a microwave signal transmission system development program was established to produce a demonstration prototype for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Proof-of-principle tests in a partially metal lined enclosure at ORNL successfully demonstrated the feasibility of directed microwave signal transmission techniques for remote systems applications. The potential for much more severe radio-frequency (RF) multipath propagation conditions in fully metal lined cells led to a programmatic decision to conduct additional testing in more typical hot-cell environments at other sites. Again, the test results were excellent. Based on the designs of the earlier systems, an advanced microwave signal transmission system configuration was subsequently developed that, in highly reflective environments, will support both high-performance video channels and high baud-rate digital data links at total gamma dose tolerance levels exceeding 10{sup 7} rads and at elevated ambient temperatures.

  12. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Hannah, J.H.; Moore, J.A.; Nowlin, C.H.; Vandermolen, R.I. ); Chagnot, D.; LeRoy, A. )

    1993-01-01

    To develop a wireless communication system to meet the stringent requirements for a nuclear hot cell and similar environments, including control of advanced servomanipulators, a microwave signal transmission system development program was established to produce a demonstration prototype for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Proof-of-principle tests in a partially metal lined enclosure at ORNL successfully demonstrated the feasibility of directed microwave signal transmission techniques for remote systems applications. The potential for much more severe radio-frequency (RF) multipath propagation conditions in fully metal lined cells led to a programmatic decision to conduct additional testing in more typical hot-cell environments at other sites. Again, the test results were excellent. Based on the designs of the earlier systems, an advanced microwave signal transmission system configuration was subsequently developed that, in highly reflective environments, will support both high-performance video channels and high baud-rate digital data links at total gamma dose tolerance levels exceeding 10[sup 7] rads and at elevated ambient temperatures.

  13. Uniform batch processing using microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A microwave oven and microwave heating method generates microwaves within a cavity in a predetermined mode such that there is a known region of uniform microwave field. Samples placed in the region will then be heated in a relatively identical manner. Where perturbations induced by the samples are significant, samples are arranged in a symmetrical distribution so that the cumulative perturbation at each sample location is the same.

  14. Optomechanics with microwave light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Konrad

    2009-03-01

    Recently, superconducting circuits resonant at microwave frequencies have revolutionized the measurement of astrophysical detectors [1] and superconducting qubits [2]. In this talk, I will describe how we extend this technique to measuring and manipulating nanomechanical oscillators. By strongly coupling the motion of a nanomechanical oscillator to the resonance of the microwave circuit we create structures where the dominant dissipative force acting on the oscillator is the radiation pressure of microwave ``light'' [3]. These devices are ultrasensitive force detectors and they allow us to cool the oscillator towards its motional ground state. [4pt] [1] P. K. Day et al., Nature 425, 817 (2003).[0pt] [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162 (2004).[0pt] [3] J. D. Teufel, J. W. Harlow, C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 197203 (2008).

  15. Global Precipitation Analysis Using Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) observations are reviewed in the context of weather and climate applications. All the data sets discussed are the result of mergers of information from multiple satellites and gauges, where available. The focus of the talk is on TRMM-based 3 hr. analyses that use TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I (and other satellites) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3 hr. resolution map. This TRMM standard product will be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998-present) at the end of 2002. A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25 deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50 deg N-50 deg S. Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and in relating weather-scale patterns to climate-scale patterns. The 3-hourly analysis is placed in the context of two research products of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The first is the 23 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis that is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM tropical data set. The GPCP data set shows no significant global trend in precipitation over the twenty years, unlike the positive trend in global surface temperatures over the past century. Regional trends are also analyzed. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the Goodyear data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 23 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both

  16. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  17. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  18. Urban rainfall estimation employing commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas often lack rainfall information. To increase the number of rainfall observations in cities, microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed. Although this new potential source of rainfall information has been shown to be promising, its quality needs to be demonstrated more extensively. In the Rain Sense kickstart project of the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS), sensors and citizens are preparing Amsterdam for future weather. Part of this project is rainfall estimation using new measurement techniques. Innovative sensing techniques will be utilized such as rainfall estimation from microwave links, umbrellas for weather sensing, low-cost sensors at lamp posts and in drainage pipes for water level observation. These will be combined with information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way through social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.). Sensor information will be integrated, visualized and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities. In the end city-wide high-resolution rainfall maps will be derived, blending rainfall information from microwave links and weather radars. This information will be used for urban water management. This presentation focuses on rainfall estimation from commercial microwave links. Received signal levels from tens of microwave links within the Amsterdam region (roughly 1 million inhabitants) in the Netherlands are utilized to estimate rainfall with high spatial and temporal resolution. Rainfall maps will be presented and compared to a gauge-adjusted radar rainfall data set. Rainfall time series from gauge(s), radars and links will be compared.

  19. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  20. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  1. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  2. Effects of endocardial microwave energy ablation

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Vicente; Hurlé, Aquilino; Ho, Siew Yen; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián

    2005-01-01

    Until recently the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) consisted primarily of palliation, mostly in the form of pharmacological intervention. However because of recent advances in nonpharmacologic therapies, the current expectation of patients and referring physicians is that AF will be cured, rather than palliated. In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the availability and variety of energy sources and devices for ablation. One of these energies, microwave, has been applied clinically only in the last few years, and may be a promising technique that is potentially capable of treating a wide range of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to review microwave energy ablation in surgical treatment of AF with special interest in histology and ultrastructure of lesions produced by this endocardial ablation procedure. PMID:16943871

  3. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; Voit, Stewart L; Vedder, Raymond James

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be controlled for co-precipitation

  4. SSM/I liquid and frozen precipitation patterns in Hurricane Gilbert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Hood, Robbie E.

