Science.gov

Sample records for advanced mission concept

  1. Advanced concepts and missions division publications, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This report is part of a series of annual papers on Advanced Concepts and Missions Division (ACMD) publications. It contains a bibliography and corresponding abstract of all papers presented or published by personnel of ACMD during the calendar year 1971. Also included are abstracts of final reports ACMD contracted studies perfomed during this time period.

  2. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  3. The Generation-X Vision Mission Study and Advanced Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Generation-X Team

    2008-03-01

    The Generation-X (Gen-X) mission was selected as one of NASA's Vision Missions as a concept for a next generation X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current X-ray telescopes. The mission has also been proposed as an Advanced Mission Concept Study (AMCS) to further define the technology development plan and mission design. The scientific goals for Gen-X include studying the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z=10-20, the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present, the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions. The key parameters required to meet these goals define a challenging mission and include an effective area of 50 m2 at 1 keV, and an angular resolution (HPD) of 0.1 arcsec over an energy band of 0.1-10 keV. The required effective area implies that extremely lightweight grazing incidence X-ray optics must be developed. To achieve the required areal density of at least 100 times lower than in Chandra, thin ( 0.1 mm) mirrors that have active on-orbit figure control are required. We present the major findings from the Gen-X Vision Mission Study and a streamlined mission concept enabled by the Ares V launch capability, as proposed in response to the AMSC call.

  4. The Advanced Patricle-astrophysics Telescope (APT) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, James

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) is a concept for a probe-class gamma-ray mission aimed at two primary science objects: (1) providing sensitivity to thermal-WIMP dark matter over the entire natural range of annihilation cross-sections and masses and (2) identifying short GRBs or gravity wave sources by detecting and localizing MeV gamma-ray transients. The instrument combines a pair tracker and Compton telescope in one simple monolithic design. By using scintillating fibers for the tracker and wavelength-shifting fibers to readout CsI detectors, the instrument could achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with Fermi at GeV energies, and several orders of magnitude improvement in MeV sensitivity compared to Comptel. The instrument would have roughly the same number of electronic channels as Fermi, but would provide an effective area of 12m2, and a geometry factor of 100 m2 str. The same CsI detectors used in the tracker/Compton telescope could be used for detection of high-energy transition radiation for measurements of light cosmic-ray abundances, making this a multi-purpose astro-particle physics observatory. The instantaneous all-sky sensitivity would provide a capability almost unique over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, providing a critical component of multi-messenger studies of the universe. We acknowledge support from the Washington University McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences.

  5. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-06-04

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over {approx}2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters.

  6. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  7. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-09-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  8. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Rogers, F.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  9. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M. S.; Klaus, K.; Rogers, F.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  10. Mission planning and scheduling concept for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Guffin, O. T.

    1994-01-01

    Projected for launch in the latter part of 1998, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the third satellite in the Great Observatory series, promises to dramatically open the x-ray sky as the Hubble and Compton observatories have done in their respective realms. Unlike its companions, however, AXAF will be placed in a high altitude, highly elliptical orbit (10,000 x 100,000 km), and will therefore be subject to its own unique environment, spacecraft and science instrument constraints and communication network interactions. In support of this mission, ground operations personnel have embarked on the development of the AXAF Offline System (OFLS), a body of software divided into four basic functional elements: (1) Mission Planning and Scheduling, (2) Command Management, (3) Altitude Determination and Sensor Calibration and (4) Spacecraft Support and Engineering Analysis. This paper presents an overview concept for one of these major elements, the Mission Planning and Scheduling subsystem (MPS). The derivation of this concept is described in terms of requirements driven by spacecraft and science instrument characteristics, orbital environment and ground system capabilities. The flowdown of these requirements through the systems analysis process and the definition of MPS interfaces has resulted in the modular grouping of functional subelements depicted in the design implementation approach. The rationale for this design solution is explained and capabilities for the initial prototype system are proposed from the user perspective.

  11. Applications of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts to civil utility missions. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The linear performance definition curves for the lift fan aircraft, tilt rotor aircraft, and advanced helicopter are given. The computer program written to perform the mission analysis for this study is also documented, and examples of its use are shown. Methods used to derive the performance coefficients for use in the mission analysis of the lift fan aircraft are described.

  12. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  13. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  14. Manned Mars Mission program concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, E. C.; Johnson, P.; Pearson, J.; Tucker, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SRS Manned Mars Mission and Program Analysis study designed to support a manned expedition to Mars contemplated by NASA for the purposes of initiating human exploration and eventual habitation of this planet. The capabilities of the interactive software package being presently developed by the SRS for the mission/program analysis are described, and it is shown that the interactive package can be used to investigate the impact of various mission concepts on the sensitivity of mass required in LEO, schedules, relative costs, and risk. The results, to date, indicate the need for an earth-to-orbit transportation system much larger than the present STS, reliable long-life support systems, and either advanced propulsion or aerobraking technology.

  15. GLAST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2001-01-01

    Cominsky served as the chair of the GLAST Public Affairs Working Group during the mission concept study. The major accomplishments of this group, which were carried out under her direction include: (1) GLAST Outreach website; (2) Brochure for scientists; (3) Brochure for public; (4) Developed the five key science goal 'bullets' to explain GLAST to the public, as well as the motto used on the GLAST brochures 'Quest for the Ultimate Sources of Energy in the Universe'; (5) Defined the EPO program for GLAST for the proposal phase. Developed initial program outline and budget; and (6) Assisted in the development of the GLAST exhibit, which was used at several scientific conferences.

  16. Post LANDSAT D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE). [with emphasis on mission planning, technological forecasting, and user requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An outline is given of the mission objectives and requirements, system elements, system concepts, technology requirements and forecasting, and priority analysis for LANDSAT D. User requirements and mission analysis and technological forecasting are emphasized. Mission areas considered include agriculture, range management, forestry, geology, land use, water resources, environmental quality, and disaster assessment.

  17. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  18. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  19. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Richard S.

    2007-09-01

    The hard X-ray sky has tremendous potential for future discoveries and is one of the last electromagnetic regimes without a sensitive all-sky survey. A new approach to such a survey is to utilize the Moon as an occulting disk. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) mission concept, based on this Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT) and incorporating advanced inorganic scintillators as a detection medium, represents a sensitive and cost effective option for NASA's Beyond Einstein Black Hole Finder Probe or a future Explorer-class mission. We present the motivating factors for the LOT, outline developmental details and simulation results, as well as give preliminary estimates for source detection sensitivity.

  20. X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    An initial concept study for the X-ray Surveyor mission was carried-out by the Advanced Concept Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), with a strawman payload and related requirements that were provided by an Informal Mission Concept Team, comprised of MSFC and Smithsonian Astrophysics Observatory (SAO) scientists plus a diverse cross-section of the X-ray community. The study included a detailed assessment of the requirements, a preliminary design, a mission analysis, and a preliminary cost estimate. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development—including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades, such as Con-X, AXSIO and IXO, and in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  1. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  2. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Boulder Collection Concept

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates one of two robotic mission concepts under consideration for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. In this concept, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle descends to the surface of a ...

  3. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.

  4. Hyperspectral imaging—An advanced instrument concept for the EnMAP mission (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Programme)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuffler, Timo; Förster, Klaus; Hofer, Stefan; Leipold, Manfred; Sang, Bernhard; Kaufmann, Hermann; Penné, Boris; Mueller, Andreas; Chlebek, Christian

    2009-10-01

    In the upcoming generation of satellite sensors, hyperspectral instruments will play a significant role. This payload type is considered world-wide within different future planning. Our team has now successfully finalized the Phase B study for the advanced hyperspectral mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Programme), Germans next optical satellite being scheduled for launch in 2012. GFZ in Potsdam has the scientific lead on EnMAP, Kayser-Threde in Munich is the industrial prime. The EnMAP instrument provides over 240 continuous spectral bands in the wavelength range between 420 and 2450 nm with a ground resolution of 30 m×30 m. Thus, the broad science and application community can draw from an extensive and highly resolved pool of information supporting the modeling and optimization process on their results. The performance of the hyperspectral instrument allows for a detailed monitoring, characterization and parameter extraction of rock/soil targets, vegetation, and inland and coastal waters on a global scale supporting a wide variety of applications in agriculture, forestry, water management and geology. The operation of an airborne system (ARES) as an element in the HGF hyperspectral network and the ongoing evolution concerning data handling and extraction procedures, will support the later inclusion process of EnMAP into the growing scientist and user communities.

  5. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  6. Advanced Concepts for Sea Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    technology sea control missions, 1,000 tonnes to advances occur, and the threat needs 25,000 tonnes would be representative change, a proper balance can be...sea loiter aircraft, conventional subcavitating fully-sub- utilizing the stopped rotor concept; merged foils, thus providing a very a small sea...augmentation engines have been platform characteristics at conventional moved from their overhung location to a displacement ship speeds but at a re- . place

  7. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  8. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  9. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  10. Overview of NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul W.; Muirhead, Brian; Gates, Michele

    2015-08-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a proposed mission to develop an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft, and test it by capturing a large mass of asteroidal material in interplanetary space and returning it to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit where it can be explored by a crew of astronauts visiting in an Orion spacecraft. This paper provides a summary of the ARM concept development, including the mission architecture, flight system concepts, the advanced solar electric propulsion system, and the asteroid capture system concepts. Extensibility to future human exploration of the Solar System will also be discussed.

  11. Advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr.; Healy, T. J.; Long, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE Summer Study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: (1) An intelligent earth-sensing information system, (2) an autonomous space exploration system, (3) an automated space manufacturing facility, and (4) a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by century's end.

  12. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  13. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  14. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  15. Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

  16. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  17. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  18. Mission and surface infrastructure concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J.; Mcdaniel, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    Several types of manned Mars surface missions, including sorties, fixed-base, and hybrid missions, which can be envisioned as potentially desirable approaches to the exploration and utilization of Mars are identified and discussed. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type are discussed briefly. Also, some of the implications of the types of missions on the surface elements' design are discussed briefly. Typical sets of surface elements are identified for each type of mission, and weights are provided for each element and set.

  19. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  20. New concepts for Mercury orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R.; Stuart, J. R.; Zeldin, B.

    1978-01-01

    The next logical step in the exploration of Mercury is an orbiter mission. A conflict exists between those in the field of planetary sciences who desire a mission with a low circular orbit, and scientists in the fields and particles disciplines, who generally prefer a highly elliptical spacecraft orbit. The thermal environment imposed by the sun and planet render the low orbit intolerable for spacecraft using previous thermal control methods. A thermal control concept and a spacecraft mission concept have been developed which resolve these problems and promise a scientifically significant mission for the mid-1980s.

  1. INTEGRAL: Overview and mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Christoph

    1994-06-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) will be the next European Space Agency (ESA) medium-size scientific mission (M2) to be launched in 2001. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with contributions from Russia and NASA. INTEGRAL is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (E/Delta-E = 500) and accurate positioning (17' FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV. The mission utilizes the service module (bus) under development for the ESA X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) project. INTEGRAL will be launched by a Russian PROTON rocket into a Highly Eccentric 72 hr Orbit or by a European ARIANE 5 rocket into a Highly Eccentric 24 hr Orbit. The nominal lifetime of the observatory will be 2 years with possible extension to up to 5 years. Most of the observing time will be made available to the worldwide scientific community.

  2. Reusable space tug concept and mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona

    2016-11-01

    Advanced Project Excellence in Research and Enterprise), supported by Italian Ministry of Research and University (MIUR), and specifically in its STRONG sub-project (Systems Technology and Research National Global Operations) and related to the theme of space exploration and access to space. From this statement, a Primary Mission Objective (i.e. to perform satellites taxi between LEO and the operational orbit) and a Constraint can be derived (i.e.to use Italian space assets). Also in the mission concept has been underlined the necessity to rely on Italian space assets. This particular part of the mission statement is influenced by the stakeholders' analysis and will drive the systems configurations and design. In addition, considering stakeholders' analysis, VEGA launcher is considered as baseline and is one of the main constraints for the systems design.

  3. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  4. Advanced concepts flight simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Chappell, S L; Sexton, G A

    1986-12-01

    The cockpit environment is changing rapidly. New technology allows airborne computerised information, flight automation and data transfer with the ground. By 1995, not only will the pilot's task have changed, but also the tools for doing that task. To provide knowledge and direction for these changes, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lockheed-Georgia Company have completed three identical Advanced Concepts Flight Simulation Facilities. Many advanced features have been incorporated into the simulators - e g, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays of flight and systems information operated via touch-screen or voice, print-outs of clearances, cockpit traffic displays, current databases containing navigational charts, weather and flight plan information, and fuel-efficient autopilot control from take-off to touchdown. More importantly, this cockpit is a versatile test bed for studying displays, controls, procedures and crew management in a full-mission context. The facility also has an air traffic control simulation, with radio and data communications, and an outside visual scene with variable weather conditions. These provide a veridical flight environment to evaluate accurately advanced concepts in flight stations.

  5. Xenia Mission: Spacecraft Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, C. L.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jones, D.; Baysinger, M.; Bedsole, T.; Maples, C. C.; Benfield, P. J.; Turner, M.; Capizzo, P.; Fabinski, L.; Hornsby, L.; Thompson, K.; Miernik, J. H.; Percy, T.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed Xenia mission will, for the first time, chart the chemical and dynamical state of the majority of baryonic matter in the universe. using high-resolution spectroscopy, Xenia will collect essential information from major traces of the formation and evolution of structures from the early universe to the present time. The mission is based on innovative instrumental and observational approaches: observing with fast reaction gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a high spectral resolution. This enables the study of their (star-forming) environment from the dark to the local universe and the use of GRBs as backlight of large-scale cosmological structures, observing and surveying extended sources with high sensitivity using two wide field-of-view x-ray telescopes - one with a high angular resolution and the other with a high spectral resolution.

  6. Wide Field X-Ray Telescope Mission Concept Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Thomas, H. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Baysinger, M.; Hornsby, L. S.; Maples, C. D.; Purlee, T. E.; Capizzo, P. D.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is an astrophysics mission concept for detecting and studying extra-galactic x-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies, in an effort to further understand cosmic evolution and structure. This Technical Memorandum details the results of a mission concept study completed by the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in 2012. The design team analyzed the mission and instrument requirements, and designed a spacecraft that enables the WFXT mission while using high heritage components. Design work included selecting components and sizing subsystems for power, avionics, guidance, navigation and control, propulsion, structures, command and data handling, communications, and thermal control.

  7. Mars Pathfinder mission operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Dias, William C.; Nakata, Albert Y.; Tai, Wallace S.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project plans a December 1996 launch of a single spacecraft. After jettisoning a cruise stage, an entry body containing a lander and microrover will directly enter the Mars atmosphere and parachute to a hard landing near the sub-solar latitude of 15 degrees North in July 1997. Primary surface operations last for 30 days. Cost estimates for Pathfinder ground systems development and operations are not only lower in absolute dollars, but also are a lower percentage of total project costs than in past planetary missions. Operations teams will be smaller and fewer than typical flight projects. Operations scenarios have been developed early in the project and are being used to guide operations implementation and flight system design. Recovery of key engineering data from entry, descent, and landing is a top mission priority. These data will be recorded for playback after landing. Real-time tracking of a modified carrier signal through this phase can provide important insight into the spacecraft performance during entry, descent, and landing in the event recorded data is never recovered. Surface scenarios are dominated by microrover activity and lander imaging during 7 hours of the Mars day from 0700 to 1400 local solar time. Efficient uplink and downlink processes have been designed to command the lander and microrover each Mars day.

  8. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  9. NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.

  10. HIAD Advancements and Extension of Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Keith; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Korzun, Ashley M.; DiNonno, John M.; Lindell, Mike C.; Swanson, Greg T.

    2016-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology has made significant advancements over the last decade with flight test demonstrations and ground development campaigns. The first generation (Gen-1) design and materials were flight tested with the successful third Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment flight test of a 3-m HIAD (IRVE-3). Ground development efforts incorporated materials with higher thermal capabilities for the inflatable structure (IS) and flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS) as a second generation (Gen-2) system. Current efforts and plans are focused on extending capabilities to improve overall system performance and reduce areal weight, as well as expand mission applicability. F-TPS materials that offer greater thermal resistance, and ability to be packed to greater density, for a given thickness are being tested to demonstrated thermal performance benefits and manufacturability at flight-relevant scale. IS materials and construction methods are being investigated to reduce mass, increase load capacities, and improve durability for packing. Previous HIAD systems focused on symmetric geometries using stacked torus construction. Flight simulations and trajectory analysis show that symmetrical HIADs may provide L/D up to 0.25 via movable center of gravity (CG) offsets. HIAD capabilities can be greatly expanded to suit a broader range of mission applications with asymmetric shapes and/or modulating L/D. Various HIAD concepts are being developed to provide greater control to improve landing accuracy and reduce dependency upon propulsion systems during descent and landing. Concepts being studied include a canted stack torus design, control surfaces, and morphing configurations that allow the shape to be actively manipulated for flight control. This paper provides a summary of recent HIAD development activities, and plans for future HIAD developments including advanced materials, improved construction techniques, and alternate

  11. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.

  12. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  13. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  14. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  15. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  16. Concept for Space Technology Advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeremiah J.

    2005-02-01

    The space industry is based on an antiquated concept of disposable rockets, earth construction, and non-repairable satellites. Current space vehicle concepts hearken from a time of Cold War animosity and expeditiousness. Space systems are put together in small, single-purpose chunks that are launched with mighty, single-use rockets. Spacecraft need to change to a more versatile, capable, reusable, and mission efficient design. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that President Bush put forward in his space initiative on Jan. 14, 2004 is a small first step. But like all first steps, the risk of eventual failure is great without a complementary set of steps, a reliable handhold, and a goal, which are outlined in this paper. The system for space access and development needs to be overhauled to allow for the access to space to complement the building in space, which promotes the production of goods in space, which enhances the exploitation of space resources… and the list goes on. Without supplemental and complementary infrastructure, all political, scientific, and idealistic endeavors to explore and exploit the near solar system will result in quagmires of failures and indecision. Renewed focus on fundamentals, integration, total-system consideration, and solid engineering can avoid catastrophe. Mission success, simple solutions, mission efficiency, and proper testing all seem to have been lost in the chase for the nickels and dimes. These items will increase capabilities available from a system or combination of systems. New propulsion options and materials will enable vehicles previously unachievable. Future spacecraft should exploit modular designs for repeatability and reduced cost. Space construction should use these modular systems on major components built in orbit. All vehicles should apply smart designs and monitoring systems for increased reliability and system awareness. Crew safety systems must use this awareness in alerting the crew, aiding collision

  17. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, Michael; Clifford, S.; Lawrence, S.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes. Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Mission Concept: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Our concept involves using a Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Summary/Conclusions: A robust and compelling Mars mission can be designed to meet the 2018 Mars launch window opportunity. Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute the baseline science mission and conduct necessary Mars Sample Return Technology Demonstrations in Mars orbit on the same mission. An observation spacecraft platform like the high power 5Kw) 702SP at Mars also enables the use of a SAR instrument to reveal new insights and understanding of the Mars regolith for both

  18. An advanced manned launch system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Piland, W. M.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage fully reusable rocked powered concept is defined and analyzed in detail for the Advanced Manned Launch System missions. The concept elements include a Mach 3 staging unmanned glideback booster and a 149-ft long winged orbiter with an external payload canister with a 15-ft diameter and 30-ft long payload bay. The booster and orbiter main propulsion system is a lightweight derivative of the current Space Shuttle Main Engine. The primary mission is the Space Station Freedom logistics mission, 40,000-lb payload with two crew members and eight passengers. The structural design and material selection, the thermal protection system, the integral cryogenic tanks and insulation, the propulsion system, and the modular payload canister system are described. The ground and flight operations approach analysis, the manufacturing and certification plan, and the technology development requirements are also discussed.

  19. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  20. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  1. The Magnetosphere Imager Mission Concept Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.; Alexander, Reggie; Beabout, Brent; Blevins, Harold; Bridge, Scott; Burruss, Glenda; Buzbee, Tom; Carrington, Connie; Chandler, Holly; Chu, Phillip; Chubb, Steve; Cushman, Paul; DeSanctis, Carmine; Edge, Ted; Freestone, Todd; French, Ray; Gallagher, Dennis; Hajos, Greg; Herr, Joel

    1997-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in many different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data and help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing us with a clear picture of this region of space. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for defining the Magnetosphere Imager mission which will study this region of space. A core instrument complement of three imagers (with the potential addition of one or more mission enhancing instrument) will fly in an elliptical polar Earth orbit with an apogee of 44,600 kilometers and a perigee of 4,800 km. This report will address the mission objectives, spacecraft design concepts, and the results of the MSFC concept definition study.

  2. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Lyon, Richard G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Allen, Ronald J.; Armstrong, Thomas; Danchi, William C.; Karovska, Margarita; Marzouk, Joe; Mazzuca, Lisa M.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It is designed to image stars and binaries with sufficient resolution to enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also support asteroseismology (acoustic imaging) to probe stellar internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of the magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on time scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. In this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address these goals, the "enabling technology" development efforts being pursued, and the design concepts now under study for the full mission and a possible pathfinder mission.

  3. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

  4. Habitation Concepts for Human Missions Beyond Low-Earth-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, David V.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been engaged for several years in a variety of study activities to help define various options for deep space habitation. This work includes study activities supporting asteroid, lunar and Mars mission activities for the Human spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT), the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project, and the Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. The missions under consideration required human habitation beyond low-Earth-orbit (LEO) including deep space habitation in the lunar vicinity to support asteroid retrieval missions, human and robotic lunar surface missions, deep space research facilities, Mars vehicle servicing, and Mars transit missions. Additional considerations included international interest and near term capabilities through the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Launch System (SLS) programs. A variety of habitat layouts have been considered, including those derived from the existing ISS systems, those that could be fabricated from SLS components, and other approaches. This paper presents an overview of several leading designs explored in late fiscal year (FY) 2015 for asteroid, lunar, and Mars mission habitats and identifies some of the known advantages and disadvantages inherent in each. Key findings indicate that module diameters larger than those used for ISS can offer lighter structures per unit volume, and sufficient volume to accommodate consumables for long-duration missions in deep space. The information provided with the findings includes mass and volume data that should be helpful to future exploration mission planning and deep space habitat design efforts.

  5. SLS Launched Missions Concept Studies for LUVOIR Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-meter Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-meter class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-meter class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  6. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  7. Long duration mission support operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that the system operations will be one of the most expensive parts of the Mars mission, and that, in order to reduce their cost, they should be considered during the conceptual phase of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) program. System operations of Space Station Freedom, Lunar outpost, and Mars Rover Sample Return are examined in order to develop a similar concept for the manned Mars mission. Factors that have to be taken into account include: (1) psychological stresses caused by long periods of isolation; (2) the effects of boredom; (3) the necessity of onboard training to maintain a high level of crew skills; and (4) the 40-min time delays between issuing and receiving a command, which make real-time flight control inoperative and require long-term decisions to be made by the ground support.

  8. AXSIO and the NASA X-ray Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Spectroscopy and Imaging Observatory (AXSIO) focuses on the IXO science objectives ranked highly by the Decadal Survey: tracing orbits near 5MBH event horizons, measuring BH spin, characterizing outflows and the environment of AGN, observing 5MBH to z=6, mapping gas motion in clusters, finding the missing baryons, and observing cosmic feedback. AXSIO's streamlining of IXO includes reduction in the instrument complement to a calorimeter and a grating spectrometer, and relaxation of the angular resolution to 10". With 0.9 m2 effective area at 1.25 keV, AXSIO delivers a 30-fold performance increase over current missions for high-resolution spectroscopy and spectroscopic timing. NASA has also undertaken a study of notional missions to determine lower cost approaches to accomplishing IXO objectives over the next decade. Three concepts were studied; which as a group encompass the full range of IXO science. The capabilities and architecture of these missions are summarized.

  9. Advanced nuclear rocket engine mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Farbman, G.; Sulmeisters, T.; Buden, D.; Harris, P.

    1987-12-01

    The use of a derivative of the NERVA engine developed from 1955 to 1973 was evluated for potential application to Air Force orbital transfer and maneuvering missions in the time period 1995 to 2020. The NERVA stge was found to have lower life cycle costs (LCC) than an advanced chemical stage for performing low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO0 missions at any level of activity greater than three missions per year. It had lower life cycle costs than a high performance nuclear electric engine at any level of LEO to GEO mission activity. An examination of all unmanned orbital transfer and maneuvering missions from the Space Transportation Architecture study (STAS 111-3) indicated a LCC advantage for the NERVA stage over the advanced chemical stage of fifteen million dollars. The cost advanced accured from both the orbital transfer and maneuvering missions. Parametric analyses showed that the specific impulse of the NERVA stage and the cost of delivering material to low earth orbit were the most significant factors in the LCC advantage over the chemical stage. Lower development costs and a higher thrust gave the NERVA engine an LCC advantage over the nuclear electric stage. An examination of technical data from the Rover/NERVA program indicated that development of the NERVA stage has a low technical risk, and the potential for high reliability and safe operation. The data indicated the NERVA engine had a great flexibility which would permit a single stage to perform all Air Force missions.

  10. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  11. Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE): A Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, M. J.; Amador, E. S.; Carrier, B. L.; Albuja, A.; Bapst, J.; Cahill, K. R. S.; Ebersohn, F.; Gainey, S.; Gartrelle, G.; Greenberger, R. N.; Hale, J. M.; Johnston, S.; Olivares, J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Sheehan, J. P.; Thorpe, A. K.; Zareh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is an intriguing planetary body, which possibly has the ingredients needed for life. Further, it has numerous (over 100) continuously erupting geysers that eject material into the atmosphere which provide a unique opportunity to sample the body's internal chemistry from orbit. At JPL's Planetary Science Summer School, Team X and a group of students developed a mission concept to directly sample Enceladus' plumes. The mission, named Enceladus Environmental Explorer (EVE), follows NASA's Planetary Science Decadal survey and would assess the potential habitability of Saturn's icy satellite through analysis of the chemistry of the subsurface ocean and the nature of the organic chemistry in the plume. EVE would look at geological and geophysical surface processes of Enceladus by investigating the heat output of Enceladus, plumes' mechanics, the extent of the liquid subsurface reservoir(s), and gravitational variation. The EVE mission concept aimed for a January 2023 launch on an Atlas 551 class launch vehicle and would arrive at Saturn July 2031. A two-year-long Saturn moon tour would allow sufficient deceleration to permit a polar orbital insertion around Enceladus in March 2035, remaining stable for 54 weeks of observation. The proposed instrument payload includes: 1) SUb MilliMeter Enceladus Radiometer (SUMMER; equivalent to Rosetta MIRO), 2) Enceladus Dust and Gas Experiment (EDGE; an enhanced version of Rosetta COSIMA), 3) MAGnetometer for Ionic Concentration (MAGIC; equivalent to MMS/ InSIGHT magnetometer), 4) Visual Imaging Camera with Topographic Observational Resolution (VICTOR) and 5) Enceladus Radio Gravity Science (ERGS). Our suggested orbital timeline would allow the most comprehensive dataset yet collected of a moon in the outer solar system, mapping the entire surface twice with SUMMER and VICTOR, while sampling the plume directly 232 times with EDGE. MAGIC would also provide over a year of sampling of the magnetic field variations from orbit

  12. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  13. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies

  14. Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and

  15. Advanced missions to primitive bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Six interplanetary spacecraft, three earth orbital experiments, and one spacecraft orbiting Venus will observe comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner in 1985-86. At comet Halley, attempts will be made to image the nucleus, remote sensing will be made by spectrometers in wavelength ranges from the IR to the UV, and in-situ observations will be made with neutral, ion and dust mass spectrometers. Plasma measurements will be made at both comets and at comet Halley the upstream solar wind flux will be simultaneously monitored by nearby spacecraft. In the post-Halley era, there are several missions being planned for the continued exploration of the solar system's most primitive bodies - comets and asteroids.

  16. Pointing and Tracking Concepts for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. W.; Lee, S.; Chen, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of a FY1998 effort on the design and development of an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for the Advanced Deep Space System Development (ADSSD) Project. This study was funded by the JPL X2000 program to develop an optical communications (Opcomm) subsystem for use in future planetary missions. The goal of this development effort was aimed at providing prototype hardware with the capability of performing uplink, downlink, and ranging functions from deep space distances. Such a system was envisioned to support future deep space missions in the Outer Planets/Solar Probe (OPSP) mission set such as the Pluto express and Europa orbiter by providing a significant enhancement of data return capability. A study effort was initiated to develop a flyable engineering model optical terminal to support the proposed Europa Orbiter mission - as either the prime telecom subsystem or for mission augmentation. The design concept was to extend the prototype lasercom terminal development effort currently conducted by JPL's Optical Communications Group. The subsystem would track the sun illuminated Earth at Europa and farther distances for pointing reference. During the course of the study, a number of challenging issues were found. These included thermo-mechanical distortion, straylight control, and pointing. This paper focuses on the pointing aspects required to locate and direct a laser beam from a spacecraft (S/C) near Jupiter to a receiving station on Earth.

  17. Solar lens mission concept for interstellar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Turyshev, Slava; Shao, Michael; Zhang, Qicheng

    2015-09-01

    The long standing approach to space travel has been to incorporate massive on-board electronics, probes and propellants to achieve space exploration. This approach has led to many great achievements in science, but will never help to explore the interstellar medium. Fortunately, a paradigm shift is upon us in how a spacecraft is constructed and propelled. This paper describes a mission concept to get to our Sun's Gravity Lens at 550AU in less than 10 years. It will be done by using DE-STAR, a scalable solar-powered phased-array laser in Earth Orbit, as a directed energy photon drive of low-mass wafersats. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] With recent technologies a complete mission can be placed on a wafer including, power from an embedded radio nuclear thermal generator (RTG), PV, laser communications, imaging, photon thrusters for attitude control and other sensors. As one example, a futuristic 200 MW laser array consisting of 1 - 10 kw meter scale sub elements with a 100m baseline can propel a 10 gram wafer scale spacecraft with a 3m laser sail to 60AU/Year. Directed energy propulsion of low-mass spacecraft gives us an opportunity to capture images of Alpha Centauri and its planets, detailed imaging of the cosmic microwave background, set up interstellar communications by using gravity lenses around nearby stars to boost signals from interstellar probes, and much more. This system offers a very large range of missions allowing hundreds of wafer scale payload launches per day to reach this cosmological data reservoir. Directed Energy Propulsion is the only current technology that can provide a near-term path to utilize our Sun's Gravity Lens.