    1989-01-01

    The rain and ice signatures of tropical oceanic precipitation systems obtained with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are examined. A method for polarization correction without the F8 SSM/I V85.5 channel is presented. As an example of the methodology, SSM/I imagery is used to study the ice and liquid features of Hurricane Gilbert.

  5. Anthropogenic Osmium in Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sedwick, P. N.; Sharma, M.

    2007-12-01

    Here we report the Os isotopic composition for precipitation from Hanover (NH), Soda Springs (CA) and the Ross Sea (Antarctica) as determined by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. All samples yielded non- radiogenic Os isotopic compositions. Snow and rain samples from Hanover, NH had Os concentrations of 0.8 - 12.2 fg/g (1 fg/g = 1E-15 g/g) and 187Os/188Os from 0.16 - 0.24. Snowpack from the high Sierra Nevada (Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, Soda Springs, CA) yielded Os concentration and isotopic composition of 3.6 fg/g and 0.21, respectively; Antarctic snow deposited above first year pack ice had [Os] = 0.8 fg/g and 187Os/188Os = 0.42. The isotopic ratios indicate that potential natural sources of Os to the atmosphere, such as continental mineral aerosols (187Os/188Os = 1.26) and seawater (187Os/188Os = 1.05) do not contribute bulk of Os to the precipitation. Instead, the isotopic ratios are identical to the platinum ores from the Merensky Reef in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa and Noril'sk Ni-Cu sulfide deposit associated with the Siberian Flood Basalts, Russia. These two deposits produce greater than 95 percent of the total Pt, Pd and Rh consumed annually primarily by the automotive industry. We infer that anthropogenic Os contribution dominates the isotopic composition of precipitation. The similar and non-radiogenic Os isotopic compositions observed in precipitation from disparate locations suggest that contamination of the troposphere with anthropogenic Os may be global in scale. We think that processing of ore to extract Pt, Pd, and Rh from PGE ores (PGE: group of six closely related elements Os, Ir, Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru), which involves smelting and converting at high temperature and in the presence of oxygen, releases the volatile, toxic compound OsO4 into the troposphere, where it is mixed and then scavenged by precipitation, thus explaining both the non-radiogenic isotopic composition and the high and variable Os concentrations of

  6. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project: First Algorithm Intercomparison Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Phillip A.; Xie, Pingping

    1994-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was established by the World Climate Research Program to produce global analyses of the area- and time-averaged precipitation for use in climate research. To achieve the required spatial coverage, the GPCP uses simple rainfall estimates derived from IR and microwave satellite observations. In this paper, we describe the GPCP and its first Algorithm Intercomparison Project (AIP/1), which compared a variety of rainfall estimates derived from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite visible and IR observations and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) microwave observations with rainfall derived from a combination of radar and raingage data over the Japanese islands and the adjacent ocean regions during the June and mid-July through mid-August periods of 1989. To investigate potential improvements in the use of satellite IR data for the estimation of large-scale rainfall for the GPCP, the relationship between rainfall and the fractional coverage of cold clouds in the AIP/1 dataset is examined. Linear regressions between fractional coverage and rainfall are analyzed for a number of latitude-longitude areas and for a range of averaging times. The results show distinct differences in the character of the relationship for different portions of the area. These results suggest that the simple IR-based estimation technique currently used in the GPCP can be used to estimate rainfall for global tropical and subtropical areas, provided that a method for adjusting the proportional coefficient for varying areas and seasons can be determined.

  7. An evaluation of the effect of microwave irradiation on bone decalcification aimed to DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Kei; Ogawa, Yoshinori

    2013-09-01

    An effect of intermittent microwave irradiation on decalcification of compact bone followed by DNA extraction was verified. In order to perform quantitative analysis regarding the degree of decalcification, Cubic bone specimens were prepared from bovine metacarpal bone and micro-focus X-ray CT imaging was applied to measure precise volume of decalcified area in the cubes. Microwave irradiation was performed under strict control of temperature using commercially available experimental device which is designed for advancing tissue fixation, decalcification, and antigen-antibody reaction by intermittent microwave. The integrity of the DNA obtained from irradiated specimen was also examined by PCR analysis. The results of morphological analysis with CT imaging showed that microwave irradiation has a positive effect on decalcification though that effect is not so drastic. The results obtained from PCR analysis showed that microwave irradiation decrease amplifiable DNA, suggesting that we should be careful to use microwave for the purpose of bone DNA extraction. PMID:23838266

  8. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: METSAT (S/N 108) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies, P/N 1356429-1 S/N F05 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haigh, R.; Krimchansky, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, METSAT (S/N 108) AMSU-A1 Receiver Assemblies P/N 1356429-1 S/N F05 and P/N 1356409-1 S/N F05, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The ATP for the AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem, AE-26002/6A, is prepared to describe in detail the configuration of the test setups and the procedures of the tests to verify that the receiver subsystem meets the specifications as required either in the AMSU-A Instrument Performance and Operation Specifications, S-480-80, or in AMSU-A Receiver Subsystem Specifications, AE-26608, derived by the Aerojet System Engineering. Test results that verify the conformance to the specifications demonstrate the acceptability of that particular receiver subsystem.

  9. Non-military microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Howard

    1990-04-01

    The nonmilitary applications of microwave technology in medicine, communications, and agriculture are discussed. Particular attention is given to a microwave multichannel multipoint video distribution system (a broadcasting system with up to 20 programs drawn from satellites, video tape libraries, and locally generated material); microwaves used in DBS distribution; satellite receivers for data communications; microwave thermography used for early cancer detection, brain temperature measurements, and appendicitis diagnosis; an experimental Doppler radar assembly for guiding robots walking on a factory floor; and an agricultural application where microwaves are used to break down slugs in soil and thus improve potato and grain crops. Schematic diagrams are included.

  10. Characteristics of global precipitable water in ENSO events revealed by COSMIC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Wen-Hsin; Huang, Ching-Yuang; Ho, Shu-Peng; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhou, Xin-Jia

    2013-08-01

    Precipitable water (PW) retrievals from FORMOSAT-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements were analyzed and compared with those derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from 2007 to 2011. For the three ENSO events in 2007-2011, monthly mean binned COSMIC PW results are in a very high correlation (up to 0.98) with those of SSM/I and AMSR-E over the ocean, generally with root-mean-square differences less than 4 mm. PW retrievals from the three satellites are also of similar latitudinal variations. However, the PW is slightly underestimated by GPS RO, in particular, in the tropical regions. This underestimate may be caused partially by the fact that not all RO measurements can reach the surface. Inter-satellite PW anomaly comparisons for the winter months in the ENSO events, with respect to those during the neutral (non-ENSO) months, show consistent ENSO signals with major PW anomaly near the central Pacific in the warm event and near the Indonesian region and east of Australia in the two cold events. However, the 2007/2008 La Niña is somewhat less correlated for COSMIC with AMSR-E and SSM/I. For the stronger 2010/2011 La Niña, their PW anomalies are in higher correlations of about 0.8.

  11. Microwave Ignited Combustion Synthesis as a Joining Technique for Dissimilar Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Roberto; Colombini, Elena; Veronesi, Paolo; Poli, Giorgio; Leonelli, Cristina

    2012-05-01

    Microwave energy has been exploited to ignite combustion synthesis (CS) reactions of properly designed powders mixtures, in order to rapidly reach the joining between different kinds of materials, including metals (Titanium and Inconel) and ceramics (SiC). Beside the great advantage offered by CS itself, i.e., rapid and highly localized heat generation, the microwaves selectivity in being absorbed by micrometric metallic powders and not by bulk metallic components represents a further intriguing aspect in advanced materials joining applications, namely the possibility to avoid the exposition to high temperatures of the entire substrates to be joined. Moreover, in case of microwaves absorbing substrates, the competitive microwaves absorption by both substrates and powdered joining material, leads to the possibility of adhesion, interdiffusion and chemical bonding enhancements. In this study, both experimental and numerical simulation results are used to highlight the great potentialities of microwave ignited CS in the joining of advanced materials.

  12. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  13. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal

    2010-01-01

    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  14. Understanding Microwave Radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents principles of microwave receivers for observing planetary surfaces from space. Report is tutorial and explains operation of receivers in detail to enable reader to specify and qualify them for spaceborne operation. Gives many examples to illustrate practical design procedures.

  15. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  16. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  17. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  18. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbarazin, Ardeshir Art; Carlisle, Candace C.

    2008-01-01

    The GIobd Precipitation hleasurement (GPM) mission is an international cooperatiee ffort to advance weather, climate, and hydrological predictions through space-based precipitation measurements. The Core Observatory will be a reference standard to uniform11 calibrate data from a constellatism of spacecraft with passive microuave sensors. GP3l mission data will be used for scientific research as well as societal applications. GPM is being developed under a partnership between the United States (US) National .Aeronautics and Space Administration (XASA) and the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAYA). NASA is developing the Core Observatory, a Low-Inclination Constellation Observatory, two GPM Rlicrowave Imager (GXII) instruments. Ground Validation System and Precipitation Processing System for the GPRl mission. JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) for installation on the Core satellite and launch services for the Core Observatory. Other US agencies and international partners contribute to the GPkf mission by providing precipitation measurements obtained from their own spacecraft and,'or providing ground-based precipitation measurements to support ground validation activities. The GPM Core Observatory will be placed in a low earth orbit (-400 krn) with 65-degree inclination, in order to calibrate partner instruments in a variety of orbits. The Core Observatory accommodates 3 instruments. The GkfI instrument provides measurements of precipitation intensity and distribution. The DPR consists of Ka and Ku band instruments, and provides threedimensional measurements of cloud structure, precipitation particle size distribution and precipitation intensitj and distribution. The instruments are key drivers for GPM Core Observatory overall size (1 1.6m x 6.5m x 5.0m) and mass (3500kg), as well as the significant (-1 950U.3 power requirement. The Core Spacecraft is being built in-house at Goddard Space Flight Center. The spacecraft structure

  19. GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Providing Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, Owen; Huffman, George; Kummerow, Christian

    2015-04-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar), and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMI/DPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for reseachers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations. This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments - GMI, DPR, and combined GMI/DPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner

  20. Summary report for the Microwave Source Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the discussions of the Microwave Source Working Group during the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held October 13-19, 1996 in the Granlibakken Conference Center at Lake Tahoe, California. Progress on rf sources being developed for linear colliders is reviewed. Possible choices for high-power rf sources at 34 GHz and 94 GHz for future colliders are examined. 27 refs.