  18. The LOFT mission concept: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feroci, M.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Liu, L.-P.; Orleanski, P.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Schanne, S.; Stella, L.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Zhang, S.-N.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Agudo, I.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Albertus, C.; Alford, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Artigues, B.; Atteia, J.-L.; Azzarello, P.; Bakala, P.; Ballantyne, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Baldo, M.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; van Baren, C.; Barret, D.; Baykal, A.; Begelman, M.; Behar, E.; Behar, O.; Belloni, T.; Bernardini, F.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Binko, P.; Blay, P.; Bocchino, F.; Bode, M.; Bodin, P.; Bombaci, I.; Bonnet Bidaud, J.-M.; Boutloukos, S.; Bouyjou, F.; Bradley, L.; Braga, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Brown, E.; Buballa, M.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Burgay, M.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F.; Cais, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Cao, X.; Capitanio, F.; Casares, J.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cavechi, Y.; Celestin, S.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chamel, N.; Château, F.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; Chenevez, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Coriat, M.; Cornelisse, R.; Costamante, L.; Cros, A.; Cui, W.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; Czerny, B.; D'Aı, A.; D'Ammando, F.; D'Elia, V.; Dai, Z.; Del Monte, E.; De Luca, A.; De Martino, D.; Dercksen, J. P. C.; De Pasquale, M.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; Degenaar, N.; den Herder, J. W.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Dong, Y.; Donnarumma, I.; Doroshenko, V.; Doyle, G.; Drake, S. A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enoto, T.; Erkut, M. H.; Esposito, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Fender, R.; Feng, H.; Ferrari, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. H.; Fraser, G. W.; Frericks, M.; Fullekrug, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gabler, M.; Galloway, D. K.; Gálvez Sanchez, J. L.; Gandhi, P.; Gao, Z.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gevin, O.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gogus, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Goluchová, K.; Götz, D.; Gou, L.; Gouiffes, C.; Grandi, P.; Grassi, M.; Greiner, J.; Grinberg, V.; Groot, P.; Gschwender, M.; Gualtieri, L.; Guedel, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Guy, L.; Haas, D.; Haensel, P.; Hailey, M.; Hamuguchi, K.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D. H.; Haswell, C. A.; Hebeler, K.; Heger, A.; Hempel, M.; Hermsen, W.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Huppenkothen, D.; Inam, S. C.; Ingram, A.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Israel, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Izzo, L.; Jacobs, H. M.; Jetter, F.; Johannsen, T.; Jenke, P. A.; Jonker, P.; Josè, J.; Kaaret, P.; Kalamkar, K.; Kalemci, E.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Koerding, E.; Kokkotas, K.; Komossa, S.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L. M.; Kunneriath, D.; Kurkela, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; La Franca, F.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Lachaud, C.; Laubert, P. P.; Lebrun, F.; Li, X.; Liang, E.; Limousin, O.; Lin, D.; Linares, M.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lu, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T. J.; Macera, D.; Maestre, S.; Mahmoodifar, S.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Malzac, J.; Malone, C.; Mandel, I.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marelli, M.; Margueron, J.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S. B.; Markowitz, A.; Marinucci, A.; Martindale, A.; Martínez, G.; McHardy, I. M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mehdipour, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Michalska, M.; Mihara, T.; Miller, M. C.; Miller, J. M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Mouret, G.; Mulačová, J.; Muleri, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Negueruela, I.; Neilsen, J.; Neubert, T.; Norton, A. J.; Nowak, M.; Nucita, A.; O'Brien, P.; Oertel, M.; Olsen, P. E. H.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Papitto, A.; Paragi, Z.; Paredes, J. M.; Patruno, A.; Paul, B.; Pederiva, F.; Perinati, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Peretz, U.; Perez, M. A.; Perez-Torres, M.; Peterson, B. M.; Petracek, V.; Pittori, C.; Pons, J.; Portell, J.; Possenti, A.; Postnov, K.; Poutanen, J.; Prakash, M.; Prandoni, I.; Le Provost, H.; Psaltis, D.; Pye, J.; Qu, J.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rashevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rezzolla, L.; Ribo, M.; de la Rie, R.; Riggio, A.; Rios, A.; Rischke, D. H.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Rohlfs, R.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E. M. R.; Rozanska, A.; Rousseau, A.; Rudak, B.; Russell, D. M.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Salvetti, D.; Sanna, A.; Sandberg, J.; Savolainen, T.; Scaringi, S.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Schatz, H.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Serino, M.; Shakura, N.; Shore, S.; Schnittman, J. D.; Schneider, R.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Sedrakian, A.; Seyler, J.-Y.; Shearer, A.; Slowikowska, A.; Sims, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, D. M.; Smith, P. J.; Sobolewska, M.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Song, L.; Spencer, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stappers, B.; Staubert, R.; Steiner, A. W.; Stergioulas, N.; Stevens, A. L.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Suleimanov, V.; Tamburini, F.; Tauris, T.; Tavecchio, F.; Tenzer, C.; Thielemann, F. K.; Tiengo, A.; Tolos, L.; Tombesi, F.; Tomsick, J.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J. M.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tramacere, A.; Traulsen, I.; Trois, A.; Turolla, R.; Turriziani, S.; Typel, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vietri, M.; Vincent, F. H.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Winter, B.; Walk, S. J.; Wood, K.; Woosley, S. E.; Wu, X.; Xu, R.; Yu, W.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, W.; Yuan, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdunik, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, S.; Zingale, M.; Zwart, F.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) is a mission concept which was proposed to ESA as M3 and M4 candidate in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument and the uniquely large field of view of its wide field monitor, LOFT will be able to study the behaviour of matter in extreme conditions such as the strong gravitational field in the innermost regions close to black holes and neutron stars and the supra-nuclear densities in the interiors of neutron stars. The science payload is based on a Large Area Detector (LAD, >8m2 effective area, 2-30 keV, 240 eV spectral resolution, 1 degree collimated field of view) and a Wide Field Monitor (WFM, 2-50 keV, 4 steradian field of view, 1 arcmin source location accuracy, 300 eV spectral resolution). The WFM is equipped with an on-board system for bright events (e.g., GRB) localization. The trigger time and position of these events are broadcast to the ground within 30 s from discovery. In this paper we present the current technical and programmatic status of the mission.

  19. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  20. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  1. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides a review of the SHM concept, the advantages it provides, trajectory assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space based propulsion system, advances in mission planning and new mass estimates.

  2. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides a review of the SHM concept, the advantages it provides, trajectory assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space based propulsion system, advances in mission planning and new mass estimates.

  3. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  4. CELSS for advanced manned mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R. L.; Oleson, M. W.; Slavin, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the major concepts of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) includes an identification of environmental factors, such as gravity levels, light levels, and growth volume, that influence the type of CELSS system that can be developed. Various plant growth systems are described together with their possible space applications. Life support functions performed by plants include food production, atmosphere regeneration, and water purification. Selected relationships between biological and physical-chemical life support techniques are considered as a part of these functions. Consumers in a CELSS may be humans, animals, or microorganisms, but nutritional, water, and atmosphere requirements of humans are emphasized in this report, as they are the primary requirement drivers for a CELSS design. The human role in waste generation is discussed as it affects plant nutrient availability. The role of waste management systems in recovering nutrients for plant growth and requirements for CELSS are defined for air, water, and food. Both physical and a biological nutrient recovery/waste disposal systems are examined. The separate subsystems of a CELSS are identified and discussed. Nutrient recovery, plant irradiation, automation, and facilities equipment and applications are reviewed with special attention to direct solar irradiation using fiber optics. These subsystems, along with other environmental control systems, such as thermal, humidity, and ventilation, are essential to plant growth in the space environment.

  5. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  6. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  7. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D. B.; Clifford, S. M.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The time has come to leverage technology advances (including advances in autonomous operation and propulsion technology) to reduce the cost and increase the flight rate of planetary missions, while actively developing a scientific and engineering workforce to achieve national space objectives. Mission Science at Mars: A SAR imaging radar offers an ability to conduct high resolution investigations of the shallow (<10 m depth) subsurface of Mars, enabling identification of fine-scale layering within the Martian polar layered deposits (PLD), as well as the identification of pingos, investigations of polygonal terrain, and measurements of the thickness of mantling layers at non-polar latitudes. It would allow systematic near-surface prospecting, which is tremendously useful for human exploration purposes (in particular, the identification of accessible ice deposits and quantification of Martian regolith properties). Limited color capabilities in a notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would enable the generation of false color images, resulting in useful science results, and the stereo data could be reduced into high-resolution Digital Elevation Models uniquely useful for exploration planning and science purposes. Since the SAR and the notional high-resolution stereo imaging system would be huge data volume producers - to maximize the science return we are currently considering the usage of laser communications systems; this notional spacecraft represents one pathway to evaluate the utility of laser communications in planetary exploration while providing useful science return.. Mission Concept: Using a common space craft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. SEP provides the greatest payload advantage albeit at the sacrifice of mission time. Our concept involves using a SEP enabled space craft (Boeing 702SP) with a highly capable SAR imager that also

  8. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; Murray, S.; Plucinsky, P.; Ramsey, B.; Remillard, R.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Daelemans, G.; Karpati, G.; Nicoletti, A.; Reid, P.

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  9. A conceptual venus rover mission using advanced radioisotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael; Shirley, James H.; Abelson, Robert Dean

    2006-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the novel Advanced RPS-driven Stirling thermoacoustic system to enable extended science operations in the extremely hostile surface environment of Venus. The mission concept entails landing a rover onto the Venus surface, conducting science measurements in different areas on the surface, and returning the science data to Earth. The study focused on developing a rover design to satisfy the science goals with the capability to operate for 60 days. This mission life influences several design parameters, including Earth elevation angle and the maximum communications range to Earth.

  10. A mission concept of Phobos/Deimos exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushima, K.; Saito, J.; Utashima, M.; Koshiishi, H.

    1993-01-01

    We have been designing the concept of Phobos/Deimos mission using the Japanese H-2 rocket as a first step in asteroid exploration. In planning the mission concept, we focused on development of methods to characterize the materials of Phobos/Deimos. The development of such methods will contribute to both scientific and resource explorations of asteroids. Here we report the preliminary concept of the mission.

  11. Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, Gerald W.; Premo, John W.; Hersh, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program goal is to reduce aircraft noise by 10 EPNdB by the year 2000 relative, to 1992 technology. The improvement goal for nacelle attenuation is 25% relative to 1992 technology by 1997 and 50% by 2000. The Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts Task work by Boeing presented in this document was in support of these goals. The basis for the technical approach was a Boeing study conducted in 1993-94 under NASA/FAA contract NAS1-19349, Task 6, investigating broadband acoustic liner concepts. As a result of this work, it was recommended that linear double layer, linear and perforate triple layer, parallel element, and bulk absorber liners be further investigated to improve nacelle attenuations. NASA LaRC also suggested that "adaptive" liner concepts that would allow "in-situ" acoustic impedance control also be considered. As a result, bias flow and high-temperature liner concepts were also added to the investigation. The major conclusion from the above studies is that improvements in nacelle liner average acoustic impedance characteristics alone will not result in 25% increased nacelle noise reduction relative to 1992 technology. Nacelle design advancements currently being developed by Boeing are expected to add 20-40% more acoustic lining to hardwall regions in current inlets, which is predicted to result in and additional 40-80% attenuation improvement. Similar advancements are expected to allow 10-30% more acoustic lining in current fan ducts with 10-30% more attenuation expected. In addition, Boeing is currently developing a scarf inlet concept which is expected to give an additional 40-80% attenuation improvement for equivalent lining areas.

  12. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  14. Performance of advanced missions using fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan; Mcadams, Jim; Schulze, Norm

    1989-01-01

    A quantitive evaluation of the premise that nuclear fusion propulsion offers benefits as compared to other propulsion technologies for carrying out a program of advanced exploration of the solar system and beyond is presented. Using a simplified analytical model of trajectory performance, numerical results of mass requirements versus trip time are given for robotic missions beyond the solar system that include flyby and rendezvous with the Oort cloud of comets and with the star system Alpha Centauri. Round trip missions within the solar system, including robotic sample returns from the outer planet moons and multiple asteroid targets, and manned Mars exploration are also described.

  15. Early Formulation Model-centric Engineering on Nasa's Europa Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, David

    2012-01-01

    By leveraging the existing Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) infrastructure at JPL and adding a modest investment, the Europa Mission Concept Study made striking advances in mission concept capture and analysis. This effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting and successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of system modeling to mission architecting. It clearly demonstrated that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional systems engineering methods. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  16. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  17. Evaluation of advanced airship concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joner, B. A.; Schneider, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A historical overview of the airship, technical and operational characteristics of conventional and hybrid concepts, and the results of a parametric design analysis and evaluation are presented. The lift capabilities of certain buoyant fluids for a hypothetical 16 million cu.ft. volume airship are compared. The potential advanced airship concepts are surveyed, followed by a discussion of the six configurations: conventional nonrigid, conventional rigid, Deltoid (Dynairship), Guppoid (Megalifter), Helipsoid, and Heli-Stat. It is suggested that a partially buoyant Helipsoid concept of the optimum buoyancy ratio has the potential to solve the problems facing future airship development, such as Ballast and Ballast Recovery System, Full Low-Speed Controllability, Susceptibility to Wind/Gusting, Weather/Icing Constraints, Ground Handling/Hangaring, and Direct/Indirect Operating Costs.

  18. Cooperative Mission Concepts Using Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, S.; Miralles, C.; Martin, T.; Kahn, R.; Zurek, R.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by the immense variety of naturally curious explorers (insects, animals, and birds), their wellintegrated biological sensor-processor suites, efficiently packaged in compact but highly dexterous forms, and their complex, intriguing, cooperative behavior, this paper focuses on "Biomorphic Explorers", their defination/classification, their designs, and presents planetary exploration scenarios based on the designs. Judicious blend of bio-inspired concepts and recent advances in micro-air vehicles, microsensors, microinstruments, MEMS, and microprocessors clearly suggests that the time of small, dedicated, low cost explorers that capture some of the key features of biological systems has arrived. Just as even small insects like ants, termites, honey bees etc working cooperatively in colonies can achieve big tasks, the biomorphic explorers hold the potential for obtaining science in-accessible by current large singular exploration platforms.

  19. A Multithreaded Missions And Means Framework (MMF) Concept Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    A Multithreaded Missions and Means Framework ( MMF ) Concept Report by Peter J. Grazaitis and Brian G. Ruth ARL-TR-5948 March 2012...A Multithreaded Missions and Means Framework ( MMF ) Concept Report Peter J. Grazaitis Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL Brian G...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2010–20 September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Multithreaded Missions and Means Framework ( MMF

  20. A manned Mars mission concept with artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.

    1986-01-01

    A series of simulated manned Mars missions was analyzed by a computer model. Numerous mission opportunities and mission modes were investigated. Sensitivity trade studies were performed of the vehicle all-up mass and propulsion stage sizes as a function of various levels of conservatism in mission velocity increment margins, payload mass and propulsive stage characteristics. The longer duration but less energetic type of conjunction class mission is emphasized. The specific mission opportunity reviewed was for a 1997 departure. From the trade study results, a three and one-half stage vehicle concept evolved, utilizing a Trans-Mars Injection (TMI) first stage derived from the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET).

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  2. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  3. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  4. NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassanova, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is to provide an independent, open forum for the external analysis and definition of space and aeronautics advanced concepts to complement the advanced concepts activities conducted within the NASA Enterprises. The NIAC will issue Calls for Proposals during each year of operation and will select revolutionary advanced concepts for grant or contract awards through a peer review process. Final selection of awards will be with the concurrence of NASA's Chief Technologist. The operation of the NIAC is reviewed biannually by the NIAC Science, Exploration and Technology Council (NSETC) whose members are drawn from the senior levels of industry and universities. The process of defining the technical scope of the initial Call for Proposals was begun with the NIAC "Grand Challenges" workshop conducted on May 21-22, 1998 in Columbia, Maryland. These "Grand Challenges" resulting from this workshop became the essence of the technical scope for the first Phase I Call for Proposals which was released on June 19, 1998 with a due date of July 31, 1998. The first Phase I Call for Proposals attracted 119 proposals. After a thorough peer review, prioritization by NIAC and technical concurrence by NASA, sixteen subgrants were awarded. The second Phase I Call for Proposals was released on November 23, 1998 with a due date of January 31, 1999. Sixty-three (63) proposals were received in response to this Call. On December 2-3, 1998, the NSETC met to review the progress and future plans of the NIAC. The next NSETC meeting is scheduled for August 5-6, 1999. The first Phase II Call for Proposals was released to the current Phase I grantees on February 3,1999 with a due date of May 31, 1999. Plans for the second year of the contract include a continuation of the sequence of Phase I and Phase II Calls for Proposals and hosting the first NIAC Annual Meeting and USRA/NIAC Technical Symposium in NASA HQ.

  5. Simulation Studies of Satellite Laser CO2 Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan Randy; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Collatz, G. J.; Sun X.; Weaver, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Results of mission simulation studies are presented for a laser-based atmospheric CO2 sounder. The simulations are based on real-time carbon cycle process modeling and data analysis. The mission concept corresponds to ASCENDS as recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey. Compared to passive sensors, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages that hold promise to advance CO2 measurement capability in the next decade. Although the precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency, analysis of possible instrument technology indicates that such sensors are more than feasible. Radiative transfer model calculations, an instrument model with representative errors, and a simple retrieval approach complete the cycle from "nature" run to "pseudodata" CO2. Several mission and instrument configuration options are examined, and the sensitivity to key design variables is shown. Examples are also shown of how the resulting pseudo-measurements might be used to address key carbon cycle science questions.

  6. Mars Telecom Orbiter mission operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Marie-Jose; Komarek, Tom; Lopez, Saturnino; Townes, Steve; Synnott, Steve; Austin, Richard; Guinn, Joe; Varghese, Phil; Edwards, Bernard; Bondurant, Roy; De Paula, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Telecom Orbiter (MTO) relay capability enables next decadal missions at Mars, collecting gigabits of data a day to be relayed back at speeds exceeding 4 Mbps and it facilitates small missions whose limited resources do not permit them to have a direct link to Earth.

  7. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  8. Design Concepts for the Generation-X Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D.; Danner, R.; Pearson, D.; Shropshire, D.

    2010-03-01

    The Generation-X mission, proposed by Roger Brissenden at SAO, is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 time period. As currently conceived Gen-X would be a follow-on to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with a collecting area ≥ 50 m2, 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution, which would be launched in 2030 with an Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Our design concept assumes an Ares V with a 10-m diameter, 1,400 m3 volume fairing (or an equivalent launch vehicle) will be developed for NASA's exploration program. The key features of this design include a 16-m diameter deployable x-ray mirror provides a collecting area of 136 m2 a 60-m deployable optical bench which utilizes a Tensegrity structure to achieve high stiffness with low mass; and adaptive grazing incidence optics. Gen-X's combination of large collecting area and high spatial resolution will provide 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than IXO, enabling scientists to study the formation and growth of the first black holes at z ≈ 8-15 with 0.1 to 10 keV fluxes of ≈ 10-20 erg cm-2s-1.

  9. Design Concepts for the Generation-X Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D.; Danner, R.; Shropshire, D.; Pearson, D.

    2009-09-01

    The Generation-X mission, proposed by Roger Brissenden at SAO, is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 time period. As currently conceived Gen-X would be a follow-on to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with a collecting area ≥ 50 m^2, 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution, which would be launched in ˜2030 with an Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Our design concept assumes an Ares V with a 10-m diameter, 1,400 m^3 volume fairing (or an equivalent launch vehicle) will be developed for NASA's exploration program. The key features of this design include a 16-m diameter deployable x-ray mirror provides a collecting area of 136 m^2; a 60-m deployable optical bench which utilizes a Tensegrity structure to achieve high stiffness with low mass; and adaptive grazing incidence optics. Gen-X's combination of large collecting area and high spatial resolution will provide 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than IXO, enabling scientists to study the formation and growth of the first black holes at z ≈ 8-15 with 0.1 to 10 keV fluxes of ≈ 10-20 erg cm^{-2}s^{-1}.

  10. Advanced power sources for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.; Burkes, Tommy R.; English, Robert E.; Grant, Nicholas J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Mullin, Jerome P.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Purvis, Carolyn K.; Sarjeant, W. James; Vandevender, J. Pace

    1989-01-01

    Approaches to satisfying the power requirements of space-based Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) missions are studied. The power requirements for non-SDI military space missions and for civil space missions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are also considered. The more demanding SDI power requirements appear to encompass many, if not all, of the power requirements for those missions. Study results indicate that practical fulfillment of SDI requirements will necessitate substantial advances in the state of the art of power technology. SDI goals include the capability to operate space-based beam weapons, sometimes referred to as directed-energy weapons. Such weapons pose unprecedented power requirements, both during preparation for battle and during battle conditions. The power regimes for these two sets of applications are referred to as alert mode and burst mode, respectively. Alert-mode power requirements are presently stated to range from about 100 kW to a few megawatts for cumulative durations of about a year or more. Burst-mode power requirements are roughly estimated to range from tens to hundreds of megawatts for durations of a few hundred to a few thousand seconds. There are two likely energy sources, chemical and nuclear, for powering SDI directed-energy weapons during the alert and burst modes. The choice between chemical and nuclear space power systems depends in large part on the total duration during which power must be provided. Complete study findings, conclusions, and eight recommendations are reported.

  11. A hybrid airship concept for Naval missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, M.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of a hybrid semibuoyant delta-planform airship was performed using a computer synthesis program. The delta-planform hull shape was studied parametrically to determine the effects on vehicle performance for two Navy antisubmarine missions. The effects of buoyancy ratio, design speed, and altitude were also studied. The results suggest that long-range mission vehicles require a near buoyant or fully buoyant design and that there is no special advantage to the use of a lifting-body hull shape. For shorter-range missions, hybrid vehicles may have merit, and optimum vehicle buoyancy varies depending on whether a minimum-weight or minimum-fuel-consumption design is desired. As compared with conventionally shaped airships, the benefits, if any, from a lifting-body configuration will be limited to missions requiring relatively higher flight speeds.

  12. Low-Radiation Europa Lander Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, N. J.; Hand, K. P.; Casani, J. R.; Eisen, H. J.; Elliott, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, conducted a mission design study focused on delivering a redundant two-lander mission to the surface of Europa. A mission focused on surface science permits a short lifetime for the prime mission (7 days) and thus enables a low total radiation dose mission to Europa. Lowering the radiation dose retires much of the risk and cost threats associated with Europa missions. Here we describe the science investigations and accompanying payload studied as part of this effort. The science payload allocation for each lander is approximately 40 kilograms. The goal of this mission is to explore Europa to investigate its habitability. Our study of life on Earth has revealed three critical components that comprise a habitable environment and our current understanding of Europa indicates that it may harbor all three. These "keystones" for habitability are liquid water, a suite of essential elements, and chemical or radiation energy to power life. Europa, with its global liquid water ocean, likely in contact with a rocky seafloor, may be habitable today and it may have been habitable for much of the history of the solar system. Europa is thus the premier target in our search for evidence of both past and contemporary habitability. The discovery and exploration of a world that hosts extant, i.e., living, life permits investigations that could revolutionize our understanding of chemistry, biology, the origin of life, and the broader context of whether or not we are alone in the Universe. This mission provides the first steps toward that goal.

  13. Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).

  14. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  15. Preliminary Sizing of 120-Passenger Advanced Civil Rotorcraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanAken, Johannes M.; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a preliminary sizing study of advanced civil rotorcraft concepts that are capable of carrying 120 passengers over a range of 1,200 nautical miles are presented. The cruise altitude of these rotorcraft is 30,000 ft and the cruise velocity is 350 knots. The mission requires a hover capability, creating a runway independent solution, which might aid in reducing strain on the existing airport infrastructure. Concepts studied are a tiltrotor, a tandem rotor compound, and an advancing blade concept. The first objective of the study is to determine the relative merits of these designs in terms of mission gross weight, engine size, fuel weight, aircraft purchase price, and direct operating cost. The second objective is to identify the enabling technology for these advanced heavy lift civil rotorcraft.

  16. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2014-08-01

    Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected “The Gravitational Universe” as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.

  17. Resource envelope concepts for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, K. Y.; Weiler, J. D.; Tokaz, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Seven proposed methods for creating resource envelopes for Space Station Freedom mission planning are detailed. Four reference science activity models are used to illustrate the effect of adding operational flexibility to mission timelines. For each method, a brief explanation is given along with graphs to illustrate the application of the envelopes to the power and crew resources. The benefits and costs of each method are analyzed in terms of resource utilization. In addition to the effect on individual activities, resource envelopes are analyzed at the experiment level.

  18. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A broad scoped and systematic study was made of space transfer concepts for human Lunar and Mars missions. Relevant space transportation studies were initiated to lead to further detailed activities in the following study period.

  19. The LUVOIR Mission Concept: Update and Technology Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the Large Ultra Violet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) decadal mission concept study. We provide updates from recent activities of the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) and the Technology Working Group (TWG). We review the technology prioritization and discuss specific technology needs to enable the LUVOIR mission.

  20. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Covered here is the second phase of a broad scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 1, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from the Stafford Committee Synthesis Report.

  1. Operational concepts for selected Sortie missions: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulock, V. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An executive summary is presented of a Spacelab concept study conducted from August 1973 to June 1974. Background information and a summary of study conclusions are given. Specific data are reported for the quick-reaction carrier concept, software and mission integration, configuration management, documentation, equipment pool, and integration alternatives. A forecast of the impact of a second launch site, mission feasibility, and space availability for the Spacelab are also discussed.

  2. A low cost/low complexity concept for the Mars Sample Return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamber, R. T.; Adams, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    Earlier concepts for the Mars Sample Return mission were complex and costly, and had little chance of being funded. This paper summarizes the evolution of a concept that permitted cost to be reduced by a factor of six, and the number of spacecraft elements to be halved. The primary feature of this low cost/low complexity concept is the application of advanced lightweight propulsion, materials, power, and avionics technology to the Mars Ascent Vehicle to make a direct return from Mars feasible. Mission parameters, launch mass breakdowns, spacecraft configuration drawings, technology requirements, and cost estimates are presented.

  3. A Satellite Mission Concept to Study Thermosphere-Ionosphere Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. R.; Zesta, E.; Huang, C. Y.; Lin, C. S.; Marcos, F. A.; Roddy, P. A.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Sutton, E. K.; Cooke, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    A great number of space-based assets needed for Earth monitoring, research, and communications are used by a variety of agencies. Many of these assets orbit at altitudes within the upper thermosphere and ionosphere. At such altitudes the orbit of satellites can be greatly affected by the neutral atmosphere, whose dynamics are strongly driven by interactions with the ionosphere and ultimately by geospace phenomena like geomagnetic storms. Maintenance of the space catalogue and protection of our space-based assets requires fundamental understanding of this region of space and the coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere. The TICOPS (Thermosphere Ionosphere Coupling and Orbit Prediction System) mission concept aims to achieve exactly this understanding through key measurements and advancement of models. TICOPS is a constellation of satellites to directly measure ALL the quantities in the satellite drag equation, enabling (1) immediate significant improvement in nowcasts and forecasts of atmospheric density, winds and composition; and (2) input to physics-based data assimilative models which will form the next generation products used in drag prediction. TICOPS consists of 3 satellites, two at high altitude (500-600km), I-COPS1 and 2, measuring incoming energy input, the third, T-COPS, at low altitude (~300km) measuring the thermospheric response. The mission goals are accomplished through 4 specific experiments: (1) Remote measurements of thermospheric neutral winds and validation, (2) In-situ thermospheric probe, (3) Energy input distribution over the thermosphere, and (4) Satellite drag coefficients.

  4. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  5. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb groundbased observatories. This talk will discuss a possible mission concept developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  6. Development of a NASA 2018 Mars Landed Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. G.; Salvo, C. G.; Abilleira, F.; Sengstacken, A. J.; Allwood, A. G.; Backes, P. G.; Lindemann, R. A.; Jordan, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental to NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP) is an ongoing development of an integrated and coordinated set of possible future candidate missions that meet fundamental science and programmatic objectives of NASA and the Mars scientific community. In the current planning horizon of the NASA MEP, a landed mobile surface exploration mission launching in the 2018 Mars launch opportunity exists as a candidate project to meet MEP in situ science and exploration objectives. This paper describes the proposed mission science objectives and the mission implementation concept developed for the 2018 opportunity. As currently envisioned, this mission concept seeks to explore a yet-to-be-selected site with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures, evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, characterize the potential for preservation of biosignatures, and access multiple sequences of geological units in a search for evidence of past life and/or prebiotic chemistry at a site on Mars.

  7. A Mars Environmental Survey mission concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Survey, or 'MESUR' mission presently discussed proceeds by emplacing a network of small stations on the Martian surface. These stations will determine the global seismicity of the planet, to facilitate studies of its internal structure; they will also broaden knowledge of atmospheric and surface meteorology conditions and determine the major and minor elements of surface soil and rock compositions. They are also expected to deepen understanding of Mars' middle and upper atmosphere. Attention is given to the design and operations of the MESUR lander.

  8. A Conceptual Venus Rover Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Michael; Shirley, James H.; Abelson, Robert Dean

    2006-01-01

    This concept study demonstrates that a long lived Venus rover mission could be enabled by a novel application of advanced RPS technology. General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules would be employed to drive an advanced thermoacoustic Stirling engine, pulse tube cooler and linear alternator that provides electric power and cooling for the rover. The Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) is a system for converting high-temperature heat into acoustic power which then drives linear alternators and a pulse tube cooler to provide both electric power and coolin6g for the rover. A small design team examined this mission concept focusing on the feasibility of using the TASHE system in this hostile environment. A rover design is described that would provide a mobile platform for science measurements on the Venus surface for 60 days, with the potential of operating well beyond that. A suite of science instruments is described that collects data on atmospheric and surface composition, surface stratigraphy, and subsurface structure. An Earth-Venus-Venus trajectory would be used to deliver the rover to a low entry angle allowing an inflated ballute to provide a low deceleration and low heat descent to the surface. All rover systems would be housed in a pressure vessel in vacuum with the internal temperature maintained by the TASHE at under 50 °C.

  9. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    applications. One notable example of such missions are those to explore for the existence of water on planets such as Mars and the moons of Jupiter. It is clear that water does not exist on the surfaces of such bodies, but may well be located at some considerable depth below the surface, thus requiring a subsurface drilling capability. Subsurface drilling on planetary surfaces will require a robust autonomous control and analysis system, currently a major challenge, but within conceivable reach of planned technology developments. This paper will focus on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations, including flight test results, lessons learned, and implications for the future. An additional focus will be on technologies for planetary exploration using autonomous systems and astronaut-assistance systems that employ new spoken language technology. Topics to be presented will include a description of key autonomous control concepts, illustrated by the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will also be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. Current results of autonomous planetary drilling system research will be presented. A key thrust within NASA is to develop technologies that will leverage the capabilities of human astronauts during planetary surface explorations. One such technology is spoken dialogue interfaces, which would allow collaboration with semi-autonomous agents that are engaged in activities that are normally accomplished using language, e.g., astronauts in space suits interacting with groups of semi-autonomous rovers and other

  10. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.

  11. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  12. Status and path forward for the large ultraviolet/optical/infrared surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Mandell, Avi M.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Rioux, Norman M.; Perez, Mario R.; Smith, Erin C.

    2016-07-01

    In preparation of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has commenced a process for the astronomical community to study several large mission concepts leveraging the lessons learned from past Decadal Surveys. This will enable the Decadal Survey committee to make more informed recommendations to NASA on its astrophysics science and mission priorities with respect to cost and risk. Four astrophysics large mission concepts were identified. Each of them had a Science and Technology Definition Teem (STDT) chartered to produce scientifically compelling, feasible, and executable design reference mission (DRM) concepts to present to the 2020 Decadal Survey. In addition, The Aerospace Corporation will perform an independent cost and technical evaluation (CATE) of each of these mission concept studies in advance of the 2020 Decadal Survey, by interacting with the STDTs to provide detailed technical details on certain areas for which "deep dives" are appropriate. This paper presents the status and path forward for one of the four large mission concepts, namely, the Large UltraViolet, Optical, InfraRed surveyor (LUVOIR).

  13. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

  14. Recent concepts in missions to Mars - Extraterrestrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N.; Ash, R. L.; Lawton, E. A.; French, J. R.; Frisbee, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents some recent concepts in Mars Sample Return (MSR) missions that utilize extraterrestrial resources. The concepts examined include the power and energy needs of this mission. It is shown that solar energy is not especially attractive. Radioisotopic power generator and a Rankine cycle use are seen to be viable options. Quantitative estimates, taking into consideration state-of-the-art and projected technologies indicate that the power/energy per se is not critical to the mission - but reliability is. Hence, various modern options for the components of the power generation and utilization are discussed. The dramatic savings in Shuttle (or other) vehicle launches are quantitatively plotted. The basic system that is discussed here is the production of hydrocarbon (methane) fuel and oxygen from Martian atmosphere. For the simplest mission, it is seen that earth-carried methane burned with oxygen produced on site provides the best system.

  15. A rotor technology assessment of the advancing blade concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasants, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A rotor technology assessment of the Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) was conducted in support of a preliminary design study. The analytical methodology modifications and inputs, the correlation, and the results of the assessment are documented. The primary emphasis was on the high-speed forward flight performance of the rotor. The correlation data base included both the wind tunnel and the flight test results. An advanced ABC rotor design was examined; the suitability of the ABC for a particular mission was not considered. The objective of this technology assessment was to provide estimates of the performance potential of an advanced ABC rotor designed for high speed forward flight.

  16. Unconventional missile concepts from consideration of varied mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Missile concepts for volumetric efficiency, minimum carriage constraints, and aerodynamic performance to achieve mission requirements. The mission requirements considered include air to surface roles such as defense suppression or antishipping where payload and range may have priority over high maneuver capability, and air to air and surface to air roles paying attention to good maneuvering capability. The concepts are intended to provide for ease of storage or carriage. The concepts include monoplanes with highly swept, thick delta wings, highly swept delta wings mounted either high or low on a semicircular body, some ring wing and semiring wing arrangements, parasol wing, and elliptical lifting bodies. The missile configurations indicate possible approaches toward resolving problems of carriage and storage while retaining good volumetric and aerodynamic efficiency. The configurations can accomplish a variety of possible missions with relatively simple vehicle shapes.

  17. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  18. Asteroid Redirect Mission concept: A bold approach for utilizing space resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavor from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid-2020s using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  19. Asteroid Redirect Mission Concept: A Bold Approach for Utilizing Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavour from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid 2020's using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  20. Advanced beamed-energy and field propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific phenomena which might lead to major advances in payload, range and terminal velocity of very advanced vehicle propulsion are studied. The effort focuses heavily on advanced propulsion spinoffs enabled by current government-funded investigations in directed-energy technology: i.e., laser, microwave, and relativistic charged particle beams. Futuristic (post-year 2000) beamed-energy propulsion concepts which indicate exceptional promise are identified and analytically investigated. The concepts must be sufficiently developed to permit technical understanding of the physical processes involved, assessment of the enabling technologies, and evaluation of their merits over conventional systems. Propulsion concepts that can be used for manned and/or unmanned missions for purposes of solar system exploration, planetary landing, suborbital flight, transport to orbit, and escape are presented. Speculations are made on the chronology of milestones in beamed-energy propulsion development, such as in systems applications of defense, satellite orbit-raising, global aerospace transportation, and manned interplanetary carriers.

  1. Advances in Architectural Elements For Future Missions to Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiere hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit into NASA New Frontiers or ESA Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, a clear blueprint has been laid out for the work needed to reduce the risks inherent in such missions and the areas where advances would be beneficial for elements critical to future Titan missions have been identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the flagship mission architecture and

  2. Science Objectives of the FOXSI Small Explorer Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Alaoui, Meriem; Allred, Joel C.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Battaglia, Marina; Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; Drake, James; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Hannah, Iain; Holman, Gordon D.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Ireland, Jack; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Jeffrey, Natasha; Klimchuk, James A.; Kontar, Eduard; Krucker, Sam; Longcope, Dana; Musset, Sophie; Nita, Gelu M.; Ramsey, Brian; Ryan, Daniel; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Vilmer, Nicole; White, Stephen M.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    Impulsive particle acceleration and plasma heating at the Sun, from the largest solar eruptive events to the smallest flares, are related to fundamental processes throughout the Universe. While there have been significant advances in our understanding of impulsive energy release since the advent of RHESSI observations, there is a clear need for new X-ray observations that can capture the full range of emission in flares (e.g., faint coronal sources near bright chromospheric sources), follow the intricate evolution of energy release and changes in morphology, and search for the signatures of impulsive energy release in even the quiescent Sun. The FOXSI Small Explorer (SMEX) mission concept combines state-of-the-art grazing-incidence focusing optics with pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of hard X-rays for the first time on a solar observatory. We present the science objectives of FOXSI and how its capabilities will address and resolve open questions regarding impulsive energy release at the Sun. These questions include: What are the time scales of the processes that accelerate electrons? How do flare-accelerated electrons escape into the heliosphere? What is the energy input of accelerated electrons into the chromosphere, and how is super-heated coronal plasma produced?

  3. Conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migra, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    An initial conceptual definition of a technology development mission for advanced solar dynamic power systems is provided, utilizing a space station to provide a dedicated test facility. The advanced power systems considered included Brayton, Stirling, and liquid metal Rankine systems operating in the temperature range of 1040 to 1400 K. The critical technologies for advanced systems were identified by reviewing the current state of the art of solar dynamic power systems. The experimental requirements were determined by planning a system test of a 20 kWe solar dynamic power system on the space station test facility. These requirements were documented via the Mission Requirements Working Group (MRWG) and Technology Development Advocacy Group (TDAG) forms. Various concepts or considerations of advanced concepts are discussed. A preliminary evolutionary plan for this technology development mission was prepared.

  4. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations

  5. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis in the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment.

  6. Managing the Perception of Advanced Technology Risks in Mission Proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellisario, Sebastian Nickolai

    2012-01-01

    Through my work in the project proposal office I became interested in how technology advancement efforts affect competitive mission proposals. Technology development allows for new instruments and functionality. However, including technology advancement in a mission proposal often increases perceived risk. Risk mitigation has a major impact on the overall evaluation of the proposal and whether the mission is selected. In order to evaluate the different approaches proposals took I compared the proposals claims of heritage and technology advancement to the sponsor feedback provided in the NASA debriefs. I examined a set of Discovery 2010 Mission proposals to draw patterns in how they were evaluated and come up with a set of recommendations for future mission proposals in how they should approach technology advancement to reduce the perceived risk.

  7. The Ganymede Interior Structure, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, K. L.; Smith, I. B.; Singer, K. N.; Vogt, M. F.; Blackburn, D. G.; Chaffin, M.; Choukroun, M.; Ehsan, N.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Gibbons, L. J.; Gleeson, D.; Jones, B. A.; LeGall, A.; McEnulty, T.; Rampe, E.; Schrader, C.; Seward, L.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Williamson, P.; Castillo, J.; Budney, C.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) at JPL offers graduate students and young professionals a unique opportunity to learn about the mission design process. Program participants select and design a mission based on a recent NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity (AO). Starting with the AO, in this case the 2009 New Frontiers AO, participants generate a set of science goals and develop a early mission concept to accomplish those goals within the constraints provided. As part of the 2010 NASA PSSS, the Ganymede Interior, Surface, and Magnetosphere Observer (GISMO) team developed a preliminary satellite design for a science mission to Jupiter's moon Ganymede. The science goals for this design focused on studying the icy moon's magnetosphere, internal structure, surface composition, geological processes, and atmosphere. By the completion of the summer school an instrument payload was selected and the necessary mission requirements were developed to deliver a spacecraft to Ganymede that would accomplish the defined science goals. This poster will discuss those science goals, the proposed spacecraft and the proposed mission design of this New Frontiers class Ganymede observer.

  8. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  9. Pluto/Kuiper Missions with Advanced Electric Propulsion and Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, S. R.; Patterson, M. J.; Schrieber, J.; Gefert, L. P.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a request by NASA Code SD Deep Space Exploration Technology Program, NASA Glenn Research center performed a study to identify advanced technology options to perform a Pluto/Kuiper mission without depending on a 2004 Jupiter Gravity Assist, but still arriving before 2020. A concept using a direct trajectory with small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope power system was shown to allow the same or smaller launch vehicle class (EELV) as the chemical 2004 baseline and allow launch in any year and arrival in the 2014 to 2020 timeframe. With the nearly constant power available from the radioisotope power source such small ion propelled spacecraft could explore many of the outer planetary targets. Such studies are already underway. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Advanced automation for space missions: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several representative missions which would require extensive applications of machine intelligence were identified and analyzed. The technologies which must be developed to accomplish these types of missions are discussed. These technologies include man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators, and robot systems.

  11. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  12. Orbiter, Flyby and Lander Mission Concepts for Investigating Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Coauthors: R. T. Pappalardo (1), F. Bagenal (2), A. C. Barr (3), B. G. Bills (1), D. L. Blaney (1), D. D. Blankenship (4), W. Brinckerhoff (5), J. E. P. Connerney (5), K. Hand (1), T. Hoehler (6), W. Kurth (7), M. McGrath (8), M. Mellon (9), J. M. Moore (6), D. A. Senske (1), E. Shock (10), D. E. Smith (11), T. Gavin (1), G. Garner (1), T. Magner (12), B. C. Cooke (1), R. Crum (1), V. Mallder (12), L. Adams (12), K. Klaasen (1), G. W. Patterson (12), and S. D. Vance (1); 1: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA; 2: University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA; 3: Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 4: University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Austin, TX, USA; 5: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA; 6: NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, USA; 7: University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 8: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA; 9: Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA; 10: Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 11: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 12: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA. Introduction: Assessment of Europa's habitability requires understanding whether the satellite possesses the three "ingredients" for life: water, chemistry, and energy. The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey [1] placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept [2] is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget. Thus, in April 2011, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider Europa mission options that might be more feasible over the next decade from a programmatic perspective. The ESDT has studied three Europa mission concepts: a Europa orbiter, a Europa multiple-flyby mission, and a Europa lander. These share an overarching goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability

  13. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  14. Trajectory Design for the Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Europa is one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for extant life. As such, NASA has funded the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to jointly determine and develop the best mission concept to explore Europa in the near future. The result of nearly 4 years of work--the Europa Clipper mission concept--is a multiple Europa flyby mission that could efficiently execute a number of high caliber science investigations to meet Europa science priorities specified in the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, and is capable of providing reconnaissance data to maximize the probability of both a safe landing and access to surface material of high scientific value for a future Europa lander. This paper will focus on the major enabling component for this mission concept--the trajectory. A representative trajectory, referred to as 13F7-A21, would obtain global-regional coverage of Europa via a complex network of 45 flybys over the course of 3.5 years while also mitigating the effects of the harsh Jovian radiation environment. In addition, 5 Ganymede and 9 Callisto flybys would be used to manipulate the trajectory relative to Europa. The tour would reach a maximum Jovicentric inclination of 20.1 deg. have a deterministic (Delta)V of 164 m/s (post periapsis raise maneuver), and a total ionizing dose of 2.8 Mrad (Si).

  15. New Concepts for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.; Baker, J. G.; Cooley, D. S.; Gallagher, R. J.; Hughes, S. P.; Livas, J. C.; Simpson, J. E.; Thorpe, J. I.; Welter, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    The most astrophysically interesting sources in the gravitational wave spectrum lie in the low-frequency band (0.0001 - 1 Hz), which is only accessible from space. For two decades, the LISA concept has been the leading contender for a detector in this band. Despite a strong recommendation from Astro2010, there is strong motivation to find a less expensive concept, even at the loss of some science. We are searching for a lower cost mission concept by examining alternate orbits, less-capable measurement concepts, radically different implementations of the measurement concept and other cost-saving ideas. We report the results of our searches to date, and summarize the analyses behind them.

  16. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; White, S.; Patton, B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Hopkins, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering of several vehicles designed for a crewed mission to the Jovian satellite Callisto. Each subsystem is discussed in detail. Mission and trajectory analysis for each mission concept is described. Crew support components are also described. Vehicles were developed using both fission powered magneto plasma dynamic (MPD) thrusters and magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion systems. Conclusions were drawn regarding the usefulness of these propulsion systems for crewed exploration of the outer solar system.

  17. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 3: Configurations for extended duration missions. [mission planning and project planning for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission planning, systems analysis, and design concepts for the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system for extended manned operations are described. Topics discussed are: (1) payloads, (2) spacecraft docking, (3) structural design criteria, (4) life support systems, (5) power supplies, and (6) the role of man in long duration orbital operations. Also discussed are the assembling of large structures in space. Engineering drawings are included.

  18. Advanced concepts in knee arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer H; Conway, Janet D

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to describe advanced strategies that can be used to diagnose and treat complications after knee arthrodesis and to describe temporary knee arthrodesis to treat infected knee arthroplasty. Potential difficult complications include nonunited knee arthrodesis, limb length discrepancy after knee arthrodesis, and united but infected knee arthrodesis. If a nonunited knee arthrodesis shows evidence of implant loosening or failure, then bone grafting the nonunion site as well as exchange intramedullary nailing and/or supplemental plate fixation are recommended. If symptomatic limb length discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily treated with a shoe lift, then the patient should undergo tibial lengthening over nail with a monolateral fixator or exchange nailing with a femoral internal lengthening device. If a united knee arthrodesis is infected, the nail must be removed. Then the surgeon has the option of replacing it with a long, antibiotic cement-coated nail. The authors also describe temporary knee arthrodesis for infected knee arthroplasty in patients who have the potential to undergo insertion of a new implant. The procedure has two goals: eradication of infection and stabilization of the knee. A temporary knee fusion can be accomplished by inserting both an antibiotic cement-coated knee fusion nail and a static antibiotic cement-coated spacer. These advanced techniques can be helpful when treating difficult complications after knee arthrodesis and treating cases of infected knee arthroplasty. PMID:25793160

  19. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  20. Concept for A Mission to Titan, Saturn System and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Elliott, J.

    2008-09-01

    A mission to Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by the 2007 NASA Science Plan, the 2006 Solar System Exploration Roadmap, and the 2003 National Research Council of the National Academies Solar System report on New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (aka Decadal Survey). As anticipated by the 2003 Decadal Survey, recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries have further revolutionized our understanding of the Titan system and its potential for harbouring the "ingredients" necessary for life. These discoveries reveal that Titan is rich in organics, possibly contains a vast subsurface ocean and has energy sources to drive chemical evolution. With these recent discoveries, the interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer Solar System is strongly reinforced. Cassini's discovery of active geysers on Enceladus adds a second target in the Saturn system for such a mission, one that is synergistic with Titan in understanding planetary evolution and in adding a potential abode in the Saturn system for life as we know it. The baseline mission concept shown in Figures 1 and 2 would consist of a chemically propelled orbiter, with accommodations for ESA contributed in situ elements, and would launch on an Atlas 551 in 2016-2018 timeframe, traveling to Saturn on a Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist (VEEGA) trajectory, and reaching Saturn approximately 10 years later. Prior to Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) the orbiter would target and release ESA provided in situ elements; possibly a low-latitude Montgolfiere balloon system and capable polar and/or mid-latitude lander. The main engine would then place the flight system into orbit around Saturn for a tour phase lasting 18 months. This tour phase would accomplish Saturn system and Enceladus science (4 Enceladus flybys with instrumentation for plume sampling well beyond Cassini capability) while executing leveraging Titan pump down manoeuvres to minimize the required amount of

  1. H-IIA: Concept, missions, program status, and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to earth orbiting satellite missions, cargo supply to the International Space Station/Japanese Experiment Module (ISS/JEM), lunar and planetary probes, technology verifications for the H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE), and other missions are under study for early in the new century. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-IIA rocket to meet these diversifying missions and to conduct them efficiently and economically. This paper presents the purposes, concept, and philosophy of system planning of the H-IIA rocket, the combinations of the H-IIA and a transfer vehicle to the ISS/JEM and an experimental winged re-entry vehicle, HOPE-X. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Advanced fuel concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Despite their more stringent plasma heating and confinement requirements, advanced fuel (AF) fusion cycles potentially offer improved environmental compatibility and lower costs. This comes about by elimination of tritium breeding requirements and by a reduction in neutron flux (hence, activation and radiation damage). Also a larger energy fraction carried by charged particles makes direct energy conversion more suitable. As a first application, a symbiotic system of semi-catalyzed-deuterium fueled hybrid fuel factories, supplying both fissle fuel to light water reactors and /sup 3/He to D-/sup 3/He satellite fusion reactors, is proposed. Subsequently, an evolution into a system of synfuel factories with satellite D-/sup 3/He reactors is envisioned.

  3. Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vincent; Wong, Albert; Kim, Kilyoo; Dhir, Vijay

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than unity. Such nozzle and the MHD power generator replace the turbogenerator of a high temperature Rankine turboelectric cycle concept. As a result, the power generation system contains no movable parts. This provides high reliability, which is a very important factor in space application.

  4. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  5. Voyage to Troy: A mission concept for the exploration of the Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, S.; Das, A.; Laipert, F.; Dapkus, C.; Kendall, J.; Bowling, T.; Steckloff, J.; Holbert, S.; Graves, K.; Anthony, T.; Bobick, R.; Huang, Y.; Stuart, J.; Longuski, J.; Minton, D.

    2014-07-01

    The Trojan asteroids, located at Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points, are a potential source of insights into long-standing questions on the origin and early history of the Solar System. The 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey recommends a Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission as high-priority among medium-class missions. A dedicated mission to the Trojan asteroids could confirm or refute multiple theories to correctly explain the Trojan asteroids' current location, characteristics, and behavior. In-depth and conclusive evidence for the Trojan asteroids' internal and external make-up as well as dynamical behavior hav been challenging due to limitations of ground- and space-based observations. Notwithstanding these limitations, it has been inferred that there are two distinct sub- populations that are distinguishable in visible and near-infrared spectra (redder and less red) within the swarms. These spectral groupings have not yet been conclusively linked to physical characteristics (e.g. size) or other observed parameters (e.g. albedo) of the primordial bodies. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's concept studies for Decadal Survey evaluated three concepts for missions to Trojan asteroids: each utilizing chemical- solar-electric, and radioisotope-electric for propulsion. Both Solar and Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators were considered for power [2]. We present a new conceptual mission to explore the Trojan asteroids that achieves the science goals prioritized in the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. The proposed mission aims to study both a redder and less red asteroid for the surface mineralogical and elemental composition, state of surface regolith, evidence and consequences of external modification processes such as collisional evolution, space weathering, and irradiation. Some potential targets in the L4 Greek camp currently under consideration for this mission include Achilles, Hektor and Agamemnon (redder) and Eurybates, Deipylos and Kalchas (less

  6. Europa Clipper Mission Concept Preliminary Planetary Protection Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Melissa; Schubert, Wayne; Newlin, Laura; Cooper, Moogega; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Ellyin, Raymond; Vaishampayan, Parag; Crum, Ray

    2016-07-01

    The science objectives of the proposed Europa Clipper mission consist of remotely characterizing any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell, investigating the chemistry of the surface and ocean, and evaluating geological processes that may permit Europa's ocean to possess the chemical energy necessary for life. The selected payload supporting the science objectives includes: Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG), Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE), Europa Imaging System (EIS), Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON), Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS), MAss SPectrometer for Planetary EXploration/Europa (MASPEX), Ultraviolet Spectrograph/Europa (UVS), and SUrface DUst Mass Analyzer (SUDA). Launch is currently baselined as 2022. Pending the yet to be selected launch vehicle, the spacecraft would either arrive to the Jovian system on a direct trajectory in 2025 or an Earth-Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist interplanetary trajectory arriving in 2030. The operational concept consists of multiple low-altitude flybys of Europa to obtain globally distributed regional coverage of the Europan surface. According to COSPAR Policy, it is currently anticipated that the Europa Clipper mission would be classified as a Category III mission. That is, the mission is to a body "of significant interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and/or the origin of life or for which scientific opinion provides a significant chance of contamination which could jeopardize a future biological experiment." Therefore, the expected driving planetary protection requirement for the mission is that the probability of inadvertent contamination of an ocean or other liquid water body shall be less than 1x10-4 per mission. This requirement applies until final disposition of the spacecraft, however in practice, would only apply until the spacecraft is

  7. Mission concept and autonomy considerations for active Debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Susanne; Pirzkall, Christoph; Fiedler, Hauke; Förstner, Roger

    2016-12-01

    Over the last 60 years, Space Debris has become one of the main challenges for the safe operation of satellites in low Earth orbit. To address this threat, guidelines that include a limited debris release during normal operations, minimization of the potential for on-orbit break-ups and post mission disposal have begun to be implemented. However, for the long-term, the amount of debris will still increase due to fragments created by collisions of objects in space. The active removal of space debris of at least five large objects per years is therefore recommended, but not yet included in those guidelines. Even though various technical concepts have been developed over the last years, the question on how to make them reliable and safe or how to finance such mission has not been answered. This paper addresses the first two topics. With Space Debris representing an uncooperative and possibly tumbling target, close proximity becomes absolutely critical, especially when an uninterrupted connection to the ground station is not ensured. This paper therefore defines firstly a mission to remove at least five large objects and secondly introduces a preliminary autonomy concept fitted for this mission.

  8. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  9. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed the technical issues relating to the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) habitation vehicle with emphasis on the structure, power, life support system, and radiation environment for a baseline habitat with specific alternatives for the baseline.

  10. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  11. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  12. Influence of Alternative Engine Concepts on LCTR2 Sizing and Mission Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) was developed as part of the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation in order to establish a consistent basis for evaluating the benefits of advanced technology for large tiltrotors. The concept has since evolved into the second-generation LCTR2, designed to carry 90 passengers for 1,000 nm at 300 knots, with vertical takeoff and landing. This paper examines the impact of advanced propulsion system concepts on LCTR2 sizing. Two concepts were studied: an advanced, single-speed engine with a conventional power turbine layout (Advanced Conventional Engine, or ACE), and a variable-speed power turbine engine (VSPT). The ACE is the lighter engine, but requires a multi-speed (shifting) gearbox, whereas the VSPT uses a lighter, fixed-ratio gearbox. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC) design code was used to study the trades between rotor and engine efficiency and weight. Rotor performance was determined by Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II), and engine performance was estimated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). Design trades for the ACE vs. VSPT are presented in terms of vehicle weight empty for variations in mission altitude and range; the effect of different One Engine Inoperative (OEI) criteria are also examined. Because of its strong effect on gearbox weight and on both rotor and engine efficiency, rotor speed was chosen as the reference design variable for comparing design trades. The two propulsion concepts had nearly identical vehicle weights and mission fuel consumption, and their relative advantages varied little with cruise altitude, mission range, or OEI criteria; high cruise altitude and low cruise tip speed were beneficial for both concepts.

  13. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  14. Advanced X-Ray Timing Array Mission: Conceptual Spacecraft Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, L.; Thomas, H. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Baysinger, M.; Maples, C. D.; Fabisinski, L.L.; Hornsby, L.; Thompson, K. S.; Miernik, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for submillisecond timing of bright galactic x-ray sources. The two science instruments are the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) (a collimated instrument with 2-50-keV coverage and over 3 square meters of effective area) and a Sky Monitor (SM), which acts as a trigger for pointed observations of x-ray transients. The spacecraft conceptual design team developed two spacecraft concepts that will enable the AXTAR mission: A minimal configuration to be launched on a Taurus II and a larger configuration to be launched on a Falcon 9 or similar vehicle.

  15. Spacecraft radiators for advanced mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Design requirements for spacecraft heat rejection systems are identified, and their impact on the construction of conventional pumped fluid and hybrid heat pipe/pumped fluid radiators is evaluated. Heat rejection systems to improve the performance or reduce the cost of the spacecraft are proposed. Heat rejection requirements which are large compared to those of existing systems and mission durations which are relatively long, are discussed.

  16. Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    This is an introductory paper for the focused session "Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions". This session will concentrate on electrochemical advances in materials and components that have been achieved through efforts sponsored under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). This paper will discuss the performance goals for components and for High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells, advanced lithium-ion cells that will offer a combination of higher specific energy and improved safety over state-of-the-art. Papers in this session will span a broad range of materials and components that are under development to enable these cell development efforts.

  17. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-09

    public release; distribution unlimited. PA Clearance Number XXXXX 22 Ideal Process LCA LMS Practical Process LTF None Net? Clear nCA nMS nTF...Advanced Propellants Concept Description Pros Eval. Cons Lithium-Fluorine-Hydrogen LCA LMS LTF nCA nMS nTF m TIsp ∝ •Low m usually low ρ...Air Breathing Concepts Concept Description Pros Eval. Cons X-51 WaveRider LCA LMS LTF nCA nMS nTF mox >> mpay •Multiple modes required

  18. 94 GHz doppler wind radar satellite mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Rommen, Björn; Buck, Christopher; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Extreme weather such as storms, hurricanes and typhoons, also called `high impact weather', is a high priority area of research for the atmospheric dynamics and meteorological science communities. 94 GHz Doppler wind radar satellite mission concepts have been elaborated, which use cloud and precipitation droplets/particles as tracers to measure 3-D wind fields. The so-called polarisation-diversity pulse-pair (PDPP) technique enables to derive line-of-sight wind speed with good accuracy (< 2-3 m/s) and large unambiguous dynamic range (e.g. 75 m/s). Two distinct system concepts have been elaborated: (1) a conically scanning radar concept with large coverage (> 800 km) and ˜50 km along-track sampling, and; (2) a stereo viewing concept with high sampling resolution (< 4 km) within an inclined cut through the atmosphere. The former concept is adequate for studying large-scale severe/extreme weather systems, whereas the latter would be more suitable for understanding of small-scale convective phenomena. For demonstrating the potential of the FDPP technique for deriving accurate Doppler observations, ground-based and airborne Doppler radar campaigns are in preparation. The Galileo 94 GHz radar, upgraded recently to include a FDPP capability, at Chilbolton in the UK, will be used for an extended ground-based campaign (6 months). For the airborne campaign, the dual-frequency (9.4 + 94 GHz) NAWX radar on board a Convair-580 aircraft of the National Science Council of Canada will be upgraded and flown. This paper describes the observation requirements, preliminary satellite mission concepts, associated wind retrieval aspects and the planned demonstration campaigns.

  19. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Cox, Sylvia; Ellis, Benton; Gallagher, Dennis; Gautier, Nick; Greene, Thomas; McCreight, Craig; Mills, Gary; Purcell, William; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Cassegrain telescope and two moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrographs covering the 2.5-16 micron spectral region. Large format (1024x 1024 pixel or larger) IR detector arrays and bandpass filters will allow each spectrograph to cover an entire octave of spectral range or more per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approximately 8K. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approximate 1-2 year mission lifetime.

  20. Getting the GeoSTAR Instrument Concept Ready for a Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lim, B.; Tanner, A.; Ruf, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer - GeoSTAR - is a microwave sounder intended for geostationary satellites. First proposed for the EO-3 New Millennium mission in 1999, the technology has since been developed under the Instrument Incubator Program. Under IIP-03 a proof-of-concept demonstrator operating in the temperature sounding 50 GHz band was developed to show that the aperture synthesis concept results in a realizable, stable and accurate imaging-sounding radiometer. Some of the most challenging technology, such as miniature low-power 183- GHz receivers used for water vapor sounding, was developed under IIP-07. The first such receiver has recently been adapted for use in the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR), which was previously developed under IIP-98. This receiver represents a new state of the art and outperforms the previous benchmark by an order of magnitude in radiometric sensitivity. It was first used in the GRIP hurricane field campaign in 2010, where HAMSR became the first microwave sounder to fly on the Global Hawk UAV. Now, under IIP-10, we will develop flight-like subsystems and a brassboard testing system, which will facilitate rapid implementation of a space mission. GeoSTAR is the baseline payload for the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission - one of NASA's 15 "decadal-survey" missions. Although PATH is currently in the third tier of those missions, the IIP efforts have advanced the required technology to a point where a space mission can be initiated in a time frame commensurate with second-tier missions. An even earlier Venture mission is also being considered.

  1. The Neptune/Triton Explorer Mission: A Concept Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Technological advances over the next 10 to 15 years promise to enable a number of smaller, more capable science missions to the outer planets. With the inception of miniaturized spacecraft for a wide range of applications, both in large clusters around Earth, and for deep space missions, NASA is currently in the process of redefining the way science is being gathered. Technologies such as 3-Dimensional Multi-Chip Modules, Micro-machined Electromechanical Devices, Multi Functional Structures, miniaturized transponders, miniaturized propulsion systems, variable emissivity thermal coatings, and artificial intelligence systems are currently in research and development, and are scheduled to fly (or have flown) in a number of missions. This study will leverage on these and other technologies in the design of a lightweight Neptune orbiter unlike any other that has been proposed to date. The Neptune/Triton Explorer (NExTEP) spacecraft uses solar electric earth gravity assist and aero capture maneuvers to achieve its intended target orbit. Either a Taurus or Delta-class launch vehicle may be used to accomplish the mission.

  2. FLIP II - Concept Designs to Meet Future Scientific Mission Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laible, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    R/P FLIP has successfully operated for 40 years in support of important oceanographic research missions. The simple platform, which has the unique ability to provide a heave-stable operating location in open ocean environments, has over time been modified and upgraded. Its capability has been extended to the physical limits imposed by buoyancy and stability constraints. Nonetheless, there are oceanographic research operations that can use FLIP's unique characteristics, but which exceed its capabilities. Over the years researchers at the Marine Physical Laboratory of Scripps Institution of Oceanography have led investigations into second generation heave-stable ocean platforms with capabilities substantially exceeding those of R/P FLIP. This paper discusses several design concepts that have been developed. The designs are presented in terms of the ability to meet current and future scientific mission requirements.

  3. Los Alamos RAGE Simulations of the HAIV Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Robert P.; Barbee, Brent W.; Wie, Bong; Zimmerman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The mitigation of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) can be accomplished by a variety of methods including kinetic impactors, gravity tractors and several nuclear explosion options. Depending on the available lead time prior to Earth impact, non- nuclear options can be very effective at altering a PHOs orbit. However if the warning time is short nuclear options are generally deemed most effective at mitigating the hazard. The NIAC mission concept for a nuclear mission has been presented at several meetings, including the last PDC (2013).We use the adaptive mesh hydrocode RAGE to perform detailed simulations of this Hypervelocity Asteroid Intercept Vehicle (HAIV) mission concept. We use the RAGE code to simulate the crater formation by the kinetic impactor as well as the explosion and energy coupling from the follower nuclear explosive device (NED) timed to detonate below the original surface to enhance the energy coupling. The RAGE code has been well validated for a wide variety of applications. A parametric study will be shown of the energy and momentum transfer to the target 100 m diameter object: 1) the HAIV mission as planned; 2) a surface explosion and 3) a subsurface (contained) explosion; both 2) and 3) use the same source energy as 1).Preliminary RAGE simulations show that the kinetic impactor will carve out a surface crater on the object and the subsequent NED explosion at the bottom of the crater transfers energy and momentum to the target effectively moving it off its Earth crossing orbit. Figure 1 shows the initial (simplified) RAGE 2D setup geometry for this study. Figure 2 shows the crater created by the kinetic impactor and Figure 3 shows the time sequence of the energy transfer to the target by the NED.

  4. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  5. Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Extended Duration Transit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Capability-Driven Framework (CDF) describes an approach for progressively extending human exploration missions farther into the Solar System for longer periods of time as allowed by developments in technology and spacecraft systems. Within this framework design reference missions (DRMs) targeted for several specific destinations are being used to assess different combinations of vehicles, operations, and advanced technologies to help understand which combination will best support expanded human exploration both efficiently and sustainably. Several of the identified destinations have been found to require missions with a round trip duration exceeding one year. These mission durations exceed the capabilities of current human-rated spacecraft if resupply from Earth is not possible. This makes the design of an efficient and reliable Deep Space Habitat (DSH) critical for reaching these destinations. The paper will describe the current understanding of DSH capabilities and functions that must be exhibited by any future habitat design for these missions. This description of the DSH is presented in the form of a concept of operation, which focuses on the functions that any DSH must provide, as opposed to a specific DSH design concept. Development of a concept of operations, based on DRM features, provides a common basis for assessing the viability of design concepts incorporating differing configurations and technologies. A study team with representation from several NASA Centers and relevant engineering and scientific disciplines collaborated to develop this DSH concept of operations for the transit phases of these missions. The transit phase of a mission is defined as the time after leaving Earth but before arrival at the destination and the time after leaving the destination but before arriving back at Earth. These transit phases were found to have many common features across all of the destinations being assessed for the CDF and thus arguing for a common concept

  6. Advanced extravehicular protective systems for shuttle, space station, lunar base and Mars missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimlich, P. F.; Sutton, J. G.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Advances in extravehicular life support system technology will directly influence future space mission reliability and maintainability considerations. To identify required new technology areas, an appraisal of advanced portable life support system and subsystem concepts was conducted. Emphasis was placed on thermal control and combined CO2 control/O2 supply subsystems for both primary and emergency systems. A description of study methodology, concept evaluation techniques, specification requirements, and selected subsystems and systems are presented. New technology recommendations encompassing thermal control, CO2 control and O2 supply subsystems are also contained herein.

  7. Saturn Ring Observer Mission Concept: Closer Than We Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Nicholson, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Spilker, L. J.; Sro Study Team

    2010-12-01

    The Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission concept would have a spacecraft hover directly over the rings, performing the first high-resolution studies of microphysical interactions between particles in Saturn's rings, at a scale of 1-10 centimeters. A new study suggests such a mission might be feasible sooner than previously thought. As part of the 2012 Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS) deliberations, NASA-appointed teams conducted several dozen mission studies requested by PSDS Panels. A study requested by the PSDS Giant Planets Panel and performed in April 2010 addressed the SRO concept and technologies that could enable it. The Panel specified two study objectives: 1) Investigate the method(s) by which such a spacecraft might be placed in a tight circular orbit around Saturn, using chemical or nuclear-electric propulsion or aerocapture in Saturn’s atmosphere; and 2) Identify technological developments for the next decade that would enable such a mission in the post-2023 time frame (after the next saturnian equinox), with a particular focus on power and propulsion technologies. The “tight circular orbit” is a non-Keplerian orbit displaced 2-3 km perpendicular to the mean ring plane. A spacecraft in such an orbit would appear to “hover” over the ring particles orbiting Saturn directly “beneath” it, so this was dubbed the “hover orbit”. Operations technologies were found to be important drivers so they were examined also. Such a mission, with narrow-angle optical remote sensing instrumentation allowing resolution in the 1 to 10 cm range, would observe individual ring particles and their motions, and aggregate motions, measuring such fundamental quantities as relative velocities, spin states, and coefficients of restitution. A wider-angle instrument would observe aggregate behavior such as waves, self-gravity wakes, and ring edges. The study’s science team found that the kronocentric radial range covered during the mission is a useful metric

  8. A thermal shield concept for the Solar Probe mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Robert N.; Millard, Jerry M.; Randolph, James E.

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Probe spacecraft will travel to within 4 solar radii of the sun's center while performing a variety of fundamental experiments in space physics. Exposure to 2900 earth suns (400 W/sq cm) at perihelion imposes severe thermal and material demands on a solar shield system designed to protect the payload that will reside within the shield's shadow envelope or umbra. The design of the shield subsystem is a thermal/materials challenge requiring new technology development. While currently in the preproject study phase, anticipating a 1995 project start, shield preliminary design efforts are currently underway. This paper documents the current status of the mission concept, the materials issues, the configuration concept for the shield subsystem, the current configuration studies performed to date, and the required material testing to provide a database to support a design effort required to develop the shield subsystem.

  9. The Alfvén Mission for the ESA M5 Call: Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2016-04-01

    This poster will present the proposed Alfvén mission concept and is complemented by a presentation of the mission scientific goals planned for the ST1.5 session. The Alfvén mission has the scientific objective of studying particle acceleration and other forms of electromagnetic energy conversion in a collisionless low beta plasma. The mission is proposed to operate in the Earth's Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén is designed to answer questions about where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The mission will provide the required coordinated two-spacecraft observations within the AAR several times a day. From well designed separations along or across the magnetic field lines, using a comprehensive suite of inter-calibrated particles and field instruments, it will measure the parallel electric fields, variations in particle flux, and wave energy that will answer open questions on energy conversion. It will use onboard auroral imagers to determine how this energy conversion occurs in the regional context and, together with its orbit design, this makes the mission ideally suited to resolving spatio-temporal ambiguities that have plagued previous auroral satellite studies. The spacecraft observations will be complemented by coordinated observations with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur.

  10. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  11. The X-ray Surveyor Mission: a concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions—such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development—including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  12. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission: A Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Burrows, David N.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hopkins, Randall C.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kraft, Ralph P.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Natarajan, Priyamvada; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Petre, Robert; Prieskorn, Zachary R.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Schnell, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions-such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development-including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.

  13. Problems and conception of ensuring radiation safety during Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2004-01-01

    The Mars mission differs from near-Earth manned space flights by radiation environment and duration. The importance of effective using the weight of the spacecraft increases greatly because all the necessary things for the mission must be included in its starting weight. For this reason the development of optimal systems of radiation safety ensuring (RSES) acquires especial importance. It is the result of sharp change of radiation environment in the interplanetary space as compared to the one in the near-Earth orbits and significant increase of the interplanetary flight duration. The demand of a harder limitation of unfavorable factors effects should lead to radiation safety (RS) standards hardening. The main principles of ensuring the RS of the Mars mission (optimizing, radiation risk, ALARA) and the conception of RSES, developed on the basis of the described approach and the experience obtained during orbital flights are presented in the report. The problems that can impede the ensuring of the crew members' RS are also given here.