  1. Duskside relativistic electron precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentzen, Kirsten Ruth

    1999-10-01

    On August 20, 1996, a balloon-borne X-ray pinhole camera and a high resolution germanium X-ray spectrometer observed an intense X-ray event near Kiruna, Sweden, at 1835 MLT, on an L-shell of 5.8. This X-ray event consisted of seven bursts spaced 100-200 seconds apart, with smaller 10-20 second variations observed within individual bursts. The energy spectra of these bursts show the presence of X-rays with energies greater than 1 MeV, which are best accounted for by atmospheric bremsstrahlung from mono-energetic 1.7 MeV precipitating electrons. The X-ray imager observed no significant motion or small-scale spatial structure in the event, implying that the bursts were temporal in nature. Ultra- violet images from the Polar satellite and energetic particle data from the Los Alamos geosynchronous satellites show a small magnetospheric substorm onset about 24 minutes before the start of the relativistic precipitation event. Since the balloon was south of the auroral oval and there was no associated increase in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous altitude, the event must be the result of some mechanism selectively precipitating ambient relativistic electrons from the radiation belts. The balloon X-ray observations are analyzed in a magnetospheric context, in order to determine which of several mechanisms for selective precipitation of relativistic electrons can account for the event. Resonance with electromagnetic ion cyclotron mode waves on the equator is the most likely candidate. The drift of substorm-injected warm protons is calculated using input from the geosynchronous satellites. Wave growth in the model is driven by temperature anisotropies in the warm proton population. A numerical solution of the wave dispersion relation shows that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves can be excited in high-density duskside regions such as the plasmasphere or detached plasma regions. These waves can selectively precipitate relativistic electrons of energy 1.7 MeV in

  2. Modeling the Potential Effects of Virga on the Microwave Emission from the Jovian Atmosphere in Support of the Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) has six channels ranging from 1.36-50 cm, and has the ability to peer deep into the Jovian atmosphere. With the potential to probe as deep as 1000 bars, the Juno MWR will probe well beneath the water clouds. To support necessary cloud depletion, precipitation will likely occur at some time and location over the Jovian disk. A model for potential precipitation effects has been developed and the resulting effects have been analyzed. The studies show a potential for identifying precipitation below the aqueous ammonia cloud using the MWR onboard the Juno spacecraft.

  3. Examination of some hypothetical SPS rectenna sites within the contiguous United States of America. Part I. Precipitation effects on hypothetical SPS sites in the USA. Part II. Point-to-point microwave and service mode communications systems near four hypothetical SPS rectenna sites in the continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, E J; Warner, B D

    1981-05-01

    The report of Grant et al., (1980) describes the EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) problems for the candidate SPS rectenna site in the Mojave Desert of California. This study examines the precipitation effects at nine other hypothetical SPS rectenna sites and the licensed transmitter density at four proposed SPS rectenna sites. The results of the precipitation study indicate that the transmission loss will not vary by more than 3% from site-to-site for the nine sites considered. Results of the licensed transmitter study for four sites support the contention that a strong correlation exists between population density and operational communications systems within small area (150 Km x 150 Km).

  4. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  5. Snowfall Rate Retrieval using NPP ATMS Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua; Zhao, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2014). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The ATMS SFR product is validated against radar and gauge snowfall data and shows that the ATMS algorithm outperforms the AMSU/MHS SFR.

  6. Modeling pairwise dependencies in precipitation intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrac, M.; Naveau, P.; Drobinski, P.

    2007-12-01

    In statistics, extreme events are classically defined as maxima over a block length (e.g. annual maxima of daily precipitation) or as exceedances above a given large threshold. These definitions allow the hydrologist and the flood planner to apply the univariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to their time series of interest. But these strategies have two main drawbacks. Firstly, working with maxima or exceedances implies that a lot of observations (those below the chosen threshold or the maximum) are completely disregarded. Secondly, this univariate modeling does not take into account the spatial dependence. Nearby weather stations are considered independent, although their recordings can show otherwise. To start addressing these two issues, we propose a new statistical bivariate model that takes advantages of the recent advances in multivariate EVT. Our model can be viewed as an extension of the non-homogeneous univariate mixture. The two strong points of this latter model are its capacity at modeling the entire range of precipitation (and not only the largest values) and the absence of an arbitrarily fixed large threshold to define exceedances. Here, we adapt this mixture and broaden it to the joint modeling of bivariate precipitation recordings. The performance and flexibility of this new model are illustrated on simulated and real precipitation data.

  7. Calibration Plans for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, S. W.; Flaming, G. M.; Adams, W. J.; Everett, D. F.; Mendelsohn, C. R.; Smith, E. A.; Turk, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international effort led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the U.S.A. and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for the purpose of improving research into the global water and energy cycle. GPM will improve climate, weather, and hydrological forecasts through more frequent and more accurate measurement of precipitation world-wide. Comprised of U.S. domestic and international partners, GPM will incorporate and assimilate data streams from many spacecraft with varied orbital characteristics and instrument capabilities. Two of the satellites will be provided directly by GPM, the core satellite and a constellation member. The core satellite, at the heart of GPM, is scheduled for launch in November 2007. The core will carry a conical scanning microwave radiometer, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), and a two-frequency cross-track-scanning radar, the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). The passive microwave channels and the two radar frequencies of the core are carefully chosen for investigating the varying character of precipitation over ocean and land, and from the tropics to the high-latitudes. The DPR will enable microphysical characterization and three-dimensional profiling of precipitation. The GPM-provided constellation spacecraft will carry a GMI radiometer identical to that on the core spacecraft. This paper presents calibration plans for the GPM, including on-board instrument calibration, external calibration methods, and the role of ground validation. Particular emphasis is on plans for inter-satellite calibration of the GPM constellation. With its Unique instrument capabilities, the core spacecraft will serve as a calibration transfer standard to the GPM constellation. In particular the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar aboard the core will check the accuracy of retrievals from the GMI radiometer and will enable improvement of the radiometer retrievals

  8. Nanoelectromechanical systems: Nanodevice motion at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry Huang, Xue Ming; Zorman, Christian A.; Mehregany, Mehran; Roukes, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    It has been almost forgotten that the first computers envisaged by Charles Babbage in the early 1800s were mechanical and not electronic, but the development of high-frequency nanoelectromechanical systems is now promising a range of new applications, including sensitive mechanical charge detectors and mechanical devices for high-frequency signal processing, biological imaging and quantum measurement. Here we describe the construction of nanodevices that will operate with fundamental frequencies in the previously inaccessible microwave range (greater than 1 gigahertz). This achievement represents a significant advance in the quest for extremely high-frequency nanoelectromechanical systems.