  14. Advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Shideler, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development of weight-saving advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure is presented. Design concepts under investigation employ selective composite reinforcement and/or efficient geometric arrangements. An effort to develop metallic panel designs which exploit the relaxation of smooth external-surface requirements for skin structure is reviewed. Available highlights from research and development studies which investigate the application of composite reinforcement to the design of two types of fuselage panels, a shear web, a large fuselage frame, and a landing-gear-door assembly are presented. Preliminary results from these studies suggest weight savings of 25 percent can be obtained.

  15. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  16. Trajectory Design of the Lunar Impactor Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solicited proposals in 2006 for an opportunity to include a small secondary payload with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) scheduled for October 2008. The cost cap of the proposal was between $50 and $80M, and the mass cap was 1,000 kilograms. JPL proposed a Lunar Impactor (LI) concept for this solicitation. The mission objective of LI was to impact the permanently shadowed region of a South polar crater ultimately to detect the presence of water. The detection of water ice would prove to be an important factor on future lunar exploration. NASA Ames Research Center also proposed a similar concept, the Lunar Crater observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), which was selected by NASA for the mission. However, in this paper, the trajectory design of the LI proposed by JPL is considered. Since the LI spacecraft was to be launched on the LRO launch vehicle as a secondary payload, its initial trajectory must be diverted at some later time from the LRO trans-lunar trajectory for the subsequent impact. Several such trajectories have been considered, where each trajectory option fields some specific values for the mission parameters. The mission parameters include the availability of LRO instruments at the time of impact for the observation by LRO, the mission duration, the impact velocity, the impact angle, etc. It is possible for the LI to be deflected with a relatively low delta-V to impact a South polar crater at a reasonable impact velocity and impact angle directly with no delay. However, the instruments on-board LRO may not be ready for observation. Thus, several delayed trajectory options have been considered further. The lunar phase at the time of impact may also play an important factor for observation, especially from Earth. Several lunar flyby trajectory maneuvers have been identified to arrive at the Moon for impact at the desired lunar phase. By using a combination of these

  17. Applications technology satellites advanced mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    Three spacecraft configurations were designed for operation as a high powered synchronous communications satellite. Each spacecraft includes a 1 kw TWT and a 2 kw Klystron power amplifier feeding an antenna with multiple shaped beams. One of the spacecraft is designed to be boosted by a Thor-Delta launch vehicle and raised to synchronous orbit with electric propulsion. The other two are inserted into a elliptical transfer orbit with an Atlas Centaur and injected into final orbit with an apogee kick motor. Advanced technologies employed in the several configurations include tubes with multiple stage collectors radiating directly to space, multiple-contoured beam antennas, high voltage rollout solar cell arrays with integral power conditioning, electric propulsion for orbit raising and on-station attitude control and station-keeping, and liquid metal slip rings.

  18. A Conceptual Titan Orbiter Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Shirley, James H.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This study details a conceptual follow-on Titan orbiter mission that would provide full global topographic coverage. surface imaging, and meteorological characterization of the atmosphere over a nominal 5-year science mission duration. The baseline power requirement is approx.1 kWe at EOM and is driven by a high power radar instrument that would provide 3-dimensional measurements of atmospheric clouds, precipitation, and surface topography. While this power level is moderately higher than that of the Cassini spacecraft. higher efficiency advanced RPSs could potentially reduce the plutonium usage to less than 1/3rd of that used on the Cassini spacecraft. The Titan Orbiter mission is assumed to launch in 2015. It would utilize advanced RPSs to provide all on-board power.

  19. Mission demonstration concept for the long-duration storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, C.; Deininger, W.; Ingram, K.; Schweickart, R.; Unruh, B.

    This paper describes an experimental platform that will demonstrate the major technologies required for the handling and storage of cryogenic propellants in a low-to-zero-g environment. In order to develop a cost-effective, high value-added demonstration mission, a review of the complete mission concept of operations (CONOPS) was performed. The overall cost of such a mission is driven not only by the spacecraft platform and on-orbit experiments themselves, but also by the complexities of handling cryogenic propellants during ground-processing operations. On-orbit storage methodologies were looked at for both passive and active systems. Passive systems rely purely on isolation of the stored propellant from environmental thermal loads, while active cooling employs cryocooler technologies. The benefit trade between active and passive systems is mission-dependent due to the mass, power, and system-level penalties associated with active cooling systems. The experimental platform described in this paper is capable of demonstrating multiple advanced micro-g cryogenic propellant management technologies. In addition to the requirements of demonstrating these technologies, the methodology of propellant transfer must be evaluated. The handling of multiphase liquids in micro-g is discussed using flight-heritage micro-g propellant management device technologies as well as accelerated tank stratification for access to vapor-free or liquid-free propellants. The mission concept presented shows the extensibility of the experimental platform to demonstrate advanced cryogenic components and technologies, propellant transfer methodologies, as well as the validation of thermal and fluidic models, from subscale tankage to an operational architecture.

  20. A Potential Operational CryoSat Follow-on Mission Concept and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    CryoSat was a planned as a 3 year mission with clear mission objectives to allow the assessment rates of change of thickness in the land and marine ice fields with reduced uncertainties with relation to other non-dedicated missions. Although CryoSat suffered a launch failure in Oct 2005, the mission was recovered with a launch in April 2010 of CryoSat-2. The nominal mission has now been completed, all mission requirements have been fulfilled and CryoSat has been shown to be most successful as a dedicated polar ice sheet measurement system demonstrated by nearly 200 peer reviewed publications within the first four years of launch. Following the completion of the nominal mission in Oct 2013 the platform was shown to be in good health and with a scientific backing provided by the ESA Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) the mission has been extended until Feb 2017 by the ESA Programme Board for Earth Observation. Though not designed to provide data for science and operational services beyond its original mission requirements, a number of services have been developed for exploitation and these are expected to increase over the next few years. Services cover a number of aspects of land and marine ice fields in addition to complementary activities covering glacial monitoring, inland water in addition to coastal and open ocean surface topography science that CryoSat has demonstrated world leading advances with. This paper will present the overall concept for a potential low-cost follow-on to the CryoSat mission with the objective to provide both continuity of the existing CryoSat based data sets, i.e., longer term science and operational services that cannot be provided by the existing Copernicus complement of satellites. This is, in part, due to the high inclination (92°) drifting orbit and state of the art Synthetic Aperture Interferometer Radar Altimeter (SIRAL). In addition, further improvements in performance are expected by use of the instrument timing and

  1. Science Rationale for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred; Turtle, Elizabeth

    2012-07-01

    to meet key Io measurement requirements, and the failed high-gain antennae resulted in severely limited data return for a world that is highly variable in space, time, and wavelength. IVO will be designed specifically to address Io science as currently understood and will return, on every orbit, ˜100x the total Io data return of GLL over 8 years. The Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission concept from ESA could provide complementary monitoring but does not include close encounters with Io.

  2. Hybrid nuclear light bulb-nuclear-pumped laser propulsion for advanced missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid ``nuclear light bulb'' gaseous core reactor that can radiantly transfer energy to a propellant or alternately activate laser action is proposed for advanced space missions. The propellant mode would be employed in the phases of the mission requiring a higher thrust. However, for the bulk of the travel, the propellant would be turned off and the ultrahigh specific impulse laser mode of operation would be employed. The concept is reviewed, research and development issues are identified, and steps necessary for a feasibility demonstration are discussed.

  3. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study by a team of partners: NASA's Ames Research Center, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) The evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) The chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) The distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) The nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) The nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

  4. PRIME: A Deep Near-infrared Survey Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Ford, H. C.; Davidsen, A. F.; Kruk, J. W.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Szalay, A. S.; Hartig, G.; Postman, M.; Stockman, H. S.; Thompson, R.; Shu, P. K.; Lenzen, R.; Rix, H.-W.; Mark, D.; McGuffey, D.

    2000-12-01

    PRIME (The Primordial Explorer) is a proposed mission that has been selected for NASA SMEX concept study. It will carry out a deep sky survey from space in four near-infrared bands between 0.9-3.5 micron. The 0.75m telescope will survey a quarter of the sky to AB magnitude of approximately 24 in 1.5 years. Deeper surveys in selected sky regions are also planned. PRIME will reach an epoch during which the first quasars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies were formed in the early Universe, discover hundreds of Type-Ia supernovae to be used in measuring the acceleration of the expanding Universe, and detect hundreds of brown dwarfs and even Jupiter-size planets in the vicinity of the solar system. Most of these objects are so rare that they may be identified only in large and deep surveys. PRIME will serve as a pilot mission for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) supplying rare targets for NGST spectroscopy and deep imaging. Combining PRIME with other surveys (SDSS, GALEX) will yield the largest astronomical database ever built.

  5. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  6. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, W. C.; Allen, R.; Benford, D.; Gezari, D.; Leisawitz, D.; Mundy, L.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for an imaging interferometer for the mid-infrared spectral region (5-30 microns). FKSI is conceived as a scientific and technological precursor to TPF as well as Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT), Submillimeter Probe Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS), and Single Aperture for Infrared Observatory (SAFIR). It will also be a high angular resolution system complementary to Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The scientific emphasis of the mission is on the evolution of protostellar systems, from just after the collapse of the precursor molecular cloud core, through the formation of the disk surrounding the protostar, the formation of planets in the disk, and eventual dispersal of the disk material. FKSI will also search for brown dwarfs and Jupiter mass and smaller planets, and could also play a very powerful role in the investigation of the structure of active galactic nuclei and extra-galactic star formation. We are in the process of studying alternative interferometer architectures and beam combination techniques, and evaluating the relevant science and technology tradeoffs. Some of the technical challenges include the development of the cryocooler systems necessary for the telescopes and focal plane array, light and stiff but well-damped truss systems to support the telescopes, and lightweight and coolable optical telescopes. The goal of the design study is to determine if a mid-infrared interferometry mission can be performed within the cost and schedule requirements of a Discovery class mission. At the present time we envision the FKSI as comprised of five one meter diameter telescopes arranged along a truss structure in a linear non-redundant array, cooled to 35 K. A maximum baseline of 20 meters gives a nominal resolution of 26 mas at 5 microns. Using a Fizeau beam combination technique, a simple focal plane camera could be used to obtain both Fourier and spectral

  7. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  8. Advanced Accelerator Concepts: Seventh Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; McCullough, J.; Dahl, P.

    1997-09-01

    These proceedings are based on the Seventh Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts held in October, 1996 at Lake Tahoe, California. This workshop was sponsored by the US Department of Energy(High Energy Physics Division, Advanced Technology Branch) and by the center for Beam Physics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. A wide range of applications was covered at the workshop, from high energy colliders to synchrotron radiation sources. This scope included topics such as new methods of particle acceleration, production of ultrahigh gradient electromagnetic fields, diagnostics and control of particle/photon beams in ultrashort dimensions and ultrafast time scales, and various energy and beam sources. There were 87 papers presented at the workshop and out of these, 65 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  9. Outlook for advanced concepts in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air transportation demand trends, air transportation system goals, and air transportation system trends well into the 21st century were examined in detail. The outlook is for continued growth in both air passenger travel and air freight movements. The present system, with some improvements, is expected to continue to the turn of the century and to utilize technologically upgraded, derivative versions of today's aircraft, plus possibly some new aircraft for supersonic long haul, short haul, and high density commuter service. Severe constraints of the system, expected by early in the 21st century, should lead to innovations at the airport, away from the airport, and in the air. The innovations are illustrated by descriptions of three candidate systems involving advanced aircraft concepts. Advanced technologies and vehicles expected to impact the airport are illustrated by descriptions of laminar flow control aircraft, very large air freighters and cryogenically fueled transports.

  10. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  11. Manned orbital systems concepts study. Book 2: Requirements for extended-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    In order to provide essential data needed in long-range program planning, the Manned Orbital Systems Concepts (MOSC) study attempted to define, evaluate, and compare concepts for manned orbital systems that provide extended experiment mission capabilities in space, flexibility of operation, and growth potential. Specific areas discussed include roles and requirements for man in future space missions, requirements for extended capability, mission/payload concepts, and preliminary design and operational requirements.

  12. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  13. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  14. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  15. Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT-P): A Probe-Class Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco

    2016-04-01

    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (<$1B) X-ray timing mission, based on the LOFT M-class concept originally proposed to ESA’s M3 and M4 calls. LOFT-P requires very large collecting area, high time resolution, good spectral resolution,broadband spectral coverage (2-30 keV), highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to detect and respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It addresses science questions such as: What is the equation of state of ultra dense matter? What are the effects of strong gravity on matter spiraling into black holes? It would be optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources including X-ray bursters, black hole binaries, and magnetars to study phenomena at the natural timescales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons and to measure mass and spin of black holes. These measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P would have an effective area of >6 m2, >10x that of the highly successful Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). A sky monitor (~2-50 keV) acts as a trigger for pointed observations, providing high duty cycle, high time resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with ~20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, enabling multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies. A probe-class mission concept would employ lightweight collimator technology and large-area solid-state detectors, segmented into pixels or strips, technologies which have been recently greatly advanced during the ESA M-3 Phase A study of LOFT. Given the large community interested in LOFT (>800 supporters), the scientific productivity of this mission is expected to be very high, similar to or greater than RXTE (~2000 refereed publications.) In

  16. Family System of Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, William M.; Curry, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Ablators Program Objectives: 1) Flight-ready(TRL-6) ablative heat shields for deep-space missions; 2) Diversity of selection from family-system approach; 3) Minimum weight systems with high reliability; 4) Optimized formulations and processing; 5) Fully characterized properties; and 6) Low-cost manufacturing. Definition and integration of candidate lightweight structures. Test and analysis database to support flight-vehicle engineering. Results from production scale-up studies and production-cost analyses.

  17. Advancing Lidar Sensors Technologies for Next Generation Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Brewster, Paul F.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Missions to solar systems bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "precision landing", and "hazard avoidance" capabilities. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Missions aimed at paving the path for colonization of the Moon and human landing on Mars need to execute onboard hazard detection and precision maneuvering to ensure safe landing near previously deployed assets. Asteroid missions require precision rendezvous, identification of the landing or sampling site location, and navigation to the highly dynamic object that may be tumbling at a fast rate. To meet these needs, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a set of advanced lidar sensors under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. These lidar sensors can provide precision measurement of vehicle relative proximity, velocity, and orientation, and high resolution elevation maps of the surface during the descent to the targeted body. Recent flights onboard Morpheus free-flyer vehicle have demonstrated the viability of ALHAT lidar sensors for future landing missions to solar system bodies.

  18. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; Wagner, Dave

    2012-01-01

    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  19. The NPOESS Preparatory Project: Mission Concept and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Robert E.; Taylor, Raynor; DeVito, Daniel S.; Smith, Janice K.; Henegar, Joy; Dodge, James C.; Wilczynski, Peter; Kelly, Michael; Schneider, Stanley; Welsch, Carol; Smith, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project is a joint NASA/IPO (Integrated Program Office) mission to extend selected systematic measurements initiated by the Terra and Aqua missions and to provide risk reduction for NPOESS. The key sensor properties and mission features are summarized.

  20. The Staring OBservations of the Atmosphere (SOBA) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Johnson, Matthew S.; Chen, Rick; Quincy, Allison; Fladeland, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Staring OBservations of the Atmosphere (SOBA) Mission is a concept that was developed and matured under the guidance of the NASA Ames Project EXellence (APEX) program. If funded, it will provide an unprecedented opportunity to improve ash transport forecasts and climate model simulations associated with volcanic eruptions. NASA and National science objectives require a better understanding of volcanic aerosol and trace gas emissions, transport, chemical transformation, and deposition, since they impact Earth's climate and atmospheric composition, human health, and aviation safety. Natural hazards such as the 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated how existing remote-sensing assets were inadequate for individual volcanic event monitoring. During this eruption, available instruments were unable to provide data necessary to initialize volcanic plume transport models so that they could accurately predict the quantity and location of volcanic ash. As a result, thousands of flights around the world were grounded unnecessarily, at great expense. Volcanoes can also play a large role in regulation of the Earth's climate, so SOBA observations will also be used to evaluate and improve volcanic aerosol and trace gas simulation in chemical transport models (CTMs) and global climate models (GCMs). We propose the development of an airborne remote sensing concept and field campaign that will respond to an eruption and provide near real time observations of a volcanic plume, specifically ash injection height, transport, aerosol microphysical physical properties, and the location and concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) (sulfate (SO42-) aerosol precursor). This airborne system will utilize a depolarization sensitive, downward looking Light Detection And Ranging (lidar) instrument and an ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrometer, and will provide data to be ingested by volcanic ash advisory models. Furthermore, the lessons learned in the development

  1. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  2. System concept for an advanced stand-off weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzan, Riccardo

    1992-11-01

    A typical conceptual design process is described as applicable to an advanced Stand Off Weapon (SOW). Different design requirement sets, which include system performance parameters, are established to satisfy different mission requirements. In order to cope with these sets and to reach the flexibility needed, some specific design criteria are suggested. The trade between modularity and commonality makes the difference among different SOW's and affects them in affordability and effectiveness. The Skyshark weapon system is given as example of an SOW system concept. The description allows the understanding of links between design requirements, design criteria, and technical characteristics. Extensive modularity is adopted for all components that enhance flexibility (Armament, Avionics, Propulsion), while a favorable configuration layout choice allows maximizing commonality. This paper presents an industrial point of view and is related to almost 10 years of Alenia activities on Stand Off Weapons.

  3. Basic concepts of advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Elisabetta; Bizzi, Alberto; Di Salle, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Filippi, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques sensitized to diffusion, flow, magnetization transfer effect, and local field inhomogeneities induced by physiological changes, that can be viewed, in the clinical practice, as advanced because of their challenging implementation and interpretation. These techniques are known as diffusion-weighted, perfusion, magnetization transfer, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. An important issue is that they can provide quantitative estimates of structural and functional characteristics that are below the voxel resolution. This review does not deal with the basic concepts of the MR physics and the description of the available acquisition and postprocessing methods, but hopefully provides an adequate background to readers and hence facilitate the understanding of the following clinical contributions.

  4. Advanced composite combustor structural concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattar, M. A.; Lohmann, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to assess the feasibility of and benefits derived from the use of high temperature composite materials in aircraft turbine engine combustor liners. The study included a survey and screening of the properties of three candidate composite materials including tungsten reinforced superalloys, carbon-carbon and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers reinforcing a ceramic matrix of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS). The SiC-LAS material was selected as offering the greatest near term potential primarily on the basis of high temperature capability. A limited experimental investigation was conducted to quantify some of the more critical mechanical properties of the SiC-LAS composite having a multidirection 0/45/-45/90 deg fiber orientation favored for the combustor linear application. Rigorous cyclic thermal tests demonstrated that SiC-LAS was extremely resistant to the thermal fatigue mechanisms that usually limit the life of metallic combustor liners. A thermal design study led to the definition of a composite liner concept that incorporated film cooled SiC-LAS shingles mounted on a Hastelloy X shell. With coolant fluxes consistent with the most advanced metallic liner technology, the calculated hot surface temperatures of the shingles were within the apparent near term capability of the material. Structural analyses indicated that the stresses in the composite panels were low, primarily because of the low coefficient of expansion of the material and it was concluded that the dominant failure mode of the liner would be an as yet unidentified deterioration of the composite from prolonged exposure to high temperature. An economic study, based on a medium thrust size commercial aircraft engine, indicated that the SiC-LAS combustor liner would weigh 22.8N (11.27 lb) less and cost less to manufacture than advanced metallic liner concepts intended for use in the late 1980's.

  5. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  6. Advanced Nacelle Acoustic Lining Concepts Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, G.; Gallman, J.; Kunze, R.; Murray, P.; Premo, J.; Kosanchick, M.; Hersh, A.; Celano, J.; Walker, B.; Yu, J.; Parrott, Tony L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported in this document consisted of six distinct liner technology development subtasks: 1) Analysis of Model Scale ADP Fan Duct Lining Data (Boeing): An evaluation of an AST Milestone experiment to demonstrate 1995 liner technology superiority relative to that of 1992 was performed on 1:5.9 scale model fan rig (Advanced Ducted Propeller) test data acquired in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel. The goal of 50% improvement was deemed satisfied. 2) Bias Flow Liner Investigation (Boeing, VCES): The ability to control liner impedance by low velocity bias flow through liner was demonstrated. An impedance prediction model to include bias flow was developed. 3) Grazing Flow Impedance Testing (Boeing): Grazing flow impedance tests were conducted for comparison with results achieved at four different laboratories. 4) Micro-Perforate Acoustic Liner Technology (BFG, HAE, NG): Proof of concept testing of a "linear liner." 5) Extended Reaction Liners (Boeing, NG): Bandwidth improvements for non-locally reacting liner were investigated with porous honeycomb core test liners. 6) Development of a Hybrid Active/Passive Lining Concept (HAE): Synergism between active and passive attenuation of noise radiated by a model inlet was demonstrated.

  7. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziph, B.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts are presented. High performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature; (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application; and (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were provided to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crank-case. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 hours.

  8. Lunar missions using advanced chemical propulsion: System design issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    To provide the transportation of lunar base elements to the moon, large high-energy propulsion systems will be required. Advanced propulsion systems for lunar missions can provide significant launch mass reductions and payload increases. These mass reductions and added payload masses can be translated into significant launch cost savings for the lunar base missions. The masses in low Earth orbit (LEO) were compared for several propulsion systems: nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH), oxygen/methane (O2/CH4), oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2), and metallized O2/H2/Al propellants. Also, the payload mass increases enabled with O2/H2 and O2/H2/Al systems were addressed. In addition, many system design issues involving the engine thrust levels, engine commonality between the transfer vehicle and the excursion vehicle, and the number of launches to place the lunar mission vehicles into LEO will be discussed. Analyses of small lunar missions launched from a single STS-C flight are also presented.

  9. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  10. Candidate functions for advanced technology implementation in the Columbus mission planning environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Audrey; Kellner, Albrecht

    1988-01-01

    The Columbus Project is the European Space Agency's contribution to the International Space Station program. Columbus is planned to consist of three elements (a laboratory module attached to the Space Station base, a man-tended freeflyer orbiting with the Space Station base, and a platform in polar orbit). System definition and requirements analysis for Columbus are underway, scheduled for completion in mid-1990. An overview of the Columbus mission planning environment and operations concept as currently defined is given, and some of the challenges presented to software maintainers and ground segment personnel during mission operators are identified. The use of advanced technologies in system implementation is being explored. Both advantages of such solutions and potential problems they present are discussed, and the next steps to be taken by Columbus before targeting any functions for advanced technology implementation are summarized. Several functions in the mission planning process were identified as candidates for advanced technology implementation. These range from expert interaction with Columbus' data bases through activity scheduling and near-real-time response to departures from the planned timeline. Each function is described, and its potential for advanced technology implementation briefly assessed.

  11. Report on New Mission Concept Study: Stereo X-Ray Corona Imager Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liewer, Paulett C.; Davis, John M.; DeJong, E. M.; Gary, G. Allen; Klimchuk, James A.; Reinert, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the solar corona have been severely limited by the constraint of single viewpoint observations. The Stereo X-Ray Coronal Imager (SXCI) mission will send a single instrument, an X-ray telescope, into deep space expressly to record stereoscopic images of the solar corona. The SXCI spacecraft will be inserted into a approximately 1 AU heliocentric orbit leading Earth by approximately 25 deg at the end of nine months. The SXCI X-ray telescope forms one element of a stereo pair, the second element being an identical X-ray telescope in Earth orbit placed there as part of the NOAA GOES program. X-ray emission is a powerful diagnostic of the corona and its magnetic fields, and three dimensional information on the coronal magnetic structure would be obtained by combining the data from the two X-ray telescopes. This information can be used to address the major solar physics questions of (1) what causes explosive coronal events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), eruptive flares and prominence eruptions and (2) what causes the transient heating of coronal loops. Stereoscopic views of the optically thin corona will resolve some ambiguities inherent in single line-of-sight observations. Triangulation gives 3D solar coordinates of features which can be seen in the simultaneous images from both telescopes. As part of this study, tools were developed for determining the 3D geometry of coronal features using triangulation. Advanced technologies for visualization and analysis of stereo images were tested. Results of mission and spacecraft studies are also reported.

  12. Advanced Radioisotope Power System Enabled Titan Rover Concept with Inflatable Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews study into exploration of Titan. Including a possible Titan Rover that would use the advanced radioisotope power system (RPS). The goal of the study is to demonstrate a simple, credible and affordable rover mission concept for Titan in-situ exploration, enabled by an Advanced RPS. The presentation reviews the possible launch vehicle, and trajectory options; desired instrumentation that would be aboard the rover; and considerations for the design of the rover.

  13. Exploring Mission Concepts with the JPL Innovation Foundry A-Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, John K.; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Innovation Foundry has established a new approach for exploring, developing, and evaluating early concepts called the A-Team. The A-Team combines innovative collaborative methods with subject matter expertise and analysis tools to help mature mission concepts. Science, implementation, and programmatic elements are all considered during an A-Team study. Methods are grouped by Concept Maturity Level (CML), from 1 through 3, including idea generation and capture (CML 1), initial feasibility assessment (CML 2), and trade space exploration (CML 3). Methods used for each CML are presented, and the key team roles are described from two points of view: innovative methods and technical expertise. A-Team roles for providing innovative methods include the facilitator, study lead, and assistant study lead. A-Team roles for providing technical expertise include the architect, lead systems engineer, and integration engineer. In addition to these key roles, each A-Team study is uniquely staffed to match the study topic and scope including subject matter experts, scientists, technologists, flight and instrument systems engineers, and program managers as needed. Advanced analysis and collaborative engineering tools (e.g. cost, science traceability, mission design, knowledge capture, study and analysis support infrastructure) are also under development for use in A-Team studies and will be discussed briefly. The A-Team facilities provide a constructive environment for innovative ideas from all aspects of mission formulation to eliminate isolated studies and come together early in the development cycle when they can provide the biggest impact. This paper provides an overview of the A-Team, its study processes, roles, methods, tools and facilities.

  14. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  15. Advanced plasma propulsion for human missions to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2000-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented. .

  16. Application of a Novel Long-Reach Manipulator Concept to Asteroid Redirect Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    A high priority mission currently being formulated by NASA is to capture all or part of an asteroid and return it to cis-lunar space for examination by an astronaut crew. Two major mission architectures are currently being considered: in the first (Mission Concept A), a spacecraft would rendezvous and capture an entire free flying asteroid (up to 14 meters in diameter), and in the second (Mission Concept B), a spacecraft would rendezvous with a large asteroid (which could include one of the Martian moons) and retrieve a boulder (up to 4 meters in diameter). A critical element of the mission is the system that will capture the asteroid or boulder material, enclose it and secure it for the return flight. This paper describes the design concepts, concept of operations, structural sizing and masses of capture systems that are based on a new and novel Tendon- Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) general-purpose robotic system. Features of the TALISMAN system are described and the status of its technology development is summarized. TALISMAN-based asteroid material retrieval system concepts and concepts-of-operations are defined for each asteroid mission architecture. The TALISMAN-based capture systems are shown to dramatically increase operational versatility while reducing mission risk. Total masses of TALISMAN-based systems are presented, reinforcing the mission viability of using a manipulator-based approach for the asteroid redirect mission.

  17. THEO concept mission: Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Shannon M.; Caswell, Tess E.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Stavros, E. Natasha; Hofgartner, Jason D.; Sun, Vivian Z.; Powell, Kathryn E.; Steuer, Casey J.; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Petro, Elaine M.; Wynne, J. Judson; Phan, Samson; Crismani, Matteo; Krishnamurthy, Akshata; John, Kristen K.; DeBruin, Kevin; Budney, Charles J.; Mitchell, Karl L.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus offers a unique opportunity in the search for life and habitable environments beyond Earth, a key theme of the National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey. A plume of water vapor and ice spews from Enceladus's south polar region. Cassini data suggest that this plume, sourced by a liquid reservoir beneath the moon's icy crust, contain organics, salts, and water-rock interaction derivatives. Thus, the ingredients for life as we know it - liquid water, chemistry, and energy sources - are available in Enceladus's subsurface ocean. We have only to sample the plumes to investigate this hidden ocean environment. We present a New Frontiers class, solar-powered Enceladus orbiter that would take advantage of this opportunity, Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean (THEO). Developed by the 2015 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School student participants under the guidance of TeamX, this mission concept includes remote sensing and in situ analyses with a mass spectrometer, a sub-mm radiometer-spectrometer, a camera, and two magnetometers. These instruments were selected to address four key questions for ascertaining the habitability of Enceladus's ocean within the context of the moon's geological activity: (1) how are the plumes and ocean connected? (2) are the abiotic conditions of the ocean suitable for habitability? (3) how stable is the ocean environment? (4) is there evidence of biological processes? By taking advantage of the opportunity Enceladus's plumes offer, THEO represents a viable, solar-powered option for exploring a potentially habitable ocean world of the outer solar system.

  18. Short rendezvous missions for advanced Russian human spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, Rafail F.; Budylov, Sergey G.

    2010-10-01

    The two-day stay of crew in a limited inhabited volume of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft till docking to ISS is one of the most stressful parts of space flight. In this paper a number of possible ways to reduce the duration of the free flight phase are considered. The duration is defined by phasing strategy that is necessary for reduction of the phase angle between the chaser and target spacecraft. Some short phasing strategies could be developed. The use of such strategies creates more comfortable flight conditions for crew thanks to short duration and additionally it allows saving spacecraft's life support resources. The transition from the methods of direct spacecraft rendezvous using one orbit phasing (first flights of " Vostok" and " Soyuz" vehicles) to the currently used methods of two-day rendezvous mission can be observed in the history of Soviet manned space program. For an advanced Russian human rated spacecraft the short phasing strategy is recommended, which can be considered as a combination between the direct and two-day rendezvous missions. The following state of the art technologies are assumed available: onboard accurate navigation; onboard computations of phasing maneuvers; launch vehicle with high accuracy injection orbit, etc. Some operational requirements and constraints for the strategies are briefly discussed. In order to provide acceptable phase angles for possible launch dates the experience of the ISS altitude profile control can be used. As examples of the short phasing strategies, the following rendezvous missions are considered: direct ascent, short mission with the phasing during 3-7 orbits depending on the launch date (nominal or backup). For each option statistical modeling of the rendezvous mission is fulfilled, as well as an admissible phase angle range, accuracy of target state vector and addition fuel consumption coming out of emergency is defined. In this paper an estimation of pros and cons of all options is conducted.

  19. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  20. Nuclear Polar VALOR: An ASRG-Enabled Venus Balloon Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, T. S.; Baines, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    In situ exploration of Venus is expected to answer high priority science questions about the planet's origin, evolution, chemistry, and dynamics as identified in the NRC Decadal Survey and in the VEXAG White Paper. Furthermore, exploration of the polar regions of Venus is key to understanding its climate and global circulation, as well as providing insight into the circulation, chemistry, and climatological processes on Earth. In this paper we discuss our proposed Nuclear Polar VALOR mission, which would target one of the polar regions of Venus, while building on design heritage from the Discovery class VALOR concept, proposed in 2004 and 2006. Riding the strong zonal winds at 55 km altitude and drifting poleward from mid-latitude this balloon-borne aerial science station (aerostat) would circumnavigate the planet multiple times over its one- month operation, extensively investigating polar dynamics, meteorology, and chemistry. Rising and descending over 1 km altitude in planetary waves - similar to the two VEGA balloons in 1985 - onboard instrumentation would accurately and constantly sample and measure other meteorological and chemical parameters, such as atmospheric temperature and pressure, cloud particle sizes and their local column abundances, the vertical wind component, and the chemical composition of cloud-forming trace gases. As well, when viewed with terrestrial radio telescopes on the Earth-facing side of Venus, both zonal and meridional winds would be measured to high accuracy (better than 10 cm/sec averaged over an hour). Due to three factors: the lack of sunlight near the poles; severe limitations on the floating mass-fraction available for a power source; and the science requirements for intensive and continuous measurements of the balloon's environment and movement, a long-duration polar balloon mission would require a long-lived internal power source in a relatively lightweight package. For our concept we assumed an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope

  1. Developing Advanced Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbel, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth s moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a systems engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD s Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. these products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  2. Developing Advanced Human Support Technologies for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdich, Debra P.; Campbell, Paul D.; Jernigan, J. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The United States Vision for Space Exploration calls for sending robots and humans to explore the Earth's moon, the planet Mars, and beyond. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a set of design reference missions that will provide further detail to these plans. Lunar missions are expected to provide a stepping stone, through operational research and evaluation, in developing the knowledge base necessary to send crews on long duration missions to Mars and other distant destinations. The NASA Exploration Systems Directorate (ExSD), in its program of bioastronautics research, manages the development of technologies that maintain human life, health, and performance in space. Using a system engineering process and risk management methods, ExSD's Human Support Systems (HSS) Program selects and performs research and technology development in several critical areas and transfers the results of its efforts to NASA exploration mission/systems development programs in the form of developed technologies and new knowledge about the capabilities and constraints of systems required to support human existence beyond Low Earth Orbit. HSS efforts include the areas of advanced environmental monitoring and control, extravehicular activity, food technologies, life support systems, space human factors engineering, and systems integration of all these elements. The HSS Program provides a structured set of deliverable products to meet the needs of exploration programs. These products reduce the gaps that exist in our knowledge of and capabilities for human support for long duration, remote space missions. They also reduce the performance gap between the efficiency of current space systems and the greater efficiency that must be achieved to make human planetary exploration missions economically and logistically feasible. In conducting this research and technology development program, it is necessary for HSS technologists and program managers to develop a

  3. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  4. Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven; Trumble, Kerry A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2012-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  5. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  6. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  7. Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT-P): A Probe-Class Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, P. S.; Chakrabarty, D.; Feroci, M.; Jenke, Peter; Griffith, C.; Zane, S.; Winter, B.; Brandt, S.; Hernamdez, M.; Hickman, R.; Hopkins, R.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, J.; Schnell, A.; Becker, C.; Dominguez, A.; Ingram, L.; Gangl, B.; Carson, B.

    2016-01-01

    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (less than $1B) X-ray timing mission, based on the LOFT M-class concept originally proposed to ESA's M3 and M4 calls. LOFT-P requires very large collecting area, high time resolution, good spectral resolution, broadband spectral coverage (2-30 keV), highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to detect and respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. Many of LOFTP's targets are bright, rapidly varying sources, so these measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P was presented as an example mission to the head of NASA's Astrophysics Division, to demonstrate the strong community support for creation of a probe-class, for missions costing between $500M and $1B. We submitted a white paper4 in response to NASA PhysPAG's call for white papers: Probe-class Mission Concepts, describing LOFT-P science and a simple extrapolation from the ESA study costs. The next step for probe-class missions will be input into the NASA Astrophysics Decadal Survey to encourage the creation of a probe-class opportunity. We report on a 2016 study by MSFC's Advanced Concepts Office of LOFT-P, a US-led probe-class LOFT concept.

  8. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  9. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm^-2) for shock generation.

  10. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm-2) for shock generation.

  11. Reconfigurable Computing Concepts for Space Missions: Universal Modular Spares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, M. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    Computing hardware for control, data collection, and other purposes will prove many times over crucial resources in NASA's upcoming space missions. Ability to provide these resources within mission payload requirements, with the hardiness to operate for extended periods under potentially harsh conditions in off-World environments, is daunting enough without considering the possibility of doing so with conventional electronics. This paper examines some ideas and options, and proposes some initial approaches, for logical design of reconfigurable computing resources offering true modularity, universal compatibility, and unprecedented flexibility to service all forms and needs of mission infrastructure.

  12. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  13. Enabling Future Low-Cost Small Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian; Amini, Rashied; Zakrajsek, June; Oleson, Steven; Cataldo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A SmallSat using a small Radioisotope Power System for deep space destinations could potentially fit into a Discovery class mission cost cap and perform significant science with a timely return of data. Only applicable when the Discovery 12 guidelines were applied. Commonality of hardware and science instruments among identical spacecraft enabled to meet the Discovery Class mission cost cap. Multiple spacecraft shared the costs of the Launch Approval Engineering Process. Assumed a secondary science instrument was contributed. Small RPS could provide small spacecraft with a relatively high power (approx. 60 We) option for missions to deep space destinations (> 10 AU) with multiple science instruments. Study of Centaur mission demonstrated the ability to achieve New Frontiers level science. Multiple spacecraft possible with small RPS, allowing for multiple targets, science from multiple platforms, and/or redundancy.

  14. The Concept of a Stare-Mode Astrometric Space Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-12

    observations, which is im- portant for some science goals, such as detecting extrasolar planets . The achievable astrometric mission precisions are...ing with instrumental effects, and attitude control). In addition, for many applications (parallaxes, planet detections), the one- dimensional

  15. An examination of emerging in-space propulsion concepts for one-year crewed mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Rauwolf, Gerald A.; Maggio, Gaspare; Patel, Saroj; Sorensen, Kirk

    2002-01-01

    A study was completed that provides a meaningful, even-handed, comparison assessment of promising candidate, in-space, exploration propulsion concepts to support emerging ``near-term'' crewed Mars mission applications. In particular, the study examined the mission performance feasibility and risk of a number of near-, mid-, and far-term in-space propulsion concepts to support crewed Mars missions starting in 2018 that can have the crewed portion of the mission performed in one year or less. This study used exploration propulsion system team technology specialist advocates to identify seven meaningful, representative mission architecture scenarios to ``best'' demonstrate the capability of such in-space propulsion technology options to support the near-term crewed Mars mission requirement. Additionally, a common set of top-level mission/system requirements was established for the study, which was incorporated in the assessment of all the mission options considered. Mission performance for abundant chemical (Ab-Chem), bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR), high power nuclear electric propulsion (HP-NEP), momentum tether/chemical, solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar electric propulsion/chemical (SEP-Chem) and Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) based missions were estimated for this quick trip, 2018 crewed Mars flight opportunity. Each of these mission options are characterized in terms of their overall mission performance capability, crewed mission duration, Initial Mass to Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO), which including dry and propellant weight required, overall mission time, number of flight elements (propulsion units/tank sets), and number of Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) vehicle launches. Potential top-level development, implementation, and operational issues/risks for each mission scenario considered are also identified. .

  16. Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (IPL): A concept for an interplanetary mission in the mid-eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Feldman, W.

    1977-01-01

    A concept for a near-earth interplanetary mission in the mid-eighties is described. The proposed objectives would be to determine the composition of the interplanetary constituents and its dependence on source-conditions and to investigate energy and momentum transfer processes in the interplanetary medium. Such a mission would accomplish three secondary objectives: (1) provide a baseline for deep space missions, (2) investigate variations of the solar wind with solar activity, and (3) provide input functions for magnetospheric studies.

  17. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) -- A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new γ-ray astrophysics mission concept expected to have unprecedented sensitivity in the nuclear regime. Operating in lunar orbit, LOCO will utilize lunar occultation imaging to survey and probe the cosmos.

  18. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 10: Aerocapture for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    A manned expedition to Mars has been under consideration as a potential mission for the early 21st century. The necessarily large vehicle requirements have sparked interest in aerocapture as a means of reducing propellant usage. This volume summarizes the work performed to establish concepts and feasibility of such a mission which makes maximum use of aeroassist maneuvers.

  19. Overview of Mission Design for NASA Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, Nathan; Landau, Damon; McElrath, Timothy; Lantoine, Gregory; Lam, Try; McGuire, Melissa; Burke, Laura; Martini, Michael; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    Part of NASA's new asteroid initiative would be a robotic mission to capture a roughly four to ten meter asteroid and redirect its orbit to place it in translunar space. Once in a stable storage orbit at the Moon, astronauts would then visit the asteroid for science investigations, to test in space resource extraction, and to develop experience with human deep space missions. This paper discusses the mission design techniques that would enable the redirection of a 100-1000 metric ton asteroid into lunar orbit with a 40-50 kW Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) system.

  20. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 6: Lunar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's two Office of Space Flight (Code M) Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) contractors supported development of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) lunar transportation concepts. This work treated lunar SEI missions as the far end of a more near-term STV program, most of whose missions were satellite delivery and servicing requirements derived from Civil Needs Data Base (CNDB) projections. Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) began to address the complete design of a lunar transportation system. The following challenges were addressed: (1) the geometry of aerobraking; (2) accommodation of mixed payloads; (3) cryogenic propellant transfer in Low Lunar Orbit (LLO); (4) fully re-usable design; and (5) growth capability. The leveled requirements, derived requirements, and assumptions applied to the lunar transportation system design are discussed. The mission operations section includes data on mission analysis studies and performance parametrics as well as the operating modes and performance evaluations which include the STCAEM recommendations. Element descriptions for the lunar transportation family included are a listing of the lunar transfer vehicle/lunar excursion vehicle (LTV/LEV) components; trade studies and mass analyses of the transfer and excursion modules; advanced crew recovery vehicle (ACRV) (modified crew recovery vehicle (MCRV)) modifications required to fulfill lunar operations; the aerobrake shape and L/D to be used; and some costing methods and results. Commonality and evolution issues are also discussed.

  1. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  2. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Studak, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many of new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to/from an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides an overview of the SHM concept and the advantages it provides. A summary of calculations of the mass of the habitat propulsion system (HPS) needed to get the habitat from Low Mars Orbit (LMO) to the surface and back to LMO and an overview of trajectory and mission mass assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space based propulsion system is provided. Those calculations lead to the conclusion that the SHM concept can significantly reduce the mass required and streamline mission operations to explore Mars (and thus all exploration destinations).

  3. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Studak, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to/from an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides an overview of the SHM concept and the advantages it provides. The paper also provides a summary of calculations of the mass of the Habitat Propulsion System (HPS) needed to get the habitat from low-Mars orbit (LMO) to the surface and back to LMO, and an overview of trajectory and mission mass assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space-based propulsion system. Those calculations led to the conclusion that the SHM concept results in low total mass required and streamlines mission operations to explore Mars (or other exploration destinations).

  4. Geophysical Exploration of Asteroids: The Deep Interior Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Kakuda, R. Y.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a possible international multiple-rendezvous mission to probe the interiors representative near-Earth objects. Features include SEP, autonomous navigation, stereo imaging, radio tomography, anchored seismology stations and explosive signal sources. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Advanced thermal management needs for Lunar and Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.C. ); Webb, B.J. )

    1993-01-15

    Significant improvements in thermal management technologies will be required to support NASA's planned Lunar and Mars missions. The developments needed include the application of advanced materials to reduce radiator system masses, enhanced survivability, and the use of alternative working fluids. Current thermal management systems utilize one of two heat rejection alternatives; either single phase pumped loops, or two phase heat pipes constructed with thick walled metal casings. These two technologies have proven themselves to be reliable performers in the transport and rejection of waste heat from spacecraft. As thermal management needs increase with increased power consumption and activity required on spacecraft, these metal based thermal management systems will become mission limiting. Investigations into the use of light weight ceramic materials for high temperature thermal management systems have been conducted by NASA, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense since the early 1980s, with results showing that significant mass savings can be obtained by replacing some of the metallic functions with ceramic materials.

  6. An Overview of Future NASA Missions, Concepts, and Technologies Related to Imaging of the World's Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    1999-01-01

    In the near term NASA is entering into the peak activity period of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS AM-1 /"Terra" spacecraft is nearing launch and operation to be followed soon by the New Millennium Program (NMP) Earth Observing (EO-1) mission. Other missions related to land imaging and studies include EOS PM-1 mission, the Earth System Sciences Program (ESSP) Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, the EOS/IceSat mission. These missions involve clear advances in technologies and observational capability including improvements in multispectral imaging and other observing strategies, for example, "formation flying". Plans are underway to define the next era of EOS missions, commonly called "EOS Follow-on" or EOS II. The programmatic planning includes concepts that represent advances over the present Landsat-7 mission that concomitantly recognize the advances being made in land imaging within the private sector. The National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite Series (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) is an effort that will help to transition EOS medium resolution (herein meaning spatial resolutions near 500 meters), multispectral measurement capabilities such as represented by the EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the NPOESS operational series of satellites. Developments in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and passive microwave land observing capabilities are also proceeding. Beyond these efforts the Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy is embarking efforts to advance technologies in several basic areas: instruments, flight systems and operational capability, and information systems. In the case of instruments architectures will be examined that offer significant reductions in mass, volume, power and observational flexibility. For flight systems and operational capability, formation flying including calibration and data fusion, systems operation autonomy, and mechanical and electronic innovations that can reduce

  7. Advanced sunflower antenna concept development. [stowable reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of stowing large solid antenna reflectors in the shuttle was demonstrated for applications with 40 foot apertures at frequencies of 100 GHz. Concepts allowing extension of the basic concept to 80-foot apertures operable at 60 GHz were identified.

  8. SERI Advanced and Innovative Wind-Energy-Concepts Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Jacobs, E.W.

    1983-06-01

    In 1978 the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was given the responsibility of managing the Advanced and Innovative Wind Energy Concepts (AIWEC) Task by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this program has been to determine the technical and economic potential of advanced wind energy concepts. Assessment and R and D efforts in the AIWEC program have included theoretical performance analyses, wind tunnel testing, and/or costing studies. Concepts demonstrating sufficient potential undergo prototype testing in a Proof-of-Concept research phase. Several concepts, such as the Dynamic Inducer, the Diffuser Augmented wind Turbine, the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind-Driven Generator, the Passive Cyclic Pitch concept, and higher performance airfoil configurations for vertical axis wind turbines, have recently made significant progress. The latter has currently reached the Proof-of-Concept phase. The present paper provides an overview of the technical progress and current status of these concepts.

  9. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  10. Telescience - Concepts and contributions to the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchant, Will; Dobson, Carl; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Malina, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown how the contradictory goals of low-cost and fast data turnaround characterizing the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission can be achieved via the early use of telescience style transparent tools and simulations. The use of transparent tools reduces the parallel development of capability while ensuring that valuable prelaunch experience is not lost in the operations phase. Efforts made to upgrade the 'EUVE electronics' simulator are described.

  11. Advancement of a 30K W Solar Electric Propulsion System Capability for NASA Human and Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Manzella, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion has evolved into a demonstrated operational capability performing station keeping for geosynchronous satellites, enabling challenging deep-space science missions, and assisting in the transfer of satellites from an elliptical orbit Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) to a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). Advancing higher power SEP systems will enable numerous future applications for human, robotic, and commercial missions. These missions are enabled by either the increased performance of the SEP system or by the cost reductions when compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems. Higher power SEP systems that provide very high payload for robotic missions also trade favorably for the advancement of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Demonstrated reliable systems are required for human space flight and due to their successful present day widespread use and inherent high reliability, SEP systems have progressively become a viable entrant into these future human exploration architectures. NASA studies have identified a 30 kW-class SEP capability as the next appropriate evolutionary step, applicable to wide range of both human and robotic missions. This paper describes the planning options, mission applications, and technology investments for representative 30kW-class SEP mission concepts under consideration by NASA

  12. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Paczkowski, B.; Vance, S.; Goldstein, B.; Magner, T. J.; Cooke, B.

    2014-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate to search for a present-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has engaged a Science Definition Team (SDT) to define a strategy to advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. A mission architecture is defined where a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit would make many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. The spacecraft trajectory would permit ~45 flybys at a variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's surface. This concept is known as the Europa Clipper. The SDT recommended three science objectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean--Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition--Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; Geology--Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The SDT also considered implications of the recent HST detection of plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential future exploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Clipper should provide the capability to perform reconnaissance. In consultation with NASA Headquarters, the SDT developed a reconnaissance goal: Characterize Scientifically Compelling Sites, and Hazards, for a Potential Future Landed Mission to Europa. This leads to two objectives: Site Safety--Assess the distribution of surface hazards, the load-bearing capacity of the surface, the structure of the subsurface, and the regolith thickness; Science Value--Assess the composition of surface materials, the geologic context of the surface, the potential for geological activity, the proximity of near surface water, and the potential for active

  13. A Discovery-Class Lunette Mission Concept for a Lunar Geophysical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The Lunette mission concept for a network of small, inexpensive lunar landers has evolved over the last three years as the focus of space exploration activities in the US has changed. Originating in a concept for multiple landers launched as a secondary payload capable of regional science and site survey activities, Lunette has recently been developed into a Discovery-class mission concept that offers global lunar coverage enabling network science on a much broader scale. A particular mission concept has been refined by the Lunette team that would result in a low-cost global lunar geophysical network, comprised of two landers widely spaced on the near side of the moon. Each of the two identical landers would carry a suite of instruments that would make continuous measurements of seismic activity, heat flow, and the electromagnetic environment during the full lunar day/night cycle. Each lander would also deploy a next-generation laser retroreflector capable of improving on distance measurement accuracy by an order of magnitude over those emplaced by the previous Apollo and Lunokhod missions. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the Lunette geophysical network mission concept, including mission and flight system design, as well as the key requirements and constraints that guided them.

  14. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  15. Missions and vehicle concepts for modern, propelled, lighter-than-air vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of studies conducted over the last 15 years to assess missions and vehicle concepts for modern, propelled, lighter-than-air vehicles (airships) were surveyed. Rigid and non-rigid airship concepts are considered. The use of airships for ocean patrol and surveillance is discussed along with vertical heavy lift airships. Military and civilian needs for high altitude platforms are addressed.

  16. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  17. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  18. Advanced solar-propelled cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, J.; Beall, M.; Burianek, J.; Cinniger, A.; Dunmire, B.; Haberman, E.; Iwamoto, J.; Johnson, S.; Mccracken, S.; Miller, M.

    1989-01-01

    At the University of Washington, three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars-support missions have been investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: a solar radiation absorption (SRA) system, a solar-pumped laser (SPL) system, and a solar powered mangetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process developed at the University of Washington. A solar concentrator focuses sunlight into an absorption chamber. A mixture of hydrogen and potassium vapor absorbs the incident radiation and is heated to approximately 3700 K. The hot propellant gas exhausts through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SRA has an I(sub sp) of approximately 1000 sec and produces a thrust of 2940 N using two thrust chambers. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sun-synchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The laser beams are transmitted to the spacecraft via laser relay satellites. The laser energy heats the hydrogen propellant through a plasma breakdown process in the center of an absorption chamber. Propellant flowing through the chamber, heated by the plasma core, expands through a nozzle to produce thrust. The SPL has an I(sub sp) of 1285 sec and produces a thrust of 1200 N using two thrust chambers. The MPD system uses indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. In this system, the argon propellant is ionized and electromagnetically accelerated by a magnetoplasmadynamic arc to produce thrust. The MPD spacecraft has an I(sub sp) of 2490 sec and produces a thrust of 100 N. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary

  19. Exploring Asteroid Interiors: The Deep Interior Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Cangahuala, A.; Keith, L.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Neumann, G.; Ostro, S. J.; Reinert, R.; Safaeinili, A.

    2003-01-01

    Deep Interior is a mission to determine the geophysical properties of near-Earth objects, including the first volumetric image of the interior of an asteroid. Radio reflection tomography will image the 3D distribution of complex dielectric properties within the 1 km rendezvous target and hence map structural, density or compositional variations. Laser altimetry and visible imaging will provide high-resolution surface topography. Smart surface pods culminating in blast experiments, imaged by the high frame rate camera and scanned by lidar, will characterize active mechanical behavior and structure of surface materials, expose unweathered surface for NIR analysis, and may enable some characterization of bulk seismic response. Multiple flybys en route to this target will characterize a diversity of asteroids, probing their interiors with non-tomographic radar reflectance experiments. Deep Interior is a natural follow-up to the NEARShoemaker mission and will provide essential guidance for future in situ asteroid and comet exploration. While our goal is to learn the interior geology of small bodies and how their surfaces behave, the resulting science will enable pragmatic technologies required of hazard mitigation and resource utilization.

  20. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  1. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1993-01-01

    Earlier studies carried out under this contract covered a wide range of lunar and Mars transportation options, and lunar rove concepts and technology needs. The current report discusses the activities conducted under Technical Directives 16 and 17. Mars transportation was addressed as well as a review and update of architectures and propulsion systems.

  2. Benefits of advanced software techniques for mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern spacecraft, and the stringent requirement for maximizing their mission return, call for a new generation of Mission Planning Systems (MPS). In this paper, we discuss the requirements for the Space Mission Planning and the benefits which can be expected from Artificial Intelligence techniques through examples of applications developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  3. Small Autonomous Air/Sea System Concepts for Coast Guard Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of small autonomous air/sea system concepts are outlined in this paper that support and enhance U.S. Coast Guard missions. These concepts draw significantly upon technology investments made by NASA in the area of uninhabited aerial vehicles and robotic/intelligent systems. Such concepts should be considered notional elements of a greater as-yet-not-defined robotic system-of-systems designed to enable unparalleled maritime safety and security.

  4. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  5. Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

  6. NASA's Living with a Star Program: The Geospace Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Giles, Barbara; Zanetti, Lawrence; Spann, James; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star Program (LWS) to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. Three program elements are the Science Missions; a Theory, Modeling, and Data Analysis program; and a Space Environment Testbeds program. Because many of the effects of solar variability on humanity are observed in Geospace regions of space, the science research for all three elements of the LWS Program have significant components in Geospace regions.

  7. Design and Analysis of a Formation Flying System for the Cross-Scale Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornara, Stefania; Bastante, Juan C.; Jubineau, Franck

    2007-01-01

    The ESA-funded "Cross-Scale Technology Reference Study has been carried out with the primary aim to identify and analyse a mission concept for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve dynamical non-linear coupling across multiple length scales. To fulfill this scientific mission goal, a constellation of spacecraft is required, flying in loose formations around the Earth and sampling three characteristic plasma scale distances simultaneously, with at least two satellites per scale: electron kinetic (10 km), ion kinetic (100-2000 km), magnetospheric fluid (3000-15000 km). The key Cross-Scale mission drivers identified are the number of S/C, the space segment configuration, the reference orbit design, the transfer and deployment strategy, the inter-satellite localization and synchronization process and the mission operations. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the mission design and analysis for the Cross-Scale concept and outlines a technically feasible mission architecture for a multi-dimensional investigation of space plasma phenomena. The main effort has been devoted to apply a thorough mission-level trade-off approach and to accomplish an exhaustive analysis, so as to allow the characterization of a wide range of mission requirements and design solutions.

  8. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  9. A contrarotative aircraft lifting concept for a future Titan mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquesnay, P.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Tavel, J.

    2008-09-01

    Titan has a thick and cold atmosphere (surface pressure 1.5 bar and surface temperature 94 K) and the surface gravity is about 1/7 of Earth's. Surface wind velocities are low. These unique characteristics make Titan's atmosphere an ideal place for an helicopter type of aircraft with vertical lift capability. Here we present a conceptual idea of a Titan helicopter designed as a student project. Two cases have been considered: a 100-kg helicopter and a 2-kg one. The concept is based on a contra-rotating double rotor. The device would be powered by a combination of rechargeable batteries and a low-power radioisotope source. The double rotor and the body of the helicopter would be protected by a mesh structure. It would carry a science payload at its base that would allow surface sampling and analysis each time it would land. During landing, it would also recharge its batteries to allow flying to the next stop. The concept has been inspired by studying modelaircraft- making devices. Various concepts developed for industrial and military applications have also been a source of inspiration. The following web sites were consulted: • www.onera.fr/conferences/drones • www.aurora.aero • www.sikorsky.com/sik/index.asp • www.microdrones.com The poster will present a preliminary design of the device. Its capability to contribute to the exploration of Titan's surface will be illustrated.

  10. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A research platform for rodent experiment on the ISS is a valuable tool for advancing biomedical research in space. Capabilities offered by the Rodent Research project developed at NASA Ames Research Center can support experiments of much longer duration on the ISS than previous experiments performed on the Space Shuttle. NASAs Rodent Research (RR)-1 mission was completed successfully and achieved a number of objectives, including validation of flight hardware, on-orbit operations, and science capabilities as well as support of a CASIS-sponsored experiment (Novartis) on muscle atrophy. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on the Space-X (SpX) 4 Dragon vehicle, and thrived for up to 37 days in microgravity. Daily health checks of the mice were performed during the mission via downlinked video; all flight animals were healthy and displayed normal behavior, and higher levels of physical activity compared to ground controls. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that Flight and Ground Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions indicative of healthy animals. The animals were euthanized on-orbit and select tissues were collected from some of the mice on orbit to assess the long-term sample storage capabilities of the ISS. In general, the data obtained from the flight mice were comparable to those from the three groups of control mice (baseline, vivarium and ground controls, which were housed in flight hardware), showing that the ISS has adequate capability to support long-duration rodent experiments. The team recovered 35 tissues from 40 RR-1 frozen carcasses, yielding 3300 aliquots of tissues to distribute to the scientific community in the U.S., including NASAs GeneLab project and scientists via Space Biology's Biospecimen Sharing Program Ames Life Science Data Archive. Tissues also were distributed to Russian research colleagues at the Institute for

  11. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  12. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  13. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-09-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  14. Large Observatory for x-ray Timing (LOFT-P): a Probe-class mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Alvarez, Laura; Baysinger, Michael; Becker, Chris; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Carson, Billy; Chapman, Jack; Dominguez, Alexandra; Fabisinski, Leo; Gangl, Bert; Garcia, Jay; Griffith, Christopher; Hernanz, Margarita; Hickman, Robert; Hopkins, Randall; Hui, Michelle; Ingram, Luster; Jenke, Peter; Korpela, Seppo; Maccarone, Tom; Michalska, Malgorzata; Pohl, Martin; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanne, Stephane; Schnell, Andrew; Stella, Luigi; van der Klis, Michiel; Watts, Anna; Winter, Berend; Zane, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (<$1B) X-ray timing mission, based on the LOFT M-class concept originally proposed to ESAs M3 and M4 calls. LOFT-P requires very large collecting area, high time resolution, good spectral resolution, broad-band spectral coverage (2-30 keV), highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to detect and respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It addresses science questions such as: What is the equation of state of ultra dense matter? What are the effects of strong gravity on matter spiraling into black holes? It would be optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources including X-ray bursters, black hole binaries, and magnetars to study phenomena at the natural timescales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons and to measure mass and spin of black holes. These measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P would have an effective area of >6 m2, > 10x that of the highly successful Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). A sky monitor (2-50 keV) acts as a trigger for pointed observations, providing high duty cycle, high time resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, enabling multi-wavelength and multimessenger studies. A probe-class mission concept would employ lightweight collimator technology and large-area solid-state detectors, segmented into pixels or strips, technologies which have been recently greatly advanced during the ESA M3 Phase A study of LOFT. Given the large community interested in LOFT (>800 supporters*, the scientific productivity of this mission is expected to be very high, similar to or greater than RXTE ( 2000 refereed publications). We

  15. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  16. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  17. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lays, E. J.; Murray, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Concepts are discussed that project turbine engine cost savings through use of geometrically constrained components designed for low rotational speeds and low stress to permit manufacturing economies. Aerodynamic development of geometrically constrained components is recommended to maximize component efficiency. Conceptual engines, airplane applications, airplane performance, engine cost, and engine-related life cycle costs are presented. The powerplants proposed offer encouragement with respect to fuel efficiency and life cycle costs, and make possible remarkable airplane performance gains.

  18. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  19. Investigating the Scope of an Advance Organizer for Compiler Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Lawrence H.; Loerinc, Beatrice M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates effectiveness of advance organizers for teaching functioning and use of compilers to undergraduate students in computer science courses. Two experimental groups used the advance organizer while two control groups did not. Findings indicate that an explicitly concept-directed organizer is effective in providing a framework for…

  20. Possible concepts for an in situ Saturn probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David H.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Reh, Kim R.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cavalie, Thibault; Colaprete, Anthony; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Marty, Bernard; Morse, Andy; Sims, Jon; Spilker, Tom; Spilker, Linda

    2014-05-01

    In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere would bring insights in two broad themes: the formation history of our solar system and the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. The science case for in situ measurements at Saturn are developed in [1] and two companion abstracts (see Mousis et al., and Atkinson et al.). They are summarized here. Measurements of Saturn's bulk chemical and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula and hence on the formation mechanisms. An in situ probe, penetrating from the upper atmosphere (μbar level) into the convective weather layer to a minimum depth of 10 bar, would also contribute to our knowledge of Saturn's atmospheric structure, dynamics, composition, chemistry and cloud-forming processes. Different mission architectures are envisaged, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bars [1]. Future studies will focus on the trade-offs between science return and the added design complexity of a probe that could operate at pressures larger than 10 bars. Accelerometry measurements may also be performed during the entry phase in the higher part of the stratosphere prior to starting measurements under parachute. A carrier system would be required to deliver the probe along its interplanetary trajectory to the desired atmospheric entry point at Saturn. The entry site would be carefully selected. Three possible mission configurations are currently under study (with different risk/cost trades): • Configuration 1: Probe + Carrier. After probe delivery, the carrier would follow its path and be destroyed during atmospheric entry, but could perform pre-entry science. The carrier would not be used as a radio relay, but the probe would transmit its data to the ground system via a direct-to-Earth (DTE) RF link; • Configuration 2: Probe + Carrier/Relay. The probe would detach from the

  1. Automated Mars surface sample return mission concepts for achievement of essential scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Norton, H. N.; Darnell, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mission concepts were investigated for automated return to Earth of a Mars surface sample adequate for detailed analyses in scientific laboratories. The minimum sample mass sufficient to meet scientific requirements was determined. Types of materials and supporting measurements for essential analyses are reported. A baseline trajectory profile was selected for its low energy requirements and relatively simple implementation, and trajectory profile design data were developed for 1979 and 1981 launch opportunities. Efficient spacecraft systems were conceived by utilizing existing technology where possible. Systems concepts emphasized the 1979 launch opportunity, and the applicability of results to other opportunities was assessed. It was shown that the baseline missions (return through Mars parking orbit) and some comparison missions (return after sample transfer in Mars orbit) can be accomplished by using a single Titan III E/Centaur as the launch vehicle. All missions investigated can be accomplished by use of Space Shuttle/Centaur vehicles.

  2. The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission Concept and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The use of iodine propellant for Hall thrusters has been studied and proposed by multiple organizations due to the potential mission benefits over xenon. In 2013, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center competitively selected a project for the maturation of an iodine flight operational feed system through the Technology Investment Program. Multiple partnerships and collaborations have allowed the team to expand the scope to include additional mission concept development and risk reduction to support a flight system demonstration, the iodine Satellite (iSAT). The iSAT project was initiated and is progressing towards a technology demonstration mission preliminary design review. The current status of the mission concept development and risk reduction efforts in support of this project is presented.

  3. Europa Clipper: A Multiple Flyby Mission Concept to Explore Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, G. W.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.; Vance, S. D.

    2012-09-01

    Europa is a potentially habitable world that is likely to be geologically and chemically active today. Many well-defined and focused science questions regarding past and present habitability may be addressed by exploring Europa. The National Research Council's 2011 Planetary Decadal Survey placed Europa science among its highest priorities, but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept, which was prioritized in the Survey, was incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget. Thus, NASA initiated a study to consider more fiscally viable Europa mission scenarios. Among the options considered, a multipleflyby mission concept (now named the "Europa Clipper") was found to have exceptional science merit while also meeting the challenge from NASA and the Decadal Survey for a reduced-scope Europa mission relative to JEO.

  4. Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

  5. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  6. Concept for a large multi-mission amphibian aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. C., III; Earl, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    A very large aircraft has been proposed for meeting both civil cargo and military transport needs for 1995 and beyond. The concept includes a wide noncircular fuselage cross section with a low wing, thick inner wing section, fuselage-mounted engines, and an air cushion landing gear. The civil freighter operates independently of congested passenger airports, using sheltered water as a runway and a waterfront land site for parking and ground operations. The military transport can operate from a wide variety of surfaces and temporary bases. The air cushion landing gear weighs substantially less than conventional gear and permits the use of extended takeoff distance resulting in improved payload/gross weight ratio.

  7. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  8. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Bennett, Gary L.; Frisbee, Robert H.; Sercel, Joel C.; Lapointe, Michael R.

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems.

  9. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, F.M.; Bennett, G.L.; Frisbee, R.H.; Sercel, J.C.; Lapointe, M.R. JPL, Pasadena, CA Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems. 45 refs.

  10. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  11. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  12. Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory (SGO) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey; McNamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a space-based gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return.

  13. Parametric Study of Radiator Concepts for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System Applicable to Deep Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a Stirling converter for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions. This high-efficiency converter is being evaluated as an alternative to replace the much lower efficiency radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The current power requirement (six years after beginning of mission (BOM) for a mission to Jupiter) is 210 W(sub e) (watts electric) to be generated by two separate power systems, one on each side of the spacecraft. Both two-converter and four-converter system designs are being considered, depending on the amount of required redundancy.

  14. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  15. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  16. Plug cluster engine concept for in-space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.; Aukerman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a suitable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) engine is discussed. The OTV's dimensions are limited by those of the Space Shuttle payload bay on which it will be carried. An approach to utilize the available diameter to achieve high area ratio and thus high engine performance, is presented. Unconventional nozzles, such as clusters of small thrusters around a large diameter contoured plug, are investigated to arrive at engine designs which feature lower chamber pressures, with attendant lower heat flux, lower wall temperature, longer fatigue life, and less critical turbomachinery. Attention is also given to plug nozzle technology, high area ratio module- and scarfed bell- Plug Cluster Engine (PCE) concepts, as well as PCE performance, weight, and assessment. A conceptual design of a PCE formed from a cluster of high area ratio, scarfed, bell nozzles proved to be competitive with bell and spike nozzle engines. PCE advantages cited include increased payload length due to shorter engine length, ability to increase or decrease the number of modules and thereby the thrust, and low cost due to utilization of off-the-shelf technology.

  17. Advances in Astromaterials Curation: Supporting Future Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Fries, M. D..; Righter, K.; Allton, J. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Astromaterials, curated at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, are the most extensive, best-documented, and leastcontaminated extraterrestrial samples that are provided to the worldwide research community. These samples include lunar samples from the Apollo missions, meteorites collected over nearly 40 years of expeditions to Antarctica (providing samples of dozens of asteroid bodies, the Moon, and Mars), Genesis solar wind samples, cosmic dust collected by NASA's high altitude airplanes, Comet Wild 2 and interstellar dust samples from the Stardust mission, and asteroid samples from JAXA's Hayabusa mission. A full account of NASA's curation efforts for these collections is provided by Allen, et al [1]. On average, we annually allocate about 1500 individual samples from NASA's astromaterials collections to hundreds of researchers from around the world, including graduate students and post-doctoral scientists; our allocation rate has roughly doubled over the past 10 years. The curation protocols developed for the lunar samples returned from the Apollo missions remain relevant and are adapted to new and future missions. Several lessons from the Apollo missions, including the need for early involvement of curation scientists in mission planning [1], have been applied to all subsequent sample return campaigns. From the 2013 National Academy of Sciences report [2]: "Curation is the critical interface between sample return missions and laboratory research. Proper curation has maintained the scientific integrity and utility of the Apollo, Antarctic meteorite, and cosmic dust collections for decades. Each of these collections continues to yield important new science. In the past decade, new state-of-the-art curatorial facilities for the Genesis and Stardust missions were key to the scientific breakthroughs provided by these missions." The results speak for themselves: research on NASA's astromaterials result in hundreds of papers annually, yield fundamental

  18. Mission and sensor concepts for coastal and ocean monitoring using spacecraft and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A concept developed for a 1990 oceanic mission which places strong emphasis on coastal monitoring needs is described and analysed. The concept assumes that use of one active spacecraft in orbit and one on standby plus airplanes and data collection platforms which provide continuing complementary coverage and surface truth. The coastal measurement requirements and goals, the prospective oceanic and coastal sensors, the spacecraft and aircraft data platforms, and the prospective orbit designs are discussed.