  9. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  10. Precipitation in pores: A geochemical frontier

    DOE PAGES

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-07-29

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below.more » The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid

  11. Precipitation in pores: A geochemical frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-07-29

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below. The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid velocities

  12. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    The ever-present need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation motivates this investigation of a novel ignition technology for internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions by operating in regimes with diluted fuel-air mixtures and higher compression ratios, but the range of stable engine operation is constrained by combustion initiation and flame propagation when dilution levels are high. An advanced ignition technology that reliably extends the operating range of internal combustion engines will aid practical implementation of the next generation of high-efficiency engines. This dissertation contributes to next-generation ignition technology advancement by experimentally analyzing a prototype technology as well as developing a numerical model for the chemical processes governing microwave-assisted ignition. The microwave-assisted spark plug under development by Imagineering, Inc. of Japan has previously been shown to expand the stable operating range of gasoline-fueled engines through plasma-assisted combustion, but the factors limiting its operation were not well characterized. The present experimental study has two main goals. The first goal is to investigate the capability of the microwave-assisted spark plug towards expanding the stable operating range of wet-ethanol-fueled engines. The stability range is investigated by examining the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure as a metric for instability, and indicated specific ethanol consumption as a metric for efficiency. The second goal is to examine the factors affecting the extent to which microwaves enhance ignition processes. The factors impacting microwave enhancement of ignition processes are individually examined, using flame development behavior as a key metric in determining microwave effectiveness. Further development of practical combustion applications implementing microwave

  13. Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Robert J.; Luhmann, Neville C.; Booske, John H.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2005-04-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave vacuum electronic devices and their current and future applications While both vacuum and solid-state electronics continue to evolve and provide unique solutions, emerging commercial and military applications that call for higher power and higher frequencies to accommodate massive volumes of transmitted data are the natural domain of vacuum electronics technology. Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics provides systems designers, engineers, and researchers-especially those with primarily solid-state training-with a thoroughly up-to-date survey of the rich field of microwave vacuum electronic device (MVED) technology. This book familiarizes the R&D and academic communities with the capabilities and limitations of MVED and highlights the exciting scientific breakthroughs of the past decade that are dramatically increasing the compactness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of this entire class of devices. This comprehensive text explores a wide range of topics: * Traveling-wave tubes, which form the backbone of satellite and airborne communications, as well as of military electronic countermeasures systems * Microfabricated MVEDs and advanced electron beam sources * Klystrons, gyro-amplifiers, and crossed-field devices * "Virtual prototyping" of MVEDs via advanced 3-D computational models * High-Power Microwave (HPM) sources * Next-generation microwave structures and circuits * How to achieve linear amplification * Advanced materials technologies for MVEDs * A Web site appendix providing a step-by-step walk-through of a typical MVED design process Concluding with an in-depth examination of emerging applications and future possibilities for MVEDs, Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics ensures that systems designers and engineers understand and utilize the significant potential of this mature, yet continually developing technology. SPECIAL NOTE: All of the editors' royalties realized from

  14. EGPM - The proposed European contribution to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Egpm Mission Advisory Group

    2003-04-01

    At the beginning of January 2002, an international scientific consortium (the EGPM Science Team) constituted by numerous scientists involved in several disciplines related to precipitation, submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) a proposal titled "EGPM: European contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission" in response to ESA's second call for proposals for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions (EEOMs). The principle objective of the EGPM proposal was to encourage ESA to directly engage in the international organization for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission formulated by NASA and NASDA, by providing one member of the GPM constellation of satellites aimed at providing frequent global rainfall observations for an extended operations period starting in the time frame of 2007. Noteworthy, a large part of the European scientific and operational community is strongly interested in GPM. Especially, the operational community related to NWP, nowcasting and hydrological hazards would take advantage of Europe being part of the constellation, because this would guarantee direct access to real-time data. The proposed EGPM satellite should satisfy, in association with the overall GPM constellation, the following "regional" requirements: - Improve the rainfall estimation accuracy with respect to SSM/I; - Enhance the detectability of light rain and snowfall, specifically over land, as appropriate for Northern Europe and Canada and in mid-latitude oceanic perturbations; - Provide a significant contribution to the monitoring and the understanding of hazardous and flash-flood producing storms along the Mediterranean coasts; - Improve the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models through data assimilation of precipitation measurements; - Provide direct-read-out data for real-time applications, as well as global data acquisition. To this end, the scientific payload of the EGPM satellite would consist of an advanced conically scanning microwave radiometer

  15. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F.; Crutcher, R.I.; Vandermolen, R.I. )

    1990-01-01

    The consolidated fuel reprocessing program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing signal transmission techniques and equipment to improve the efficiency of remote handling operations for nuclear applications. These efforts have been largely directed toward the goals of (a) remotely controlling bilateral force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous manipulation-based operations in remote maintenance tasks and (b) providing television viewing of the work site. In September 1987, developmental microwave transceiving hardware operating with dish antennas was demonstrated in the advanced integrated maintenance system (AIMS) facility at ORNL, successfully implementing both high-quality one-way television transmissions and simultaneous bidirectional digital control data transmissions with very low error rates. Initial test results based on digital transmission at a 1.0-Mbaud data rate indicated that the error rates of the microwave system were comparable to those of a hardwired system. During these test intervals, complex manipulator operations were performed, and the AIMS transporter was moved repeatedly without adverse effects on data integrity. Results of these tests have been factored into subsequent phases of the development program, with an ultimate goal of designing a fully radiation-hardened microwave signal transmission system for use in nuclear facilities.