  19. Enhanced Temporal Repeat Coverage at Landsat-like Resolution - a Low-cost, Small-sat Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Masek, J. G.; Brown, M. E.; Jarvis, C.

    2010-12-01

    imagery of sufficient quality and quantity to augment global Landsat coverage. The effort to develop and advance this mission concept has been named LOGICAL, for Land Observations Globally In a Cost-effective Augmentation of Landsat. The approach that is being used to develop the concept will be presented, along with preliminary findings that indicate that such a mission is doable at a cost that is as much as an order of magnitude less expensive than a typical “gold standard” Landsat mission in today’s aerospace environment. If such a mission concept could be realized, it would not only serve to dramatically enhance scientific applications, but it would also reduce the risk of a devastating gap in Landsat-like imaging capability.

  20. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  1. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  2. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch

  3. Preliminary cost and mission value comparisons for planetary probes delivered by advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrach, F. J.; Willis, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    The three advanced propulsion systems analyzed are an advanced chemical system, an improved solid-core nuclear rocket engine with a 25-kilowatt auxiliary powerplant, and a nuclear-electric system. The comparison of these systems is made on the basis of transportation cost divided by the expected value of the data returned to earth. The analysis shows that for the Mercury Orbiter mission and for missions to the outer planets with a high data requirement, the nuclear-electric system emerges as the best system. For the Venus Orbiter mission, the advanced chemical propulsion system is best.

  4. Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.

  5. Space medicine innovation and telehealth concept implementation for medical care during exploration-class missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Annie; Sullivan, Patrick; Beaudry, Catherine; Kuyumjian, Raffi; Comtois, Jean-Marc

    2012-12-01

    Medical care on the International Space Station (ISS) is provided using real-time communication with limited medical data transmission. In the occurrence of an off-nominal medical event, the medical care paradigm employed is 'stabilization and transportation', involving real-time management from ground and immediate return to Earth in the event that the medical contingency could not be resolved in due time in space. In preparation for future missions beyond Low-Earth orbit (LEO), medical concepts of operations are being developed to ensure adequate support for the new mission profiles: increased distance, duration and communication delays, as well as impossibility of emergency returns and limitations in terms of medical equipment availability. The current ISS paradigm of medical care would no longer be adequate due to these new constraints. The Operational Space Medicine group at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is looking towards synergies between terrestrial and space medicine concepts for the delivery of medical care to deal with the new challenges of human space exploration as well as to provide benefits to the Canadian population. Remote and rural communities on Earth are, in fact, facing similar problems such as isolation, remoteness to tertiary care centers, resource scarcity, difficult (and expensive) emergency transfers, limited access to physicians and specialists and limited training of medical and nursing staff. There are a number of researchers and organizations, outside the space communities, working in the area of telehealth. They are designing and implementing terrestrial telehealth programs using real-time and store-and-forward techniques to provide isolated populations access to medical care. The cross-fertilization of space-Earth research could provide support for increased spin-off and spin-in effects and stimulate telehealth and space medicine innovations to engage in the new era of human space exploration. This paper will discuss the benefits

  6. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  7. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  8. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  9. Next Gen NEAR: Near Earth Asteroid Human Robotic Precursor Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Kirby, Karen; Cheng, Andrew F.; Gold, Robert; Kelly, Daniel; Reed, Cheryl; Abell, Paul; Garvin, James; Landis, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Asteroids have long held the attention of the planetary science community. In particular, asteroids that evolve into orbits near that of Earth, called near-Earth objects (NEO), are of high interest as potential targets for exploration due to the relative ease (in terms of delta V) to reach them. NASA's Flexible Path calls for missions and experiments to be conducted as intermediate steps towards the eventual goal of human exploration of Mars; piloted missions to NEOs are such example. A human NEO mission is a valuable exploratory step beyond the Earth-Moon system enhancing capabilities that surpass our current experience, while also developing infrastructure for future mars exploration capabilities. To prepare for a human rendezvous with an NEO, NASA is interested in pursuing a responsible program of robotic NEO precursor missions. Next Gen NEAR is such a mission, building on the NEAR Shoemaker mission experience at the JHU/APL Space Department, to provide an affordable, low risk solution with quick data return. Next Gen NEAR proposes to make measurements needed for human exploration to asteroids: to demonstrate proximity operations, to quantify hazards for human exploration and to characterize an environment at a near-Earth asteroid representative of those that may be future human destinations. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has demonstrated exploration-driven mission feasibility by developing a versatile spacecraft design concept using conventional technologies that satisfies a set of science, exploration and mission objectives defined by a concept development team in the summer of 2010. We will describe the mission concept and spacecraft architecture in detail. Configuration options were compared with the mission goals and objectives in order to select the spacecraft design concept that provides the lowest cost, lowest implementation risk, simplest operation and the most benefit for the mission implementation. The Next Gen NEAR

  10. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) - A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Harmon, B. A.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new lunar-based concept to probe the nuclear astrophysics regime. It will be a pioneering mission in high-energy astrophysics: the first to employ occultation as the principle detection and imaging method.

  11. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions: Technical directive 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1992-01-01

    The current technical effort is part of the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during the previous phases but specifically on launch vehicle size trades and MEV options.

  12. Evolution of a Mars Airplane Concept for the ARES Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.; Guynn, Mark D.; Smith, Stephen C.; Parks, Robert W.; Gelhausen, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    ARES (Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey of Mars) is a proposed Mars Scout mission using an airplane to provide high-value science measurements in the areas of atmospheric chemistry, surface geology and mineralogy, and crustal magnetism. The use of an airplane for robotic exploration of Mars has been studied for over 25 years. There are, however, significant challenges associated with getting an airplane to Mars and flying through the thin, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere. The traditional wisdom for aircraft design does not always apply for this type of vehicle and geometric, aerodynamic, and mission constraints result in a limited feasible design space. The ARES airplane design is the result of a concept exploration and evolution involving a number of trade studies, downselects, and design refinements. Industry, university, and NASA partners initially proposed a number of different concepts, drawing heavily on past Mars airplane design experience. Concept downselects were conducted with qualitative evaluation and high level analyses, focused on the most important parameters for the ARES mission. Following a successful high altitude test flight of the basic configuration, additional design refinement led to the current design. The resulting Mars airplane concept enables the high-value science objectives of the ARES mission to be accomplished while also fulfilling the desire for a simple, low-risk design.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation Synthetic Aperture Radar Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Dubayah, R.; Hager, B. H.; Joughin, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation are planning a synthetic aperture radar (currently named NISAR) mission for launch in 2020. The mission is a dual L- and S-band polarimetric SAR satellite with a 12-day interferometric orbit and 240 km wide ground swath. The 3-year mission will have a circular sun synchronous orbit (6 am and 6 pm) with a 98° inclination and 747 km altitude that will provide systematic global coverage. Its primary science objectives are to: measure solid Earth surface deformation (earthquakes, volcanic unrest, land subsidence/uplift, landslides); track and understand cryosphere dynamics (glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, and permafrost); characterize and track changes in vegetation structure and wetlands for understanding ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle; and support global disaster response. We will describe the current mission concept: the satellite design/capabilities, spacecraft, launch vehicle, and data flow.

  14. Advances in Robotic, Human, and Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.; Glass, Brian J.; Pedersen, Liam; Kortenkamp, David M.; Wettergreen, David S.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Clancy, Daniel J.; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration missions are evolving toward more complex architectures involving more capable robotic systems, new levels of human and robotic interaction, and increasingly autonomous systems. How this evolving mix of advanced capabilities will be utilized in the design of new missions is a subject of much current interest. Cost and risk constraints also play a key role in the development of new missions, resulting in a complex interplay of a broad range of factors in the mission development and planning of new missions. This paper will discuss how human, robotic, and autonomous systems could be used in advanced space exploration missions. In particular, a recently completed survey of the state of the art and the potential future of robotic systems, as well as new experiments utilizing human and robotic approaches will be described. Finally, there will be a discussion of how best to utilize these various approaches for meeting space exploration goals.

  15. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  16. Mission analysis and guidance, navigation, and control design for rendezvous and docking phase of advanced reentry vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strippoli, L.; Colmenarejo, P.; Strauch, H.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced Reentry Vehicle (ARV) belongs to the family of vehicles designed to perform rendezvous and docking (RvD) with the International space station (ISS) [1]. Differently from its predecessor ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle), the ARV will transport a reentry capsule, equipped with a heatshield and able to bring back cargo, experiments, or, as a possible future development, even crew, being this latter scenario very attracting in view of the Space Shuttle retirement. GMV, as subcontractor of EADS-Astrium Germany, is in charge of the RvD and departure mission analysis and GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) design of ARV mission. This paper will present the main outcomes of the study.

  17. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  18. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  19. Probe-Scale Mission Concepts for Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Nearby Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Seager, Sara; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Warfield, Keith; Dekens, Frank G.; Blackwood, Gary; Exo-S Science; Technology Definition Team, Exo-C Science; Technology Definition Team, JPL Probe Study Design Teams

    2015-01-01

    Two mission concepts are now under study for detecting visible light from exoplanets orbiting nearby stars through high-contrast imaging and for characterizing them through spectroscopy. Exo-S uses a starshade (external occulter) that flies in front of a telescope to block out the central starlight; Exo-C uses a coronagraph with an internal occulter to accomplish the suppression of starlight. Both concepts have the objective of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, searching for previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in circumstellar debris disks.The concepts are being developed by two NASA-selected community-led Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs), supported by study design teams from NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program. In addition to developing concepts with an estimated cost ~1B, the Teams are identifying key enabling technologies needed for their designs. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development or active study (TESS, JWST, WFIRST-AFTA).Final Reports from the two studies will be published in early 2015. This poster serves as an introduction to a series of posters featuring the two studies. At the conclusion of the studies in early 2015, NASA will evaluate them for further technology development and possible development as flight missions. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Limitations on Recently Suggested Atom Interferometry Mission Concepts for Gravitational Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2012-03-01

    In late 2011, suggestions were made of two new atom interferometry mission concepts for gravitational wave studies. [A presentation by B. N. Saif on these concepts is available on the NASA Physics of the Cosmos website under ``Workshop on Gravitational Wave Mission Architectural Concepts'' (Dec. 20-21, 2011)]. The concepts were for measurements between atom clouds separated by distances of L=500 m or L=500 km. At GW frequencies of 0.1 to 10 Hz, sinusoidal variations in the separations dX between two parts of the atom wavefunctions would be induced by motion of the nulls in the optical potential, using the Bloch oscillation approach. But some apparent limitations of this approach are as follows: the S/N required for achieving the strain sensitivities shown appears to be much higher than the value given in the example in the presentation; the large sinusoidal variations required in the control laser frequency make it difficult to use high finesse cavity mode-cleaners to reduce the effects of laser wavefront aberration fluctuations; very small fluctuations in the temperature or size of the atom clouds would cause serious additional noise, particularly for the L=500 m case; and for the L=500 mission concept, the 10-20 W suggested laser power does not seem to permit keeping the spontaneous emission rate low. However, the main issue is that the required atom interferometry systems appear to be far more complex than the gravitational reference sensors that they would replace.

  1. NASA Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate Mission and Trade Study Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell; Guynn, Mark; Hahn, Andrew; Lepsch, Roger; Mazanek, Dan; Dollyhigh, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Mission analysis, as practiced by the NASA Langley Research Center's Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD), consists of activities used to define, assess, and evaluate a wide spectrum of aerospace systems for given requirements. The missions for these systems encompass a broad range from aviation to space exploration. The customer, who is usually another NASA organization or another government agency, often predefines the mission. Once a mission is defined, the goals and objectives that the system will need to meet are delineated and quantified. A number of alternative systems are then typically developed and assessed relative to these goals and objectives. This is done in order to determine the most favorable design approaches for further refinement. Trade studies are performed in order to understand the impact of a requirement on each system and to select among competing design options. Items varied in trade studies typically include: design variables or design constraints; technology and subsystem options; and operational approaches. The results of trade studies are often used to refine the mission and system requirements. SACD studies have been integral to the decision processes of many organizations for decades. Many recent examples of SACD mission and trade study analyses illustrate their excellence and influence. The SACD-led, Agency-wide effort to analyze a broad range of future human lunar exploration scenarios for NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Mars airplane design study in support of the Aerial Regional-scale Environment Survey of Mars (ARES) mission are two such examples. This paper describes SACD's mission and trade study analysis activities in general and presents the lunar exploration and Mars airplane studies as examples of type of work performed by the SACD.

  2. Advanced Power and Propulsion: Insuring Human Survival and Productivity in Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Chang-Diaz gave an intriguing presentation of his research in advanced rocket propulsion and its relevance for planning and executing crewed deep space explorations. Though not necessarily exclusively Martian, his thrust looks critically at future Mars missions. Initially Dr. Chang-Diaz showed the time constraints of Mars missions due to orbital mechanics and our present chemically powered rocket technology. Since essentially all the energy required to place current generation spacecraft into a Martian trajectory must be expended in the early minutes of a flight, most of such a mission is spent in free-fall drift, captive to the gravitational forces among Earth, the Sun, and Mars. The simple physics of such chemically powered missions requires nearly a year in transit for each direction of a Mars mission. And the optimal orientations of Earth and Mars for rendezvous require further time on or around Mars to await return. These extensions of mission duration place any crew under a three-fold jeopardy: (1) physiological deconditioning (which in some aspects is still unknown and unpreventable), (2) psychological stress, and (3) ionizing radiation. This latter risk is due to exposure of crew members for extended time to the highly unpredictable and potentially lethal radiations of open space. Any gains in shortening mission duration would reap equivalent or greater benefits for these crew concerns. Dr. Chang-Diaz has applied his training and expertise (Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in applied plasma physics) toward development of continuous rocket propulsion which would offer great time advantages in travel, and also more launch options than are now available. He clearly explained the enormous gains from a relatively low thrust accelerative force applied essentially continuously versus the high, but short-lived propulsion of present chemical rockets. In fact, such spacecraft could be powered throughout the mission, accelerating to approximately

  3. Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Rose

    This textbook, intended for registered nurses (RN's) returning to school, is designed to provide practicing RN's with professional concepts to advance their careers. The book contains 22 chapters organized in five sections. Each chapter includes chapter objectives, key terms, key points, chapter exercises, references, and a bibliography. Section I…

  4. Enabling Future Low-Cost Small Spacecraft Mission Concepts Using Small Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young H.; Bairstow, Brian; Amini, Rashied; Zakrajsek, June; Oleson, Steven R.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    For more than five decades, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) have played a critical role in the exploration of space, enabling missions of scientific discovery to destinations across the solar system by providing electrical power to explore remote and challenging environments - some of the hardest to reach, darkest, and coldest locations in the solar system. In particular, RPS has met the demand of many long-duration mission concepts for continuous power to conduct science investigations independent of change in sunlight or variations in surface conditions like shadows, thick clouds, or dust.

  5. Noise and economic characteristics of an advanced blended supersonic transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, J. K.; Grantham, W. D.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Noise and economic characteristics were obtained for an advanced supersonic transport concept that utilized wing body blending, a double bypass variable cycle engine, superplastically formed and diffusion bonded titanium in both the primary and secondary structures, and an alternative interior arrangement that provides increased seating capacity. The configuration has a cruise Mach number of 2.62, provisions for 290 passengers, a mission range of 8.19 Mm (4423 n.mi.), and an average operating cruise lift drag ratio of 9.23. Advanced operating procedures, which have the potential to reduce airport community noise, were explored by using a simulator. Traded jet noise levels of 105.7 and 103.4 EPNdB were obtained by using standard and advanced takeoff operational procedures, respectively. A new method for predicting lateral attenuation was utilized in obtaining these jet noise levels.

  6. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P. L.; Petrin, R. R.; Jolin, J. L.; Foy, B. R.; Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  7. A preliminary analysis of advanced life support systems for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Nishioka, Kenji

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the key parameters of the manned mission to Mars and presents some top-level requirements, issues, and constraints associated with a manned Mars mission that impact the life support system (LSS). Results are presented of a preliminary analysis for advanced LSSs based on physical/chemical reclamation processes, using as a baseline for the analysis the mission profile of a Split-Sprint class mission for an arrival date at Mars in the year 2009. Special attention is given to the potential cost savings as measured by reducing Mars spacecraft mass in LEO.

  8. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of

  9. Self Assembling Mars Transfer Vehicles: The Preferred Concept of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Explorations Missions Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    Recently, one of the most comprehensive design studies of conceptual manned Mars vehicles, conducted since the Apollo era Mars mission studies of the 1960's, was completed. One of the tasks of the study involved the analysis of nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft for Manned Mars exploration missions. This paper describes the specific effort aimed at vehicle configuration design. Over the course of the four year study, three configuration baselines were developed, each reflecting trade study cycle results of sequential phases of the study. Favorable attributes incorporated into the final concept, including a capability for on-orbit self-assembly and ease of launch vehicle packability, represent design solutions to configuration deficiencies plaguing nuclear propulsion Mars spacecraft design since the vehicle archetype originated in the 1950's. This paper contains a narrative summary of significant milestones in the effort, describes the evolution to the preferred configuration, and set forth the benefits derived from its utilization.

  10. Advanced Silicon Detectors for High Energy Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, George

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of silicon detectors for high energy astrophysics missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Background: Motivation for Event-Driven CCD; 2) Report of Grant Activity; 3) Packaged EDCCD; 4) Measured X-ray Energy Resolution of the Gen1 EDCCDs Operated in "Conventional Mode"; and 5) EDCCD Gen 1.5-Lot 1 Planning.

  11. Technology tradeoffs related to advanced mission waste processing.

    PubMed

    Slavin, T J; Oleson, M W

    1991-10-01

    Manned missions to the Moon and Mars will produce waste, both in liquid and solid form, from the day-to-day life-support functions of the mission--even considering a "closed" physico-chemical life support approach. An "open" life support system configuration, even one reliant on in situ resources, would result in even more waste being produced. The solution for short term missions appears to be either to store these wastes on-site or to convert them to useful products needed by other systems such as methane, water and gases which could be used for propulsion. The solution for longer term missions appears to be to incorporate their use within the life support system itself by making them a part of a closed ecological life-support system where nearly all materials are recycled. This paper discusses briefly the extent and impact of the life-support system waste production problem for a lunar base for different life support system configurations, including the impact of using in situ resources to meet life support requirements. It then discusses in more detail trade-offs among six of the currently funded physico-chemical waste processing technologies being considered for use in space.

  12. Advanced hybrid nuclear propulsion Mars mission performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Noffsinger, K.E.; Segna, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  13. Technology assessment of advanced automation for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Six general classes of technology requirements derived during the mission definition phase of the study were identified as having maximum importance and urgency, including autonomous world model based information systems, learning and hypothesis formation, natural language and other man-machine communication, space manufacturing, teleoperators and robot systems, and computer science and technology.

  14. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  15. Mission analysis and performance comparison for an Advanced Solar Photon Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Wurm, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    The so-called "compound solar sail", also known as "Solar Photon Thruster" (SPT), is a design concept, for which the two basic functions of the solar sail, namely light collection and thrust direction, are uncoupled. In this paper, we introduce a novel SPT concept, termed the Advanced Solar Photon Thruster (ASPT), which does not suffer from the simplified assumptions that have been made for the analysis of compound solar sails in previous studies. After having presented the equations that describe the force on the ASPT and after having performed a detailed design analysis, the performance of the ASPT with respect to the conventional flat solar sail (FSS) is investigated for three interplanetary mission scenarios: an Earth-Venus rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral towards the Sun, an Earth-Mars rendezvous, where the solar sail has to spiral away from the Sun, and an Earth-NEA rendezvous (to near-Earth asteroid 1996FG3), where a large change in orbital eccentricity is required. The investigated solar sails have realistic near-term characteristic accelerations between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/s 2. Our results show that an SPT is not superior to the flat solar sail unless very idealistic assumptions are made.

  16. MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

  17. Advanced Stirling Duplex Materials Assessment for Potential Venus Mission Heater Head Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritzert, Frank; Nathal, Michael V.; Salem, Jonathan; Jacobson, Nathan; Nesbitt, James

    2011-01-01

    This report will address materials selection for components in a proposed Venus lander system. The lander would use active refrigeration to allow Space Science instrumentation to survive the extreme environment that exists on the surface of Venus. The refrigeration system would be powered by a Stirling engine-based system and is termed the Advanced Stirling Duplex (ASD) concept. Stirling engine power conversion in its simplest definition converts heat from radioactive decay into electricity. Detailed design decisions will require iterations between component geometries, materials selection, system output, and tolerable risk. This study reviews potential component requirements against known materials performance. A lower risk, evolutionary advance in heater head materials could be offered by nickel-base superalloy single crystals, with expected capability of approximately 1100C. However, the high temperature requirements of the Venus mission may force the selection of ceramics or refractory metals, which are more developmental in nature and may not have a well-developed database or a mature supporting technology base such as fabrication and joining methods.

  18. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  19. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  20. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies from Concept to Mission Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies. Subsystem technologies for robotic and human missions?

  1. System concepts and enabling technologies for an ESA low-cost mission to Jupiter / Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Koeck, C.; Kemble, Steve; Atzei, Alessandro; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The European Space Agency is currently studying the Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME), as part of its Technology Reference Studies (TRS), used for its development plan of technologies enabling future scientific missions. The JME focuses on the exploration of the Jovian system and particularly of Europa. The Jupiter Minisat Orbiter (JMO) study concerns the first mission phase of JME that counts up to three missions using pairs of minisats. The scientific objectives are the investigation of Europa's global topography, the composition of its (sub)surface and the demonstration of existence of a subsurface ocean below its icy crust. The present paper describes the candidate JMO system concept, based on a Europa Orbiter (JEO) supported by a communications relay satellite (JRS), and its associated technology development plan. It summarizes an analysis performed in 2004 jointly by ESA and the EADS-Astrium Company in the frame of an industrial technical assistance to ESA.

  2. Core to Atmosphere Exploration of Ice Giants: A Uranus Mission Concept Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensema, R. J.; Arias-Young, T. M.; Wilkins, A. N.; Ermakov, A.; Bennett, C.; Dietrich, A.; Hemingway, D.; Klein, V.; Mane, P.; Marr, K. D.; Masterson, J.; Siegel, V.; Stober, K. J.; Talpe, M.; Vines, S. K.; Wetteland, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ice giants remain largely unexplored, as their large distance from the Sun limits both Earth-based observations and spacecraft visits. The significant occurrence of ice giant-sized planets among detected exoplanets presents an impetus to study Uranus to understand planetary formation, dynamics, and evolution. In addition, Uranus is also uniquely interesting, given the large inclination of its rotation axis and magnetospheric configuration. In this work, we design a mission concept that aims to maximize scientific return by measuring Uranus' chemical composition, internal structure, and magnetosphere, the first two being primary indicators of ice giant formation mechanisms. For this study, we analyze the trade space for a Uranus mission constrained by a cost cap of $1B. We discuss the decision making processes behind our choices of the science priorities, instrument suite and orbital configuration. Trade space decisions include a strong onboard instrument suite in lieu of a descent probe, an orbiter instead of a flyby mission, and design constraints on the power and propulsion systems. The mission, CAELUS (Core and Atmospheric Evolution Laboratory for Uranus Science), is designed for an August 2023 launch. Following a 14-year cruise with multiple planetary gravity assists, the spacecraft would begin its science mission, which consists of a series of ten 30-day near-polar orbits around Uranus. The instrument suite would consist of a microwave radiometer, Doppler seismometer, magnetometer, and UV spectrometer. These four instruments, along with a high-gain antenna capable of gravity science, would provide a comprehensive science return that meets the bulk of the scientific objectives of the 2013 NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey for ice giants, most notably those regarding the chemical composition, interior structure, and dynamo of Uranus. This mission concept was created as part of an educational exercise for the 2014 Planetary Science Summer School at the Jet

  3. Use of magnetic sails for advanced exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Dana G.; Zubrin, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic sail, or magsail, is a field effect device which interacts with the ambient solar wind or interstellar medium over a considerable volume of space to generate drag and lift forces. Two theories describing the method of thrust generation are analyzed and data results are presented. The techniques for maintaining superconductor temperatures in interplanetary space are analyzed and low risk options presented. Comparisons are presented showing mission performance differences between currently proposed spacecraft using chemical and electric propulsion systems, and a Magsail propelled spacecraft capable of generating an average thrust of 250 Newtons at a radius of one A.U. The magsail also provides unique capabilities for interstellar missions, in that at relativistic speeds the magnetic field would ionize and deflect the interstellar medium producing a large drag force. This would make it an ideal brake for decelerating a spacecraft from relativistic speeds and then maneuvering within the target star system.

  4. STS-41 mission charts, computer-generated and artist concept drawings, photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 related charts, computer-generated and artist concept drawings, and photos of the Ulysses spacecraft and mission flight path provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). Charts show the Ulysses mission flight path and encounter with Jupiter (45980, 45981) and sun (illustrating cosmic dust, gamma ray burst, magnetic field, x-rays, solar energetic particles, visible corona, interstellar gas, plasma wave, cosmic rays, solar radio noise, and solar wind) (45988). Computer-generated view shows the Ulysses spacecraft (45983). Artist concept illustrates Ulysses spacecraft deploy from the space shuttle payload bay (PLB) with the inertial upper stage (IUS) and payload assist module (PAM-S) visible (45984). Ulysses spacecraft is also shown undergoing preflight testing in the manufacturing facility (45985, 45986, 45987).

  5. Cosmic Evolution Through UV Spectroscopy (CETUS): A NASA Probe-Class Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Sara R.; CETUS Team

    2017-01-01

    CETUS is a probe-class mission concept proposed for study to NASA in November 2016. Its overarching objective is to provide access to the ultraviolet (~100-400 nm) after Hubble has died. CETUS will be a major player in the emerging global network of powerful, new telescopes such as E-ROSITA, DESI, Subaru/PFS, GMT, LSST, WFIRST, JWST, and SKA. The CETUS mission concept provisionally features a 1.5-m telescope with a suite of instruments including a near-UV multi-object spectrograph (200-400 nm) complementing Subaru/PFS observations, wide-field far-UV and near-UV cameras, and far-UV and near-UV spectrographs that can be operated in either high-resolution or low-resolution mode. We have derived the scope and specific science requirements for CETUS for understanding the evolutionary history of galaxies, stars, and dust, but other applications are possible.

  6. Advances in Radiation-Tolerant Solar Arrays for SEP Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    As the power levels of commercial communications satellites reach the 20 kWe and higher, new options begin to emerge for transferring the satellite from LEO to GEO. In the past electric propulsion has been demonstrated successfully for this mission - albeit under unfortunate circumstances when the kick motor failed. The unexpected use of propellant for the electric propulsion (EP) system compromised the life of that vehicle, but did demonstrate the viability of such an approach. Replacing the kick motor on a satellite and replacing that mass by additional propellant for the EP system as well as mass for additional revenue-producing transponders should lead to major benefits for the provider. Of course this approach requires that the loss in solar array power during transit of the Van Allen radiation belts is not excessive and still enables the 15 to 20 year mission life. In addition, SEP missions to Jupiter, with its exceptional radiation belts, would mandate a radiation-resistant solar array to compete with a radioisotope alternative. Several critical issues emerge as potential barriers to this approach: reducing solar array radiation damage, operating the array at high voltage (>300 V) for extended times for Hall or ion thrusters, designing an array that will be resistant to micrometeoroid impacts and the differing environmental conditions as the vehicle travels from LEO to GEO (or at Jupiter), producing an array that is light weight to preserve payload mass fraction - and to do this at a cost that is lower than today's arrays. This paper will describe progress made to date on achieving an array that meets all these requirements and is also useful for deep space electric propulsion missions.

  7. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  8. The CYGNSS ground segment; innovative mission operations concepts to support a micro-satellite constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D.; Vincent, M.; Rose, R.; Ruf, C.

    Hurricane track forecasts have improved in accuracy by ~50% since 1990, while in that same period there has been essentially no improvement in the accuracy of intensity prediction. One of the main problems in addressing intensity occurs because the rapidly evolving stages of the tropical cyclone (TC) life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. NASA's most recently awarded Earth science mission, the NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) has been designed to address this deficiency by using a constellation of micro-satellite-class Observatories designed to provide improved sampling of the TC during its life cycle. Managing a constellation of Observatories has classically resulted in an increased load on the ground operations team as they work to create and maintain schedules and command loads for multiple Observatories. Using modern tools and technologies at the Mission Operations Center (MOC) in conjunction with key components implemented in the flight system and an innovative strategy for pass execution coordinated with the ground network operator, the CYGNSS mission reduces the burden of constellation operations to a level commensurate with the low-cost mission concept. This paper focuses on the concept of operations for the CYGNSS constellation as planned for implementation at the CYGNSS MOC in conjunction with the selected ground network operator.

  9. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  10. Manned orbital systems concept study. Book 4: Programmatics for extended-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cost estimates, schedule data, and funding distributions generated in the Manned Orbital Systems Concepts (MOSC) study are presented. The overall objectives were to examine the requirements for, and to describe, a cost-effective concept for an orbital facility capable of supporting manned operations in earth orbit beyond the 7-to-30-day mission duration provided by the Shuttle/Spacelab system. The cost, schedule, and other programmatic data were developed to provide information useful for their long-range planning activities. The major portion of the data documented and discussed consists of project- and system-level schedule and funding information and also project-, system-, and subsystem-level cost summaries.

  11. A Mission Concept to Study Multigenerational Mammalian Reproduction in Partial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Simon, Matthew A.; Chai, Patrick R.; Neilan, James H.; Stillwagen, Fred H.; Williams, Phillip A.; Lewis, Weston

    2016-01-01

    A team at NASA Langley Research Center conducted a study during which a conceptual space mission was designed. In this study, rodents are used as human analogs to gather biological and systems data in a relevant environment applicable to future settlements on Mars. The mission concept uniquely addresses the combined effects of long-durations (one-year or greater), autonomous and robotic operations, and biological responses to partial gravity with an emphasis on reproduction. The objectives of this study were to 1) understand challenges associated with designing an artificial gravity habitat that supports the reproduction and maturation of a large animal colony, 2) identify mission architectures and operational concepts to transport and maintain such a facility, and 3) identify fundamental science considerations for mammalian reproduction studies to inform vehicle design. A model demonstration unit was developed to visualize and test certain design concepts that resulted from these considerations. Three versions of this demonstration unit were built over the course of the study, each taking into account lessons learned from the previous version. This paper presents the updated baseline mission and spacecraft design concepts to achieve these objectives, with a specific emphasis on updates since publication in previous works. Analyses of the integrated system trades among the elements which make up the conceptual vehicle are described to address overall feasibility and identify potential integrated design opportunities. The latest iteration of the habitat robotics design and a conceptual design example for autonomous care of crew and systems are also presented. Finally, the conclusion of this conceptual design study, necessary future analyses to enable such a facility, and comments upon other applications of a similar exploration-focused research facilities are addressed.

  12. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  13. System Concepts for the Advanced Post-TRMM Rainfall Profiling Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Global rainfall is the primary distributor of latent heat through atmospheric circulation. The recently launched Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite is dedicated to advance our understanding of tropical precipitation patterns and their implications on global climate and its change. The Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the satellite is the first radar ever flown in space and has provided. exciting, new data on the 3-D rain structures for a variety of scientific uses. However, due to the limited mission lifetime and the dynamical nature of precipitation, the TRMM PR data acquired cannot address all the issues associated with precipitation, its related processes, and the long-term climate variability. In fact, a number of new post-TRMM mission concepts have emerged in response to the recent NASA's request for new ideas on Earth science missions at the post 2002 era. This paper will discuss the system concepts for two advanced, spaceborne rainfall profiling radars. In the first portion of this paper, we will present a system concept for a second-generation spaceborne precipitation radar for operations at the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The key PR-2 electronics system will possess the following capabilities: (1) A 13.6/35 GHz dual frequency radar electronics that has Doppler and dual-polarization capabilities. (2) A large but light weight, dual-frequency, wide-swath scanning, deployable antenna. (3) Digital chirp generation and the corresponding on-board pulse compression scheme. This will allow a significant improvement on rain signal detection without using the traditional, high-peak-power transmitters and without sacrificing the range resolution. (4) Radar electronics and algorithm to adaptively scan the antenna so that more time can be spent to observe rain rather than clear air. and (5) Built-in flexibility on the radar parameters and timing control such that the same radar can be used by different future rain missions. This will help to reduce the overall

  14. Avionics technology - system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Huntoon, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Avionics System Concepts to meet technology needs of advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are identified. Specific avionics system concepts which should be conducted and/or support by NASA to most effectively aid industry in advanced helicopter integrated cockpit design are also identified. Candidate Missions and Mission Requirements to meet technology needs are considered.