  16. Improving Reanalyses Using TRMM and SSM/I-Derived Precipitation and Total Precipitable Water Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; daSilva, Arlindo M.

    1999-01-01

    Global reanalyses currently contain significant errors in the primary fields of the hydrological cycle such as precipitation, evaporation, moisture, and the related cloud fields, especially in the tropics. The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has been exploring the use of rainfall and total precipitable water (TPW) observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I) instruments to improve these fields in reanalyses. The DAO has developed a "1+1"D procedure to assimilate 6-hr averaged rainfall and TPW into the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System (DAS). The algorithm is based on a 6-hr time integration of a column version of the GEOS DAS. The "1+1" designation refers to one spatial dimension plus one temporal dimension. The scheme minimizes the least-square differences between the satellite-retrieved rain rates and those produced by the column model over the 6-hr analysis window. The control variables are analysis increments of moisture within the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) framework of the GEOS DAS. This 1+1D scheme, in its generalization to four dimensions, is related to the standard 4D variational assimilation but differs in its choice of the control variable. Instead of estimating the initial condition at the beginning of the assimilation cycle, it estimates the constant IAU forcing applied over a 6-hr assimilation cycle. In doing so, it imposes the forecast model as a weak constraint in a manner similar to the variational continuous assimilation techniques. We present results from an experiment in which the observed rain rate and TPW are assumed to be "perfect". They show that assimilating the TMI and SSM/I-derived surface precipitation and TPW observations improves not only the precipitation and moisture fields but also key climate parameters directly linked to convective activities such as clouds, the

  17. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  18. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  19. Microwave solidification project overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.

  20. Investigation on computation of elliptical microwave plasma cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaoli; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Kai

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, the advance of the elliptical resonant cavity and focus cavity is known by many people. There are homogeneous and multipatternal virtues in the focus dimensional microwave field of the elliptical resonant cavity. It is very suitable for applying the low power microwave biological effect equipment. However, when designing the elliptical resonant cavity may meet the problems of complex and huge computation need to be solved. This paper proposed the simple way of approximate processing the Mathieu function. It can greatly simplify the difficulty and decrease the scale of computation. This method can satisfy the requirements of research and development within project permitted precision.

  1. New microwave coupler material

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1983-12-01

    The unexpected coupling of urania (UO/sub x/, with 2 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 3) to microwave energy has previously been reported. The present study screened several different materials for coupling with microwave energy using a 1.6 kW, 2450 MHz system. Materials were nominally -100 mesh powder, >99% pure. Those which showed minimal or no heating with the microwave energy included Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/, BN, graphite, and unstabilized ZrO/sub 2/. Pronounced heating occurred with B/sub 4/C. This discovery led to the following evaluation/comparison of the coupling ability of B/sub 4/C with water, structurally similar materials (boron suboxide, B/sub 6/O - prepared from zinc oxide and boron, microcrystalline or amorphous boron, ..cap alpha..-type), and UO/sub 2/. In order to compare relative heating rates, the materials were placed into 50 mL beakers, covered with alumina-silica felt insulation, and subjected to 30 s at full power (both top and bottom sources on). The temperature was measured at the end of the test, after the door automatically opened, by inserting a type K thermocouple into the material. For the powders, the thermocouple was moved about to obtain the highest reading, although only a 10% or so variation occurred before the temperature dropped from heat losses. 4 references, 1 table.

  2. The Day-1 GPM Combined Precipitation Algorithm: IMERG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, G. J.; Bolvin, D. T.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K.; Joyce, R.; Kidd, C.; Sorooshian, S.; Xie, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) algorithm will provide the at-launch combined-sensor precipitation dataset being produced by the U.S. GPM Science Team. IMERG is being developed as a unified U.S. algorithm that takes advantage of strengths in three current U.S. algorithms: - the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), which addresses inter-satellite calibration of precipitation estimates and monthly scale combination of satellite and gauge analyses; - the CPC Morphing algorithm with Kalman Filtering (KF-CMORPH), which provides quality-weighted time interpolation of precipitation patterns following storm motion; and - the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks using a Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS), which provides a neural-network-based scheme for generating microwave-calibrated precipitation estimates from geosynchronous infrared brightness temperatures, and filters out some non-raining cold clouds. The goal is to provide a long-term, fine-scale record of global precipitation from the entire constellation of precipitation-relevant satellite sensors, with input from surface precipitation gauges. The record will begin January 1998 at the start of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and extend as GPM records additional data. Although homogeneity is considered desirable, the use of diverse and evolving data sources works against the strict long-term homogeneity that characterizes a Climate Data Record (CDR). This talk will briefly review the design requirements for IMERG, including multiple runs at different latencies (most likely around 4 hours, 12 hours, and 2 months after observation time), various intermediate data fields as part of the IMERG data file, and the plans to bring up IMERG with calibration by TRMM initially, transitioning to GPM when its individual-sensor precipitation algorithms are fully functional

  3. Microwave-Assisted Olefin Metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, François; Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Bicchielli, Dario; Delfosse, Sébastien; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    Since the first reports on the use of microwave irradiation to accelerate organic chemical transformations, a plethora of papers have been published in this field. In most examples, microwave heating has been shown to dramatically reduce reaction times, increase product yields, and enhance product purity by reducing unwanted side reactions compared to conventional heating methods. The present contribution aims at illustrating the advantages of this technology in olefin metathesis and, when data are available, at comparing microwave-heated and conventionally heated experiments