  15. Laser- and Radar-based Mission Concepts for Suborbital and Spaceborne Monitoring of Seismic Surface Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Schultz, C A; Tralli, D M

    2004-09-21

    The development of a suborbital or spaceborne system to monitor seismic waves poses an intriguing prospect for advancing the state of seismology. This capability would enable an unprecedented global mapping of the velocity structure of the earth's crust, understanding of earthquake rupture dynamics and wave propagation effects, and event source location, characterization and discrimination that are critical for both fundamental earthquake research and nuclear non-proliferation applications. As part of an ongoing collaboration between LLNL and JPL, an advanced mission concept study assessed architectural considerations and operational and data delivery requirements, extending two prior studies by each organization--a radar-based satellite system (JPL) for earthquake hazard assessment and a feasibility study of space- or UAV-based laser seismometer systems (LLNL) for seismic event monitoring. Seismic wave measurement requirements include lower bounds on detectability of specific seismic sources of interest and wave amplitude accuracy for different levels of analysis, such as source characterization, discrimination and tomography, with a 100 {micro}m wave amplitude resolution for waves nominally traveling 5 km/s, an upper frequency bound based on explosion and earthquake surface displacement spectra, and minimum horizontal resolution (1-5 km) and areal coverage, in general and for targeted observations. For a radar system, corresponding engineering and operational factors include: Radar frequency (dictated by required wave amplitude measurement accuracy and maximizing ranging, Doppler or interferometric sensitivity), time sampling (maximum seismic wave frequency and velocity), and overall system considerations such as mass, power and data rate. Technical challenges include characterization of, and compensation for, phase distortion resulting from atmospheric and ionospheric perturbations and turbulence, and effects of ground scattering characteristics and seismic

  16. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approx. 7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approx. 1.5 year mission lifetime.

  17. Update on the Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, T.; Chung, Seung; Cole, B.; Cooke, B.; Dekens, F.; Delp, C.; Gontijo, I.; Wagner, D.

    In May 2012 the Europa study team delivered to NASA the final reports on three distinct concepts for exploring Europa on a limited budget. The depth and quality of these reports have been widely praised by independent reviewers as well as by our sponsor. The application of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) techniques is credited with enabling the team to study three quite different mission concepts for the resources normally sufficient to study only one or two. The Europa MBSE infusion itself has been awarded the NASA Systems Engineering Excellence Award in 2012. The Europa team is now preparing for its Mission Concept Review and has reaffirmed and strengthened the MBSE application. Significant new capabilities have been completed, most importantly the Powered Equipment List (PEL) and the computation of scenario-based power and energy margins. This paper provides an update on the continued successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant new results produced and several additional lessons learned in the process.

  18. FIR/THz Space Interferometry: Science Opportunities, Mission Concepts, and Technical Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2007-01-01

    Sensitive far-IR imaging and spectroscopic measurements of astronomical objects on sub-arcsecond angular scales are essential to our understanding of star and planet formation, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and to the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets. Cold single-aperture telescopes in space, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory, are very sensitive, but they lack the necessary angular resolution by two or more orders of magnitude. Far-IR space interferometers will address this need in the coming decades. Several mission concepts have already been studied, including in the US the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and the more ambitious Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS). This talk will describe science goals and summarize alternative concepts for future FIR/THz space interferometry missions. Small arrays of sensitive, fast, direct detectors are a key enabling technology for SPIRIT and SPECS. I will describe the technology requirements for far-IR interferometry, including the detector requirements, and their derivation from the mission science goals and instrument concepts.

  19. NASA advanced turboprop research and concept validation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, John B., Jr.; Sievers, G. Keith

    1988-01-01

    NASA has determined by experimental and analytical effort that use of advanced turboprop propulsion instead of the conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. In cooperation with industry, NASA has defined and implemented an Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program to develop and validate the technology required for these new high-speed, multibladed, thin, swept propeller concepts. This paper presents an overview of the analysis, model-scale test, and large-scale flight test elements of the program together with preliminary test results, as available.

  20. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  1. An Exploration of Integrated Ground Weapons Concepts for Armor/Anti- Armor Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Brendley, Dan Norton, John Bondanella, Richard Salter, Teriell G. Covington Approved for public releass;r Distribution Unlmited 91-03377 N I - .l f l RAND...Missions Randall Steeb, Keith Brendley, Dan Norton, John Bondanella, Rinhard Salter, Terrell G. Covington Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research...side-by-side in a single container. Cannister rounds offer several positive attributes. (1) They are easier to handle in the logis - tics train, allowing

  2. Space Power Architectures for NASA Missions: The Applicability and Benefits of Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2001-01-01

    The relative importance of electrical power systems as compared with other spacecraft bus systems is examined. The quantified benefits of advanced space power architectures for NASA Earth Science, Space Science, and Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions is then presented. Advanced space power technologies highlighted include high specific power solar arrays, regenerative fuel cells, Stirling radioisotope power sources, flywheel energy storage and attitude control, lithium ion polymer energy storage and advanced power management and distribution.

  3. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  4. Concept study for a low cost near-term Mars surface sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, C.; Kemble, S.; Parkinson, R.; Smith, M.; Thatcher, J.; Reedman, T.; Sallaberger, C.; Pillinger, C.; Sims, M.

    Man has always had a fascination with the red planet and the quest to reveal its secrets. Although in the past this ques t has been confined to observation from afar and in-situ analysis by dated technology, the chance now exists to extract far more from the Martian surface than ever before - by bringing it home. The idea of a Mars Sample Return mission is not a new phenomenon and plans have been in existence for the last 30 years. The trouble is that these have always been restricted on the grounds of technology, politics and, more predominantly, cost. Many such missions have been estimated at well over 1billion, with huge development times and multiple launches for various mission stages. Plans for direct return missions from the Martian surface had the drawbacks of (a) being too expensive in terms of the launch costs required to lift the propellant needed for return and (b) being too slow if an in-situ resource propellant production technique was used. The alternative solution was to return via a rendezvous in Mars orbit, thus reducing the mass to be transported to and from the Martian surface. The most popular of the orbital rendezvous options involved the launch of a combined Mars Ascent Vehicle/Mars Rover mission to gather samples in readiness for a subsequent return to Earth via a second mission that would deliver an Earth Return Vehicle into Mars orbit with which to transport the samples back. This method had the disadvantages of incurring large costs from the prolonged stay at Mars and high launch costs due to the necessity of two separate launches. The concept of this study is to utilise the orbital rendezvous method but incorporate each of the elements into a single mission (i.e. one launch) using mature and affordable lander technology to return a small regolith core sample. This not only reduces launch and development costs, making the mission more `affordable', but also lowers the risk of mission failure compared to the two-launch method. An

  5. Advanced Planetary Protection Technologies for the Proposed Future Mission Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spry, J. Andy; Conley, Catharine A

    2013-01-01

    Planetary protection is the discipline of protecting solar system objects from harmful contamination resulting from the activities of interplanetary spacecraft, and of similarly protecting the Earth from uncontrolled release of a putative extra-terrestrial organism from returned extra-terrestrial samples. Planetary protection requirements for Mars are becoming further refined as more is understood about the nature of the Martian environment as a potential habitat. Likewise, increased understanding of the limits of life on Earth is informing planetary protection policy. This presentation will discuss recent technology developments, ongoing work and future challenges of implementing planetary protection for the proposed future mission set.

  6. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): Results of the Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are two large-scale structures that originate from the Sun and affect the heliosphere in general and Earth in particular. While CIRs are generally detected by in-situ plasma signatures, CMEs are remote-sensed when they are still close to the Sun. The current understanding of CMEs primarily come from the SOHO and STEREO missions. In spite of the enormous progress made, there are some serious deficiencies in these missions. For example, these missions did not carry all the necessary instruments (STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer). From the Sun-Earth line, SOHO was not well-suited for observing Earth-directed CMEs because of the occulting disk. STEREO's angle with the Sun-Earth line is changing constantly, so only a limited number of Earth-directed CMEs were observed in profile. In order to overcome these difficulties, we proposed a news L5 mission concept known as the Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO). The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The aim of the MDL study was to see how the scientific payload consisting of ten instruments can be accommodated in the spacecraft bus, what propulsion system can transfer the payload to the Sun-Earth L5, and what launch vehicles are appropriate. The study found that all the ten instruments can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle such as Taurus II with enhanced faring. The study also found that a hybrid propulsion system consisting of an ion thruster (using approximately 55 kg of Xenon) and hydrazine (approximately 10 kg) is adequate to place the payload at L5. The transfer will take about 2 years and the science mission will last for 4 years around the next solar maximum in 2025. The mission can be readily extended for another solar cycle to get a solar-cycle worth of data on Earth

  7. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  8. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  9. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  10. New Mission Concept Study: Energetic X-Ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This Report summarizes the activity carried out under the New Mission Concept (NMC) study for a mission to conduct a sensitive all-sky imaging survey in the hard x-ray (HX) band (approximately 10-600 keV). The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission was originally proposed for this NMC study and was then subsequently proposed for a MIDEX mission as part of this study effort. Development of the EXIST (and related) concepts continues for a future flight proposal. The hard x-ray band (approximately 10-600 keV) is nearly the final band of the astronomical spectrum still without a sensitive imaging all-sky survey. This is despite the enormous potential of this band to address a wide range of fundamental and timely objectives - from the origin and physical mechanisms of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the processes on strongly magnetic neutron stars that produce soft gamma-repeaters and bursting pulsars; from the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars to the origin and evolution of the hard x-ray diffuse background; from the nature and number of black holes and neutron stars and the accretion processes onto them to the extreme non-thermal flares of normal stars; and from searches for expected diffuse (but relatively compact) nuclear line (Ti-44) emission in uncatalogued supernova remnants to diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton emission from galaxy clusters. A high sensitivity all-sky survey mission in the hard x-ray band, with imaging to both address source confusion and time-variable background radiations, is very much needed.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  12. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  13. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  14. The FLECS expandable module concept for future space missions and an overall description on the material validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileti, Sandro; Guarrera, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Mario; Ferrari, Giorgio; Nebiolo, Marco; Augello, Gerlando; Bitetti, Grazia; Carnà, Emiliano; Marranzini, Andrea; Mazza, Fabio

    2006-07-01

    The future space exploration missions aim to reduce the costs associated with design, fabrication and launch for ISS, Moon and Mars modules, while simultaneously increasing the useful volume. Flexible and inflatable structures offer many advantages over conventional structures for space applications. Principal among the advantages is the ability to package these structures into small volumes for launch. Design maturation and the development of advanced materials and fabrication processes have made the concept of an inflatable module achievable in the near future. The Multipurpose Expandable Module (FLECS) Project sponsored by ASI (Italian Space Agency) whose prime contractor is Alcatel Alenia Space Italia, links the conventional and traditional technology of modules with the innovative solutions of inflatable technology. This project emphasizes on demonstrating the capability in using inflatable technology on space structures aiming to substitute the conventional modules in future manned missions. FLECS has been designed using advanced textiles and films in order to guarantee the structural reliability necessary for the deployment and packaging configurations. A non-linear structural analysis has been conducted using several numerical codes that simulate the deployed structural characteristics achieving also the damping resistance during the packaging. All the materials used for the flexible parts have been selected through a series of mechanical tests in order to validate the more appropriate ones for the mission. The multi-layer pneumatic retention bladder and the intermediate restraint layer are composed of polymer sheets, ortho-fabrics and elastomers like polyurethanes. The External protection shield is configured using several layers of impact absorption materials and also several layers of space environment (UV, IR, atomic oxygen) protection materials such as Kapton, Mylar and Nextel. The validation of the fabrics, the films and the final prototype assembly

  15. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, Pre-Launch Activities, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Tom; Csatho, Beata M.

    2011-01-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPee and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICES at. In contrast to ICES at, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using approximately 532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  16. The ICESat-2 Mission: Concept, pre-launch activities, and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Csatho, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ice sheet and sea level changes have been explicitly identified as a priority in the President's Climate Change Science Program, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, the 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC and other national and international policy documents. Following recommendations from the National Research Council for an ICESat follow-on mission, the ICESat-2 mission is now under development for launch in early 2016. The primary aims of the ICESat-2 mission are to continue measurements of sea-ice thickness change, and ice sheet elevation changes at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet as established by ICESat. In contrast to ICESat, ICESat-2 will employ a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. The current concept uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; equivalent to 70 cm on the ground) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure range using ~532nm (green) light. The concept will enable the generation of seasonal maps of ice sheet elevation of Greenland and Antarctica, monthly maps of sea ice thickness of the polar ocean, a dense map of land elevation (2 km track spacing at the equator after two years) enabling the determination of canopy height, as well as ocean heights. While the mission has been optimized for cryospheric science and vast amount of high precision elevation measurements taken over land and over the ocean as well as of the atmosphere will provide scientists with a wealth of opportunities to explore the utility of ICESat-2. Those will range from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land use changes and more. The presentation will review the measurement concept and physical principles of ICESat-2, current and planned activities to assess instrument performance and develop geophysical algorithms, as well as potential opportunities outside the main objectives of ICESat-2.

  17. Optimization of the Leading Penetrator for the HAIV/NIAC Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R.; Barbee, B.; Wie, B.; Zimmerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The mitigation of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) can be accomplished by a variety of methods including kinetic impactors, gravity tractors and several nuclear explosion options. Depending on the available lead time prior to Earth impact, non-nuclear options can be very effective at altering a PHO's orbit. However if the warning time is short nuclear options are generally deemed most effective at mitigating the hazard. The NAIC mission concept for a nuclear mission has been presented at several meetings, including the last PDC 2015. We use the adaptive mesh radiation-hydrocode RAGE [Gittings et al., Computational Science and Discovery, 1, 015005] to perform detailed simulations of this HAIV mission concept. We use the RAGE code to simulate the crater formation by the kinetic impactor as well as the explosion and energy coupling from the follower nuclear explosive device (NED) timed to detonate below the original surface to enhance the energy coupling. The RAGE code has been well validated for a wide variety of applications. In this study, we show how an improved "penetrator" shaped leader can greatly enhance the depth of burial of the following NED. In this work we have started to optimize the leading impactor into a penetrator that will create a much deeper crater into which the NED will explode. The more deeply buried NED will couple energy to the asteroid much more efficiently than a surface burst. Better coupling to the asteroid has several implications: 1) for smaller asteroids lower yield NEDs could be employed; or 2) for much larger asteroids this mission concept could provide an acceptable asteroid disruption with systems available today. References [1] Gittings, Weaver et al "The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics Code," Comp. Sci. Disc. 1 (2008) 015005 November 21, 2008

  18. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  19. GAME - A small mission concept for high-precision astrometric test of General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiato, A.; Gai, Mario; Donati, Paolo; Morbidelli, Roberto; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Crosta, Mariateresa

    2010-11-01

    GAME (Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment) is a concept for a small mission whose main goal is to measure from space the γ parameter of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian formalism, Will (2001)) A satellite, looking as close as possible to the Solar limb, measures the gravitational bending of light in a way similar to that followed by past experiments from the ground during solar eclipses. In the cited formalism, deviations of the γ parameter from unity are interpreted as deviations from the predictions of General Relativity which are foreseen by several competing theories of gravity. In the present theoretical scenario, such deviations are expected to appear in the range between 10-5 and 10-7. The most stringent experimental constraints available up to now are those of the Cassini mission, that gives 1-γ≲10-5 Bertotti et al. (2003), while future space missions are expected to reach the 10-7 level of accuracy. (Vecchiato et al. (2003), Turyshev et al. (2004), Ni (2008)) Preliminary simulations have shown that the expected final accuracy of GAME can reach the 10-7 level, or better if the mission profile can be extended to fit a larger budget Vecchiato et al. (2009), Gai et al. (2009). This work, which has recently been extended to better assess the mission performances, has confirmed the previous results and has given indications on how further improve various aspects of the mission profile. Moreover, thanks to its flexible observation strategy, GAME is also able to target other interesting scientific goals in the realm of General Relativity, as well as in those involving observations of selected extrasolar systems in the brown dwarf and planetary regime.

  20. Lunar and Mars missions - Challenges for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a suite of scenarios is a prerequisite to the studies that will enable an informed decision by the United States on a program to meet the recently announced space policy goal to expand human presence beyond earth orbit. NASA's Office of Exploration is currently studying a range of initiative options that would extend the sphere of human activity in space to Mars and include permanent bases or outposts on the moon and on Mars. This paper describes the evolutionary lunar base and the Mars expedition scenarios in some detail so that an evaluation can be made from the point of view of human support and opportunities. Alternative approaches in the development of lunar outposts are outlined along with Mars expeditionary scenarios. Human environmental issues are discussed, including: closed loop life support systems; EVA systems; mobility systems; and medical support, physiological deconditioning, and psychological effects associated with long-duration missions.

  1. The Europa Clipper and Orbiter Mission Concepts: Innovative Approaches for Exploring Europa’s Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, David A.; Prockter, L.; Pappalardo, R.; Patterson, W.; Vance, S.; Science Definition, Europa; Technical Teams

    2012-10-01

    Europa is unique among the large icy satellites because it probably has a long-lived saltwater ocean beneath an ice shell that is geodynamically active. The combination of irradiation of its surface and tidal heating of its interior could make Europa a rich source of chemical energy for life. Direct contact of the ocean with a rocky mantle and potential hydrothermal activity could provide energy and nutrients to support biological activity. NASA has enlisted a study team to consider Europa mission options feasible over the next decade, compatible with NASA’s projected planetary science budget and addressing Planetary Decadal Survey priorities. Two Europa mission concepts (Orbiter and multiple flyby_call the “Clipper”) are undergoing continued study with the goal to “Explore Europa to investigate its habitability.” The Orbiter and Clipper architectures lend themselves to specific types of scientific measurements. The Orbiter concept is tailored to geophysical science that requires being in orbit at Europa. This would include confirming the existence of and characterizing the ocean along with mapping of the global morphology and topography. This architecture provides for radiation-shielded instruments with low mass, power, and data rate. The Clipper concept focuses on remote sensing science that could be accomplished through multiple close flybys of Europa. This would include exploring the ice shell for evidence of liquid water within or beneath it along with exploring the composition of the surface and atmosphere. Morphologic and topographic mapping would also be done. This architecture can provide for radiation-shielded instruments with higher mass, power, and data rate. NASA has directed the Europa team to evaluate, within a cost constrained budget, the ability of the Orbiter concept to characterize the ice shell and surface composition, and for the Clipper concept to address investigations to characterize the ocean. The status of these updated concepts

  2. Advanced Warheads Concepts: An Advanced Equation of State for Overdriven Detonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    The FY90 Advanced Warhead Concepts effort has produced an advanced thermodynamic equation of state (Jones-Wilkens-Lee-Baker (JWLB)) for high explosives detonation. JWLB is suitable for overdriven detonation and material acceleration applications. It has been implemented into the dynamic finite element programs SYNA2D and DYNA3D and parameterized for octol 75/25. Calculated and experimental results are compared.

  3. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  4. The Implementation of Advanced Solar Array Technology in Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.; White, Steve; Douglas, Mark; Spence, Brian; Jones, P. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Advanced solar array technology is expected to be critical in achieving the mission goals on many future NASA space flight programs. Current PV cell development programs offer significant potential and performance improvements. However, in order to achieve the performance improvements promised by these devices, new solar array structures must be designed and developed to accommodate these new PV cell technologies. This paper will address the use of advanced solar array technology in future NASA space missions and specifically look at how newer solar cell technologies impact solar array designs and overall power system performance.

  5. Soil Analysis Micro-Mission Concepts Derived from the MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, S. D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatic environment, and arrays of material patches to study abrasion and adhesion. Heritage will be all-important for low cost micro-missions, and adaptations of instruments developed for the Pathfinder, '98 and '01 Landers should be strong contenders for '03 flights. This talk has three objectives: (1) Familiarize the audience with MECA instrument capabilities; (2) present concepts for stand-alone and/or mobile versions of MECA instruments; and (3) broaden the context of the MECA instruments from human exploration to a comprehensive scientific survey of Mars. Due to time limitations, emphasis will be on the chemistry and microscopy experiments. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors in MECA's wet-chemistry laboratory will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil's corrosive potential, and experiments will include cyclic voltammetry and anodic stripping. For experiments beyond 2001, enhancements could allow multiple use of the cells (for mobile experiments) and reagent addition (for quantitative mineralogical and exobiological analysis). MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in an actively focused, controlled illumination environment to image particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Careful selection of substrates allows controlled experiments in adhesion, abrasion, hardness, aggregation, magnetic and other properties. Special tools allow primitive manipulation (brushing and scraping) of samples

  6. Io: The Volcanic World That Will Tell Us How Ocean Worlds Work (and a Mission Concept to Get Us There)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, J. T.; Becerra, P.; Basu, K.; Davis, B.; Fox, V.; Hays, L.; Herman, J.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Hughes, A.; Marcucci, E.; Mendez Ramos, E.; Nelessen, A.; Neveau, M.; Parrish, N.

    2017-02-01

    Io is the ideal target to study tidal heating and volcanism — two major processes that shape the formation, evolution, and habitability of rocky and icy worlds. We will demonstrate its importance and present a mission concept for its exploration.

  7. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  8. A Chang'e-4 mission concept and vision of future Chinese lunar exploration activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Liu, Jizhong

    2016-10-01

    A novel concept for Chinese Chang'e-4 lunar exploration mission is presented in this paper at first. After the success of Chang'e-3, its backup probe, Chang'e-4 lander/rover combination, would be upgraded and land on the unexplored lunar farside by the aid of a relay satellite near the second Earth-Moon Lagrange point. Mineralogical and geochemical surveys on the farside to study the formation and evolution of lunar crust and observations at low radio frequencies to track the signals of the Universe's Dark Ages are priorities. Follow-up Chinese lunar exploration activities before 2030 are envisioned as building a robotic lunar science station by three to five missions. Finally several methods of international cooperation are proposed.

  9. Mission Opportunities for the Flight Validation of the Kinetic Impactor Concept for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic impactor technique for deflecting near-Earth objects (NEOs), whereby a spacecraft is directed to collide with a NEO to alter its orbit via momentum transfer, is one of several proposed methods for defendingEarth against hazardous NEOs (asteroids and comets). In this paper we present detailed mission design concepts for a notionally feasible and aff ordable kinetic impactor flight validation mission deployed to a currently known near-Earth asteroid (NEA). Several filter steps are devised that utilize relevant criteria to optimally balance keyparameters, such as approach phase angle, estimated NEA diameter, relative velocity at intercept, and current NEA orbit knowledge, and produce refined lists of the most promising candidate target NEAs.

  10. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  11. Ultra-long Duration Balloon Mission Concept Study: EXIST-LITE Hard X-ray Imaging Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    We carried out a mission concept Study for an ultra-long duration balloon (ULDB) mission to conduct a high-sensitivity hard x-ray (approx. 20-600 keV) imaging sky survey. The EXIST-LITE concept has been developed, and critical detector technologies for realistic fabrication of very large area Cd-Zn-Te imaging detector arrays are now much better understood. A ULDB mission such as EXIST-LITE is now even more attractive as a testbed for the full Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission, recommended by the Decadal Survey, and now included in the NASA Roadmap and Strategic Plan as one of the 'Einstein Probes'. In this (overdue!) Final Report we provide a brief update for the science opportunities possible with a ULDB mission such as EXIST-LITE and relate these to upcoming missions (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and Swift) as well as the ultimate very high sensitivity sky survey mission EXIST. We then review the progress made over this investigation in Detector/Telescope design concept, Gondola and Mission design concept, and Data Handling/Analysis.

  12. Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species (SOCRATES) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S. M.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Fish, C. S.; Gordley, L. L.; Fromm, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of SOCRATES is to quantify the critical role of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) in the climate system. The mission would provide, for the first time, the suite of measurements required to quantify stratosphere/troposphere exchange (STE) pathways and their contribution to UTLS composition, and to evaluate the radiative forcing implications of potential changes in STE pathways with climate change. The discrimination and quantification of STE pathways requires simultaneous measurement of several key trace gases and aerosols with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution. Furthermore, aerosol and clouds, often present in the UTLS, complicate the measurement of trace gases. The SOCRATES sensor is a 23-channel Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR), referred to as GLO (GFCR Limb solar Occultation), with heritage from HALOE on UARS, and SOFIE on AIM. GLO measures aerosol extinction from 0.45 to 3.88 μm, important radiatively active gases in the UTLS (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), key tracers of STE (HCN, CO, HDO), gases important in stratospheric O3 chemistry (HCl and HF), and temperature from cloud top to 50 km at a vertical resolution of 1 km. Improved pointing knowledge will provide dramatically better retrieval precision in the UTLS, even in the presence of aerosols, than possible with HALOE. In addition, the GLO form factor is only a few percent of that of HALOE, and costs for a constellation of GLO sensors is within the cost cap of a NASA Venture mission. The SOCRATES mission concept is an 8-element constellation of autonomous CubeSats, each mated with a GLO sensor, deployed from a single launch vehicle. The SOCRATES/GLO approach reaps the advantages of solar occultation: high precision and accuracy; robust calibration; and high vertical resolution, while mitigating the sparse coverage of a single solar occultation sensor. We present the SOCRATES science case, and key elements of the SOCRATES mission and GLO instrument concepts.

  13. Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species (SOCRATES): Proposed Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordley, L. L.; Bailey, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of SOCRATES is to resolve the critical but underexplored role of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) in climate change. The mission would provide the suite of measurements required to quantify UTLS transport pathways and their contribution to UTLS composition, and to evaluate the radiative forcing implications of changes in UTLS composition forced by expected changes in these pathways as the climate evolves. The discrimination and quantification of UTLS transport pathways requires simultaneous measurement of several key trace gases and aerosols with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution. Furthermore, aerosols and clouds, often present in the UTLS, complicate the measurement of trace gases. The SOCRATES sensor is a 23-channel Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR), referred to as GLO (GFCR Limb solar Occultation), with heritage from HALOE on UARS, and SOFIE on AIM. GLO measures aerosol extinction from 0.45 to 3.88 μm, important radiatively active gases in the UTLS (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), key tracers of UTLS transport (HCN, CO, HDO), gases important in stratospheric O3 chemistry (HCl and HF), and temperature from cloud top to 50 km at a vertical resolution of < 1 km. Improved pointing knowledge will provide dramatically better retrieval precision in the UTLS, even in the presence of aerosols, than possible with HALOE. In addition, the GLO form factor is only of order 10% of that of HALOE, and costs for a constellation of GLO sensors is within the cost cap of a NASA Earth Venture mission. The SOCRATES mission concept is a 6-element constellation of autonomous small satellites, each mated with a GLO sensor, and deployed from a single launch vehicle. The SOCRATES/GLO approach reaps the advantages of solar occultation: high precision and accuracy; robust calibration; and high vertical resolution, while mitigating the sparse coverage of a single solar occultation sensor. We present the SOCRATES science case, and key elements of the

  14. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  15. Towards the Development of a Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects have paved the way for a more advanced global precipitation mission. A comprehensive global measuring strategy is currently under study - Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM). The GPM study could ultimately lead to the development of the Global Precipitation Mission. The intent of GPM is to address looming scientific questions arising in the context of global climate-water cycle interactions, hydrometeorology, weather prediction and prediction of freshwater resources, the global carbon cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. This talk overviews the status and scientific agenda of this proposed mission currently planned for launch in the 2007-2008 time frame. GPM is planning to expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of 6-10 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carry dual-frequency Ku-Ka band radar and a microwave radiometer (e.g. TMI-like). The other constellation members will likely include new lightweight satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers. The goal behind the constellation is to achieve no worse than 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-su n -synchronous satellites with the "core" satellite providing measurement of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus "training calibrating" information to be used with the retrieval algorithms for the constellation satellite measurements. The GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US, NASDA in Japan, and ESA in Europe (representing the European community). The program is expected to involve additional international partners, other federal agencies, and a diverse collection of scientists from academia

  16. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Paul, Kevin; Mullowney, Paul J.; Messmer, Peter; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Esarey, Eric; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Leemans, Wim; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-22

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating >10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of {approx}2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  17. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2008-09-10

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating>10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ~;;2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  18. Mission concepts and operations for asteroid mitigation involving multiple gravity tractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Mauro, David; Jaroux, Belgacem

    2013-09-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  19. Mission Concepts and Operations for Asteroid Mitigation Involving Multiple Gravity Tractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Bellerose, Julie; Jaroux, Belgacem; Mauro, David

    2012-01-01

    The gravity tractor concept is a proposed method to deflect an imminent asteroid impact through gravitational tugging over a time scale of years. In this study, we present mission scenarios and operational considerations for asteroid mitigation efforts involving multiple gravity tractors. We quantify the deflection performance improvement provided by a multiple gravity tractor campaign and assess its sensitivity to staggered launches. We next explore several proximity operation strategies to accommodate multiple gravity tractors at a single asteroid including formation-flying and mechanically-docked configurations. Finally, we utilize 99942 Apophis as an illustrative example to assess the performance of a multiple gravity tractor campaign.

  20. Advanced liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Suter, J. D.; Turner, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced methods of liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning were studied as part of an effort for increasing reliability and operability while reducing cost of future heavy lift launch vehicles. The most promising conditioning concept evaluated was no-bleed (passive recirculation) followed by low-bleed, helium injection, and use of a recirculation line. Full-scale cryogenic testing was performed with a sloped feedline test article to validate models of behavior of LO2 in the feedline and to prove no-bleed feasibility. Test data are also intended to help generate design guidelines for the development of a main propulsion system feed duct. A design-of-experiments matrix of over 100 tests was developed to test all four propellant conditioning concepts and the impact of design parameters on the concepts. Liquid nitrogen was used as the test fluid. The work for this project was conducted from October 1992 through January 1994 at the hydrogen cold flow facility of the west test area of MSFC. Test data have shown that satisfactory temperatures are being obtained for the no-bleed conditioning concept.

  1. Paris to Hektor: A Concept for a Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Robert E.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Napolillo, David H.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Tanzman, Jennifer R.; Fiehler, Douglas I.; Hartka, Theodore J.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Ostdiek, Paul H.; Persons, David F.; Prockter, Louise M.; Vernon, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an example of a new class of planetary exploration missions that is been enabled by the combination of the three technologies of advanced radioisotope power systems, electric propulsion, and expendable launch vehicles. These PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) missions are optimized for rendezvous with outer solar system bodies in shallow gravity wells. They are low-thrust missions that are launched to a high C3 and use their electric propulsion systems to slow them to enable orbit insertion or landing on the target body. The PARIS spacecraft can be powered by traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), but will benefit greatly from the improved power-to-mass ratio of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) that results from their high conversion efficiency. These New-Frontiers class missions can carry a significant science payload to the Jovian Trojan asteroids. The Trojans are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points. The PARIS to Hektor mission can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. The PARIS to Hektor spacecraft has a candidate payload that includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. The power system generates about 900 W and the launch mass is slightly less than 1000 kg. The trip time is 5 years if ``classic'' GPHS RTGs are used for power. Next generation Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs), with a demonstrated thermal conversion efficiency of > 30% and an estimated specific power of > 8W/kg would reduce the travel time to about 4 years.

  2. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Post Landsat-D advanced concept evaluation /PLACE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L. D.; Alvarado, U. R.; Flatow, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the Post Landsat-D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE) program was to identify the key technology requirements of earth resources satellite systems for the 1985-2000 period. The program involved four efforts: (1) examination of future needs in the earth resources area, (2) creation of a space systems technology model capable of satisfying these needs, (3) identification of key technology requirements posed by this model, and (4) development of a methodology (PRISM) to assist in the priority structuring of the resulting technologies.

  4. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  5. A Kepler Mission, A Search for Habitable Planets: Concept, Capabilities and Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, Jack; Dunham, Edward; Jenkins, Jon; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The detection of extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The technological challenges of direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved over the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). The method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. The concept, its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  6. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  7. Advances in Laser/Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  8. Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

  9. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  10. SMART 1: The first small mission for advanced research in technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.

    1999-11-01

    SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Horizons 2000 Science plan. The main mission objective of SMART-1 is to demonstrate innovative and key technologies for scientific deep-space missions. One of the key technologies is the solar electric propulsion used as primary propulsion. The launch is foreseen at the end of 2001 and the total life cost budget allocated to this mission is 50 million ECU (~ 65 million US dollars). Given this budget constraint, the obvious European launch system is as Piggyback passenger of an Ariane 5 in a standard GTO. This imposes stringent spacecraft mass constraints and by consequence limitations on the planetary bodies which can be reached in a given short (1.5-2 years) overall mission lifetime. Alternatively a direct injection into an escape trajectory has been considered with a small launcher, e.g. Eurockot. The planetary bodies identified are the Moon and Earth crossing asteroids or comets, generally classified as Near Earth Objects (NEO). Three mission options are currently envisaged. An Announcement of Opportunity for scientific payload, issued in March 1998, calls for scientific investigations to be performed and indication of the preferred mission options. A second Announcement of Opportunity will be issued in April 1998, concerning the technology payload. SMART-1 will also be a test case for a new approach in the implementation strategy and spacecraft procurement for the ESA Science Programme.

  11. Advanced Coatings Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh

    expanded to larger substrates to prove our technique s scalability to larger optical components. The durability of these coatings will also be verified by accelerated lifetime testing that exposes the samples to extremes of temperature, humidity, and reactive oxygen environments. By ensuring that these new coatings provide large reflectivity and polarization control from FUV to near- infrared wavelengths (NIR), we will demonstrate a critical technology path for incorporating ultraviolet instruments into future large UV/optical/NIR missions without compromising the science capability of other instruments or increasing cost and risk due to handling issues. We will leverage our working relationship with the University of Colorado rocket group to coat a large format, flight-tested mirror with space astrophysics heritage. This mirror then can be used on future suborbital flights. Our deposition techniques will also be used to develop metal/dielectric stacks for visible-blind filters; the atomic-level control of film thickness achievable with ALD is critical for fine-tuning pass-band behavior.

  12. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  13. Search for Evidence of Life in Icy Bodies - Enceladus Sample Return Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanik, Isik

    2016-07-01

    Beyond Earth, are there modern habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with necessary conditions, organic matter, water, energy, and nutrients to sustain life, and do organisms live there now? Water dominates the composition of Icy Worlds. Since life follows water on Earth, life might exist in Icy Worlds. Enceladus, as an icy world, appears to satisfy the necessary conditions for life, based on detailed examination by the Cassini spacecraft. Careful chemical characterization of plume materials is the most direct way to determine if this habitable environment is inhabited, and, if not, why not. This characterization requires laboratory analysis of returned samples. Finding and confirming new found life require comprehensive sample analyses collected from icy bodies such as Enceladus. In this presentation, we argue that sample return is necessary because the search for biomarkers is too complex and too "path dependent" to be conducted in situ. The habitability of Icy worlds such as Enceladus and Europa the accessibility of samples in the plume make this types of missions a high priority for astrobiology. Our mission concept, called "LIFE", will follow up on recent discoveries by conducting a more detailed in situ investigation of the organics in the plume and by returning samples to Earth for a search for biomarkers as evidence of life - or perhaps only prebiotic evolution. Sample return missions from icy world can be very costly; however, given the existence of a plume (as for Enceladus), the cost of returning samples can be substantially reduced by a flyby sample return.

  14. Stellar statistics along the ecliptic and the impact on the K2 mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prša, Andrej; Robin, Annie; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    K2 is the mission concept for a repurposed Kepler mission that uses two reaction wheels to maintain the satellite attitude and provide ~81 days of coverage for ten 105 deg2 fields along the ecliptic in the first 2.5 years of operation. We examine stellar populations based on the updated Besançon model of the Galaxy, comment on the general properties for the entire ecliptic plane, and provide stellar occurrence rates in the first six tentative K2 campaigns grouped by spectral type and luminosity class. For each campaign we distinguish between main the sequence stars and giants, and provide their density profile as a function of galactic latitude. We introduce the crowding metric that serves for optimized target selection across the campaigns. For all main sequence stars we compute the expected planetary occurrence rates for three planet sizes: 2-4, 4-8 and 8-32 R ⊕ with orbital periods up to 50 days. In conjunction with Gaia and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite and Plato missions, K2 will become a gold mine for stellar and planetary astrophysics.

  15. Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, S.; Allamandola, L.; Bregman, J.; Cohen, M.; Cruikshank, D.; Dumas, C.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Kwok, S.

    2004-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a modest dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T less than 50 K equipped with medium resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The mission's observaticxiai program woiild make fundamental scieztific: prngress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extra-terrestrial environments: 1) The Outflow of Dying Stars; 2) The Diffuse Interstellar Medium (DISM); 3) Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young Stellar/Planetary Systems; 4) Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System; and 5) The Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these area by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5 - 20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R greater than 2500 of about 1500 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects.

  16. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  17. Assessment of a 2016 Mission Concept: The Search for Trace Gases in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Chicarro, Augustin; Allen, Mark A.; Bertauz, Jean-Loup; Clancy, R. Todd; Daerden, Frank; Formisano, Vittorio; Garvin, James B.; neukum, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The reported detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars as well as its potentially large seasonal spatial variations challenge our understanding of both the sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The presence of methane suggests ongoing exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere of potentially biogenic trace gases, while the spatial and temporal variations cannot be accounted for with current knowledge of martian photochemistry. A Joint Instrument Definition Team (JIDT) was asked to assess concepts for a mission that might follow up on these discoveries within the framework of a series of joint missions being considered by ESA and NASA for possible future exploration of Mars. The following is based on the report of the JIDT to the space agencies (Zurek et al., 2009); a synopsis of the report was presented at the Workshop on Mars Methane held in Frascati, Italy, in November 2009. To summarize, the JIDT believed that a scientifically exciting and credible mission could be conducted within the evolving capabilities of the science/telecommunications orbiter being considered by ESA and NASA for possible launch in the 2016 opportunity for Mars.

  18. Identifying Organic Molecules in Space - The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bregman, J. D.; Cohen, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dumas, C.; Greene, T. P.; Hudgins, D. M.; Kwok, S.; Lord, S. D.; Madden, S. C.; McCreight, C. R.; Roellig, T. L.; Strecker, D. W.; Tielens, A. G.; Werner, M. W.; Wilmoth, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a modest dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T < 50 K equipped with a modest resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such as system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. This mission's observationsal program would make fundamental scientific progress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extraterrestrial environments: 1 The Outflow of Dying Stars 2 The Diffuse Interstellar Medium 3 Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young Stellar/Planetary Systems 4 Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System, and 5 Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R > 2500 of about 1500 galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects.

  19. Identifying organic molecules in space: the AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly A.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2004-10-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T < 50 K equipped with medium resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The mission's observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extra-terrestrial environments: 1) The Outflow of Dying Stars, 2) The Diffuse Interstellar Medium, 3) Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young Stellar/Planetary Systems, 4) Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System, and 5) The Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R > 2000 of about 1500 objects including galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects.

  20. Identifying Organic Molecules in Space: The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L.; Bregman, J.; Cohen, M.; Cruikshank, D.; Dumas, C.; Greene, T.; Hudgins, D.; Kwok, S.

    2004-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission concept consists of a dedicated space observatory having a 60 cm class primary mirror cooled to T < 50 K equipped with medium resolution cross-dispersed spectrometers having cooled large format near- and mid-infrared detector arrays. Such a system would be capable of addressing outstanding problems in Astrochemistry and Astrophysics that are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and addressable via astronomical observation. The mission s observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in establishing the nature, distribution, formation and evolution of organic and other molecular materials in the following extra-terrestrial environments: 1) The Outflow of Dying Stars, 2) The Diffuse Interstellar Medium, 3) Dense Molecular Clouds, Star Formation Regions, and Young StellarPlanetary Systems, 4) Planets, Satellites, and Small Bodies within the Solar System, and 5 ) The Interstellar Media of Other Galaxies. ABE could make fundamental progress in all of these areas by conducting a 1 to 2 year mission to obtain a coordinated set of infrared spectroscopic observations over the 2.5-20 micron spectral range at a spectral resolution of R > 2000 of about 1500 objects including galaxies, stars, planetary nebulae, young stellar objects, and solar system objects. Keywords: Astrobiology, infrared, Explorers, interstellar organics, telescope, spectrometer, space, infrared detectors

  1. Lunar Communication Terminals for NASA Exploration Missions: Needs, Operations Concepts and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Anderson, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is conducting architecture studies prior to deploying a series of short- and long-duration human and robotic missions for the exploration of the Moon and Mars under the Vision for Space Exploration Initiative. A key objective of these missions is to establish and expand, through a series of launches, a system of systems approach to exploration capabilities and science return. The systems identified were Crew Exploration Vehicles, crew and cargo launch vehicles, crew EVA suits, crew and cargo landers, habitats, mobility carriers, and small, pressurized rovers. Multiple space communication networks and systems, deployed over time, will support these space exploration systems of systems. Each deployment phase will support interoperability of components and provide 20 years of legacy systems. In this paper, we describe the modular lunar communications terminals needed for the emerging lunar mission operational scenarios. These lunar communication terminals require flexibility for use in stationary, integrated, and mobile environments. They will support links directly to Earth, to lunar relay satellites, to astronauts and to fixed and mobile lunar surface systems. The operating concepts and traffic models are presented for these terminals within variety of lunar scenarios. A preliminary architecture is outlined, providing for suitable long-duration operations in the harsh lunar environment.

  2. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  3. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager Small Explorer Concept Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Dennis, Brian R.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We present the FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager) small explorer (SMEX) concept, a mission dedicated to studying particle acceleration and energy release on the Sun. FOXSI is designed as a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit making use of state-of-the-art grazing incidence focusing optics combined withpixelated solid-state detectors, allowing for direct imaging of solar X-rays. The current design being studied features multiple telescopes with a 14 meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom.FOXSI will observe the Sun in the 3-100 keV energy range. The FOXSI imaging concept has already been tested on two sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014 and on the HEROES balloon payload flight in 2013. FOXSI will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 5'', a spectral resolution of 0.5 keV, and sub-second temporal resolution. FOXSI is a direct imaging spectrometer with high dynamic range and sensitivity and will provide a brand-new perspective on energy release on the Sun. We describe the mission and its science objectives.

  4. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Adamkovics, Mate; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  5. A mission concept for a Grand Tour of Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Dankanich, J.; Tricarico, P.; Bellerose, J.

    2009-12-01

    with several multiple asteroid systems located in the main belt. This mission concept uses the NASA's evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the second generation of electric propulsion with 3 times more input power than the previous generation (NSTAR) of the Dawn mission. The mission objectives for each rendezvous asteroid are i) the characterization of the surface geology by direct imaging in visible and thermal infrared spectroscopy, ii) the characterization of the shape and gravity coupling visible observations with LIDAR ranging data, iii) the determination of the thermophysical properties of the surface, and iv) the identification of the surface composition by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. The trajectory, science package and mission operations of the mission will be described. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation 05-608, "Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants (AAG)" No AST-0807468

  6. Concept and technology development for the multispectral imager of the Canadian Polar Communications and Weather mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Louis; Dubois, Patrick; Girard, Frédéric; Tanguay, François; Giroux, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The Polar Communications and Weather (PCW) mission is proposed by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), in partnership with Environment Canada, the Department of National Defence, and several other Canadian government departments. The objectives of the PCW mission are to offer meteorological observations and telecommunication services for the Canadian North. These capabilities are particularly important because of increasing interest in the Arctic and the desire to maintain Canadian sovereignty in this region. The PCW mission has completed its Phase A in 2011. The PCW Meteorological Payload is a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) that will provide near-real time weather imagery for the entire circumpolar region with a refresh period of 15 to 30 minutes. Two satellites on a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) will carry the instrument so as to observe the high latitudes 24 hours per day from a point of view that is almost geostationary. The data from the imagers are expected to greatly enhance accuracy of numerical weather prediction models for North America and globally. The mission will also produce useful information on environment and climate in the North. During Phase A, a certain number of critical technologies were identified. The CSA has initiated an effort to develop some of these so that their Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be suitable for the follow-on phases of the program. An industrial team lead by ABB has been selected to perform technology development activities for the Meteorological Payload. The goal of the project is to enhance the TRL of the telescope, the spectral separation optics, and the infrared multispectral cameras of the PCW Meteorological Payload by fabricating and testing breadboards for these items. We will describe the Meteorological Payload concept and report on the status of the development activities.

  7. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  8. The nuclear thermal electric rocket: a proposed innovative propulsion concept for manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujarric, C.; Santovincenzo, A.; Summerer, L.

    2013-03-01

    Conventional propulsion technology (chemical and electric) currently limits the possibilities for human space exploration to the neighborhood of the Earth. If farther destinations (such as Mars) are to be reached with humans on board, a more capable interplanetary transfer engine featuring high thrust, high specific impulse is required. The source of energy which could in principle best meet these engine requirements is nuclear thermal. However, the nuclear thermal rocket technology is not yet ready for flight application. The development of new materials which is necessary for the nuclear core will require further testing on ground of full-scale nuclear rocket engines. Such testing is a powerful inhibitor to the nuclear rocket development, as the risks of nuclear contamination of the environment cannot be entirely avoided with current concepts. Alongside already further matured activities in the field of space nuclear power sources for generating on-board power, a low level investigation on nuclear propulsion has been running since long within ESA, and innovative concepts have already been proposed at an IAF conference in 1999 [1, 2]. Following a slow maturation process, a new concept was defined which was submitted to a concurrent design exercise in ESTEC in 2007. Great care was taken in the selection of the design parameters to ensure that this quite innovative concept would in all respects likely be feasible with margins. However, a thorough feasibility demonstration will require a more detailed design including the selection of appropriate materials and the verification that these can withstand the expected mechanical, thermal, and chemical environment. So far, the predefinition work made clear that, based on conservative technology assumptions, a specific impulse of 920 s could be obtained with a thrust of 110 kN. Despite the heavy engine dry mass, a preliminary mission analysis using conservative assumptions showed that the concept was reducing the required

  9. An advanced concept secondary power systems study for an advanced transport technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to the design of an integrated secondary power system for future near-sonic long-range transports was investigated. The study showed that the highest payoff is achieved by utilizing secondary power equipment that contributes to minimum cruise drag. This is best accomplished by the use of the dedicated auxiliary power unit concept (inflight APU) as the prime power source for an airplane with a body-mounted engine or by the use of the internal engine generator concept (electrical power extraction from the propulsion engine) for an airplane with a wing-pod-mounted engine.

  10. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  11. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  12. Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jaumann, R.; Raulin, F.; Schmidt, J.; Carrasco, N.; Coates, A. J.; Cordier, D.; De Kok, R.; Geppert, W. D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lefevre, A.; Livengood, T. A.; Mandt, K. E.; Mitri, G.; Nimmo, F.; Nixon, C. A.; Norman, L.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Postberg, F.; Rodriguez, S.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Soderblom, J. M.; Solomonidou, A.; Stephan, K.; Stofan, E. R.; Turtle, E. P.; Wagner, R. J.; West, R. A.; Westlake, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    over that which is possible with Cassini-Huygens. This mission concept builds upon the successes of Cassini-Huygens and takes advantage of previous mission heritage in both remote sensing and in situ measurement technologies.

  13. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  14. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  15. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  16. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  17. Candidate advanced energy storage concepts for multimegawatt burst power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, John E.; Sollo, Charles

    Three candidate advanced energy storage systems are reviewed and compared with the Thermionic Operating Reactor (THOR) concept. The three systems considered are the flywheel generator, the lithium-metal sulfide battery and the alkaline fuel cell. From a minimum mass viewpoint, only the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) can result in a lighter system than THOR. Because of its lower operating temperature, as compared to THOR, a considerable reduction in materials problems is to be expected when compared to the extremely high operating temperatures of the THOR system. Frozen heat pipes and their impact on response time as well as the complexity of the required retraction/extension mechanism of the THOR system would tend to place the RFC system in a much lower category of development risk. Finally, if spot shielding of sensitive electronic and power conditioning equipment becomes necessary for the reactor radiation environment of the THOR system, the weight advantage of the RFC system may become even greater.

  18. HADES : A Mission Concept for the Identification of New Saline Aquifer Sites Suitable for Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechorro, Ed; Lecuyot, Arnaud; Bacon, Andrew; Chalkley, Simon; Milnes, Martin; Williams, Ivan; Williams, Stuart; Muthu, Kavitha

    2014-05-01

    The Hidden Aquifer & Deep Earth Sounder (HADES) is a ground penetrating radar mission concept for identifying new saline aquifer sites suitable for Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS). HADES uses a newly proposed type of Earth Observation technique, previously deployed in Mars orbit to search for water. It has been proposed to globally map the sub-surface layers of Earth's land area down to a maximum depth of 3km to detect underground aquifers of suitable depth and geophysical conditions for CCS. We present the mission concept together with the approach and findings of the project from which the concept has arisen, a European Space Agency (ESA) study on "Future Earth Observation Missions & Techniques for the Energy Sector" performed by a consortium of partners comprising CGI and SEA. The study aims to improve and increase the current and future application of Earth Observation in provision of data and services to directly address long term energy sector needs for a de-carbonised economy. This is part of ESA's cross-agency "Space and Energy" initiative. The HADES mission concept is defined by our specification of (i) mission requirements, reflecting the challenges and opportunities with identifying CCS sites from space, (ii) the observation technique, derived from ground penetrating radar, and (iii) the preliminary system concept, including specification of the resulting satellite, ground and launch segments. Activities have also included a cost-benefit analysis of the mission, a defined route to technology maturation, and a preliminary strategic plan towards proposed implementation. Moreover, the mission concept maps to a stakeholder analysis forming the initial part of the study. Its method has been to first identify the user needs specific to the energy sector in the global transition towards a de-carbonised economy. This activity revealed the energy sector requirements geared to the identification of suitable CCS sites. Subsequently, a qualitative and quantitative

  19. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  20. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  1. Mission science value-cost savings from the Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An Advanced Imaging Communication System (AICS) was proposed in the mid-1970s as an alternative to the Voyager data/communication system architecture. The AICS achieved virtually error free communication with little loss in the downlink data rate by concatenating a powerful Reed-Solomon block code with the Voyager convolutionally coded, Viterbi decoded downlink channel. The clean channel allowed AICS sophisticated adaptive data compression techniques. Both Voyager and the Galileo mission have implemented AICS components, and the concatenated channel itself is heading for international standardization. An analysis that assigns a dollar value/cost savings to AICS mission performance gains is presented. A conservative value or savings of $3 million for Voyager, $4.5 million for Galileo, and as much as $7 to 9.5 million per mission for future projects such as the proposed Mariner Mar 2 series is shown.

  2. Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

  3. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance <1 km to measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  4. Evaluation of a Drag-Free Control Concept for Missions in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, Melissa E.; Starin, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric drag causes the greatest uncertainty in the equations of motion for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). If atmospheric drag eflects can be continuously and autonomously counteracted through the use of a drag-fee control system, drag may essentially be eliminated from the equations of motion for the spacecraft. The main perturbations on the spacecraft will then be those due to the gravitational field, which are much more easily predicted Through dynamical analysis and numerical simulation, this paper presents some potential costs and benefits associated with the fuel used during continuous drag compensation. In light of this cost-benefit analysis, simulation results are used to validate the concept of drag-free control for LEO spacecraft missions having certain characteristics.

  5. Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.

    2015-11-01

    The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a geostationary satellite sounder that aims to constrain the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Its primary focus is on central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO). The mission concept in particular facilitates sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (~2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as central Europe within 2 h while providing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol- and cirrus-induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in

  6. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  7. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow; Löschl, Philipp; Seifert, Bernhard; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Kraaikamp, Emil; Isha Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Philippe, Thomas; Spina, Sheila; Bröse, Malte; Massahi, Sonny; O'Halloran, Liam; Pereira Blanco, Victor; Stausland, Christoffer; Escoubet, Philippe; Kargl, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68° to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR.

  8. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  9. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofal, Allen E.

    1987-01-01

    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  10. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  11. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  12. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  13. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  14. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  15. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Avramidis, K. A.

    2015-12-15

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  16. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  17. Studying the Outer Solar System - Technology Development for the Whipple Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Charles; Kraft, R.; Kenter, A.; Murray, S.; Gauron, T.; Loose, M.; Werner, M.

    2012-10-01

    The Whipple mission, "Reaching into the Outer Solar System", was proposed to NASA's 2010 Discovery program and was awarded funding for technology development. Whipple will conduct the first direct, systematic study of the outer Solar system, the Kuiper belt, the Sedna region, and the Oort cloud, using a blind stellar occultation survey. The instrument will monitor photometrically 10,000 stars at a cadence of 40 Hz (or 20,000 at 20 Hz, ...) to search for stellar occultations by outer solar system objects to characterize the size and spatial distribution of these objects. The occultations typically last less than a second, so the photometer must be able to continuously monitor the light curves of a large number of stars at video rates. The focal plane will be composed of 32 Teledyne H1RG sensors, each with a dedicated SIDECAR ASIC and an FPGA to process the light curve data and identify candidate occultation events. The H1RG sensor will be operated in a windowing mode with between 700 and 3000 windows per sensor at rates up to 40 Hz. We are currently developing an end-to-end system at SAO to evaluate the focal plane concept. This system includes a stellar occultation simulator that stimulates the sensor with simulated light curves, a Teledyne sensor with custom readout software to operate the sensor and SIDECAR ASIC in this windowed mode, and an FPGA that will process the light curves and identify candidate events. In this presentation we will outline the scientific capabilities of the Whipple mission and discuss the current status of our laboratory efforts.

  18. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI): A Discovery Class TPF/DARWIN Pathfinder Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, W. C.; Allen, R. J.; Benford, D. J.; Deming, D.; Gezan, D. Y.; Kuchner, M.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Linfield, R.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for an imaging and nulling interferometer for the mid-infrared spectral region (5-30 microns). FKSI is conceived as a scientific and technological pathfinder to TPF/DARWIN as well as SPIRIT, SPECS, and SAFIR. It will also be a high angular resolution system complementary to NGST. The scientific emphasis of the mission is on the evolution of protostellar systems, from just after the collapse of the precursor molecular cloud core, through the formation of the disk surrounding the protostar, the formation of planets in the disk, and eventual dispersal of the disk material. FKSI will also search for brown dwarfs and Jupiter mass and smaller planets, and could also play a very powerful role in the investigation of the structure of active galactic nuclei and extra-galactic star formation. We have been studying alternative interferometer architectures and beam combination techniques, and evaluating the relevant science and technology tradeoffs. Some of the technical challenges include the development of the cryocooler systems necessary for the telescopes and focal plane array, light and stiff but well-damped truss systems to support the telescopes, and lightweight and coolable optical telescopes. We present results of detailed design studies of the FKSI starting with a design consisting of five one meter diameter telescopes arranged along a truss structure in a linear non-redundant array, cooled to 35 K. A maximum baseline of 20 meters gives a nominal resolution of 26 mas at 5 microns. Using a Fizeau beam combination technique, a simple focal plane camera could be used to obtain both Fourier and spectral data simultaneously for a given orientation of the array. The spacecraft will be rotated to give sufficient Fourier data to reconstruct complex images of a broad range of astrophysical sources. Alternative and simpler three and two telescope designs emphasizing nulling and spectroscopy also have been

  19. Affordable In-Space Transportation. Phase 2; An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (ITM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIM was managed by NASA-Mar-shaU Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Manidns of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIM in a summary format. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TPA, which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? What is the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5. What is the proposed implementation time frame

  20. Affordable In-Space Transportation Phase 2: An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (TTM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIN4 was managed by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Mankins of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TIM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIN4 in a summary for-mat. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TDVL which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? 3. What is the current technology readiness level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5 . What is the proposed implementation time

  1. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  2. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N.; Williams, E.; Rosenfeld, D.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.; Kremic, T.; Agrawal, A.; Andreae, M.; Bierbaum, R.; Blakeslee, R.; Boerner, A.; Bowles, N.; Christian, H.; Dunion, J.; Horvath, A.; Huang, X.; Khain, A.; Kinne, S.; Lemos, M.-C.; Penner, J.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. Knowledge of these interactions is foundational to our understanding of weather and climate. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Decadal Survey (NRC 2007) indicate that the uncertainty in how clouds adjust to aerosol perturbations dominates the uncertainty in the overall quantification of the radiative forcing attributable to human activities. The Clouds, Hazards, and Aerosols Survey for Earth Researchers (CHASER) mission concept responds to the IPCC and Decadal Survey concerns by studying the activation of CCN and their interactions with clouds and storms. CHASER proposes to revolutionize our understanding of the interactions of aerosols with clouds by making the first global measurements of the fundamental physical entity linking them: activated cloud condensation nuclei. The CHASER mission was conceptualized to measure all quantities necessary for determining the interactions of aerosols with clouds and storms. Measurements by current satellites allow the determination of crude profiles of cloud particle size but not of the activated CCN that seed them. CHASER uses a new technique (Freud et al. 2011; Rosenfeld et al. 2012) and high-heritage instruments to produce the first global maps of activated CCN and the properties of the clouds associated with them. CHASER measures the CCN concentration and cloud thermodynamic forcing simultaneously, allowing their effects to be distinguished. Changes in the behavior of a group of weather systems in which only one of the quantities varies (a partial derivative of the intensity with the desirable quantity) allow the determination of each effect statistically. The high uncertainties of current climate predictions limit their much-needed use in decision-making. CHASER mitigates this

  3. Selection and Prioritization of Advanced Propulsion Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, Bill; Farris, Bob; Johnson, Les; Jones, Jonathan; Kos, Larry; Woodcock, Gordon; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system will require spacecraft with much greater capability than spacecraft which have been launched in the past. This is particularly true for exploration of the outer planets. Outer planet exploration requires shorter trip times, increased payload mass, and ability to orbit or land on outer planets. Increased capability requires better propulsion systems, including increased specific impulse. Chemical propulsion systems are not capable of delivering the performance required for exploration of the solar system. Future propulsion systems will be applied to a wide variety of missions with a diverse set of mission requirements. Many candidate propulsion technologies have been proposed but NASA resources do not permit development of a] of them. Therefore, we need to rationally select a few propulsion technologies for advancement, for application to future space missions. An effort was initiated to select and prioritize candidate propulsion technologies for development investment. The results of the study identified Aerocapture, 5 - 10 KW Solar Electric Ion, and Nuclear Electric Propulsion as high priority technologies. Solar Sails, 100 Kw Solar Electric Hall Thrusters, Electric Propulsion, and Advanced Chemical were identified as medium priority technologies. Plasma sails, momentum exchange tethers, and low density solar sails were identified as high risk/high payoff technologies.

  4. The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept study: forging the path to NASA astrophysics 2020 decadal survey prioritization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Özel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  5. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  6. GEM:A Mission Concept for Monitoring Point Sources Emissions of CO2 and CH4 from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prunet, P.; Jeansou, E.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Ernst, R.; Tesmer, V.; Bordeleau, M.; Payen, L.; Lecuyot, A.

    2016-08-01

    GEM (Gas Emission Mission) is a carbon dioxide and methane point source detection concept analysed in the context of ESA's "Space and Energy" initiative [1]. Starting from a consultation of user needs from the Energy Sectors, mission objectives have been derived for the detection and quantification of surface fluxes at local scales. A new EO concept has been proposed: GEM, a GHG mission based on a SWIR spectro-imager to measure anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and CH4 for GHG emission inventory and leaks detection and with a SWIR optical sensor. A preliminary study of the system including instruments, platform, launch, ground segment, programmatics, costs and feasibility assessment was performed, as well as a cost/benefit analysis.

  7. Advanced Solar Cell and Array Technology for NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael; Benson, Scott; Scheiman, David; Finacannon, Homer; Oleson, Steve; Landis, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    A recent study by the NASA Glenn Research Center assessed the feasibility of using photovoltaics (PV) to power spacecraft for outer planetary, deep space missions. While the majority of spacecraft have relied on photovoltaics for primary power, the drastic reduction in solar intensity as the spacecraft moves farther from the sun has either limited the power available (severely curtailing scientific operations) or necessitated the use of nuclear systems. A desire by NASA and the scientific community to explore various bodies in the outer solar system and conduct "long-term" operations using using smaller, "lower-cost" spacecraft has renewed interest in exploring the feasibility of using photovoltaics for to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond. With recent advances in solar cell performance and continuing development in lightweight, high power solar array technology, the study determined that photovoltaics is indeed a viable option for many of these missions.

  8. Re-Entry Mission Analysis of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Strauch, H.; Bottacini, M.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the DEIMOS Space S.L.U. Re-entry Mission Analysis activities obtained in the frame of the Phase A up to PRR milestone of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) ESA project leaded by ASTRIUM. Results presented show how the trajectory and the vehicle design are strictly related and how a feasible and robust solution can be efficiently obtained by considering since the beginning several constraints limiting the design. The process implemented combines the design of key vehicle and trajectory parameters. Once the vehicle design parameters and the conditions at the EIP are fixed, the Mission Analysis is completed by the definition of the optimal trajectory from the deorbiting to the EIP that allow the correct targeting of the EIP conditions but also a safe separation of the different modules and the correct targeting of the desired landing site.

  9. Re-Entry Mission Analysis Of The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Davide; Haya Ramos, Rodrigo; Strauch, Hans; Bottacini, Massimiliano

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the DEIMOS Space S.L.U. Re-entry Mission Analysis activities obtained in the frame of the Phase A up to PRR milestone of the Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) ESA project leaded by ASTRIUM. Results presented show how the trajectory and the vehicle design are strictly related and how a feasible and robust solution can be efficiently obtained by considering since the beginning several constraints limiting the design. The process implemented combines the design of key vehicle and trajectory parameters. Once the vehicle design parameters and the conditions at the EIP are fixed, the Mission Analysis is completed by the definition of the optimal trajectory from the de- orbiting to the EIP that allow the correct targeting of the EIP conditions but also a safe separation of the different modules and the correct targeting of the desired landing site.

  10. A System Concept for the Advanced Post-TRMM Rainfall Profiling Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    ultimate goal. The Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite is the first ever spaceborne radar dedicated to three-dimensional, global precipitation measurements over the tropics and the subtropics, as well as the detailed synopsis of a wide range of tropical rain storm systems. In only twelve months since launch, the PR, together with other science instruments abroad the satellite have already provided unprecedented insights into the rainfall systems. It is anticipated the a lot more exciting and important rain observations would be made by TRMM throughout its mission duration. While TRMM has provided invaluable data to the user community, it is only the first step towards advancing our knowledge on rain processes and its contributions to climate variability. It is envisioned that a TRMM follow-on mission is needed in such a way to capitalize on the pioneering information provided by TRMM, and its instrument capability must be extended beyond TRMM in such a way to fully address the key science questions from microphysical to climatic time scale. In fact, a number of new and innovative mission concepts have recently put forth for this purpose. Almost all of these new concepts have suggested the utility of a more advanced, high-resolution, Doppler-enabled, vertical profiling radar that can provide multi-parameter observations of precipitation. In this paper, a system concept for a second- gene ration precipitation radar (PR-2) which addresses the above requirements will be described.

  11. A Space Mission Concept to Directly Image the Habitable Zone of Alpha Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, E.; Belikov, R.; Males, J.; Thomas, S.; Lozi, J.

    2015-12-01

    The inner edge of Alpha Cen A&B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7" and 0.4" respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 30cm class telescope. Contrast ratios in the order of 1010 are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets, will allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope, that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induce Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architecture maximizes stability and throughput. The Multi-Star Wave Front algorithm is implemented to drive a deformable mirror controlling simultaneously diffracted light from the on-axis and binary companion star. The instrument has a Focal Plane Occulter to reject starlight into a Low Order Wavefront Sensor that delivers high-precision pointing control. Finally we utilize the ODI post-processing method that takes advantage of a highly stable environment (Earth-trailing orbit) and a continuous sequence of images spanning 2 years, to reduce the final noise floor in post processing to ~2e-11 levels, enabling high confidence and at least 90% completeness detections of Earth-like planets.

  12. A Cloud and Precipitation Radar System Concept for the ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.; Epp, L.; Jamnejad, V.; Perez, R.; Prata, A.; Samoska, L.; Long, E; Fang, H.; Esteban-Fernandez, D.; Lee, C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the instruments recommended for deployment on the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) mission is a new advanced cloud profiling radar. In this paper, we describe such a radar design, called ACERAD, which has 35- and 94-GHz channels, each having Doppler and dual-polarization capabilities. ACERAD will scan at Ka-band and will be nadir-looking at W-band. To get a swath of 25-30 km, considered the minimum useful for Ka-band, ACERAD needs to scan at least 2 degrees off nadir; this is at least 20 beamwidths, which is quite large for a typical parabolic reflector. This problem is being solved with a Dragonian design; a scaled prototype of the antenna is being fabricated and will be tested on an antenna range. ACERAD also uses a quasi-optical transmission line at W-band to connect the transmitter to the antenna and antenna to the receiver. A design for this has been completed and is being laboratory tested. This paper describes the current ACERAD design and status.

  13. Very high delta-V missions to the edge of the solar system and beyond enabled by the dual-stage 4-grid ion thruster concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramanti, C.; Izzo, D.; Samaraee, T.; Walker, R.; Fearn, D.

    2009-04-01

    A new and innovative type of gridded ion thruster, the "Dual-Stage 4-Grid" or DS4G concept, has been proposed and its predicted high performance validated under an ESA research, development and test programme. The DS4G concept is able to operate at very high specific impulse and thrust density values well in excess of conventional 3-grid ion thrusters at the expense of a higher power-to-thrust ratio. This makes it a possible candidate for ambitious missions requiring very high delta-V capability and high power. Such missions include 100 kW-level multi-ton probes based on nuclear and solar electric propulsion (SEP) to distant Kuiper Belt Object and inner Oort cloud objects, and to the Local Interstellar medium. In this paper, the DS4G concept is introduced and its application to this mission class is investigated. Benefits of using the DS4G over conventional thrusters include reduced transfer time and increased payload mass, if suitably advanced lightweight power system technologies are developed. A mission-level optimisation is performed (launch, spacecraft system design and low-thrust trajectory combined) in order to find design solutions with minimum transfer time, maximum scientific payload mass, and to explore the influence of power system specific mass. It is found that the DS4G enables an 8-ton spacecraft with a payload mass of 400 kg, equipped with a 65 kW nuclear reactor with specific mass 25 kg/kW (e.g. Topaz-type with Brayton cycle conversion) to reach 200 AU in 23 years after an Earth escape launch by Ariane 5. In this scenario, the optimum specific impulse for the mission is over 10,000 s, which is well within the capabilities of a single 65 kW DS4G thruster. It is also found that an interstellar probe mission to 200 AU could be accomplished in 25 years using a "medium-term" SEP system with a lightweight 155 kW solar array (2 kg/kW specific mass) and thruster PPU (3.7 kg/kW) and an Earth escape launch on Ariane 5. In this case, the optimum specific