  4. A cryogenically coolable microwave limiter

    PubMed

    Rinard; Quine; Eaton

    1999-02-01

    A microwave (ca. 3 GHz) limiter, constructed using a GaAs PIN diode and microstrip impedance transformation circuit, limited 300-ns long 11-W microwave pulses to 70 mW at ca. 4.2 K. This limiter was implemented in a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer to protect a low-noise microwave preamplifier from the high-power pulses. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9986762

  5. Global Precipitation Analyses at Monthly to 3-HR Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Global precipitation analysis covering the last few decades and the impact of the new TRMM precipitation observations are discussed. The 20+ year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to explore global and regional variations and trends and is compared to the much shorter TRMM(Tropica1 Rainfall Measuring Mission) tropical data set. A trend pattern that is a combination of both El Nino and La Nina precipitation features is evident in the 20-year data set. This pattern is related to an increase with time in the number of combined months of El Nino and La Nina during the 20 year period. Monthly anomalies of precipitation are related to ENSO variations with clear signals extending into middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres. The GPCP daily, 1deg latitude-longitude analysis, which is available from January 1997 to the present is described and the evolution of precipitation patterns on this time scale related to El Nino and La Nina is described. Finally, a TRMM-based 3-hr analysis is described that uses TRMM to calibrate polar-orbit microwave observations from SSM/I and geosynchronous IR observations and merges the various calibrated observations into a final, 3-hr resolution map. This TRMM standard product will soon be available for the entire TRMM period (January 1998- present). A real-time version of this merged product is being produced and is available at 0.25deg latitude-longitude resolution over the latitude range from 50degN-50degS. Images from this data set can be seen at the U.S. TRMM web site (trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples will be shown, including its use in monitoring flood conditions and relating weather-scale events to climate variations.

  6. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  7. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  8. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  9. Microwave NDE for Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Melapudi, Vikram R.; Rothwell, Edward J.; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2006-03-01

    Nondestructive assessment of the integrity of civil structures is of paramount importance for ensuring safety. In concrete imaging, radiography, ground penetrating radar and infrared thermography are some of the widely used techniques for health monitoring. Other emerging technologies that are gaining impetus for detecting and locating flaws in steel reinforcement bar include radioactive computed tomography, microwave holography, microwave and acoustic tomography. Of all the emerging techniques, microwave NDT is a promising imaging modality largely due to their ability to penetrate thick concrete structures, contrast between steel rebar and concrete and their non-radioactive nature. This paper investigates the feasibility of a far field microwave NDE technique for reinforced concrete structures.

  10. A New Fine-Scale, Quasi-Global Combined Precipitation Estimate Based on TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, R. F.; Bolvin, D. T.; Nelkin, E. J.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A TRMM-based 3-hourly precipitation algorithm is currently under development, with the goal of producing 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg, 3-hourly gridded estimates for the period January 1999 to the present over the latitude band +/-50 deg. [Extension to higher latitudes will be undertaken next]. TMI precipitation estimates are used to calibrate SSM/I estimates, and AMSR, when available. Then a merger of the microwave estimates is used to create a calibrated IR estimate in a Probability-Matched-Threshold approach. The microwave and IR estimates are next combined at the individual 3-hour level. Early results will be shown, including typical tropical and extratropical storm evolution and examples of the diurnal cycle. Major issues will be discussed, including the choice of IR algorithm, the approach to merging the IR and microwave estimates, and extension to the GPCP One-Degree Daily product (for which the authors are responsible). The work described here provides one approach to using data from the future NASA Global Precipitation Measurement program, which is designed to provide full global coverage by low-orbit passive microwave satellites every three hours beginning around 2007.

  11. Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; Hu, Zhenhu; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation are two effective ways of treating dairy manure for recovering biogas and phosphorus. Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure is commonly limited by slow fiber degradation, while struvite precipitation is limited by the availability of orthophosphate. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment to simultaneously enhance manure anaerobic digestibility (through fiber degradation) and struvite precipitation (through phosphorus solubilization). Microwave heating combined with different chemicals (NaOH, CaO, H(2)SO(4), or HCl) enhanced solubilization of manure and degradation of glucan/xylan in dairy manure. However, sulfuric acid-based pretreatment resulted in a low anaerobic digestibility, probably due to the sulfur inhibition and Maillard side reaction. The pretreatments released 20-40% soluble phosphorus and 9-14% ammonium. However, CaO-based pretreatment resulted in lower orthophosphate releases and struvite precipitation efficiency as calcium interferes with phosphate to form calcium phosphate. Collectively, microwave heating combined with NaOH or HCl led to a high anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery. Using these two chemicals, the performance of microwave- and conventional-heating in thermochemical pretreatment was further compared. The microwave heating resulted in a better performance in terms of COD solubilization, glucan/xylan reduction, phosphorus solubilization and anaerobic digestibility. Lastly, temperature and heating time used in microwave treatment were optimized. The optimal values of temperature and heating time were 147 degrees C and 25.3 min for methane production, and 135 degrees C and 26 min for orthophosphate release, respectively. PMID:19555991

  12. Sampling of the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation using TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Bell, Thomas L.; Xu, Li-Ming; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine the temporal sampling of tropical regions using observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR). We conclude that PR estimates at any one hour, even using three years of data, are inadequate to describe the diurnal cycle of precipitation over regions smaller than 12 degrees, due to high spatial variability in sampling. We show that the optimum period of accumulation is four hours. Diurnal signatures display half as much sampling error when averaged over four hours of local time. A similar pattern of sampling variability is found in the TMI data, despite the TMI's wider swath and increased sampling. These results are verified using an orbital model. The sensitivity of the sampling to satellite altitude is presented, as well as sampling patterns at the new TRMM altitude of 402.5 km.

  13. In-drum vitrification of transuranic waste sludge using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave vitrification of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is being tested using actual TRU waste in a bench-scale system and simulated waste in a pilot system. In 1987, bench-scale testing was completed to determine the effectiveness of in-drum microwave vitrification of simulated precipitation sludge. The equipment used in the bench tests included a 6-kW, 2.45-GHz microwave generator, aluminum cavity, turntable, infrared (IR) thermometer, and screw feeder. Results similar to those achieved in bench-scale testing are reproducible using a 915-MHz microwave system in solidifying simulated TRU sludge. Nine samples have been processed to date. Also, preliminary results using actual TRU waste indicate that the actual waste will behave in a similar way to the surrogate waste used in the 2.45-GHz system. Work is ongoing to complete the TRU waste tests.

  14. An Analysis for Tropical Cyclone precipitation in Texas from 1950 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.

    2010-12-01

    : TC precipitation is important to Texas because it can contribute significantly to the local annual and heavy precipitation ( Knight et al. 2009, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres), and it is also important for floods and drought risk management, especially with the potential influence of climate change. This study will be based on COOP gauges and HURDAT hurricane data. By using a modified Objective Synoptic Analysis Technique (Ren et al. 2007, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences), TC precipitation will be more efficiently extracted with improved accuracy. The data analysis of this study will look at: (1) How much does TC precipitation contribute to the total and extreme precipitation in Texas? (2)How has TC precipitation varied over the past 60 years in Texas? (3)How does TC precipitation vary spatially? Where is it most important (least important) in Texas? (4)Which factors explain the spatial and temporal variations in TC precipitation in Texas?

  15. Effective Assimilation of Global Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, G.; Kalnay, E.; Miyoshi, T.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Assimilating precipitation observations by modifying the moisture and sometimes temperature profiles has been shown successful in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed precipitation, but only while the assimilation is taking place. After the forecast start, the model tends to "forget" the assimilation changes and lose their extra skill after few forecast hours. This suggests that this approach is not an efficient way to modify the potential vorticity field, since this is the variable that the model would remember. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is used to effectively change the potential vorticity field by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights. In addition to using an EnKF, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are proposed to solve the problems related to the highly non-Gaussian nature of the precipitation variable: a) transform precipitation into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution, and b) only assimilate precipitation at the location where some ensemble members have positive precipitation. The idea is first tested by the observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using SPEEDY, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When the global precipitation is assimilated in addition to conventional rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium range forecasts are significantly improved as compared to only having rawinsonde observations. The improvement is much reduced when only modifying the moisture field with the same approach, which shows the importance of the error covariance between precipitation and all other model variables. The effect of precipitation assimilation is larger in the Southern Hemisphere than that in the Northern Hemisphere because the Northern Hemisphere analyses are already accurate as a result of denser rawinsonde stations. Assimilation of precipitation using a more comprehensive

  16. The Problem of Rain Microstructure Reconstruction In Microwave Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterlyadkin, V.

    Our field measurements of raindrop oscillations in optical range had proved that prac- tically all drops oscillate as they fall. The statistical treatment of field data allows us to approximate the dependence of oscillation amplitudes of the first axisymmetric mode on the drop volume V as , where A is a some constant for a given meteorological case. A raindrops vibration result to the amplitude modulation of scattering microwave ra- diation and under the first view allows to reconstruct the rain microstructure from the spectra of scattered microwaves. But up to date the most attempts were not success- ful. At first it was connected with great influence of the Doppler effect on microwave spectra. The effect of the asperity and vibration of raindrops on polarization properties of scattered microwave radiation and the spectrum of the recorded signal was investi- gated. The possibility of controlling of contribution of vibration to the signal spectrum by choosing the angle of polarization of the sounding radiation is proved theoretically and was confirmed by laboratory measurements. A method is proposed for separat- ing the spectra components determined by raindrops oscillations. The prospect for increasing the accuracy of radar measurements of the intensity of precipitation by means on-line acquisitions of data on rain microstructure are discussed.

  17. Microwave processing of Tantalum capacitors. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Vierow, W.F.

    1998-03-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and AVX Tantalum Corporation (AVX) of Biddeford, Maine, was initiated in October 1991. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion date for the Agreement was March 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of an advanced microwave processing concept to develop higher capacitance tantalum anodes. Tantalum capacitors are used where high reliability is needed (e.g., pacemakers, hearing aids, and military devices). Two types of tantalum powder are used: sodium-reduced powder and electron beam-refined powder. Sodium-reduced powder has higher surface area, but lower purity; electron beam-refined powder has higher purity for working voltages, but somewhat lower surface area. The powder is pressed into pellets using traditional methods and then placed in the microwave furnace for processing. It is of interest to determine if variable-frequency microwave sintering can increase quality while decreasing processing time and decreasing or eliminating surface contamination; these issues must be addressed while retaining the maximum surface area of the anode. Meeting each of these needs will result in a higher quality anodic film, which will thereby increase the dielectric strength. Additionally, microwave sintering might enable the authors to develop a strong sintered anode without excessive grain growth. The variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF), located at the Y-12 Plant, allows the authors to study the effects of sintering over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT), originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  18. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  19. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, challenges, and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Hou, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide next-generation observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's 15-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  20. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-04

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.